concept of an unmanned samplereturnmission and the necessary deltav requirement
Toni Engelhardt
14.6.12 by
Outline
 Introduction  Life on other planets !Related Missions  Quick Overview
Follow the water (H2O) & manned missions to Mars
Text
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter & Curiosity (Mars Science Laboratory)
 Mission “Red Dust”  Sample Return from Mars Surface
* Trajectories * Deltav Requirement * Loss & m0 estimation * Available Launchers / in development Joint ESA & NASA Mars program, ExoMars, Sample Return
 Aurora
Follow the water (Introduction)
Vastitas Borealis Crater
• • • •
evidence for life as we know it
North Polor Region
Mars has trenches and rifts maybe originating from ﬂuid water water ice Frozen water at poles? liquid water under ground H2O also important for future manned missions source to Mars of life
longterm manned missions
Follow the water
NASA initiative
High Resolution [1m/pixel] mapping to determine areas of interest for Rover Missions like Curiosity
e.g. cracks in rocks
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
Curi sity [MSL]
complete laboratory onboard organic carbon
(elements of life)
Robot arm
drilling unit camera
etc.
7m ac re h
up to
search for
REMOTE Spectrum analyzer
Laser ablation
with
Land on Mars
to collect 1kg of rock/dust samples and bring them back to Earth
< OBJECTIVE >
>> Launch System (to be determined) will carry the following components to Mars >> Lander Wimble Xs
will descent from Low Mars Orbit (LMO) to Mars surface with drilling unit to collect dust/rock and a Mars Launcher Brimo to return the samples to LMO
>> Orbiter Hermes
remains with propellant for return and a docking unit in LMO will have a rendeveuz with Brimo to bring its cargo safely back to Earth
Mission “Red Dust”
Land on Mars
to collect 1kg of rock/dust samples and bring them back to Earth
< OBJECTIVE >
>> Assumptions for the Matlab
simulations
most efficient direct transfer to Mars
>
Hohmann
* Earth & Mars Orbit around the sun in a plane (actually di=1.85°) * tilt of equatorial plane neglected * assumptions for air drag, steering and gravity loss * typical propellant for all vehicles with Isp=300s * no influence from moon, planets or any other celestial body besides mars, sun & earth * reentry and landing on earth without steering, just by aerobrake and parachute (see apollo missions) * parachute on mars from 550m/s to 60m/s (taken from curiosity mission)
(g0, gT, gM and gM500 are constant during burn phase)
Trajectories of Launch system and Hermes
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse Perihelion Mars
Simulation
duration for transfer
239days 18hrs
(one way)
Orbit: 500 km above surface
>> r_MOrb = 3896.2 km
Ideal deltav calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse
Simulation
Perihelion Mars
1 Direct Hohmann to Mars
dv1 = v_EarthEscape  v_LaunchSite + (v_H1  v_EarthAphelion) = = 13,594 m/s  v_LaunchSite
1
dv positive in S/C ﬂight direction dv = v_after  v_before maneuver
 deﬁnitions 
total deltav dv_total = 13,594 m/s  v_LaunchSite
Ideal deltav calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse
Simulation
Perihelion Mars
2 Hohmann to LMO
dv2 = v_MarsOrbit  (v_H2 + v_GravityMars  v_MarsPerihelion) = = 1,790 m/s
1
2
dv positive in S/C ﬂight direction dv = v_after  v_before maneuver
 deﬁnitions 
total deltav dv_total = 15,384 m/s  v_LaunchSite
Ideal deltav calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse
Simulation
Perihelion Mars
a LMO to parachute
dvMa = 550m/s  v_MarsOrbit =  2,766 m/s
1
2
a
dv positive in S/C ﬂight direction dv = v_after  v_before maneuver
 deﬁnitions 
total deltav dv_total = 18,150 m/s  v_LaunchSite
Ideal deltav calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse
Simulation
Perihelion Mars
parachute phase
dvP_Mars = 60m/s  550m/s =  490 m/s (not counting)
1
2
a
dv positive in S/C ﬂight direction dv = v_after  v_before maneuver
 deﬁnitions 
total deltav dv_total = 18,150 m/s  v_LaunchSite
Ideal deltav calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse
Simulation
Perihelion Mars
b Parachute to touchdown
dvMb = 0m/s  60m/s =  60 m/s
1
2
a
b
dv positive in S/C ﬂight direction dv = v_after  v_before maneuver
 deﬁnitions 
total deltav dv_total = 18,210 m/s  v_LaunchSite
Ideal deltav calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse
Simulation
Perihelion Mars
c Relaunch to LMO
dvMc = v_MarsOrbit = = 3,316 m/s
1
2
a
b
c
dv positive in S/C ﬂight direction dv = v_after  v_before maneuver
 deﬁnitions 
total deltav dv_total = 21,526 m/s  v_LaunchSite
Ideal deltav calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse
Simulation
Perihelion Mars
3 Mars Orbit to Return
dv3 =  v_H2  (  v_MarsPerihelion + v_MarsOrbit  v_MarsEscape500) = = 1,225 m/s
1 3
b
2
a
c
dv positive in S/C ﬂight direction dv = v_after  v_before maneuver
 deﬁnitions 
total deltav dv_total = 22,751 m/s  v_LaunchSite
Ideal deltav calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse
Simulation
Perihelion Mars
aerobrake + parachute
> aerobrake (with heat shield) > parachute phase to splashdown ( similar to Apollo Missions )
1 3
b
2
a
c
dv positive in S/C ﬂight direction dv = v_after  v_before maneuver
 deﬁnitions 
total deltav dv_total = 22,751 m/s  v_LaunchSite
 Falcon Heavy  Falcon XX  Ares IX & V  Delta IV  Atlas V
 ProtonM
Kennedy Space Center
United States
28.521494° N 80.682392 W
vKSC = 406 m/S
Velocity gain from Earth rotation
Kourou
 Ariane V  Soyuz2
French Guiana
5.15925° N 52.64966° W
Baikonur
Kazakhstan
m/ S 45.61908° N 63.313179° E
vKourou = 463
vKourou = 325 m/S
Loss estimation + Real deltav calculation
# dv1 (Launcher)
Launch to direct Hohmann
integration into matlab
chain
airdrag
nozzle loss
steering loss
burning time
gravity loss
additional dv
140 m/s *
80 m/s *
20 m/s *
600s
1590 m/s
1830 m/s
dv2 (Launcher)
Hohmann to LMO

30 m/s
100 m/s
100s
76 m/s
206 m/s
dvMa (Wimble Xs)
LMO to parachute

20 m/s
50 m/s included in estimation
250s
190 m/s
260 m/s
dvMb (Wimble Xs)
parachute to touchdown
0
Mars surface to LMO
dvMc (Brimo)

20 m/s
100 m/s
350s
350 m/s
470 m/s
LMO to direct Hohmann
dv3 (Hermes)

30 m/s
100 m/s
400s
304 m/s
434 m/s
Gravity loss = T * g0 / 3.7 ( to adapt to real values [ sample from Ariane V ] )
* from lecture notes  launch to LEO
Additional dv due to losses: Real total dv requirement:
3200 m/s 25951 m/s
payload to Mars [LMO] calculation mL, Mars = m0, WimbleXs + m0, Hermes
>> planning backward!
weight of dust/rock samples + container + equipment >> Brimo Mars Launcher >> >> Hermes Return Carrier
Wimble Xs Mars Lander
total payload to Mars Orbit LMO
from payload mL to total mass m0
optimal payload ratio
from dv calculation
optimal number of stages
source: book  Astronautics I ( Walter Ulrich ) [ page 54 ]
ratio payload to total mass
source: book  Astronautics I ( Walter Ulrich ) [ page 48 ] source: lecture notes Prof. Rott ( Spacecraft Technology I )
given values
Components > Minimum Weight Estimation
total payload to Mars [LMO] Wimble Xs
integration into matlab
chain
( payload: Brimo + 238kg )
*Power 20kg *Solar Panels
( payload: 182kg ) *Docking Mechanism 32kg
Hermes
( payload: 62kg )
Brimo
*Docking Mechanism 18kg
*Parachute
22kg 40kg
*Power 20kg *Electronics *Navigation
RIG *Drilling Unit *Embarking Mechanism *Scientific Equipment
*Parachute
18kg 58kg
*Container Unit *Dust & Rock samples
*Heat Shield *Brimo Payload (Samples + Container + Nav)
1kg
9kg
24kg
196kg
34kg
just wildly guessed
!
"  structural factor
Isp [ typical ] = 300s
Wimble Xs
" = 0.12 single stage dv = 2766 m/s >> m0 = 2.04 mT
Brimo
dv = 3786 m/s
" = 0.14 single stage >> m0 = 454 kg
dv
[m/s]
!
"  structural factor
Isp [ typical ] = 300s
Hermes
" = 0.1 single stage dv = 1660 m/s >> m0 = 1.65 mT
total payload to LMO
3.69 mT
dv
[m/s]
available Energia
available
available
available
available
STATUS MANUFACTURER
in development
proposed
canceled
canceled
Khrunichev
TBD
TBD
Soyuz2
Proton
M
Ariane V
ECA
Atlas V
HLV
Delta IV
Heavy
TYPE
CONFIG
Falcon 9
Heavy
Falcon XX
Ares I
X
Ares V
kick stage with 60kg adapter
Isp = 320s & ! = 0.1
transfer orbit to LMO
CAPACITY 7.9 mT (esc) 692 kg NO 20.7 mT (LEO) 1.8 mT NO 4.3 mT (esc) 1.76 mT NO 9.04 mT (esc) 3.67 mT NO 9.31 mT (esc) 3.78 mT YES TRANSFER ORBIT LMO SUITABLE ~53 mT (LEO) ~6.0 mT YES ? ? 25.5 mT (LEO) 2.22 mT NO ~53,3 mT (esc) ~21.40 mT YES
Mars Lander & Orbiter
ExoMars
Sample Return
NEXT
Manned Mission
far future
Aurora
thank you
presentation + matlab simulation are available online
@
toni88x.bplaced.net/LifeOnMars
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exploration.esa.int