You are on page 1of 11

Summary of English language lessons Condition

You can take my car providing that you don’t damage it. (Main clause)
The meaning: I will lend you my car on condition that you don't damage it.

Example: you had better work hard to pass your final exam. Negative form: Had better not +stem (a verb without β€œto”). Example: you look tired, you had better not go to school today.

(Subordinate clause)

Verb in Future + π‘π‘Ÿπ‘œπ‘£π‘–π‘‘π‘–π‘›π‘”

π‘‘π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ π‘π‘Ÿπ‘œπ‘£π‘–π‘‘π‘’π‘‘ π‘‘π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ Expressing results we use: π‘Žπ‘  π‘™π‘œπ‘›π‘” π‘Žπ‘  + verb in present simple π‘ π‘œ π‘™π‘œπ‘›π‘” π‘Žπ‘  π‘ π‘œ + π‘Žπ‘‘π‘— + π‘‘π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ π‘Ž π‘›π‘œπ‘’π‘› 𝑏𝑒𝑑 π‘œπ‘›π‘™π‘¦ 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑕 + + π‘‘π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ π‘π‘•π‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘ π‘’ π‘œπ‘›π‘™π‘¦ 𝑖𝑓

Result

Wishes
Present wish: (wish, past simple) Example: I wish I spoke Italian. (I don't speak Italian.) Present wish expresses an imaginary situation impossible to happen. If only = wish Past wish: (wish, past perfect) Example: I wish I hadn’t eaten so much. (I ate a lot.) Past wish expresses a regret about a situation happened in the past. Future wish: (wish, would + stem (a verb without β€œto”))

-

-

Subject + verb + so + adjective + that + the rest of the sentence. Example: copies of brand are so cheap that some consumers don’t hesitate to buy them. Subject + verb + such + a noun phrase + that + the rest of the sentence. Example: It was such a good film that I watched it twice.

We can express results using other link word: π‘Žπ‘  π‘Ž π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘ π‘’π‘™π‘‘ πΆπ‘œπ‘›π‘ π‘’π‘žπ‘’π‘’π‘›π‘‘π‘™π‘¦ π‘Žπ‘  π‘Ž π‘π‘œπ‘›π‘ π‘’π‘žπ‘’π‘’π‘›π‘π‘’ π‘ π‘œ 𝑑𝑕𝑒𝑠 π‘‘π‘•π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘“π‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘’

Cause
Example: I wish I would stop smoking. Expressing causes: we use: Can = could (You are smoking at the moment and it is annoying me.) Future wish expresses impatience, annoyance or dissatisfaction with a present action. 𝐼𝑓 π‘œπ‘›π‘™π‘¦ 𝐼𝑑 β€² 𝑠 π‘‘π‘–π‘šπ‘’ Wish = + verb in past simple β€² 𝐼𝑑 𝑠 π‘•π‘–π‘”π‘•π‘‘π‘–π‘šπ‘’ 𝐼𝑑 β€² 𝑠 π‘Žπ‘π‘œπ‘’π‘‘ π‘‘π‘–π‘šπ‘’ π‘π‘’π‘π‘Žπ‘’π‘ π‘’ 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑒 + subject + verb … π‘Žπ‘  Example: - He succeeded in his exam because he had worked hard. - The audience cheered as it was a good play. π‘π‘’π‘π‘Žπ‘’π‘ π‘’ π‘œπ‘“ 𝑑𝑒𝑒 π‘‘π‘œ Sentence + + noun phrase. π‘“π‘œπ‘Ÿ π‘œπ‘€π‘–π‘›π‘” π‘‘π‘œ Example: - She succeeded in his exam because of her work hard. - I had to ask for help because of the difficult of the question. Sentence +

-

Had better
Had better is used to express advice Had better = should = ought to Had better + stem (a verb without β€œto”)

and mind. ο‚· As a noun or gerund. ο‚· The situation in T 1 is possible to happen. write. enjoy. stop. ο‚· ο‚· A state verb is usually use in the present form A state verb can’t be progressive (Continuous form (β€œing” form)). Examples: go.The suffix β€œy” is added to a noun to form an adjective. Type two: T 2 If + Verb in past simple. Eg: If you heat water. dislike. verb in future (will + stem) Eg: If she works hard. an adverb. Opposites Moral ⟼ immoral Fair ⟼ unfair Responsible ⟼ irresponsible Agree ⟼ disagree Legal ⟼ illegal Direct ⟼ indirect - Suffix: it comes after the word and changes its form to an adjective.The suffix β€œty” is added to an adjective to form a noun. prefer. ο‚· As an adjective. Type one: T 1 If + Verb in present simple. Search. ο‚· An action verb can be used in simple and continuous form (β€œing” form) (progressive) . believe. ο‚· The situation in T 2 is impossible to happen (an imaginary situation). and Replace. it boils. a noun. would + stem Eg: If I were you. Stative (state) & action verb A state verb: is a verb which describes a states (has not a well defined beginning & the end) Examples: like. I’m playing. Describe. achieve. come. start. she will go to university. The β€œing” for m: ο‚· As a past of verb called participle. Spice ⟼ Spicy Conditionals We have four types of conditionals: Type zero: T 0 If + Verb in present simple. deserve. hate. Example: The eating of GMF’s might harmful. agree. ο‚· T 0 is used to describe a general or scientific truth. Stupid ⟼ Stupidity . An action verb: is a verb which describes an action or an event (has a specific beginning & the end). I would buy a car. a verb. Example: This book is more interesting than that one. Examples: I’m waiting. dread. love. Verb in present simple.Summary of English language lessons Modals These modals express: 𝑀𝑒𝑠𝑑 ⟼ Strong obligation 𝑀𝑒𝑠𝑑𝑛’𝑑 ⟼ Prohibition β€œforbidden” π»π‘Žπ‘£π‘’ π‘‘π‘œ ⟼ Necessity π‘‘π‘œπ‘›β€² 𝑑 π‘•π‘Žπ‘£π‘’ π‘‘π‘œ ⟼ Lack (absence) of obligation 𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑛′𝑑 β€² π‘‘π‘œπ‘› 𝑑 𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑑 π‘‘π‘œ π»π‘Žπ‘‘ π‘π‘’π‘‘π‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘ π‘•π‘œπ‘’π‘™π‘‘ ⟼ Advice π‘œπ‘’π‘”π‘•π‘‘ π‘‘π‘œ π‘π‘œπ‘’π‘™π‘‘ ⟼ Remote possibility (15%) π‘šπ‘–π‘”π‘•π‘‘ π‘šπ‘Žπ‘¦ ⟼ Possibility (50%) π‘π‘Žπ‘› 𝐼𝑑 β€² 𝑠 π‘π‘Ÿπ‘œπ‘π‘Žπ‘π‘™π‘¦ π‘‘π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ ⟼ Probability (80%) 𝐼𝑑 𝑀𝑖𝑙𝑙 π‘π‘Ÿπ‘œπ‘π‘Žπ‘π‘™π‘¦ 𝑀𝑖𝑙𝑙 π‘π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘‘π‘Žπ‘–π‘›π‘™π‘¦ ⟼ Certainty (100%) Prefix & suffix Prefix: it comes before the word and changes its meaning. Example: . win.

an. are. I would have taken the best mark. can…). Main verb (play. to. Note: Content words are stressed. π‘ π‘œπ‘šπ‘’ Structure (function) words: they make the sentences correct grammatically. Short adjectives: adjectives of one syllable Adj + er + than (Eg: she is taller than me. Used for + verb+ ing (gerund) Eg: It’s used for cutting wood. Yes.Summary of English language lessons Type three: T 3 If + Verb in past perfect. would have + past participle Eg: If I had read the question well. 𝑠𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑑 = π‘’π‘›π‘œπ‘’π‘”π‘• (It’s the right quantity). Adjectives (serious. ο‚· The situation in T 3 is a regret about an event that had happened in the past Content & structure (function) words Sentences contain two kind of word: Content words: are necessary and contain the meaning. couldn’t…).) Not as + adj + as (our garden is not as large as yours). they…). 𝑙𝑖𝑑𝑑𝑙𝑒 π‘Ž π‘™π‘œπ‘‘ π‘œπ‘“ for countable & uncountable nouns(both). Adverbs (carefully. and. π‘šπ‘’π‘π‘• for uncountable nouns. the). Quantifiers π‘šπ‘Žπ‘›π‘¦ 𝑓𝑒𝑀 for countable nouns. the. work…). Demonstratives pronouns (this. How tall…? How long…? How high…? How far…? How fast…? How deep…? How wide…? How much…? ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ Height Height Height Distance Speed Depth Width Weight Less + adj + than (he is less intelligent than me. Nouns. nice…). Pronouns (I. Prepositions (on. that…). go. do. Negative auxiliaries (wasn’t. because…).) Equality As + adj + as (she is as intelligent as her brother. Auxiliary verbs (is. Wh questions. Conjunctions (but. quickly…). he. π‘Žπ‘π‘π‘Ÿπ‘œπ‘π‘Ÿπ‘–π‘Žπ‘‘π‘’ 𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑑 = π‘›π‘œπ‘‘ π‘’π‘›π‘œπ‘’π‘‘π‘• (It isn’t the right quantity). Not so + adj + as . No (auxiliary) questions.) Inferiority: How …? How: is a word question used for ask about dimension and size of objects. The excessive and the insufficient of something: An excessive amount: π‘‘π‘œπ‘œ π‘šπ‘’π‘π‘• ⟼ π‘’π‘›π‘π‘œπ‘’π‘›π‘‘π‘Žπ‘π‘™π‘’ π‘›π‘œπ‘’π‘›π‘  π‘‘π‘œπ‘œ π‘šπ‘Žπ‘›π‘¦ ⟼ π‘π‘œπ‘’π‘›π‘‘π‘Žπ‘π‘™π‘’ π‘›π‘œπ‘’π‘›π‘  π‘‘π‘œπ‘œ 𝑙𝑖𝑑𝑑𝑙𝑒 ⟼ π‘’π‘›π‘π‘œπ‘’π‘›π‘‘π‘Žπ‘π‘™π‘’ π‘›π‘œπ‘’π‘›π‘  π‘‘π‘œπ‘œ 𝑓𝑒𝑀 ⟼ π‘π‘œπ‘’π‘›π‘‘π‘Žπ‘π‘™π‘’ π‘›π‘œπ‘’π‘›π‘  An insufficient amount: Comparatives & superlatives Comparatives We must have two elements to compare. at. under…). Structure words are not stressed. have. Articles (a.) Long adjectives: adjectives of two or more syllables More + adj + than (Eg: meat is more expensive than chicken. Superiority Used for & Used to 𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑑 π‘‘π‘œ are verbs used to describe purpose and function 𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑑 π‘“π‘œπ‘Ÿ of objects ο‚· ο‚· Used to + stem (a verb without β€œto”) Eg: It’s used to cut wood.

Both she and her brother are intelligent. Eg: the moon. She is similar to her brother. Examples: Unlike Algeria. the pyramids. When we refer to a class of animals.A. (Eg: the cat is the least dangerous animal. Eg: a liter. Superiority: Unless Unless: expresses warning. (Eg: English is the most important language in the world.A is a developed country but (while. the jobless. similar to. you won’t pass your exam. Definite articles: (the) We use it before adjectives to specify the category of people. an hour. U. . Algeria is different from U. Unless = If … not ο‚· Unless + an affirmative verb Short adjectives: adjectives of one syllable The + Adj + est. the poor. The real meaning: If you don’t revise your lessons.) Adjectives Well/good Bad Far Many Much Little ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ Comparatives Better Worse Farther More More Less ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ Superlatives The best The worst The farthest The most The most The least Indefinite articles: Articles a: is used before consonants (sound). Eg: the homeless. too. The least + adj. in contrast to. She is intelligent. both.) Long adjectives: adjectives of two or more syllables The most + adj.S. the rich. her brother too. whereas) Algeria is not.) Inferiority: Unless + verb present. U. We use it before measurement. the earth. Eg: the radio. Eg: the tiger is a dangerous animal. such as. the same as. We use it before an object that is the only one.Summary of English language lessons Superlatives: We compare one element to a group or a whole. We use it before countable nouns that are unknown: Eg: a table. She is intelligent the same as (such as) her brother.S. a car. the television. they are intelligent. a painter. Future (will + stem). (Will not = won’t) Example: Unless you revise your lessons. (Eg: Uranus is the biggest planet in the solar system. When we talk about institutions. Eg: a doctor. but. a house. Examples: She is intelligent like her brother. you won’t pass your exam. an: is used before vowels (sound).A is a developed country in contrast to Algeria. while. different from. U. Expressing difference: We use these expressions: unlike.S.A is a developed country. Similarity & difference Expressing Similarity: We use these expressions: like.S. We use it before names of profession (jobs). the bank. whereas.

so as to. . in order to. even though. There are also negative forms: Subject + verb + π‘›π‘œπ‘‘ π‘‘π‘œ π‘ π‘œ π‘Žπ‘  π‘›π‘œπ‘‘ π‘‘π‘œ + stem. 𝑖𝑛 π‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘›π‘œπ‘‘ π‘‘π‘œ Examples: The soldiers moved at night. 𝑖𝑛 π‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘‘π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ π‘šπ‘Žπ‘¦ The past purpose: - π‘€π‘œπ‘’π‘™π‘‘ π‘ π‘œ π‘‘π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ + Subject + π‘π‘œπ‘’π‘™π‘‘ + stem.Summary of English language lessons Zero articles: ( βˆ… ) no article is used. z” we add β€œes” Brush ⟼ brushes Kiss ⟼ kisses Match ⟼ matches Most nouns ending in β€œo” also form their plural by adding β€œes” to the singular. π‘ π‘œ π‘‘π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ + Subject + verb (model). 𝑖𝑛 π‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘‘π‘œ - Examples: Although it rained a lot. 𝑖𝑛 π‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘‘π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ - Formation of plural The plural of the most nouns is formed by ending β€œs” Boy ⟼ Boys Girl ⟼ Girls Book ⟼ books Nouns ending in β€œs. dynamos pianos photos logos kilos Example: I leave the window open so that the cat can get out. ch. (Peace. 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑖𝑑𝑒 Examples: ο‚· ο‚· Note: 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑖𝑑𝑒 𝑑𝑕𝑒 π‘“π‘Žπ‘π‘‘ π‘‘π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ + Subject + verb… 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑝𝑖𝑑𝑒 π‘œπ‘“ 𝑑𝑕𝑒 π‘“π‘Žπ‘π‘‘ π‘‘π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ Examples: we enjoyed our holiday despite the fact that it rained a lot. though. x. we enjoyed our holiday. I study in order to succeed. Before plural nouns. Subject + verb + π‘‘π‘œ π‘ π‘œ π‘Žπ‘  π‘‘π‘œ + stem. In spite of being ill. she went to school. Before uncountable nouns. Examples: ο‚· ο‚· John went to the station to meet his parents. she went to school. in order that. despite. happiness…) Before names of people & places. sh. Note: The Present purpose: we use these models - 𝑀𝑖𝑙𝑙 π‘ π‘œ π‘‘π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ + Subject + π‘π‘Žπ‘› + stem. (money. π‘Žπ‘™π‘‘π‘•π‘œπ‘’π‘”π‘• 𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛 π‘‘π‘•π‘œπ‘’π‘”π‘• + Subject + verb … π‘‘π‘•π‘œπ‘’π‘”π‘• Concession Purpose (goal) Expressing purpose: We can express purpose using a number of conjunctional phrases: to. 𝑖𝑛 π‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘‘π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ π‘šπ‘–π‘”π‘•π‘‘ Example: We took an umbrella so that we wouldn’t get wet. in spite of. Hero ⟼ Potato ⟼ Volcano ⟼ Note that a few nouns ending in Dynamo Piano Photo Logo Kilo ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ heroes potatoes volcanoes β€œo” merely add β€œs”. Despite her illness. 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑝𝑖𝑑𝑒 π‘œπ‘“ + A Noun phrase or a Gerund. oil …) Before abstract nouns. Expressing concession: We can express concession using a number of conjunctional phrases: although. so that. so as not to alarm the villagers.

Billiards. Wide + en ⟼ widen. One another: is used to refer to more than two (a group) Eg: players hug one another when they score. ο‚· - The prefix β€œself” is added to some adjectives π’Žπ’šπ’”π’†π’π’‡ π’šπ’π’–π’“π’”π’†π’π’‡ π’‰π’Šπ’Žπ’”π’†π’π’‡ Self refer to: 𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒔𝒆𝒍𝒇 𝒐𝒖𝒓𝒔𝒆𝒍𝒗𝒆𝒔 π’šπ’π’–π’“π’”π’†π’π’—π’†π’” π’•π’‰π’†π’Žπ’”π’†π’π’—π’†π’” Example: He is a self-educated person. l before d l before f l before k s before l w before r at the beginning t in the middle of some words d in the middle of some words g before n at the end n after m at the end h at the beginning gh r before consonant h before the sounds π‘˜ . Eg: Women kiss each other. we add β€œs” boy ⟼ boys Nouns ending in β€œf” or β€œfe”. π‘π‘Žπ‘›β€² 𝑑 π‘ π‘‘π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ π‘π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘“π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘’ It is better + to + stem. - Silent letter A silent letter is a letter which is written and not pronounced. b after m at the end. . Inference question: is a indirect question. 𝑑 .Summary of English language lessons Nouns ending in a consonant β€œy”: ο‚· Before β€œy” a consonant. π‘‘π‘œπ‘›β€² 𝑑 π‘šπ‘–π‘›π‘‘ π‘Žπ‘£π‘œπ‘–π‘‘ π‘™π‘–π‘˜π‘’ π‘™π‘œπ‘£π‘’ π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘π‘’ + Gerund or to + stem (infinitive). 𝑑 ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ Knife Psychology Dept Lamb Should Half Walk Island Write Castle Wednesday Foreign Autumn Honest High Bird Ask him - Each other & one another Compound pronoun. Series. we form their plural by changing β€œf” or β€œfe” into β€œves”. Bright + en ⟼ brighten. Type of questions We have two types of questions: Reference question: is a direct question. you have to read between the lines to find the answer. Short + en ⟼ shorten. He is educated himself. b before t at the end. we change β€œy” into β€œ ies” Lady ⟼ ladies City ⟼ cities Before β€œy” a vowel. species. ⟼ wives ⟼ leaves ⟼ halves Word formation We can form verbs by adding the suffix β€œen” to some adjectives. k before n at the beginning. p before s at the beginning. Wife Leaf Half Except some nouns like: Chief ⟼ Chiefs Gulf ⟼ Gulfs Safe ⟼ Safes Proof ⟼ Proofs Invariable nouns ending in β€œs” or β€œes”: News. Dominoes Expressing like & dislike: Some nouns form their plural by mutation: Foot Tooth Goose Man Ox Child ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ ⟼ feet teeth geese men oxen children π‘’π‘›π‘—π‘œπ‘¦ π‘‘π‘–π‘ π‘™π‘–π‘˜π‘’ + Gerund (verb + β€œing”). Would rather + stem (a verb without β€œto”). they express reciprocity. Each other: is used to refer to two persons only.

Nouns ending by β€œ ion” are stressed on the syllable before the last. Word with suffixes like: ee. together. engineer. irregular. got. take. Eg: trainee. A word of one syllable has stress on the first letter. photograph. Eg: hot.Ive .Ity . solution. d. actor. mislead.Ia . Eg: addition. expensive. 𝑖𝑛 π‘–π‘š 𝑖𝑙 f. society.Ient . An adjective has stress on the 1𝑠𝑑 π‘ π‘¦π‘™π‘™π‘Žπ‘π‘™π‘’ . adjectives. Eg: teacher. Eg: university.Ian .Ish . sympathetic. present. .Ial . over. g. disagree. A verb has stress on the 2nd syllable.Aty . adverbs are stressed on 1st syllable. Eg: graphic. Eg: difficult. always.Summary of English language lessons Stress Definition: 𝑐𝑦 𝑑𝑕𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑝𝑕𝑦 e. .A prefix is not stressed . sunny. b. illegal. Word with prefix β€œ π‘–π‘Ÿ ” are stressed on the root. never.A noun has stress on the 1𝑠𝑑 π‘ π‘¦π‘™π‘™π‘Žπ‘π‘™π‘’. teach.A suffix in not stressed Ι™ schwa is never stressed a. after.Ious Stress is an extra force used when pronouncing a particular word or syllable. democracy. advisor. But: remember. Word ending in β€œ 𝑔𝑦 ” are all stressed on the 3rd π‘–π‘π‘Žπ‘™ 𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 π‘Žπ‘‘π‘’ 𝑒𝑛𝑑 syllable from the end. consider. Words ending in β€œ ic” are stressed on the 2nd syllable from the end. Japanese. Eg: happy. Eg: correct. h. identical. A word of two syllables: . . eer. verbs. stupid. Word with the following suffixes are stressed on the syllable before them. English. A adverb has stress on the 1𝑠𝑑 π‘ π‘¦π‘™π‘™π‘Žπ‘π‘™π‘’ . c. ese are stressed on the suffix itself. Most word of three syllables words: nouns. 𝑒𝑛 𝑑𝑖𝑠 π‘šπ‘–π‘  Eg: impossible. Eg: under. Eg: competence.

A letter would be written by Rita. A letter was being written by Rita. action. who or what is performing the action.Summary of English language lessons Phonetics The final β€œs”: The final β€œs” is pronounced in different ways.A letter had been written by Rita. ο‚· Voiced sounds: drives. πœƒ β€œs” is pronounced 𝑖𝑧 after: 𝑠 . A letter is being written by Rita. . When rewriting active sentences in passive voice. . The final β€œed”: The final β€œed” is pronounced in different ways. Present Perfect: Rita has written a letter. note the following: ο‚· ο‚· ο‚· Conditional perfect: Rita would have written a letter. Past Progressive (Continuous): Rita was writing a letter. A letter will be written by Rita. 𝑑 β€œs” is pronounced 𝑑 after: ο‚· Vowels: prayed. A letter has been written by Rita. Pronouns - the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle) the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped) - I She He It You We They Me Her His It You Us Them . 𝑑 . 𝑓 . 𝐷𝜁 β€œs” is pronounced 𝑧 after: ο‚· Vowels: goes. Past Perfect: Rita had written a letter. Examples: Simple Present: Rita writes a letter. Present Progressive (Continuous): Rita is writing a letter. Form of Passive: Subject (the Object in active) + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs) + Object (the Subject in active). A letter can be written by Rita. however. Conditional simple: Rita would write a letter. according the β€œSound” before: β€œs” is pronounced 𝑑 after: 𝑝. 𝑠 β€œs” is pronounced 𝑖𝑑 after: 𝑑. 𝑧. A letter was written by Rita. 𝑑. π‘˜ . A letter would have been written by Rita. Simple Past: Rita wrote a letter. 𝑓 . according the β€œSound” before: β€œs” is pronounced 𝑠 after: 𝑝 . Active & Passive Voice Use of Passive: - Future simple: Rita will write a letter. π‘˜. πœƒ . 𝑑 . ο‚· Voiced sounds: traveled. A letter is written by Rita.A letter will have been written by Rita. It is not important or not known. ο‚· Nasals sounds: cleaned. Modals: Rita can write a letter. - Passive voice is used when the focus is on the . ο‚· Nasals sounds: cleans. Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice . Future perfect: Rita will have written a letter.

Tonight. Present simple: β€œI play football”. To Simple Past: He said that he played football Past simple: β€œI played football”. did in the reported. ο‚· Other changes: Modals: Direct Will Can Must May Should Ought to Reported Would Could Had to Might Should Ought to Rule one: When the main verb is in the present tense. This.Summary of English language lessons Direct & reported speech When we report we a statement. The day after. Present perfect continuous: β€œI have been playing football. There is no question mark β€œ?” β€œWh” question: β€œWh” question are reported with the question word. and wanted to know. we use one of these main verbs: say. To Past perfect continuous: He said that he had been playing football. That week. The day before. Tomorrow. Eg: β€œWhere are you going?” ⟼ I asked her where she was going. Past Perfect: β€œI had played football”. 2 week before.” To Past perfect continuous: He said that he had been playing football. When the main verb is in the past: We have to change the tense of the verbs used in the statement. These. That night. There. That day. declare. To Past Perfect: He said that he had played football Present Continuous: β€œI am playing football”. To Past Perfect: He said that he had played football. The verb has the form of normal statement. Note: we do not use: do.” Time and place reference: ⟼ Paul says that he is trying to get taxi. This week. The week before. order. Next week. Direct ο‚· Reported Then. The following week. Eg: Paul says: β€œI am trying to get a taxi. Those. Reporting question: When we report a question we use: asked. questioned. Here. Yesterday. To Past Continuous: He said that he was playing football Past Continuous: β€œI was playing football”. To Past Perfect: He said that he had played football Present Perfect: β€œI have played football”. tell. 2 week ago. The week after. The previous week. Next week. Last week. announce. The next (following) day. Today. Tomorrow. Rule two: Now. wanted to know. That. Yesterday. The previous day. . ask. does. Last week. the future or present perfect: We can report without any change of tense.

𝐿𝑒𝑑 β€² 𝑠 Suggestion: when we find in direct speech: π»π‘œπ‘€ π‘Žπ‘π‘œπ‘’π‘‘ π‘Šπ‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ π‘Žπ‘π‘œπ‘’π‘‘ The reported: are: subject + suggested + Eg: β€œLet’s go to the theatre. Eg: β€œwould you like to come to the cinema. Congratulation: subject + congratulated on + verb + ing.” ⟼ Alice denied taking it. Eg: β€œwell done. Summary of commends statement Told + to + stem. ” ⟼ He suggested going to the theatre. Denying: subject + denied + verb + ing. Jane? ” ⟼ They invited Jane to come to the cinema.” ⟼ He agreed to give me a lift. Promising: subject + promised + to + stem.” ⟼ I advised him not to buy that car. Eg: Alice said : β€œNo. Suggested + to + stem.” ⟼ He promised to be at home by eight. Offered + to + stem. Advised + to + stem. you’ve passed your exam.” ⟼ She congratulated her on passing her exam. The verb has the form of normal statement. Offering: subject + offered + to + stem. I’ll give you a lift. ” ⟼ I apologized for being late. Asked + to + stem. When we report an auxiliary question we use: If. Ordered + to + stem. Eg: β€œOk. Eg: β€œI am sorry for being late. Pam?” ⟼ He offered to carry Pam’s case. Congratulated on + verb + ing. π‘ π‘•π‘œπ‘’π‘™π‘‘ π‘œπ‘’π‘”π‘•π‘‘ π‘‘π‘œ π‘•π‘Žπ‘‘ π‘π‘’π‘‘π‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿ Advice: when we find in direct speech: 𝐼𝑓 𝐼 π‘€π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘’ 𝑀𝑕𝑦 π‘‘π‘œπ‘›β€² 𝑑 π‘¦π‘œπ‘’ The reported: are: subject + advised + to + stem.Summary of English language lessons Auxiliary question (Yes /No): Apologize: subject + apologized for + verb + ing (gerund). Apologized for + verb + ing. Agreed + to + stem. π‘£π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘ + 𝑖𝑛𝑔 π‘œπ‘Ÿ π‘‘π‘œ + π‘ π‘‘π‘’π‘š . We omit (delete): do. β€œPlease wait” ⟼ I asked her to wait. Eg: β€œDo you like hamburgers?” ⟼ He asked me if I like hamburgers. I didn’t take it! I was there. Invited + to + stem. Suggested + verb + ing. Eg: β€œI wouldn’t buy that car if I were you. Eg: β€œI’ll be at home by eight. Eg: β€œShall I carry your case. Denied + verb + ing. Reported other forms of speech: Commands or request: π‘‘π‘œπ‘™π‘‘ + π‘‘π‘œ + π‘ π‘‘π‘’π‘š Subject + π‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘‘ + π‘‘π‘œ + π‘ π‘‘π‘’π‘š π‘Žπ‘ π‘˜π‘’π‘‘ + π‘‘π‘œ + π‘ π‘‘π‘’π‘š Eg: β€œstop writing” ⟼ he told them to stop writing. does. Promised + to + stem. did. Agreement: subject + agreed + to + stem. Inviting: subject + invited + to + stem.

If the auxiliary doesn’t exist we use the infinitive of the verb. a) She is leaving to Paris. b) When will she have an exam? . a) Three pupils got a good mark. b) Where is she leaving? .What … for: purpose. b) Why do they move to new house? .Why: Cause (reason). b) How long did the exam last? ο‚· How many: countable nouns (numbers). a) He put some sugar in the cup. a) She will have an exam next week. goal (to.Where: Place. (Subject. b) How much sugar did he put in the cup? . Never). Example: The lion eats the meats. a) They move to new house because the first one is too old. a) She phoned to her friend. b) How many pupils got a good mark? a) They will visit four towns in the country. yesterday. a) His mother prepares the lunch. so as to). in order to. a) He sometimes visits his friend. If the auxiliary exist we don’t change the tense of the verb. a) The exam lasted two hours. b) What does the lion eat? .How: manner a) She feels better now. b) Whose pen is it? Which: choice Which + noun + aux + subject + verb? a) They took the blue Jacket.Summary of English language lessons How to ask a question β€œWh” question: Wh + Auxiliary + Subject + Verb? ο‚· ο‚· - Whose: possession Whose + noun + aux + subject + verb? a) The pen is mine. b) Whom did she phone to? . b) Which jacket did they take? . b) How often does he visit his friend? ο‚· How long: period of time (duration). Often. b) How many towns will they visit? ο‚· How much: uncountable nouns (quantity).Whom: Object person. b) How does she feel now? ο‚· How often: (Always. b) Who prepares the lunch? Subject (thing / animal) What: π‘‰π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘ 𝑂𝑏𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑑 (thing / animal) a) The lion eats the meats. object) What eats the meats? (subject) (we replace the subject by β€œWh”) What does the lion do? (verb) What does the lion eat? (Object) WH Question Words: . a) They are working hard to succeed b) What are they working hard for? Sometimes. verb. Usually. next.Who: subject person.When: Time (Last. tomorrow).