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Is there Life on M rs

concept of an unmanned sample-return-mission and the necessary delta-v requirement
Toni Engelhardt
14.6.12 by

Outline
- Introduction - Life on other planets -!Related Missions - Quick Overview
Follow the water (H2O) & manned missions to Mars

Text

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter & Curiosity (Mars Science Laboratory)

- Mission “Red Dust” - Sample Return from Mars Surface
* Trajectories * Delta-v Requirement * Loss & m0 estimation * Available Launchers / in development Joint ESA & NASA Mars program, ExoMars, Sample Return

- Aurora

Follow the water (Introduction)
Vastitas Borealis Crater

• • • •

evidence for life as we know it

North Polor Region

Mars has trenches and rifts maybe originating from fluid water water ice Frozen water at poles? liquid water under ground H2O also important for future manned missions source to Mars of life
long-term manned missions

Follow the water
NASA initiative

High Resolution [1m/pixel] mapping to determine areas of interest for Rover Missions like Curiosity
e.g. cracks in rocks

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

Curi sity [MSL]
complete laboratory onboard organic carbon
(elements of life)

Robot arm
drilling unit camera
etc.
7m ac re h

up to

search for

REMOTE Spectrum analyzer

Laser ablation

with

Land on Mars

to collect 1kg of rock/dust samples and bring them back to Earth
< OBJECTIVE >

>> Launch System (to be determined) will carry the following components to Mars >> Lander Wimble Xs
will descent from Low Mars Orbit (LMO) to Mars surface with drilling unit to collect dust/rock and a Mars Launcher Brimo to return the samples to LMO

>> Orbiter Hermes
remains with propellant for return and a docking unit in LMO will have a rendeveuz with Brimo to bring its cargo safely back to Earth

Mission “Red Dust”

Land on Mars

to collect 1kg of rock/dust samples and bring them back to Earth
< OBJECTIVE >

>> Assumptions for the Matlab

simulations

most efficient direct transfer to Mars

>

Hohmann

* Earth & Mars Orbit around the sun in a plane (actually di=1.85°) * tilt of equatorial plane neglected * assumptions for air drag, steering and gravity loss * typical propellant for all vehicles with Isp=300s * no influence from moon, planets or any other celestial body besides mars, sun & earth * re-entry and landing on earth without steering, just by aerobrake and parachute (see apollo missions) * parachute on mars from 550m/s to 60m/s (taken from curiosity mission)
(g0, gT, gM and gM500 are constant during burn phase)

Trajectories of Launch system and Hermes
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse Perihelion Mars

Simulation

duration for transfer

239days 18hrs
(one way)

Orbit: 500 km above surface
>> r_MOrb = 3896.2 km

Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse

Simulation
Perihelion Mars

1 Direct Hohmann to Mars
dv1 = v_EarthEscape - v_LaunchSite + (v_H1 - v_EarthAphelion) = = 13,594 m/s - v_LaunchSite

1

dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver

- definitions -

total delta-v dv_total = 13,594 m/s - v_LaunchSite

Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse

Simulation
Perihelion Mars

2 Hohmann to LMO
dv2 = v_MarsOrbit - (v_H2 + v_GravityMars - v_MarsPerihelion) = = 1,790 m/s

1

2

dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver

- definitions -

total delta-v dv_total = 15,384 m/s - v_LaunchSite

Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse

Simulation
Perihelion Mars

a LMO to parachute
dvMa = 550m/s - v_MarsOrbit = - 2,766 m/s

1

2

a

dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver

- definitions -

total delta-v dv_total = 18,150 m/s - v_LaunchSite

Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse

Simulation
Perihelion Mars

parachute phase
dvP_Mars = 60m/s - 550m/s = - 490 m/s (not counting)

1

2

a

dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver

- definitions -

total delta-v dv_total = 18,150 m/s - v_LaunchSite

Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse

Simulation
Perihelion Mars

b Parachute to touchdown
dvMb = 0m/s - 60m/s = - 60 m/s

1

2

a

b

dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver

- definitions -

total delta-v dv_total = 18,210 m/s - v_LaunchSite

Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse

Simulation
Perihelion Mars

c Relaunch to LMO
dvMc = v_MarsOrbit = = 3,316 m/s

1

2

a

b

c

dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver

- definitions -

total delta-v dv_total = 21,526 m/s - v_LaunchSite

Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse

Simulation
Perihelion Mars

3 Mars Orbit to Return
dv3 = - v_H2 - ( - v_MarsPerihelion + v_MarsOrbit - v_MarsEscape500) = = 1,225 m/s

1 3
b

2

a

c

dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver

- definitions -

total delta-v dv_total = 22,751 m/s - v_LaunchSite

Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab)
Matlab
Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse

Simulation
Perihelion Mars

aerobrake + parachute
> aerobrake (with heat shield) > parachute phase to splashdown ( similar to Apollo Missions )

1 3
b

2

a

c

dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver

- definitions -

total delta-v dv_total = 22,751 m/s - v_LaunchSite

- Falcon Heavy - Falcon XX - Ares I-X & V - Delta IV - Atlas V

- Proton-M

Kennedy Space Center
United States
28.521494° N 80.682392 W

vKSC = 406 m/S

Velocity gain from Earth rotation

Kourou
- Ariane V - Soyuz-2

French Guiana
5.15925° N 52.64966° W

Baikonur
Kazakhstan
m/ S 45.61908° N 63.313179° E

vKourou = 463

vKourou = 325 m/S

Loss estimation + Real delta-v calculation
# dv1 (Launcher)
Launch to direct Hohmann

integration into matlab

chain

air-drag

nozzle loss

steering loss

burning time

gravity loss

additional dv

140 m/s *

80 m/s *

20 m/s *

600s

1590 m/s

1830 m/s

dv2 (Launcher)
Hohmann to LMO

-

30 m/s

100 m/s

100s

76 m/s

206 m/s

dvMa (Wimble Xs)
LMO to parachute

-

20 m/s

50 m/s included in estimation

250s

190 m/s

260 m/s

dvMb (Wimble Xs)
parachute to touchdown

0

Mars surface to LMO

dvMc (Brimo)

-

20 m/s

100 m/s

350s

350 m/s

470 m/s

LMO to direct Hohmann

dv3 (Hermes)

-

30 m/s

100 m/s

400s

304 m/s

434 m/s

Gravity loss = T * g0 / 3.7 ( to adapt to real values [ sample from Ariane V ] )
* from lecture notes - launch to LEO

Additional dv due to losses: Real total dv requirement:

3200 m/s 25951 m/s

payload to Mars [LMO] calculation mL, Mars = m0, WimbleXs + m0, Hermes

>> planning backward!

weight of dust/rock samples + container + equipment >> Brimo Mars Launcher >> >> Hermes Return Carrier

Wimble Xs Mars Lander

total payload to Mars Orbit LMO

from payload mL to total mass m0
optimal payload ratio

from dv calculation
optimal number of stages

source: book - Astronautics I ( Walter Ulrich ) [ page 54 ]

ratio payload to total mass
source: book - Astronautics I ( Walter Ulrich ) [ page 48 ] source: lecture notes Prof. Rott ( Spacecraft Technology I )

given values

Components > Minimum Weight Estimation
total payload to Mars [LMO] Wimble Xs

integration into matlab

chain

( payload: Brimo + 238kg )

*Power 20kg *Solar Panels

( payload: 182kg ) *Docking Mechanism 32kg

Hermes

( payload: 62kg )

Brimo

*Docking Mechanism 18kg

*Parachute

22kg 40kg

*Power 20kg *Electronics *Navigation
RIG *Drilling Unit *Embarking Mechanism *Scientific Equipment

*Parachute

18kg 58kg

*Container Unit *Dust & Rock samples

*Heat Shield *Brimo Payload (Samples + Container + Nav)

1kg

9kg

24kg

196kg

34kg

just wildly guessed

!

" - structural factor

Isp [ typical ] = 300s

Wimble Xs

" = 0.12 single stage dv = -2766 m/s >> m0 = 2.04 mT

Brimo
dv = 3786 m/s

" = 0.14 single stage >> m0 = 454 kg

dv

[m/s]

!

" - structural factor

Isp [ typical ] = 300s

Hermes

" = 0.1 single stage dv = 1660 m/s >> m0 = 1.65 mT

total payload to LMO

3.69 mT

dv

[m/s]

available Energia

available

available

available

available

STATUS MANUFACTURER

in development

proposed

canceled

canceled

Khrunichev

TBD

TBD

Soyuz-2

Proton
M

Ariane V
ECA

Atlas V
HLV

Delta IV
Heavy

TYPE
CONFIG

Falcon 9
Heavy

Falcon XX

Ares I
X

Ares V

kick stage with 60kg adapter
Isp = 320s & ! = 0.1

transfer orbit to LMO

CAPACITY 7.9 mT (esc) 692 kg NO 20.7 mT (LEO) 1.8 mT NO 4.3 mT (esc) 1.76 mT NO 9.04 mT (esc) 3.67 mT NO 9.31 mT (esc) 3.78 mT YES TRANSFER ORBIT LMO SUITABLE ~53 mT (LEO) ~6.0 mT YES ? ? 25.5 mT (LEO) 2.22 mT NO ~53,3 mT (esc) ~21.40 mT YES

Mars Lander & Orbiter

ExoMars

Sample Return

NEXT

Manned Mission

far future

Aurora

thank you
presentation + matlab simulation are available online
@

toni88x.bplaced.net/LifeOnMars

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