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1. Ans:

List the various lattice defects.

The List of various Lattice defects is 1) Point Defects: Point defects include a) Vacancies b) Self-interstitial atoms c) Substitutional impurity atoms and d) Interstitial impurity atoms !) Linear Defects: linear defects include dislocations these are a) "d#e dislocation and b) Scre$ dislocation %) Planar Defects: Planar defects include a) &rain boundaries b) T$in boundaries c) Stac'in# faults 2. Differentiate between Slip and Twinning. Sl.No. 1 Slip The parallel movement of t$o ad(acent crystal planes relative to one another is slip Twinning

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T$innin# is a homo#eneous shear $hich reorients the deformed lattice into a mirror ima#e of the parent lattice across the plane of t$innin# The orientation of atoms above and T$innin# produces an orientation difference belo$ the slip plane is the same after across the t$in plane slip deformation Slip usually occurs in discrete multiples In t$innin# atoms move only a fraction of inter of atomic spacin# atomic distance The stress re*uired to initiate slip is less The stress re*uired to propa#ate t$innin# is than to propa#ate it appreciably less than that re*uired to initiate it There is a time la# for slip T$innin# occurs in micro seconds

3. ,hat are the variables $hich influence the -ecrystalisation temperature of a material. Ans: The variables $hich influence the -ecrystalisation temperature of a material are: 1) Time at a constant temperature !) /mount of cold $or'in# %) Purity of metal )) 0ri#inal #rain si1e +) Temperature of deformation 2) 3eltin# point of metal 4) . List out the forging !"uip#ent. Ans: 5or#in# e*uipment may be classified $ith respect to the principle of operation 1) 5or#in# hammers: The force is supplied by fallin# $ei#ht or ram The follo$in# are for#in# hammers a &ravity drop hammer or 6oard hammers b Po$er drop hammer !) 5or#in# presses: these are t$o types a 3echanical Presses: the force is supplied by an eccentric cran' $hich translates rotary motion of a fly $heel into reciprocatin# linear motion of the press slide b 7ydraulic presses: the force is supplied by movin# piston $hich feeds on hydraulic pressure of a fluid

$. Draw a planetar% #ill and #ention its i#portance.

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Ans: Drawing of a planetar% #ill:

&#portance of planetar% #ill: 1) It hot reduces a slab directly to strip in one pass throu#h the mill !) "ach planetary roll #ives an almost constant reduction to the slab %) The action in the planetary mill is more li'e for#in# than rollin# '. Differentiae between Direct and &ndirect !(trusion. Ans: Sl 8o 1 Direct "9trusion 5lo$ of billet metal is in for$ard direction and in the same direction as ram There is a relative motion bet$een billet and container $alls and hence friction is prevalent $hile e9trudin# the billet Lubrication is a problem particularly $hen hot e9trusion ;direct) is done Pressure re*uired increases $ith the len#th of the billet 3ore turbulence of billet metal occurs $ithin the billet hence: lot of ener#y #ets $asted This re*uires more po$er consumption to e9trude the billet metal There is no practical limitation to use this process 7andlin# the e9trudin# metal comin# out throu#h the movin# ram is not a problem Indirect "9trusion 5lo$ of metal ta'es place in a direction opposite to that of ram movement Since there is no relative movement bet$een the container $all and the billet: frictional forces are lo$er "9tensive lubrication is not needed Pressure remains constant up to (ust to the end of the e9trusion process Turbulence of billet metal is minimum hence flo$ of metal is more uniform $ithin the billet hence: ener#y loss is minimum This re*uires less po$er consumption to e9trude the billet metal There are practical limitations because use of hollo$ ram limits the load $ithstandin# capacity 7andlin# the e9trudin# metal comin# out throu#h the movin# ram is a problem

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). List the various steps involved in the production of *+ower ,etallurg%* parts. Ans:

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The various steps involved in the production of *+ower ,etallurg%* parts are: 1) Production of metal po$ders: 0btainin# the metal po$ders in a suitable de#ree of fineness and purity !) 3i9in# and 6lendin#: Intermin#lin# of various po$ders accordin# to the composition %) <ompaction: Sub(ectin# the mi9ed po$ders to a sufficient pressure in a suitable mould to cause cohesion )) Sinterin#: heatin# under controlled atmosphere at a temperature hi#h enou#h to cause diffusion and inter #ranular crystal #ro$th to occur +) 5inishin# operations: these include si1in#: impre#nation: inspection etc -. .ive the classification of *Ther#o #echanical treat#ent* #ethods. Ans: Dependin# on the temperature at $hich deformation of austenite ta'es place: thermo-mechanical treatments can be classified as 7i#h temperature thermo-mechanical treatment ;7T3T) 1) Lo$ temperature thermo-mechanical treatment ;LT3T) /nother method of classifyin# the treatment is based on the deformation temperature in relation to the critical temperature of steel: namely 1) Supercritical ;deformin# steel in austenite condition) !) Intercritical ;deformin# ferrite and austenite mi9ture) %) Subcritical ;deformation of austenite belo$ the lo$er critical temperature) "9amples of Thermo mechanical treatments: 1) /usformin# !) Isoformin# and %) 3arformin# /. !(plain about Shearing process. Ans: Shearing is the separation of metal by two moving blades. In this process a narrow strip of metal is severely plastically deformed to a point of fracture at the surface in contact with the blades. The fracture then propagates inwards to provide complete separation. Clearance between the blades is an important variable in the shearing process.

5orce re*uired to shear a metal is the product of the len#th ;l) cut: the sheet thic'ness ;t) and the Shearin# stren#th ;=) of the metal "mpirically the ma9imum punch force needed to produce the shearin# is #iven by P ma9 > ? 4@utl ,here @u is the ultimate tensile stren#th of the metal

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10. Distinguish between 1ot wor2ing and cold wor2ing. Sl.No. 1 ! % ) + 2 4 A B 1? 11 3old wor2ing 1ot wor2ing

,or'in# of metals and alloys belo$ their ,or'in# of metals and alloys above their recrystallisation temperature recrystallisation temperature Strain ;$or') hardenin# ta'es place Strain ;$or') hardenin# is removed by recrystallisation Increase in hardness and tensile stren#th $hile ductility decreases 3icrostructure sho$s distorted #rains alon# the direction of $or'in# Stress and ener#y re*uired for plastic deformation is more 8o o9idation of metal occurs and hence pic'lin# is not re*uired Surface decarburi1ation in steels does not occur 3etals and alloys do not #et embrittled by o9y#en Surface finish is #ood "asy to control the dimensions $ithin the tolerance limits -etains chemical hetero#eneity if present 8o chan#e in mechanical properties 3icrostructure sho$s e*uia9ed and usually refined #rains Stress and ener#y re*uired for plastic deformation is less 7eavy o9idation of metal occurs and hence pic'lin# is re*uired Surface decarburi1ation in steels is li'ely to occur -eactive metals #et severely embrittled by o9y#en Surface finish is not so #ood Difficult to control the dimensions $ithin the tolerance limits -educes chemical hetero#eneity of in#ots

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Ans:

Define a4 Dispersion hardening b4 Strain ageing

a4 Dispersion hardening

The initial yield stress of the material in tension is / The yield stren#th of the material in compression $ould be 6 8e$ specimen is loaded in tension past the yield stress to < alon# the path 0-/-< If the specimen is un loaded: it $ill follo$ the path <-D If no$ a compressive stress is applied: plastic flo$ $ill be#in at the stress correspondin# to point " /bove stress is appreciably lo$er than stress in tension The decrease in stress $ith the chan#e in direction of loadin# is called 6auschen#erCs effect 6auschen#erCs effect can have important conse*uence in metal formin# applications 5or e9ample it can be important in bendin# of steel plates 6b4 !dge and screw dislocations./ stren#thenin# mechanism in $hich the stren#th of the material is increased by the resistance offered to the movin# dislocations as a result of uniformly dispersed hi#h hard and hi#h elastic particles in a plastic matri9 b4 Strain ageing Strain /#ein# is the increase in stren#th and decrease in ductility of a metal on: heatin# at a relatively lo$ temperature after cold $or'in# Strain /#ein# is a type of behaviour usually associated $ith yield point phenomenon 12 Ans: 5auschenger*s effect: The phenomenon of decreased yield stren#th $hen the deformation in one direction is follo$ed by deformation in opposite direction is called 6auschen#erCs effect a4 !(plain *5auschenger*s effect*. /tomic arran#ement around a scre$ dislocation !dge dislocation: These are disturbed re#ions bet$een t$o perfect parts of a crystal created by interleavin# of an e9tra half atomic plane /n ed#e dislocation can be associated $ith compressive and tensile stresses . 6b4 !(plain and differentiate edge and screw dislocations.

! Screw dislocation: It is the disturbed re#ion bet$een t$o perfect parts of a crystal <haracteri1ed by a spiral ramp $indin# / Scre$ dislocation is associated $ith shear strains /tomic arran#ement around a scre$ dislocation 13 Differences between edge and screw dislocations: .

5i#ure 1 illustrates the classical atomic picture of t$innin# 5i#ure ! represents a section perpendicular to the surface in a cubic lattice $ith a lo$-inde9 plane parallel to the paper and oriented at an an#le to the plane of polish The t$innin# plane is perpendicular to the paper If a shear stress is applied: the crystal $ill t$in about the t$innin# plane .3.7 8.3. 1 ! % ) + 2 4 A +ropert% 6ur#erCs vector Dislocation movement relative to 6ur#erCs vector Slip direction 3ovement of dislocation relative to slip direction 3ethod of leavin# slip plane Velocity of motion Strain ener#y of dislocation Strain fields around dislocation !dge dislocation Perpendicular to dislocation line Dislocation moves parallel to 6ur#erCs vector /toms move parallel to 6ur#erCs vector /toms move parallel to motion of dislocation 6y climb up or do$n 5aster than scre$ dislocation 3ore <ompression and Tension Screw dislocation Parallel to dislocation line Dislocation moves Perpendicular to 6ur#erCs vector /toms move parallel to 6ur#erCs vector /toms move perpendicular to 6ur#erCs vector 6y cross slip Slo$er than ed#e dislocation Less Shear 1 .3.+.3.7 and 1.3.3.+. cr%stals.3.3.6b4 List out twin planes of 5. 6a4 !(plain about Twinning." Sl.5i# !) The re#ion to the ri#ht of the t$innin# plane is undeformed To the left of this plane: the planes of atoms have sheared in such a $ay as to ma'e the lattice a mirror ima#e across the t$in plane In a simple lattice such as this: each atom in the t$inned re#ion moves by a homo#eneous shear a distance proportional to its distance from the t$in plane 5i#ure1 5i#ure ! 6b4 List of twin planes of 5.3.3.No.7 8.7 and 1. Ans: 6a4 Twinning: The second important mechanism by $hich metals deform is the process 'no$n as t$innin# T$innin# results $hen a portion of the crystal ta'es up an orientation that is related to the orientation of the rest of the unt$inned lattice in a definite: symmetrical $ay The t$inned portion of the crystal is a mirror ima#e of the parent crystal The plane of symmetry bet$een the t$o portions is called the t$innin# plane. cr%stals: .

111) . 1 ! % 3r%stal structure 6<< 5<< 7<P .ive the classification of forging operations and e(plain the principle of *9p setting 8orging*.1?G1!) Twin plane E111F E11!F EG1?11F Twin direction It is not 'no$n $hether or not there is a critical resolved shear stress for t$innin# 7o$ever: t$innin# is not a dominant deformation mechanism in metals $hich possess many possible slip systems T$innin# #enerally occurs $hen the slip systems are restricted or $hen somethin# increases the critical resolved shear stress so that the t$innin# stress is lo$er than the stress for slip 1$4 . Ans: 3lassification of forging operations: The t$o broad cate#ories of for#in# processes are 1) open-die for#in# !) closed-die for#in# and %) Dpset for#in# 14 open:die forging 0pen-die for#in# is carried out bet$een flat dies or dies of very simple shape The process is used mostly for lar#e ob(ects or $hen the number of parts produced is small 0ften open-die for#in# is used to perform the $or' piece for closed-die for#in# Se"uence in open:die forging 24 closed:die forging In closed-die for#in# the $or' piece is deformed bet$een t$o die halves $hich carry the impressions of the desired final shape The $or' piece is deformed under hi#h pressure in a closed cavity: and thus precision for#in#s $ith close dimensional tolerances can be produced .# T$innin# occurs in a definite direction on a specific crystallo#raphic plane and for each crystal structure The follo$in# Table lists the common t$in planes and t$in directions Sl.11!) .No.

here the len#th: L7 of unsupported metal is not #reater than three times the diameter: D. of unsupported metal $hich can be upset at one stro'e $ithout ris' of serious buc'lin# must not be more than three times the diameter: D. of the bar . D is #enerally used .$D /#ain: in practice a lo$er fi#ure of 1.5rost: are follo$ed: .1) The len#th: L. of the bar: the ma9imum increase in cross-section obtainable at a sin#le stro'e is 1.$D .%) / len#th of metal more than three times the diameter of the bar can be upset in one stro'e provided that a die of the follo$in# type is used .$ Sche#atics of the closed die forging process 34 9pset forging It is the process of increasin# the cross section by decreasin# the len#th This process $as ori#inally developed for headin# bolts but today its scope has been $idened to produce a lar#e variety of components: the mechanical properties of $hich benefit considerably from the for#ed structure obtained +rocess of 9pset forging The len#th of bar to be headed is first heated at the end and then inserted bet$een the (a$s of the fi9ed die until it meets a HstopH This stop is so placed that the re*uired amount of metal to produce the head protrudes beyond the (a$s of the fi9ed die The machine is no$ set in motion The #rippin# die closes: and immediately the movin# die stri'es the heated end of the rod: so for#in# it to shape The movin# die is shaped to produce a head of the re*uired dimensions /fter headin# has ta'en place the machine continues its cycle and the movin# die retracts as the #rippin# die opens Stages in Typical Upset Forging Processes The principle of 9psetting 8orging: In the desi#n of dies for upset for#in# three rules: formulated ori#inally by " .!) .5i#) In practice: L is usually 'ept belo$ 2.

In practice: L1 < L . Ans: .1% 7ere the diameter of the die impression must not e9ceed 1. !(plain the production of Sea#less tubes b% !(trusion #ethod.$D and the len#th of bar 6L . )) 5or#in# presses: these are t$o types a b 3echanical Presses: the force is supplied by an eccentric cran' $hich translates rotary motion of a fly $heel into reciprocatin# linear motion of the press slide 7ydraulic presses: the force is supplied by movin# piston $hich feeds on hydraulic pressure of a fluid 1). L14 pro(ectin# beyond the die face must be less than the diameter of the bar: D. D=2 1' Ans: 5or#in# e*uipment may be classified $ith respect to the principle of operation %) 5or#in# hammers: The force is supplied by fallin# $ei#ht or ram The follo$in# are for#in# hammers a b &ravity drop hammer or 6oard hammers Po$er drop hammer List out the forging !"uip#ent.

5i# a) is used e9tensively for the rotary piercin# of steel and copper billets The process employs t$o barrel-shaped driven rolls $hich are set at an an#le to each other /n a9ial thrust is developed as $ell as rotation to the billet This assists in openin# up the center of the billet as it flo$s around the piercin# point to create the tube cavity Piercin# is the most severe hot$or'in# operation customarily applied to metals The 3annesmann mill does not provide sufficiently lar#e $all reduction and elon#ation to produce finished hot-$or'ed tubes Various types of plu# rollin# mills $hich drive the tube over a lon# mandrel containin# a plu# .5i# b) have evolved The /ssel elon#ator $hich uses three conical driven rolls has been $idely adopted This led to the development of three-roll piercin# machines .11 Pipe and tubin# may be classified as seamless or $elded: dependin# on the method of manufacture . >hat are the advantages7 applications and li#itations of +owder .etallurg% Ans: Advantages of +owder .etallurg%: .5i# c) $hich produce more concentric tubes $ith smoother inside and outside surfaces than the older 3annesmann desi#n / reelin# mill .elded tubin# is formed from strip and $elded by hot-formin#: fusion: or electric $eldin# "9trusion is an e9cellent method of producin# seamless pipe and tubin#: especially for metals $hich are difficult to $or' .b) plu# rollin# millI .5i# d) $hich burnishes the outside and inside surfaces and removes the sli#ht oval shape is usually one of the last steps in the production of pipe or tubin# 1-.a) 3annesmann millI .c) three-roll piercin# millI .d) reelin# mill The 3annesmann mill .

2) <ontrol of #rain si1e and relatively much uniform structure .etallurg%: There are limitations and disadvanta#es associated $ith PJ3 processin# These include: 1) 7i#h toolin# costs !) "9pensive ra$ materials .)) <leaner and *uieter operations and lon#er life .%) "conomy: #reater accuracy: .1?) Possibility of producin# ne$ materials: composition of metals and non-metals $hich are *uite impossible to prepare by normal) methods .12 The po$der metallur#y process has certain basic advanta#es over conventional meltin# and castin# method of producin# metals: alloys and finished articles These advanta#es include: .<arbide tool inserts tun#sten: ceramics: etc ) 2) Parts of materials $ith special and uni*ue properties .4) "9cellent reproducibility .B) "limination of numerous machinin# operations since pJm parts can be net or near net shaped .1!) 8o re*uirement of hi#hly *ualified or s'illed personnel Applications of +owder .i e : closed dimensional tolerance in the finished part) and smooth surfaces .1) 5reedom to produce components of any composition .po$ders) %) Variation in material density and mechanical properties across the volume .alloys that cannot be produced by other processes) 4) ?efractor% .etallurg%: Some typical applications of PJ3 are: 1) Production of net-shape or near-net shape parts made of e9pensive materials PJ3 Process is capable of less than %K scrap losses !) Parts $ith porosity such as filters can be made %) 6earin#s especially so-called permanently lubricated bearin#s: in $hich air pores in the PJ3 parts are filled $ith oil .etals: <omponents made of tun#sten: molybdenum and tantalum by Po$der metallur#y are $idely used in the electric li#ht bulbs: radio valves: oscillator Valves: mercury arc rectifiers and L-ray tubes in the form of filament A) Auto#otive Applications: In the developed countries: it is the motor industry $hich relies heaviest upon po$der metallur#ical components In the motor car industry: the porous bearin#s include starters: screen $ipers: slidin# roofs: vehicle dynamos: clutches: bra'es Slide bearin# materials are used for hi#her loads and hi#h runnin# speeds Self-lubricatin# bearin#s are mostly employed in motor cars: truc's: buses: tractors B) Aerospace Applications: 3etal po$ders are playin# an important role in roc'et: missiles: satellites and space vehicles Tun#sten parts employed in plasma (et en#ines 3a#netic materials such as: /lnico in communication systems 1?) Ato#ic !nerg% Applications: PJ3 has played a si#nificant role in the development of nuclear po$er reactors <omposite materials are applied in various fuel elements and control rod systems Dispersion stren#thened materials are used in atomic reactors and roc'ets: ma#neto-hydro-dynamic #enerators: hi#h temperature #as turbines Li#itations of +owder .A) Improved physical properties .process of impre#nation) +) Parts of certain metals and metal alloys that are difficult to fabricate by other methods .

13 )) -elatively lon# parts are difficult to manufacture +) Difficult storin# and handlin# of po$ders . !(plain *?edrawing* operation and classif% the operations with suitable diagra#s. Ans: -educin# a cup or dra$n part to a smaller diameter and increased hei#ht is 'no$n as redra$in# Since the avera#e ma9imum reduction in deep dra$in# is about +? percent: to ma'e tall slender cups .see the fi#ures belo$) In direct redra$in# the ori#inal outside surface of the cup remains the outside surface of the redra$n cup In reverse redra$in# the cup is turned inside out so that the outside surface of the dra$n cup becomes the inside surface of the redra$n shell -edra$in# methods (a) Direct redra$in#I (b) direct redra$in# $ith tapered dieI . c) reverse redra$in# The reduction obtained by redra$in# is al$ays less than that obtainable on the initial dra$ because of the hi#her friction inherent in the redra$in# process &enerally the reduction is decreased for each successive redra$in# operation to allo$ for strain hardenin# &reater reductions are: of course: possible if annealin# is carried out bet$een redra$s 3ost metals $ill permit a total reduction of +? to A? percent before annealin# 20. !(plain about the following: 6a4 3ross slip 6b4 1all:+etch e"uation.de#radation $ith time and fire ha1ard $ith Particular metallic po$ders) 2) <orrosion resistance is poor for pJm parts 1/.111) plane in a fee crystal The dislocation loop . Ans: 6a4 3ross slip: It is the movement by $hich a scre$ dislocation can chan#e its slip plane The process of cross slip is illustrated in the follo$in# fi#ure In the fi#ure small loop of dislocation line $ith b > aoJ!EG1?1F is movin# on a .such as cartrid#e cases and closed-end tubes): it is necessary to use successive dra$in# operations for this redra$in# is necessary The t$o basic methods of redra$in# are • • direct7 or regular: redrawing and ?everse7 or indirect7 redrawing .

14 is pure positive ed#e at M$C and pure ne#ative ed#e at MyC /t 9 the dislocation is a ri#ht-handed scre$ $hile at 1 the dislocation loop is a pure left-handed scre$ dislocation The shear stress causes e9pansion of the loop tends to move the dislocation on the intersectin# .111) plane Since the dislocation is pure scre$ at 1: it is free to move on this plane This is 'no$n as cross slip <ross slip in a face-centered cubic crystal 6b4 1all:+etch e"uation 3ost en#ineerin# materials are polycrystalline &rain boundaries are therefore an important feature of the microstructure They can be manipulated to control the mechanical properties 7all and Petch have derived the follo$in# e*uation for the yield stress @y of a polycrystalline material @y> @iN'd-1J! . Ans: Some of the fre*uently occurrin# defects in deep dra$n products are 1) 0ran#e peel effect !) Stretcher strains %) "arin# )) .here @i is the yield stress for a crystal of the same material $ith no #rain boundaries d is the avera#e #rain diameter 5rom the above e*uation $e can conclude that as the #rain si1e decreases the yield stren#th of a material increases So fine #rain materials possess hi#h yield stren#ths compared to coarse #rain materials 7all O Petch e*uation is applicable to &rain boundaries 5errite-<ementite In pearlite 3echanical t$ins 3artensite plates 21 Discuss the defects in *Deep drawn* products with possible causes and suitable re#edial #easures.rin'lin# or puc'erin# and .

see the fi#ure) This rou#hness resembles to some e9tent the surface of an oran#e: and is commonly referred to as the Horan#e-peel effectH 0ran#e peel effect ?e#ed% The oran#e peel effect occurs in sheet metal of relatively lar#e #rain si1e This condition is best corrected by usin# finer-#rain-si1e sheet metal so that the #rains deform more nearly as a $hole and the individual #rains are difficult to distin#uish $ith the eye 24 Stretcher strains Stretcher strains or P$ormsP is a serious surface defect that is commonly found in lo$-carbon sheet Steel This defect sho$s up as a flame li'e pattern of depressions in the surface .1 +) 5ailure at the punch radius 14 @range peel effect The surface *uality of the deep-dra$n component depends very lar#ely on the #rain si1e of the sheet from $hich it is blan'ed and dra$n <oarse #rain $ill often manifest itself as a rou#h or rumpled surface on those parts of the component $hich have under#one the #reatest amount of deep dra$in# and $hich have not been in contact $ith the die face .see the fi#ure) resultin# in a uniform rou#h surface .

?e#ed% The e9istence of stretcher strains is directly associated $ith the presence of a yield point in the stress-strain curve and the non uniform deformation $hich results from the yield-point elon#ation The usual solution to this problem is to #ive the sheet steel a small cold reduction: usually Q to ! percent reduction in thic'ness Such a temper-rollin# or s'in-rollin# treatment cold-$or's the metal sufficiently to eliminate the yield point and hence is a remedy for stretcher strains 34 !aring "arin# is the formation of a $avy ed#e on-the top of a dra$n cup "arin# is caused by directional properties in the sheet from $hich the cup $as dra$n <old-$or'in# tends to produce preferred orientation in sheet materials: and this leads to varyin# properties in different directions: so that the metal deforms more easily in some directions than in others: thus formin# ears on the deepdra$n parts "arin# is illustrated in the follo$in# fi#ures ?e#ed% "arin# can be minimi1ed by avoidin# e9cessive deformation in the deep dra$in# Process and by annealin# treatment 5urther: the shape and si1e of the ears can be controlled to some e9tent by varyin# the shape of the blan' to oval or even s*uare instead of circular 4 >rin2ling or puc2ering .rin'lin# is sho$n in the fi#ure .1! Stretcher strains in lo$-carbon steel sheet.rin'lin# is formation of $avy flan#e or $avy ed#es of the cup resultin# from buc'lin# of the sheet as a result of the hi#h circumferential compressive stresses .

Ans: a4 Low angle grain boundar% Lo$ an#le #rain boundaries are boundaries bet$een ad(acent crystals of same structure but $ith small difference in crystal orientations The an#le bet$een orientations of t$o ad(acent #rains is less than 1?? They contain a relatively simple arran#ement of dislocations The t$o lattices can be maintained continuity by periodic addition of an ed#e dislocation b4 Dislocation .ay /lternatively: insufficient clearance bet$een punch and die or inade*uate radius of punch or die may also lead to failure of this type 22 Define a4 Low angle grain boundar% b4 Dislocation.1" ?e#ed% To prevent this defect: it is necessary to use sufficient hold-do$n pressure to suppress the buc'lin# $4 8ailure at the punch radius The follo$in# fi#ure sho$s a cup $hich has failed at the punch radius This occurs $hen thinnin# of the $all in that re#ion has ta'en place to such an e9tent that the stress set up in the metal has e9ceeded its tensile stren#th ?e#ed% <learly the ma9imum dra$in# force must not e9ceed the tensile stren#th of the material multiplied by the annular area of the shell at its thinnest section "9cessive blan'-holdin# pressure: $hich has restricted the flo$ of metal in the blan' and caused it to thin drastically at the punch radius: may cause failure in this .

1# The dislocation is a boundary bet$een the slipped re#ion and the unslipped re#ion and lies in the slip plane The dislocations belon# to one dimensional imperfection Therefore dislocations are called as line defects "d#e dislocation 23 Ans: +rove A B tan C where DAE B coefficient of friction DCE B Angle of bite 5orces actin# durin# rollin# are sho$n in the follo$in# fi#ure 5or the $or' piece to enter into the throat of the roll 5 cos R S Pr sin R .5 > TPr) .here 5 cos R is the hori1ontal component of the friction force $hich acts to$ard the roll #ap Pr sin R is the hori1ontal component of the normal force $hich acts a$ay from the roll #ap Therefore the limitin# condition for unaided entry of a slab into the rolls is 5 cos R > Pr sin R 5JPr > tan R T > tan R .

echanical processes: 3achinin#: .direct) is done Pressure re*uired increases $ith the len#th of the billet 3ore turbulence of billet metal occurs $ithin the billet hence: lot of ener#y #ets $asted This re*uires more po$er consumption to e9trude the billet metal There is no practical limitation to use this process 7andlin# the e9trudin# metal comin# out throu#h the movin# ram is not a problem Indirect "9trusion 5lo$ of metal ta'es place in a direction opposite to that of ram movement Since there is no relative movement bet$een the container $all and the billet: frictional forces are lo$er "9tensive lubrication is not needed Pressure remains constant up to (ust to the end of the e9trusion process Turbulence of billet metal is minimum hence flo$ of metal is more uniform $ithin the billet hence: ener#y loss is minimum This re*uires less po$er consumption to e9trude the billet metal There are practical limitations because use of hollo$ ram limits the load $ithstandin# capacity 7andlin# the e9trudin# metal comin# out throu#h the movin# ram is a problem Differentiate between Direct and &ndirect !(trusion. .upper critical temperature): to #et austenite and this austenite is super cooled to a temperature belo$ recrystallisation temperature of steel The austenite so obtained is heavily deformed and then *uenched to obtain martensite structure 2' Ans: List the #ethods to produce powders of #etals.1$ .here MTC is coefficient of friction 2 Ans: Sl 8o 1 Direct "9trusion 5lo$ of billet metal is in for$ard direction and in the same direction as ram There is a relative motion bet$een billet and container $alls and hence friction is prevalent $hile e9trudin# the billet Lubrication is a problem particularly $hen hot e9trusion . ! % ) + 2 4 2$ Define a4 Ther#o #echanical treat#ents b4 Ausfor#ing a4 Ther#o #echanical treat#ents Thermo mechanical treatments refer to the treatment processes: in $hich plastic deformation is carried out in such a manner that phase transformation is affected by it 6y plastic deformation: production of vacancies: dislocations and other defects occurs and these defects severely affects the phase transformation in metals and alloys by providin# nucleation sites 7ence durin# this treatment t$o processes heat treatment and mechanical deformation simultaneously ta'es place b4 Ausfor#ing /usformin# is a thermo mechanical treatment in $hich the steel is heated above D<T .

1) <old $or'in# or strain hardenin# !) Solid solution stren#thenin# %) &rain boundary stren#thenin# )) Precipitation hardenin# +) Dispersion hardenin# 2) Strain /#ein# .yield point phenomenon) 2- Differences between edge and screw dislocations: .2% <rushin#: 3illin# and /tomi1ation +h%sico:3he#ical processes: <ondensation: Thermal decomposition .<arbonyl process) <hemical reduction and "lectro-deposition method 2) Ans: List the various strengthening #echanis#s.

No. Ans: The conditions for precipitation hardening are: 1 ! % The solubility of the solute in the solvent must decrease in decrease in temperature The precipitate that separates from the matri9 should be coherent /fter choosin# a proper composition of the alloy The steps in precipitation hardening are • • • Solutionising: • • It is the process of heatin# the alloy (ust above the solvus temperature to obtain a sin#le phase solid solution MRC The alloy should not be heated above solidus temperature as meltin# and o9idation shall occur to cause adverse effect on ductility Solutionisin# Uuenchin# /#ein# Fuenching: • • The solutionised alloy is cooled fast to retain the hi#h temperature sin#le phase solid solution at room temperature as metastable supersaturated solid solution The alloy can be easily cold rolled under this condition Ageing: . 1 ! % ) + 2 4 A +ropert% 6ur#erCs vector Dislocation movement relative to 6ur#erCs vector Slip direction 3ovement of dislocation relative to slip direction 3ethod of leavin# slip plane Velocity of motion Strain ener#y of dislocation Strain fields around dislocation !dge dislocation Perpendicular to dislocation line Dislocation moves parallel to 6ur#erCs vector /toms move parallel to 6ur#erCs vector /toms move parallel to motion of dislocation 6y climb up or do$n 5aster than scre$ dislocation 3ore <ompression and Tension Screw dislocation Parallel to dislocation line Dislocation moves Perpendicular to 6ur#erCs vector /toms move parallel to 6ur#erCs vector /toms move perpendicular to 6ur#erCs vector 6y cross slip Slo$er than ed#e dislocation Less Shear 2/ a4 .21 Sl.ention the conditions for +recipitation hardening and !(plain +recipitation hardening inter#s of b4 Solutionising c4 Fuenching and d4 Ageing.

ain variables in rolling are: V V V V The roll diameter The deformation resistance of the metal as influenced by metallur#y: temperature and strain rate The friction bet$een the rolls and the $or' piece The presence of front tension and J or bac' tension in the plane of the sheet ?oll dia#eter V V V V -ollin# load increases $ith roll diameter at a rate #reater than D1J!: dependin# on the contribution from the friction hill The roll diameter has an important influence on determinin# the minimum possible #a#e sheet that can be rolled $ith a particular mill 6oth rollin# load and len#th of arc of contact decrease $ith decreasin# roll diameter Therefore: $ith smaller diameter rolls: properly stiffened a#ainst deflection by bac'up rolls: it is possible to produce a #reater reduction The defor#ation resistance of the #etal as influenced b% #etallurg%7 te#perature and strain rate.@) > WXm . .here: W > constant: X > strain rate: m > strain rate sensitivity constant The friction between the rolls and the wor2 piece V 5rictional force is needed to pull the metal in to the rolls .22 • • It is the process of controlled decomposition of supersaturated solid solution to form finely-dispersed-precipitates usually at one and some intermediate temperatures for a suitable time period /#ein# is t$o types 1) 8atural a#ein# !) /rtificial a#ein# Natural Ageing: It is the process of a#e hardenin# the *uenched alloy at room temperature Artificial Ageing: It is the process of a#e-hardenin# by holdin# the Uuenched alloy at sli#htly 30 Ans: !(plain about ?olling Gariables. V Durin# rollin# eventually a point is reached $here the deformation resistance of the sheet is #reater than the roll pressure $hich can be applied and no further reduction in thic'ness can be achieved V This occur $hen the rolls in contact $ith the sheet are both severely elastically deformed V The mean flo$ stress for cold rollin# does not depend much on the strain rate or roll speed V 7o$ever in hot rollin# chan#es in strain rate can produce si#nificant chan#es in the flo$ stress of the metal V The relation bet$een flo$ stress and strain rate is Stress .

d) reelin# mill The 3annesmann mill .c) three-roll piercin# millI .elded tubin# is formed from strip and $elded by hot-formin#: fusion: or electric $eldin# "9trusion is an e9cellent method of producin# seamless pipe and tubin#: especially for metals $hich are difficult to $or' If bac' tension is applied #radually to the sheet: the neutral point shifts to$ard e9it plane The presence of tension in the plane of the sheet can materially reduce the rollin# load ie The roll pressure reduced is in direct proportion to the tension in the plane of the sheet This results in less $ear of the rolls and improved flatness and uniformity of thic'ness across the $idth of the sheet !(plain the production of Sea#less pipes b% !(trusion #ethod .5i# a) is used e9tensively for the rotary piercin# of steel and copper billets The process employs t$o barrel-shaped driven rolls $hich are set at an an#le to each other /n a9ial thrust is developed as $ell as rotation to the billet This assists in openin# up the center of the billet as it flo$s around the piercin# point to create the tube cavity Piercin# is the most severe hot$or'in# operation customarily applied to metals .a) 3annesmann millI .23 V V V V 5or cold rollin# $ith lubricants MTC varies from about ? ?+ to ? 1? 5or hot rollin# MTC varies from about ? ! up to the stic'in# condition are common The minimum thic'ness sheet that can be rolled on a #iven mill is directly related to MTC 7i#h friction results in hi#h rollin# load: a steep friction hill and #reat tendency for ed#e crac'in# The presence of front tension and = or bac2 tension in the plane of the sheet V V V V 31 Ans: Pipe and tubin# may be classified as seamless or $elded: dependin# on the method of manufacture .b) plu# rollin# millI .

5i# A 1A) may develop after $hen durin# reduction crac's for#in# the the in in or .5i# b) have evolved The /ssel elon#ator $hich uses three conical driven rolls has been $idely adopted This led to the development of three-roll piercin# machines .5i# c) $hich produce more concentric tubes $ith smoother inside and outside surfaces than the older 3annesmann desi#n / reelin# mill .is#atched forgings: .24 The 3annesmann mill does not provide sufficiently lar#e $all reduction and elon#ation to produce finished hot-$or'ed tubes Various types of plu# rollin# mills $hich drive the tube over a lon# mandrel containin# a plu# .5i# d) $hich burnishes the outside and inside surfaces and removes the sli#ht oval shape is usually one of the last steps in the production of pipe or tubin# 32 Ans: Defects $hich occur in a for#in# may be due to faults in the structure or composition of the alloy from $hich it $as made: or they may arise durin# the heatin# process before the $or'-piece is ta'en to the for#in# hammer /lternatively: defects may be produced due to poor for#in# techni*ue or to the use of badly desi#ned die e*uipment The more serious defects $hich may arise durin# the actual for#in# operations are: 614 3old shut: / cold shut is a discontinuity produced $hen t$o surfaces of metal fold a#ainst each other $ithout $eldin# completely These are usually caused by poor die desi#n or sometimes by the incorrect positionin# of the $or'-piece in the die cavity The effects of one aspect of bad die desi#n are sho$n in 5i# The sharp corner at H cause the metal to flo$ across the die rather than follo$ its contours: and as the die closes a fold is produced in the metal: #ivin# rise to a cold shut: as indicated !(plain an% si( forging defects with their re#edies The 8or#ation of a 3old Shut. 624 3ourse grain: .hich are produced upper and lo$er die bloc's are out of ali#nment hammerin# process '4 8lash:line crac2s sometimes develop if the thic'ness durin# for#in# is e9cessive 5lash steel for#in#s .hich may be present in the final for#in# due to the finishin# temperatures bein# too hi#h This $ill be less important in the case of steel if a normali1in# treatment is to follo$ for#in# 34 A poor i#pression This may be caused by the metal not fillin# the die cavity correctly: and may be due to the $or'-piece bein# of inade*uate si1e or bein# for#ed at too Io$a temperature /lternatively: the die desi#n may be poor: so that the metal has been unable to flo$ sufficiently 4 5rea2ing of the fibre flow: This $ill be revealed $hen a macro section of a for#in# is e9amined 6ro'en fibre results in poor mechanical properties: and is caused by the metal flo$in# too rapidly at ri#ht an#les to the ori#inal direction of the fibres durin# for#in# 6$4 .

2 even after subse*uent heat-treatment The flash of a for#in# $hich under#oes considerable reduction in thic'ness durin# the process develops: as a result: a fibre structure $hich is $ea' in the normal direction /ny undue strain in this direction may therefore cause fracture If a for#in# tends to develop flash crac's these may be prevented by reducin# the amount of metal in the for#in# or limitin# the reduction $hich ta'es place in the flash itself The 8or#ation of a 8lash:line 3rac2 334 Draw a4 61004 b4 61104 planes in a si#ple cubic lattice. Ans: . Ans: a4 !dge dislocation This is the disturbed re#ion bet$een t$o perfect parts of a crystal created by interleavin# of an e9tra half atomic plane '(tra half atomic plane b4 Gacanc% If an atom is missin# from its re#ular site: the defect produced is called vacancy &acancy 3 Differentiate between Twinning and Slip 2.

2! Sl. 1 Slip The parallel movement of t$o ad(acent crystal planes relative to one another is slip Twinning T$innin# is a homo#eneous shear $hich reorients the deformed lattice into a mirror ima#e of the parent lattice across the plane of ! t$innin# The orientation of atoms above and T$innin# produces an orientation difference belo$ the slip plane is the same after across the t$in plane In t$innin# atoms move only a fraction of inter atomic distance The stress re*uired to propa#ate t$innin# is appreciably less than that re*uired to initiate it T$innin# occurs in micro seconds slip deformation Slip usually occurs in discrete multiples of atomic spacin# The stress re*uired to initiate slip is less than to propa#ate it There is a time la# for slip % ) + 3$ Ans: Define a4 Solid solution strengthening b4 +recipitation hardening a4 Solid solution strengthening Stren#thenin# produced by dissolution of a solute in the lattice of solvent is called solid solution stren#thenin# Solid solutions offer a #reater resistance to dislocation motion than pure crystals The stress fields around solute atoms interact $ith the stress field of a movin# dislocation Thereby increasin# the stress re*uired for plastic deformation b4 +recipitation hardening Increase in stren#th and hardness of produced by precipitation of a second phase in a fine form throu#hout the matri9 of the parent phase is called precipitation hardenin# The precipitate particles offer much resistance to the movin# dislocations there by producin# the solution stren#thenin# 3' Ans: Define a4 ?olling b4 >rite the li#iting condition for rolling.No. a4 ?olling .

ain variables in rolling are: V V V V The roll diameter The deformation resistance of the metal as influenced by metallur#y: temperature and strain rate The friction bet$een the rolls and the $or' piece The presence of front tension and J or bac' tension in the plane of the sheet 3Ans: List the variables in !(trusion. direct or indirect) .here 5 cos R is the hori1ontal component of the friction force $hich acts to$ard the roll #ap Pr sin R is the hori1ontal component of the normal force $hich acts a$ay from the roll #ap Therefore the limitin# condition for unaided entry of a slab into the rolls is 5 cos R > Pr sin R 5JPr > tan R I B tan C 3) Ans: . .2" The process of plastically deformin# metal by passin# it bet$een the rolls is 'no$n as rollin# b4 The li#iting condition for rolling. The e9trusion variables are: • Type of e9trusion . 5or the $or' piece to enter into the throat of the roll 5 cos R S Pr sin R .since 5 > TPr) .here MTC is coefficient of friction List the #ain rolling variables.

or'in# temperature above recrystallisation temp 3od forging: .or'in# temperature belo$ recrystallisation temp 0 Ans: 3lassif% Ther#o #echanical treat#ents.2# • • • • 3/ Ans: "9trusion ratio The $or'in# temperature Speed of deformation 5rictional conditions at billet and the e9trusion container Define a4 8orging b4 3lassif% the forging processes a4 8orging / direct compression type of 3echanical $or'in# process $here the $or' is shaped by plastic deformation achieved either by hammerin# or pressin# is called for#in# Forgin g b4 3lassif% the forging processes Ans: Depending upon the co#ple(it% of die @pen die forging process: Dies of simple shape employed 3losed die forging process: 7ollo$ dies of comple9 internal shapes are employed Depending upon the te#perature 1ot forging: . Depending on the te#perature at which defor#ation of austenite ta2es place7 ther#o: #echanical treat#ents can be .

+) a number of optional and finishin# secondary operations such as Si1in#: <oinin#: Impre#nation: Infiltration: 7eat treatin#: Platin# and Paintin# etc 2 Ans: • • • • • • <old $or'in# or strain hardenin# Solid solution stren#thenin# &rain boundary stren#thenin# Precipitation hardenin# Dispersion hardenin# Strain /#ein# . The various steps involved in the production of PJ3 parts are: .deformin# ferrite and austenite mi9ture) Subcritical . Ans: 6a4 List the slip s%ste#s for 8337 5337 and 13+ 3r%stals.LT3T) Depending on the defor#ation te#perature in relation to the critical te#perature of steel V V V 1 Supercritical .2$ V V 7i#h temperature thermo-mechanical treatment .deformin# steel in austenite condition) Intercritical . 6b4 Derive the e"uation for 3ritical ?esolved Shear Stress. .)) Sinterin#: and .7T3T) Lo$ temperature thermo-mechanical treatment .yield point phenomenon) List the various strengthening #echanis#s. deformation of austenite belo$ the L<T) List the various steps involved in powder #etallurg%.1) Production of metal po$ders .!) 6lendin# and mi9in# of po$ders: . 3 6a4 List the slip s%ste#s for 8337 5337 and 13+ 3r%stals.%) <ompaction: .

here M@C is the applied stress is force 5 actin# alon# .3% Slip system is the combination of slip plane and slip direction such that the direction lies in the slip plane 3r%stal Structure 833 +lane Directions No. Ans: <onsider a sin#le crystal under a tensile force 5 The an#le bet$een the normal to the slip plane and the tensile a9is be Y The an#le bet$een the slip direction and the tensile a9is is Z If M/C is the cross sectional area of the specimen: Then the area of the slip plane inclined at an an#le MYC is > /J<0S Y The component of the a9ial the slip direction is > 5 <os Z 7ence the critical resolved shear stress #iven by T.> 5 <os J /J<os Y > 5J/ <os Z <osY > @ <os Z <osY . of Slip S%ste#s J111K L110< 12 533 J110K J112K J123K L111< L111< L111< L1120< 12 12 2 03 13+ J0001K 6b4 Derive the e"uation for 3ritical ?esolved Shear Stress.

31 !(plain various stages of the flow curve of 833 single cr%stals. Ans: Stress-strain curves for sin#le crystals are plotted as resolved shear stress vs shear strain The flo$ curve of 5<< sin#le crystal is sho$n belo$ This flo$ curve can be divided into three sta#es V V V Sta#e I: the re#ion of easy #lide Sta#e II: the re#ion of strain hardenin# Sta#e III: the re#ion of dynamic recovery Stage &: .

lo$ ener#y confi#urations) -estoration of the physical properties of the cold $or'ed metal $ithout any observable chan#e in microstructure ta'es place durin# recovery "lectrical .32 It is the re#ion of easy #lide The dislocations are able to move over relatively lar#e distances $ithout encounterin# barriers 3ost of the dislocations escape from the crystal at the surface Slip al$ays occurs on only one slip system Sta#e I slip is sometimes called laminar flo$ Stage &&: It is a nearly linear part of the flo$ curve $here strain hardenin# increases rapidly Slip occurs on more than one set of planes The len#th of active slip lines decreases $ith increasin# strain Due to formation of #reater number of Lomer-cottrel barriers $ith increasin# strain the slope of the curve is nearly independent of temperature The chief mechanism for strain-hardenin# is the pilin# up of dislocations at barriers /vera#e dislocation density in sta#e II correlates $ith resolved shear stress accordin# to MBM0NC.rain growth.bO1=2 . Ans: /nnealin# is a thermal treatment $hich softens the cold $or'ed metal The sta#es of annealin# are a) -ecovery b) -ecrystallisation and c) &rain #ro$th a4 ?ecover% It is the initial state of annealin# $hich ta'es place in the temperature ran#e of ? !Tm to ? %Tm Imperfections li'e vacancies and interstials #et eliminated Dislocations of opposite si#n may #et annihilated Poly#onisation has been observed i e dislocations of same si#n ali#n themselves into lo$ an#le #rain boundaries .here = ? is the shear stress re*uired needed to move a dislocation in the absence of other dislocations R is a numerical constant b is distance bet$een atoms in the slip direction & is the shear modulus for a sin#le crystal Stage &&&: It is re#ion of decreasin# rate of strain hardenin# The processes occurrin# durin# this sta#e are often called dynamical recovery The stresses are hi#h enou#h so that dislocations can ta'e part in processes that are suppressed at lo$er stresses <ross slip is the main process by $hich dislocations piled up at obstacles can escape and reduce the internal stress field The stress at $hich sta#e III be#ins is stron#ly temperature dependent $ !(plain the Annealing treat#ent of a severel% cold wor2ed #aterial with respect to a4 ?ecover% b4 ?ecr%stallisation and c4 .

rain growth.33 conductivity increases rapidly to$ard the annealed value 8o appreciable chan#e in mechanical properties In industrial practice: this recovery process is called [stress relievin#\ heat treatment b4 ?ecr%stallisation The /nnealin# sta#e in $hich a severely cold $or'ed metal recrystallises . If the ne$ strain free #rains are heated at a temperature #reater than that re*uired to cause recrystallisation there $ill be pro#ressive increase in #rain si1e The drivin# force for #rain #ro$th is the decrease in free ener#y resultin# from a decreased #rain boundary area "9a##erated or abnormal #rain #ro$th occurs $hen heated at a hi#her temperature under certain conditions "9a##erated or abnormal #rain #ro$th is often called secondary recrystallisation Annealing stages with change in properties are shown below ' Ans: 3lassif% the rolling #ills with neat s2etches w.r.t nu#ber of rolls in each #ill.i:e forms ne$ crystals in place of distorted #rains) in the temperature ran#e of ? )Tm to ? +Tm The stored ener#y of cold $or' is the drivin# force for both recovery and recrystallisation /ll the effects of strain hardenin# are removed 7ardness and stren#th decreases $hile there is increase in ductility -eplacement of the cold $or'ed structure by a ne$ set of strain free #rains Process consists of the nucleation of a strain free re#ion Strain free re#ion boundary can transform the strained matri9 into strain free material as it moves c4 . .

or' can be passed bac' and forth throu#h the rolls by reversin# their direction Three high #ill.34 Two high 6non:reversing4 #ill V V -olls of e*ual si1e are rotated only in one direction The stoc' is returned to the entrance or rear of the rolls for further reduction Two high reversing #ill V . <onsists of an upper and middle roll $hich rotates lo$er driven roll and a by friction .

3 8our high #ill V V Smaller diameter rolls are supported by lar#er diameter bac'up rolls for stren#th and ri#idity Very thin sheet can be rolled to close tolerances ?oll cluster #ill V "ach of the $or' rolls is supported by t$o bac'in# rolls .

fi# f) .5i# c) /n e9ample of the use of this type of operation $ould be in the for#in# of a connectin# rod for an internal-combustion en#ine c4 Swaging: -educin# the si1e of for#in# stoc'I alternately: for#in# in semi contoured dies to len#then a blan' .fi# #) f4 +iercing: The open die for#in# operation in $hich the $or' is forced to ta'e the shape of the contour of a simple die .5i# d) e4 +unching: The open die for#in# operation $hich is used to ma'e holes in the $or' is called punchin# .or) The dra$in#-do$n operation carried out $ith concave dies . Ans: a4 !dging: The open die for#in# operation $hich is used to shape the ends of the bars and to #ather metal /s is sho$n in 5i# a and b: the metal is confined by the die from flo$in# in the hori1ontal direction but it is free to flo$ laterally to fill the die "d#in# is performed by the ed#in# dies b4 8ullering: The open die for#in# operation used to reduce the cross-sectional area of a portion of the stoc' The metal flo$s are out$ard and a$ay from the center of the fullerin# die .5i# e) so as to produce a bar of smaller diameter: it is called: s$a#in# d4 Drawing down: The reduction in cross section of the $or' $ith concurrent increase in len#th is called dra$in# do$n: or dra$in# out .3! 8our stand continuous #ill V V The speed of each set of rolls is synchroni1ed The uncoiler and $indup reel supply bac' tension and front tension ) !(plain a4 !dging b4 8ullering c4 Swaging d4 Drawing down e4 +unching and f4 +iercing.

The basic characteristics of a metal po$der are: .#) punchin#.c) 5ullerin#I . Ans: !(plain the characteristics of #etal powders.II) Particle si1e and its distribution: .d) dra$in#I .I) <hemical composition and purity: .3" 5or#in# operations .IV) Particle microstructure Specific surface: apparent Density: tap density: flo$ rate as $ell as its compactin# and sinterin#: characteristics: are the other characteristics $hich are dependent entirely on the above primary properties of metal po$ders 6&4 3he#ical co#position and purit% The chemical composition of po$ders is the outstandin# characteristic It usually reveals the type and percenta#e of impurity and determines the particle hardness and compressibility The term impurity refers to some elements or compounds $hich has an undesirable effect Impurities influence not only the mechanical properties of the po$der compacts: but also their chemical: electrical cal and ma#netic properties The chemical composition of a po$der is determined by the $ell established standard techni*ues of chemical analysis 6&&4 +article siPe and its distribution .III) Particle shape .f) piercin#I .a: b) "d#in#I .e) s$a#in#I .

occluded) #ases: dimensional stability: flo$ and mi9in# characteristics Particle si1e is e9pressed by the diameter for spherical shaped particles and by the avera#e diameter for non-spherical particles Particle si1e distribution is the difference in the si1e of the lar#est and smallest particles of the po$der sample In practical PJ3 metal po$ders are divided into three distinct classes they are MsieveC.hen particle si1es are lo$ the disadvanta#es are: apparent density is very lo$: flo$ rate is poor: interparticle friction is hi#h: they a##lomerate readily: they tend to be pyrophoric: they o9idi1e *uic'ly $ith the atmosphere The advanta#es include: very fine #rain si1es possible in the dispersed phase and the #ood dispersion itself In other applications e9tremely fine po$ders sinter easily at lo$er temperatures and in shorter times than are re*uired by the coarse po$ders 7o$ever: the sinterin# is invariably accompanied by very hi#h shrin'a#es $hich causes the dimensional control of parts more difficult 6&&&4 +article shape The measure of particle shape is the ratio of ma9imum dimension to minimum one for a #iven particle Some of the shapes are illustrated belo$ Particle shape has a pronounced effect on the pac'in# of the po$der and has an influence on its compactin# and sinterin# properties and the mechanical stren#th of the sintered product Thus irre#ularly shaped particles have reduced apparent density and flo$ rate: #ood pressin# and sinterin# properties: $hile spherical particles have ma9imum apparent density and flo$ rate but reduced pressin# properties and #ood sinterin# characteristics .havin# less than )) micron but more than 1 micron si1e and Hsub-micronH .or Hultra fineH) .havin# less than 1 micron si1e but more than ? ?1 microns) 3a(ority of metal po$ders employed in po$der metallur#y industry vary in si1e from ) to !?? microns .3# The particle si1e and the si1e distribution have a #reat importance in PJ3 because it affects most of the properties such as mould stren#th: density of compact: porosity: e9pulsion of trapped .havin# a si1e of )) micron): Hsub-sieveH .

3$ In the same $ay: dendritic po$ders result in reduced apparent density and poor flo$ rate 6&G4 +article #icrostructure The metallo#raphic microstructure e9amination of these po$ders $ill reveal not only various phases: inclusions: impurities: fissures: and internal porosity: but also the particle si1e: relative si1e distribution and particle shape / Na#e an% four lattice defects. Ans: 1) Vacancy !) interstitial impurity%) Substitutional impurity )) self interstitial or interstitialcy +) Dislocations 2) &rain boundary 4) T$in boundary A) Stac'in# fault $04 Ans: a4 Draw a4 61004 b4 61104 planes in a si#ple cubic lattice. b) .

.4% $1 Ans: a4 Define a4 Solid solution strengthening b4 +recipitation hardening Solid solution strengthening Stren#thenin# produced by dissolution of a solute in the lattice of solvent is called solid solution stren#thenin# b4 +recipitation hardening Increase in stren#th and hardness produced by precipitation of a second phase in a fine form throu#hout the matri9 of the parent phase is called precipitation hardenin# $2 Ans: Define a4 Qield point pheno#enon b4 Strain ageing a4 Qield point pheno#enon The hetero#eneous plastic deformation durin# elastic to plastic deformation is called yield point phenomenon b4 Strain ageing Strain /#ein# is the increase in stren#th and decrease in ductility of a metal on heatin# at a relatively lo$ temperature after cold $or'in# $3 Define ?olling with a neat s2etch.

direct or indirect) "9trusion ratio The $or'in# temperature Speed of deformation 5rictional conditions at billet and the e9trusion container The roll diameter The deformation resistance of the metal as influenced by metallur#y: temperature and strain rate The friction bet$een the rolls and the $or' piece The presence of front tension and J or bac' tension in the plane of the sheet List the variables in !(trusion. . .41 Ans: c4 ?olling The process of plastically deformin# metal by passin# it bet$een the rolls is 'no$n as rollin# S2etch $ Ans: List the #ain rolling variables.ain variables in rolling are: V V V V $$ Ans: The e9trusion variables are: • • • • • Type of e9trusion .

1) Production of metal po$ders . The main steps involved in the production of PJ3 parts are: . Dependin# on the temperature at $hich deformation of austenite ta'es place: thermo-mechanical treatments can be V V 7i#h temperature thermo-mechanical treatment .deformin# ferrite and austenite mi9ture) Subcritical . deformation of austenite belo$ the L<T) List the #ain steps involved in powder #etallurg%.I e metal) is shaped by plastic deformation achieved either by hammerin# or by pressin# S'etch Forgin g $) Ans: 3lassif% Ther#o #echanical treat#ents.deformin# steel in austenite condition) Intercritical .LT3T) Dependin# on the deformation temperature in relation to the critical temperature of steel V V V $Supercritical .7T3T) Lo$ temperature thermo-mechanical treatment .42 $' Ans: Define 8orging with a neat s2etch a4 8orging / direct compression type of 3echanical $or'in# process $here the $or' .

<0) +: 8i.!) 6lendin# and mi9in# of po$ders: .s) are N N produced by reaction bet$een ] ] metal and <0 #as: for e# )<0.<0) )I 5e.<0)) etc These 8i.%) <ompaction: and . <arbonyls are volatile li*uids e # 5e .#) 8i.)) Sinterin# $/ Ans: !(plain the production of #etal powders through a4 Ato#isation b4 3arbon%l process.hereas: 8i po$ders are pure but irre#ular and porous . a4 Ato#isation 6asically atomi1ation consists of mechanically disinte#ratin# a stream of molten metal into the fine particles by means of a (et of compressed air: inert #ases or $ater Li*uid metal is forced throu#h a small orifice by the application of air or inert #as <ompressed air causes the li*uid metal to disinte#rate in to small drop lets $hich on subse*uent coolin# in air or inert #as produce finely divided po$der /nother variation of atomi1ation is rotary atomi1ation In rotary atomi1ation: the front end of the rotatin# electrode is heated by arc and allo$ed to melt The li*uid drop lets are thro$n off due to centrifu#al force action and cooled in to po$der in inert #as b4 3arbon%l process.s) 5e.<0) + These reactions occur fastly at !??-!4? 0< and 4?-!?? atm and are reversible at 1+?-)?? 0< and 1atm pressure V V V Dpon decomposin# the above carbonyls: pure po$ders are obtained Iron po$ders produced by this process are pure and *uite spherical .#) +<0.43 .