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CHAPTER 2 FORCES AND MOTION (Please write the Paper 2 and Paper 3 answers in the books) 2.

1 Linear Motion SPM 2007 Question 4 1. Diagram 1 shows the path travelled by a car from P to S.

What is the displacement of the car? A. 5.0 km B. 6.8 km SPM 2007 Question 5

C. 8.2 km D. 9.0 km

2. Diagram 2 is a velocity-time graph showing the motion of an object.

Which of the following describes the motion of the object? OJ JK A. Uniform acceleration Decreasing acceleration B. Increasing acceleration Decreasing acceleration C. Increasing acceleration Uniform acceleration D. Uniform acceleration Uniform acceleration SPM 2010 Question 5 3. Which physical quantity is equal to

Displacement ? Time

A. Speed B. Velocity SPM 2011 Question 1

C. Distance D. Acceleration

4. Diagram 1.1 shows a trolley moving down an inclined plane. The ticker timer vibrates at frequency 50 Hz. Diagram 1.2 shows the ticker tape produced by the motion of the trolley.

(a) Underline the correct answer in the bracket to complete the sentence below. The type of current used in the ticker timer is (direct current, alternating current). [1 mark] (b) Based on Diagram 1.2, (i) One tick is represented by the time taken from point ___ to point ___. [1 mark] (ii) Compare the distance between PQ and ST. [1 mark] (iii) State the type of motion of the trolley. [1 mark] 2.2 Motion Graphs SPM 2005 Question 10 1. The acceleration-time graph below shows the movement of an object.

Which velocity-time graph represents the movement of the object?

SPM 2008 Question 4 2. Diagram 2 shows the velocity-time graph of an object.

Which acceleration-time graph represents the same motion as the object?

SPM 2009 Question 4 3. Diagram 2 shows a velocity-time graph for a motion of an object.

What is the total distance, in m, travelled by the object in 8 s? A. 18 C. 32 B. 24 D. 64 SPM 2010 Question 3 4. Diagram 2 shows a car moving up a hill. The car decelerates as it moves up the hill and accelerates as it moves down the hill.

Which graph shows the correct relationship between the velocity, v, of the car and the time, t of the motion?

SPM 2011 Question 10 5. Diagram 8 shows a velocity-time graph for a motion of a toy car.

What is the displacement of the car in 6 s? A. 0 m B. 30 m 2.3 Inertia SPM 2005 Question 6 1. The diagram shows two students skating towards P.

C. 45 m D. 75 m

What will happen to the girl when the boy releases her hand? A. Stays stationary B. Moves towards P C. Moves towards Q SPM 2005 Question 8 2. The diagram shows a pillion rider moving backwards when the motorcycle accelerates.

The backwards movement of the pillion rider can be explained by A. The concept of inertia B. The concept of equilibrium of forces

C. Principle of conservation of momentum D. Principle of conservation of energy SPM 2009 Question 5 3. Diagram 3 shows the position of a plate before and after the table cloth is snatched away.

The plate remains stationary due to A. Inertia B. Impulse C. Momentum D. Linear motion SPM 2009 Question 11 4. A body stays stationary, or continues to move with a uniform velocity, unless there is an external force that changes its state of motion. Which law is explained by the above statement? Which law is explained by the above statement? A. Newtons first law of motion B. Newtons second law of motion C. Newtons third law of motion SPM 2006 Question 3 5. Diagram 3.1 shows two wooden tops. One of the tops is partly coated with tin. Both tops are the same size and are rotated with the same velocity. Diagram 3.2 shows the top which is partly coated with tin able to spin longer.

Based on the above information and observation: (a) State one suitable inference. [1 mark] (b) State one suitable hypothesis. [1 mark] (c) With the use of apparatus such as a hacksaw blade, plasticine and other apparatus, describe an experiment framework to investigate the hypothesis sated in 5(b). In your description, state clearly the following:

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

Aim of the experiment. Variables in the experiment. List of apparatus and materials. Arrangement of the apparatus. The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. (vi) The way you would tabulate the data. (vii) The way you would analyse the data. [10 marks] 2.4 Momentum SPM 2006 Question 7 1. Diagram 4 shows two trolleys, P and Q, on a frictionless plane. Trolley P moves and collides with the stationary trolley Q.

Which of the following statements is true? A. The collision is an elastic collision. B. Both trolleys do not undergo changes in momentum C. The total momentum before and after the collision is the same D. The total kinetic energy before and after the collision is conserved. SPM 2008 Question 6 2. Diagram 4 shows two identical balls, P and Q moving towards each other with a velocity of v and 2v respectively. The collision between the two balls is an elastic collision.

Which statement is correct about the elastic collision? A. The momentum of ball P before the collision is equal to the momentum of ball Q before the collision B. The total momentum before the collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision

C. The kinetic energy of ball P before the collision is equal to the kinetic energy of ball Q before the collision D. The total kinetic energy before the collision is not equal to the total kinetic energy after the collision SPM 2010 Question 4 3. Diagram 3 shows two identical wooden blocks, r and s, placed on trolleys P and q respectively.

What happens to the wooden blocks R and s when trolley P collides with the stationary trolley Q? R A Pushed to the right B Pushed to the right C Pushed to the left D Pushed to the left SPM 2010 Question 10 S Pushed to the right Pushed to the left Pushed to the left Pushed to the right

4. In which situation can the principle of conservation of momentum be applied?

SPM 2011 Question 5 5. Diagram 3 shows three identical coins, P, Q and R, at rest on a horizontal surface.

What will happen when P collides with Q? P A Moves B Stationary C Moves D Moves 2.5 The Effect of a Force SPM 2006 Question 9 1. The diagram shows forces, F1 and F2, exerted on a wooden block placed on a table surface. The friction between the block and the table surface is 2 N. Q Stationary Stationary Moves Stationary R Stationary Moves Stationary Moves

Which pair of forces F1 and F2 causes the wooden block to move with an acceleration? F1/N F2/N A. 5 7 B. 3 5 C. 6 4 D. 3 2 E. 4 1 SPM 2007 Question 7 2. Diagram 4 shows a car with a mass of 1000 kg moving with an acceleration of 2 m s-2. There is a frictional force of 900 N acting on the car.

What is the force exerted by the engine of the car? A. 900 N B. 1 100 N

C. 2 000 N D. 2 900 N

SPM 2010 Question 8 3. Diagram 5 shows a toy car of mass 4 kg. The car is pushed forward by a force of 10 N. The frictional force between the toy car and the floor is 2 N.

What is the acceleration of the toy car? A. 20 m s-2 B. 12 m s-2 SPM 2010 Question 3

C. 5 m s-2 D. 2 m s-2

4. Diagram 3.1 shows a man pushing a broken-down car with passengers in it. The car moves with a small acceleration.

Diagram 3.2 shows the man pushing the same car with the same force with no passenger in it. The car moves with a bigger acceleration.

Based on the above information and observation: (a) State one suitable inference. [1 mark] (b) State one suitable hypothesis. [1 mark] (c) With the use of apparatus such as a trolley, slotted weight, ticker timer and other apparatus, describe one experiment to investigate the hypothesis sated in 4(b). In your description, state clearly the following: (i) Aim of the experiment. (ii) Variables in the experiment.

(iii) List of apparatus and materials. (iv) Arrangement of the apparatus. (v) The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. (vi) The way you would tabulate the data. (vii) The way you would analyse the data. [10 marks] 2.6 Impulse and Impulsive force SPM 2005 Question 7 1. The diagram shows an athlete performing the high jump.

What is the function of the mattress? A. To reduce the collision time between the athlete and the mattress B. To reduce the change of momentum of athlete when he hits the mattress C. To reduce the impulsive force acting on the athlete when he hits the mattress SPM 2006 Question 5 2. Diagram 2 shows a parachutist landing with his legs bent.

Why does the parachutist bend his legs? A. To lengthen the time of impact of his feet with the ground B. To shorten the time of impact of his feet with the ground C. To lengthen the time of falling to the ground SPM 2007 Question 8

3. Diagram 5 shows a box with a mass of 55 kg being dropped from a helicopter. At the moment before touching the ground, the velocity of the box is 12 m s-1. The box stops 2 seconds after touching the ground.

What is the magnitude of the impulse force acted on the box? A. 660 N C. 122 N B. 330 N D. 110 N SPM 2009 Question 7 4. Diagram 5.1 and diagram 5.2 show two methods of catching a ball.

Which of the following explains the magnitude of the impulsive force on the hands when catching the ball? A B C D SPM 2011 Question 4 Diagram 5.1 Small Small Big Big Diagram 5.2 Small Big Small Big

5. Diagram 2 shows an athlete bending his legs upon landing in a long jump event.

The athlete bent his legs to reduce the A. Impulse on his feet B. Impulsive force on his feet C. Velocity just before landing D. Time of impact between his feet and the sand SPM 2009 Question 2 6. Diagram 2 shows an egg being dropped onto a wooden block. The egg cracks after an impact. The velocity of the egg just before the impact is 5 m s-1.

(a) Name the force involved during the impact. [1 mark] (b) Give one reason why the egg cracked after the impact. [1 mark] (c) The mass of egg is 0.05 kg. Calculate the momentum just before the impact. [1 mark] (d) Give one suggestion how you would avoid the egg from cracking when dropped from the same height. [1 mark] SPM 2011 Question 9 7. Diagram 9.1 shows a stroboscopic photograph of a hammer hitting a nail into a wooden block. The stroboscopic photograph is taken using a stroboscope and camera.

Diagram 9.2 shows another stroboscopic photograph of the same hammer hitting a similar nail into the same wooden block with different force.

(a) State the function of a stroboscope. [1 mark] (b) Using Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2. (i) Compare the distance between the two consecutive images and the depth of nail that penetrates into the wooden block. [2 marks] (ii) Relate the distance between the two consecutive images with the velocity of the hammer. [1 mark] (iii) Relate the depth of nail that penetrates into the wooden block with the force exerted on the nail. [1 mark] (iv) Deduce a relationship between the velocity of the hammer and the force exerted on the nail. [1 mark] (c) Diagram 9.3 shows a Taekwando exponent smashing a wooden block using his hand.

Explain how the wooden block is smashed by the Taekwando exponent. (d) Diagram 9.4 shows an archer aiming an arrow to a target board.

[4 marks]

Using appropriate physics concept, explain the use of suitable equipments and tecniques to improve his performance. Your answer should include the following aspects: (i) Mass of the arrow (ii) Shape of the arrow (iii) Elasticity of the howstring (iv) Strength fo the bow (v) Position of the aiming arrow compared to the centre of the target board. [10 marks] 2.7 Safety Features in Vehicles SPM 2007 Question 9 1. Why are the front and rear sections of a car designed to crumple easily? A. To increase impact time B. To decrease momentum C. To increase friction D. To decrease impulse SPM 2010 Question 7

2. Diagram 4 shows a car.

The crumple zone is designed to A. Reduce the momentum B. Increase the impulsive force C. Lengthen the collision time D. Turn the kinetic energy into gravitational potential energy SPM 2007 Question 11 3. Diagram 11.1 shows the speed limit and the load limit of heavy vehicles such as buses and lorries.

(a) What is meant by speed? [1 mark] (b) Using the concepts of momentum and inertia, explain why the speed limit and the load limit must be imposed on heavy vehicles. [4 marks] (c) Diagram 11.2 shows four tankers, P, Q, R and S, with different specifications. You are required to determine the most suitable tanker to deliver oil safely. Study the specifications of all the four tankers from the following aspects: - The type of brakes - The number of tires - The number and size of the tanks - The distance between the trailer and the tractor Explain the suitability of the aspects. Justify your choice. [10 marks]

(d) A tanker of mass 1800 kg accelerates from rest to a velocity of 45 km h-1 in 10 s. (i) Calculate the acceleration of the tanker. (ii) Calculate the force acting on the tanker. [5 marks] 2.8 Gravity SPM 2005 Question 4 1. The time taken for an object to fall from a height of h m from the earths surface is t s. If the gravitational acceleration on the Moon is 1.6 m s-2, compare the time taken of the object to fall from the same height on the Moon. A. Same as t s B. Less than t s C. Longer than t s SPM 2006 Question 8 2. Diagram 5 shows two metal spheres, P and Q.

Which of the following statements is true when P and Q are in free fall? A. The velocities of P and Q are the same B. The acceleration of P and Q are the same C. The momentum of P and Q are the same D. The gravitational forces acting on P and on Q are the same SPM 2006 Question 9 3. Diagram 6 shows a load hanging on a spring balance in a stationary lift. The reading of the spring balance is 20 N.

What is the reading of the spring balance when the lift moves up with an acceleration of 2 m s-2? A. 16 N D. 22 N B. 18 N E. 24 N C. 20 N SPM 2006 Question 10 4. Diagram 7 shows a coin and a feather experiencing free fall in a vacuum container.

Which physical quantity is constant? A. Velocity B. Acceleration SPM 2007 Question 10

C. Momentum D. Kinetic energy

5. A brick falls from a height of 10 m. Calculate the time taken for the brick to reach the ground. A. 0.5 s C. 1.0 s B. 0.7 s D. 1.4 s SPM 2008 Question 5 6. Diagram 3 shows two trolleys of different masses. Both trolleys move at the same velocity and fall over the edge of the table and hit the floor.

What is the same physics quantity for both trolleys? A. Gravitational potential energy B. Time taken to hit the floor C. Kinetic energy D. Momentum SPM 2008 Question 8 7. The forces are in equilibrium in all the phenomena below except A. A car descending a hill at constant velocity B. A lamp hanging at rest in a hall C. A mango falling from a tree D. A ship floating at rest in the sea SPM 2008 Question 10 8. Diagram 5 shows a stroboscopic photograph of a ball dropped from a height.

Which physics quantity remains constant as the ball falls? A. Velocity C. Acceleration B. Momentum D. Kinetic energy SPM 2009 Question 6 9. Diagram 6 shows a coconut falling from a tree.

Which graph shows the relationship between the gravitational force, F, acting on the coconut and the mass, m, of the coconut?

SPM 2009 Question 8

10. Which statement is correct about the earth gravitational force? A. Not all objects on the earth are influenced by the earth gravitational force B. The earth gravitational force ins stronger when an object is further away from the centre of the earth C. The acceleration of all falling objects is influenced by the earth gravitational force D. The earth gravitational force that acts towards the centre of the earth is uniform SPM 2010 Question 11 11. Diagram 7 shows a feather and a stone falling freely in a vacuum.

Which statement is correct about the motion? A. The feather and the stone fall with constant velocity B. The feather and the stone have the same kinetic energy C. The feather and the stone reach the ground at the same time D. The gravitational force ac ting on the feather and the stone are the same SPM 2008 Question 2 12. A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the height, h, of the raised end of an inclined plane and the acceleration, a, of a trolley as it moves freely down the inclined plane. The experiment is carried out using a ticker-timer and ticker-tape. The results of this experiment are shown in the graph of a against h in Diagram 2.1. (a) Based on the graph in Diagram 2.1: (i) State the relationship between a and h. [1 mark] (ii) Determine the value of a when h = 0.30 m. Show on the graph how you determine the value of a. a = _________________ m s-2 [3 marks]

(iii) Calculate the gradient, m of the graph. Show on the graph how you determine m. m = ___________________ (b) The gradient, m, of the graph is given by the formula m

[3 marks]

g where g is the gravitational l

acceleration and l is the length of the inclined plane. In the experiment, l = 2.0 m. calculate the value of g. g = __________________ [2 marks] (c) The student repeats the experiment using another inclined plane of length, l = 1.5 m. The raised end of the inclined plane is fixed at height, h = 0.10 m. Using the formula a

g h and the value of g in 12(b), calculate the acceleration, a, of l

the trolley. a = ___________________ [2 marks] (d) State one precaution that should be taken to improve the result of this experiment. [1 mark] 2.9 Forces in Equilibrium SPM 2007 Question 6 1. Diagram 3 shows a car on tow.

Which of the following vector diagram represents the resultant force, F, which acts on the car?

SPM 2007 Question 11 2. When an object is in equilibrium of forces, the object A. Must be stationary B. Must move with a uniform velocity C. Is either stationary or moving with a uniform velocity D. Either moves with a uniform velocity or with a uniform acceleration SPM 2008 Question 7 3. F1, F2 and F3 are forces with the same magnitude acting on a wooden block. Which diagram shows the maximum resultant force acting on the wooden block?

SPM 2009 Question 9 4. Which diagram shows forces in equilibrium?

SPM 2011 Question 6 5. Diagram 4 shows a boy pulling a block on a rough surface with force F.

Which diagram shows the action of forces on the block?

SPM 2005 Question 6 6. A student studies the effect of the movement of a lift on the readings of a weighing scale. The mass of the student is 50 kg. In this study, the student stands on a weighing scale in a lift as shown in Figure 6.1

He records the readings of the weighing scale when the lift is at rest, moving up with acceleration, moving up with uniform velocity, moving down with uniform velocity and moving down with deceleration. The readings of the weighing scale in the study are shown in Table 6.1 Movement of the lift Readings of the weighing scale At rest 50 Moving up with acceleration 60 Moving up with uniform velocity 50 Moving down with uniform velocity 50 Moving down with deceleration 60 (a) The mass of the student is 50 kg. What is the weight of the student in newton? [1 mark] (b) State two types of movement of the lift when the reading on the weighing scale is equal to the mass of the student. [2 marks] (c) F is a resultant force that acts on the student. R is the normal reaction of the weighing scale on the student. m is the mass of the student. g is the gravitational acceleration. Write a general equation to show the relationship between F, R, m and g. [1 mark] (d) When the lift moves up with acceleration, the normal reaction is greater than his weight. Explain why. [2 marks] (e) (i) What is observed on the reading of the weighing scale when the lift moves down with acceleration? [1 mark] (ii) Give a reason for your answer in (e)(i). [1 mark] Diagram 2006 Question 8 7. Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2 show two identical mirrors which are hung on the wall using strings, of the same length.

The two mirrors are in equilibrium state. Each mirror has a mass of 2 kg. Each string can withstand a maximum force of 15 N. (a) What is meant by equilibrium state? [1 mark] (b) What is the weight of any one of the mirrors? [1 mark] (c) In the space below, draw a diagram of a triangle of forces that acts on the mirrors in Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2. [2 marks] (d) T1 and T2 are the tensions of the strings that act on the mirrors in Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2 respectively. (i) In the space below, draw the scale drawings of the triangles of forces to determine the values of T1 and T2. [Use the scale 1 cm : 2 N] [4 marks] (ii) Based on your answer in 7(d)(i), which is the most suitable method to hand the mirror? Give one reason for your answer. [2 marks] (e) If the string in Diagram 8.1 is cut, the mirror will fall down in 0.6 s. Calculate the final velocity of the mirror before it touches the surface of the floor. [2 marks] SPM 2008 Question 5 8. Diagram 5.1 shows two boys pushing a large box. After some time, the box still remains stationary.

Diagram 5.2 shows an aircraft moving forward with a uniform velocity at a constant height.

(a) Based on the situation in Diagram 5.1 and the situation in Diagram 5.2. (i) State the similarities about the magnitudes and directions of the forces F1 and F2, F3 and F4. Magnitudes: ____________________________________________________________ Directions: _____________________________________________________________ [2 marks] (ii) What is the net force in both situations? [1 mark] (iii) Based on the answers in 8(a)(i) and 8(a)(ii), name the physics concept involved. [1 mark] (b) (i) Another aircraft has F3 greater than F4. Describe the motion of this aircraft. [1 mark] (iii) Explain the answer in 8(b)(i). [2 marks] SPM 2010 Question 11 9. Diagram 11.1 shows a boy of mass 40 kg sliding in two identical flumes, one after another.

Wc = Component of weight parallel to slope Diagram 11.1 Diagram 11.1(a) shows the boy sliding down the flume, which is inclined at 30.0o to the horizontal. Diagram 11.1(b) shows the boy stationary in the flume when the flume is inclined at 17.5o to the horizontal. The frictional force actin on the boy in both flumes is 120 N. (a) What is the meaning of frictional force? [1 mark] (b) Based on Diagram 11.1(a), calculate: (i) The compon3ent of the weight parallel to the slope of the flume, Wc. [2 marks] (ii) The resultant force acting on the boy. [1 mark]

(iii) The acceleration of the boy. [2 marks] (c) Using the concept of force, explain why the boy slides down the flume when the angle of inclination is 30.0o and remains stationary when the angle of inclination is 17.5o. [4 marks] (d) Diagram 11.2 shows four lawnmovers, J, K, L and M with different specifications. You are required to determine the most suitable lawnmower to cut grass effectively.

Study the specification for the four lawnmowers based on following aspects: (i) Method of moving the lawnmower. (ii) Mass of the lawnmower. (iii) Size of the cutter blade.

[2 marks] [2 marks] [2 marks]

(iv) The angle between the handle and the horizontal line. [2 marks] Explain the suitability of each aspect and then determine the most suitable lawnmower. Give a reason for your choice. [2 marks] 2.10 Work, Energy, Power and Efficiency SPM 2005 Question 5 1. The diagram shows a student running up a staircase at a constant speed.

Which physical quantity increases while the student is running up the staircase? A. Inertia of the student C. Kinetic energy of the student B. Momentum of the student D. Potential energy of the student SPM 2006 Question 4 2. Diagram 1 shows a weightlifter successfully lifting a load of 60 kg.

Calculate the work done in lifting the load. A. 30 J B. 120 J SPM 2006 Question 6

C. 600 J D. 1 200 J

3. Diagram 3 shows a metal sphere oscillating on a frictionless track.

Which of the following statement is true? A. The kinetic energy of the metal sphere is minimum at R B. The potential energy of the metal sphere is maximum at P C. The principle of conservation of energy is not obeyed D. The total energy of the metal sphere at S is higher than that at R SPM 2008 Question 9 4. Which situation shows no work being done?

SPM 2010 Question 9 5. Diagram 6 shows a wooden block and a weight connected by an inelastic string through a frictionless pulley.

When the weight is released, the energy change that happens in the system is A. Potential energy of the wooden block kinetic energy of the weight B. Potential energy of the weight kinetic energy of the wooden block C. Potential energy of the weight kinetic energy of the wooden block and weight D. Potential energy of the weight and wooden block kinetic energy of the wooden block SPM 2011 Question 7 6. Diagram 5 shows a student with mass 70 kg climbing stairs at a height of 4 m in 40 s.

How much power is generated by the student? A. 28 W B. 35 W C. 70 W D. 700 W SPM 2011 Question 8 7. Diagram 6 shows ball bearing P being released on a smooth plane.

What is the velocity at Q? A. 2.4 m s-1 B. 4.0 m s-1 C. 7.8 m s-1 D. 16.0 m s-1 SPM 2011 Question 9 8. Diagram 7 shows a stone on top of a smooth slope.

The stone slides down the slope and stops at points P. What is the work done by the stone? A. 14 J C. 140 J B. 18 J D. 180 J SPM 2006 Question 6 9. Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2 show a student throwing an iron ball in a shot put event using difference throwing techniques. The angles of projection and the force used by the student in both techniques are the same.

(a) Observe Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2. (i) Compare the distance of the hand movement to throw the iron ball. [1 mark] (ii) Based on the answer n 9(a)(i), compare the work done by the student between the two throwing techniques. [1 mark] (iii) If the force which acts on the iron ball is 20 N and the distance of hand movement is 0.5 m, calculate the work done by the student. [2 marks] (b) (i) Based on the answer in 9(a)(i), state the relationship between the energy gained by the iron ball and the distance of projection. [1 mark] (ii) State the principle involved. [1 mark] (c) (i) Using diagram 6.1, what happens to the falling time if an iron ball of a bigger mass is used? [1 mark] (ii) Give one reason for your answer in 9(c)(i). [1 mark] SPM 2007 Question 4 10. Diagram 4 shows a worker lifting a load of mass 20 kg using a pulley system. The worker applies a forces of 220 N to pull the rope down a distance of 0.5 m. the load is raised to a height of 0.5 m.

(a) What is meant by work?

[1 mark]

(b) Calculate the work done (i) By the worker to pull the rope down a distance of 0.5 m. [2 marks] (ii) On the load to raise it to a height of 0.5 m. [2 marks] (c) (i) Compare the work done in 10(b)(i) and 10(b)(ii). [1 mark] (ii) State why there is a difference between the work done in 10(b)(i) and 10(b)(ii). [1 mark] SPM 2010 Question 3 11. Diagram 5.1(a) shows a boy skating down a ramp from position X. Diagram 5.1 (b) shows the velocity-time graph of the boy from X to Z.

Diagram 5.2(a) shows the same boy skating down from position Y by using another ramp. Diagram 5.2(b) shows the velocity-time graph of the boy from Y to Z.

Both ramps are of the same slope and surface. (a) Name the physical quantity represented by the gradient of the velocity-time graph. [1 mark] (b) Observe diagram 5.1(a) and diagram 5.2(a). (i) Compare the gravitational potential energy of the boy at x and Y. [1 mark] (ii) Compare the velocity of the boy at Z in these two situations. [1 mark] (iii) Compare the kinetic energy of the boy at Z in these two situations. [1 mark] (c) Based on the answer in 11(b).

(i) State the relationship between the gravitational potential energy and the kinetic energy of the boy. [1 mark] (ii) State the physics concept involved. [1 mark] (d) (i) Based on Diagram 5.1(a), what happens to the velocity of the boy when he skates from Z to Q? [1 mark] (ii) Give one reason for the answer in 11(d)(i). [1 mark] 12. 2.12 Elasticity SPM 2005 Question 11 1. The diagram shows a load M supported by the arrangement of springs P, Q and R. all the springs are identical.

Which comparison is correct about the extension of P, Q and R? A. P Q R B. Q R P C. R Q P D. Q P R SPM 2009 Question 10 2. Which graph represents Hookes Law?

SPM 2010 Question 6

3. Which graph shows the correct relationship between the force, F and the extension, x of a spring?

SPM 2011 Question 15 4. Diagram 11.1 shows the apparatus set-up to study the elasticity of springs X and Y.

The relationship between length of springs X and Y when stretched by different force is shown in diagram 11.2.

Which comparison about springs X and Y is correct? A. X is harder than Y B. The original length of X is longer than Y C. To stretch 1 cm, work done on X is smaller than on Y. SPM 2011 Question 17

5. Diagram 13 shows three springs arrangements, P, Q and R. all springs used are identical.

Which comparison of the length of spring arrangements, P, Q and R is correct when weight of 1 kg is hung? A. P Q R B. P R Q C. R P Q D. R Q P SPM 2008 Question 9 6. (a) Diagram 9.1 shows two identical steel balls place onto spring M and spring N. Both springs are elastic and fixed to a horizontal surface. The springs are pushed down until the length of spring M and spring N are the same. Diagram 9.2 shows the maximum heights reached by the balls when the hands are released. [Assume spring M and spring N are of the same material, same coil diameter and same original length]

(i) What is the meaning of elasticity? [1 mark] (ii) Using Diagram 9.1 and diagram 9.2, compare the thickness of the spring wire and he maximum height reached by the balls. Relate the thickness of the spring wire with the maximum height of the ball to make a deduction regarding the relationship between the thickness of the spring wire and the elastic potential energy of the spring. [5 marks] (b) The forces used to compress the springs in Diagram 9.1(a) and Diagram 9.1(b) are F1 and F2 respectively. (i) Compare F1 and F2. Give one reason for this answer. [2 marks] (ii) Using Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, state the energy changes that take place from the moment the spring is compressed until the ball reaches its maximum height. [2 marks] (c) Diagram 9.3 shows a pole vaulter performing a jump.

Using appropriate physics concepts, explain the use of suitable equipment and techniques to improve his performance. Your answer should include the following aspects: (i) Vaulters attire

(ii) Vaulters movement (iii) Pole used (iv) Safety SPM 2005 Question 1

[10 marks]

7. A student carried out an experiment to study the relationship between the speed, v, of a trolley with the distance of compression, e, of a spring that pushed the trolley down a track. A piece of ticker tape is fixed to the trolley which is placed on a friction compensated track. The trolley is pushed back to compr3ess the spring to a distance of compression, e, eual to 2.0 cm, as shown in Figure 1.1. The trolley is then released and it moves down the track with speed v.

A section of the ticker tape which represents the movement of the trolley when it reached the end of the track, is taken. The actual size of the ticker tape is shown in Figure 1.2. The above procedure is repeated by varying the values of e, to be 3.0 cm, 4.0 cm, 5.0 cm and 6.0 cm. the actual sizes of the sections of the ticker tapes are shown in figures 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6. The speed, v, when the trolley reached the end of the track can be calculated using the formula below: Where x is length for 10 ticks as shown in figure 1.7. One tick is the time taken for the trolley to move between two consecutive dots.

(a) For the experiment described, identify, (i) The manipulated variable

[1 mark]

(ii) The responding variable [1 mark] (iii) A fixed variable [1 mark] (b) Using the method shown in figure 1.7, determine x, for every ticker tape on Figures 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6. (i) Detach the scale and use it to measure x for every ticker tape on figures 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6. (ii) Calculate the values of v for every ticker tape using the formula v

x . 0.2

Tabulate your results for x and v for every value of e in the space below. [7 marks] (c) On a piece of graph paper, draw a graph of v against e. [5 marks] (d) Use your graph in (c), to state the relationship between v and e. [1 mark] 8. A student carried out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the masses, m, of a load placed on a spring and the length, l, of the spring. The student also determines the spring constant, k. The result of this experiment is shown in the graph of l against m in diagram 2.1. (a) Based on the graph in Diagram 2.1, (i) What happens to l when m increases? [1 mark] (ii) Determine the value of l when m = 0 g. Show on the graph, how you determine the value of l. l = __________ [2 marks]

(b) The spring constant, k, is given by the formula k

1 , where h is the gradient of the graph. h

(i) Calculate the gradient, h, of the graph. Show on the graph how you calculate h. h = __________ [3 marks] (ii) Determine the value of k. k = __________ [1 mark] (c) Another identical spring is connected in series to the end of the spring. The spring constant, k, of the two springs in series is given by the formula

1 1 1 . k' k k

Calculate k. k' = __________ [3 marks] (d) State two precautions that can be taken to improve the accuracy of the readings in this experiment. [2 marks] SPM 2009 Question 3 9. Diagram 3.1 shows a worker carrying a gas tank. Diagram 3.2 shows the same worker carrying two gas tanks.

Observe the length of the spring in the suspension system of the motorcycle in both situations. Based on the observation: (a) State one suitable inference. [1 mark] (b) State one suitable hypothesis. [1 mark] (c) With the use of apparatus such as spring, slotted weights and other apparatus, describe an experiment framework to investigate the hypothesis sated in 9(b). In your description, state clearly the following: (i) Aim of the experiment. (ii) Variables in the experiment. (iii) List of apparatus and materials. (iv) Arrangement of the apparatus. (v) The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. (vi) The way you would tabulate the data. (vii) The way you would analyse the data. [10 marks]