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Divided Di id d into i t two t classes l d depending di on the th ratio of the wall thickness to vessel diameter (t/D): Majority of the vessels used in chemical and allied industries are classified as thinwalled vessels. Thick-walled vessels are used for ↑P.

PRINCIPAL STRESSES

The state of stress at a point in a structural member under a complex system of loading is described by the g and direction of the p principle p magnitude stresses. Principle stresses = maximum values of the normal stresses at the point; which planes on which the shear stress act on p is zero. In a two-dimensional stress system, the principal stresses at any point are related to the normal stress in the x and y directions, d σx and d σy, and d the h shear h stress, τxy at the point of the following eqn.: 1 2 2 P i i l stresses, σ 1 , σ 2 = (σ y + σ x ) ± (σ y − σ x ) + 4τ xy Principal 2 The maximum shear stress at the point is equal to: 1 Maximum shear stress = (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2

[

]

MATERIAL STRENGTH

Example of principal stress at vessel wall:

General example of symmetrical vessel at an axis:

**PRINCIPAL STRESSES IN PV WALL
**

O

Element abcd

a b d c

O

• Principal stresses: (1) σ1 = meridional / longitudinal stress, acting along a meridian 0-0 axis. (2) σ2 = circumferential/ tangential/hoop stress, acting along parallel to 0-0 axis. (3) σ3 = radial stress stress, acting normal to 0-0 axis. • For thin wall, σ3 << σ1 and σ2 σ3 can be neglected. And, σ1 and σ2 can be taken as constant over the wall thickness • For thick wall, σ3 is significant cannot be neglected. neglected And, And σ2 will vary across the wall.

THEORIES OF FAILURE - unidirectional

Generally stress ÷ 2: (i) Compressive stresses are -ve; (ii) Tensile stresses are +ve. For a structure under unidirectional stress (tensile or compressive), p ), failure will occur if σ1 > the tensile strength of the material. The failure point in a simple tension is taken as the yield-point stress, σe’.

THEORIES OF FAILURE – combined stresses

**For components subjected to combined stresses (normal or shear stresses), failure analysis becomes more complicated.
**

B di Bending moment t stress t Longitudinal stress Shear stress

Circumferential stress

3 commonly used theories to analyze failure under combined stresses:

**Maximum Principal Stress Theory
**

Assuming failure occurs when one of the principal stresses reaches the failure value, value σe’ as in simple tension (unidirectional). Mathematically, Mathematically failure occurs when σ1=σe’ or σ2=σe’ or σ3=σe’

**Maximum Shear Stress Theory (= Tresca/Guest Theory)
**

Assuming the failure will occur in a complex stress system when the maximum shear stress reaches the value of the shear stress at failure in simple tension. • The shear stress at which the material fails under tensile test:

•

τe =

σ e'

2

• For system of combined stresses, 3 shear stresses:

τ1 = ±

σ1 − σ 2

2

;

τ2 = ±

σ 2 −σ3

2

;

τ3 = ±

σ 3 − σ1

2

• Failure occurs when:

τ 1 = τ e or

τ 2 = τ e or

τ3 =τe

Maximum Strain Energy Theory

Assuming failure will occur in a complex stress system when the total strain energy per unit volume reaches the value at which failure occurs in simple tension. Suitable for predicting the failure of ductile materials under complex loading. Most design codes uses Maximum Shear Stress Th Theory and d Maximum M i St i Energy Strain E Th Theory.

ELASTIC STABILITY

Under certain loading conditions failure of a structure can occur not through plastic failure, failure but by buckling or wrinkling:

This mode of failure will occur when the structure is not elastically stable, lacks of sufficient stiffness, rigidity to withstand the load. The stiffness of a structural material is dependent not on the basic strength of the material but on:

Buckling results in a gross and sudden change of shape of the structure, Plastic failure, the structure retains the same basic shape.

Stress (σ) - Strain (ε)

**Stress is defined as: Load F σ= = X - sectional i l area Ao Strain is defined as:
**

Change of Ch f length l th Δl = Original length lo

l2 l1

ε=

Strain due to elongation g of sample: p l −l εe = 2 1 l1 Strain due to compression of sample: d −d εc = 1 2 d1

Force F

P i Poisson’s ’ ratio ti is i defined d fi d as: εc ν=

d2 d1

εe

**Stress (σ) – Strain (ε) Curve
**

Stress (σ) σu σe’ σb

σa εb

εa

The slope for straight line (elastic area): σb −σ a σb σ a σ = = = = Modulus of Elasticity / Young' s Modulus ( E ) εb − εa εb εa ε

Strain (ε)

**Summary of Stress (σ) and Strain (ε)
**

Stress (σ=F/Ao Shear stress N/m2) Compressive stress (-ve)

Tensile stress (+ve) Strain (ε unitless unitless) )

El Elongation ti strain t i (ε e ) (+ve (+ ve) )

Compressive C i strain t i (ε c ) (+ve (+ ve) )

Poisson’s ratio (+ve (+ve) ) (v=εc/ εe

unitless nitless) )

•

Under tensile stress:

• Under compressive stress:

l −l D − D1 ∴ ε e = 1 o and ε c = o lo Do 1444 44 4 244444 4 3 Poisson' s ratio, v =

D − Do l −l ∴ε e = 1 and ε c = o 1 Do lo 14444 4 4 2444444 3 Poisson' s ratio, v =

εc εe

εc εe

Shell Sh ll of f revolution l ti = the th form f swept t out t by b a line li or curve rotated about an axis. • Most process vessels are made up from shells of revolution: cylindrical and conical sections; hemispherical, hemispherical ellipsoidal and torispherical heads.

•

MEMBRANE STRESSES IN SHELLS OF REVOLUTION

• The walls of thin vessels can be considered to be “membranes” membranes that can support loads without significant bending or shear stresses. • The analysis of the membrane stresses induced in shells of revolution by internal pressure gives a basis for determining the minimum wall thickness required for vessel shells. q will • The actual thickness required also depend on the stresses arising from the other loads to which the vessel is subjected.

The pressure in the shell of revolution can act in 2 main directions: 1. Towards the walls of the shell of revolution membrane stress at the walls. 2. Top-bottom direction due to the longitudinal stress.

Stress Analysis in Shell of Revolution

**(1) Analysis of Membrane Stress
**

b a

b a d c

(1) Analysis of Membrane Stress

Symbols: P = internal i t l pressure t = thickness of shell σ1 = longitudinal / meridional stress σ2 = circumferential / tangential stress r1 = meridional idi l radius di of f curvature t r2 =circumferential radius of curvature Values of r1 and r2 are determined by the shapes of the shells:

C Cylinder: li d r1=∞ and d r2=D/2 D/2 (diameter) (di ) Sphere: r1 = r2 = D/2

b a d c

r2 dθ2 b a d c σ2 dS1 σ1 dS2

r1 dθ1

t

t b b

dS1 σ2 c σ1 a

dS2

Sides ab or cd

b a d c σ2 σ1 dS1 c b

t F1 dθ2/2

σ2tdS1

r2 dθ2/2

a x b

Sides ad or bc

b a d c σ2 σ1 dS2 b σ1tdS2 a t F2 dθ1/2

r1 dθ1/2

a y d

Total Force due to Membrane Stresses (Fn)

⎡ ⎛ dθ 2 ⎞ ⎛ dθ1 ⎞⎤ Fn = 2 F1 + 2 F2 = 2t ⎢σ 2 dS1 sin ⎜ ⎟ + σ 1dS 2 sin ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣

Force due to Internal Pressure (FP) acting on abcd element

FP = P × Area of abcd element = P × ab × bc ⎡ ⎛ dθ ⎞⎤ ⎡ ⎛ dθ ⎞⎤ ∴ FP = P ⎢2r1 sin ⎜ 1 ⎟⎥ ⎢2r2 sin ⎜ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣

⎡ ⎛ dθ ⎞ ⎛ dθ ⎞ ⎤ Fn = 2 F1 + 2 F2 = 2t ⎢σ 2 dS1 sin ⎜ 2 ⎟ + σ 1dS 2 sin ⎜ 1 ⎟⎥ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣

Simplified using:

⎛ dθ ⎞ dθ sin ⎜ 1 ⎟ → 1 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ dS dS1 = r1dθ1 ⇒ dθ1 = 1 r1 and and ⎛ dθ ⎞ dθ sin ⎜ 2 ⎟ → 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ dS 2 = r2 dθ 2 ⇒ dθ 2 = dS 2 r2

P σ1 σ 2 = + t r1 r2

(1)

(2) Analysis of longitudinal / meridional stress

**Analysis of longitudinal / meridional stress
**

θ r2 r2sinθ

P

Areas = π(r2sinθ)2

**Perimeter = 2π(r2sinθ) Area = t2π(r2sinθ)
**

σ1 r2sinθ t θ

σ =σ1sinθ

σ1 2πr2sinθ σ1 t

F due to internal P = Pπ(r2sinθ)2

Balanced

FP=Fn

F due to longitudinal stress = σ1t2π(r2sinθ)sinθ

Shapes of Shells of Revolution

Cylinder

A cylinder is swept out by the rotation of a line parallel to the axis of revolution: r1 = ∞ and r2 = D/2 (D = diameter of cylinder)

Pr2 σ1 = 2t

(2)

P σ1 σ 2 = + t r1 r2

(1)

PD σ1 = 4t

P σ1 σ 2 = + t ∞ D2

PD σ2 = 2t

Sphere

For sphere: r1 = r2 = D/2 (D = diameter of sphere)

Pr2 σ1 = 2t

(2)

P σ1 σ 2 = + t r1 r2

(1)

PD σ1 = 4t

P PD σ2 = + t 4t (D 2 ) D 2

PD σ2 = 4t

Cone

A cone is i swept t out t by b a straight t i ht line li inclined i li d at t an angle a to the axis: r1 = ∞ and r2 = r/cos a (D2=diameter of circle)

Pr2 σ1 = 2t

(2)

P σ1 σ 2 = + t r1 r2

(1)

Pr σ1 = 2t cos a

Maximum value for σ1 and σ2 when r=D2/2

P σ1 σ2 = + t ∞ r cos a

Pr σ2 = t cos a

Ellipsoid

Ellipsoid is commonly used as head section or cover. Ellipsoid has 2 axes: 1. Minor axis (vertical) 2. Major axis (horizontal)

The relationship between the meridional radius of curvature, r1 and circumferential radius of curvature r2 with the minor and major j axes:

Pr2 σ1 = 2t

(2)

r2 b 2 r1 = 4 a

3

P σ1 σ 2 = + t r1 r2

(1)

P⎡ a4 ⎤ σ 2 = ⎢r2 − ⎥ t ⎣ 2r2b 2 ⎦

Pa Pa ⎡ 1 a 2 ⎤ σ1 = and σ 2 = ⎢1 − ⎥ 2t t ⎣ 2 b2 ⎦

Pa 2 σ1 = σ 2 = 2tb

Torus

Torus is formed by rotating a circle of radius r2 about an axis. The meridional radius of torus at d:

**Ro + r2 sin θ R r1 = = sin θ sin θ
**

d

r1 =

R + r sin θ R = o 2 sin θ sin θ

d

P σ1 σ 2 = + t r1 r2

(1)

Pr P σ2 = 2 t

⎡ ⎤ i θ r2 sin ⎢1 − ⎥ ( ) 2 R + r sin θ o 2 ⎣ ⎦

Pr2 σ2 = t Pr σ2 = 2 2t ⎡ 2 Ro − r2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ R r − ⎣ o 2 ⎦

Pr2 ⎡ 2 Ro + r2 ⎤ σ2 = ⎢ ⎥ 2t ⎣ Ro + r2 ⎦

Torispherical Heads

A torispherical shape is often used as the end closure of cylindrical vessels. It is formed from part of a torus and part of a sphere. The shape is close to that of an ellipse but is easier and cheaper to fabricate. Symbols: Rk = knuckle radius (radius of torus), Rc = crown radius (radius of sphere). For the spherical portion:

σ1 = σ 2 =

PRc 2t

For the torus:

PRk σ1 = 2t

and σ2 depends on the location, and is a function of Rc and Rk.

**Relationships between longitudinal and circumferential stresses with the wall thickness for shells of revolution
**

Shape Cylinder p Sphere Cone Ellipsoid: Top

r1 r1=∞

r2 r2=D/2

σ1

σ2

σ2 =

PD 2t

r1=r2=D/2 r1=∞ r2=r/cosa

PD σ1 = 4t

σ2 =

PD 4t

σ1 =

r1=r23b2/a4 r1=r2=a2/b r1=b2/a r2=a

Pr 2t cos a Pr σ1 = 2 2t

σ2 =

Pr t cos a

P⎡ a4 ⎤ σ 2 = ⎢r2 − ⎥ t ⎣ 2r2b 2 ⎦

Pa 2 σ1 = σ 2 = 2tb

Bottom

Pa σ1 = 2tb

Pa ⎡ 1 a 2 ⎤ σ2 = ⎢1 − ⎥ t ⎣ 2 b2 ⎦

**Relationships between longitudinal and circumferential stresses with the wall thickness for shells of revolution
**

Shape Torus: Centre Outer Inner Torispherical: Sphere Torus

r1 =

r1

r2

σ1

σ1 =

Pr2 2t

σ2 =

Pr2 t

σ2

⎡ ⎤ r2 sin θ 1 − ⎢ ⎥ ( ) 2 R + r sin θ o 2 ⎣ ⎦

R + r sin θ R = o 2 sin θ sin θ

θ=0r1=∞ θ=π/2 sinθ=1 θ=3π/2 sinθ=-1

σ2 =

σ2 =

σ2 =

Pr2 t

Pr2 ⎡ 2 Ro + r2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 2t ⎣ Ro + r2 ⎦

Pr2 ⎡ 2 Ro − r2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 2t ⎣ Ro − r2 ⎦

σ1 = σ 2 =

PR σ1 = k 2t

PRc 2t

Depends on the location

• Flat plates are used as covers for manholes, as blind flanges, and for the ends of small diameter and low pressure vessels.

FLAT PLATES

• If a load is applied on a circular flat plate, plate it can deflect from its original shape.

**Types of Flat Plates
**

(i) Circular plate supported at its edges (clamped edges) (ii) Simply supported circular flat plate P

w

w

**Uniformly loaded circular plate
**

• For a uniformly loaded circular plate supported at its edges, edges the slope, φ at any radius x is given by:

**dw 1 Px3 C1 x C2 φ =− =− + + dx D 16 2 x 144 444 2 444 443 ⇓ Integratio n Px4 C1 x 2 w= − − C2 ln x + C3 64D 4
**

with, P=pressure, φ=slope of plate, w=deflection x = radial distance to point of interest, D = flexual fl l rigidity i idit of f plate l t t = plate thickness v = Poisson’s ratio for the material E = Modulus M d l of f elasticity l i i of f the h material i l (Young’s (Y ’ Modulus) M d l ) C1, C2, C3 = constants of integration which can be obtained from the boundary conditions at the edge of the plate

**CLAMPED EDGES FLAT PLATE
**

• When the edge of the plate is rigidly clamped, not free to rotate heavy flange or strong joint:

w

dw 1 Px 3 C1 x C2 INTEGRATION Px 4 C1 x 2 φ =− =− + + ⎯⎯ ⎯ ⎯⎯→ w = − − C2 ln x + C3 2 64 D 4 dx D 16 x

C φ = 0 = 2 ⇒ C2 = 0 0

1 Px 3 C1 x φ =− + D 16 2 Pa 2 C1 = 8D

Px 4 Pa 2 2 w= − x + C3 64 D 32 D

Pa 4 C3 = 64 D

w= P x2 − a2 64 D Pa 4 = 64 D

(

)

2

Px 2 φ= a − x2 16 D

(

)

wmax

Stress in Circular Flat Plate

A flat plate that deflects due to an external pressure, pressure its external side plate will undergo elongation strain and the internal side of plate will undergo compressive strain.

r r y y x x

Δx

A

y

z x

y

Δx

A

1 d 2 y dx 2 = r 1 + (dy dx )2

[

(

)

]

3

2

y εx = r

1 d2y = 2 r dx

d2y εx = y 2 dx

Plate with tensile stress at the plate wall in the directions of x (σx) and z (σz) Tensile stress σx will result in elongation strain in the x direction (εex ) and compressive p strain in the z direction (εcz ): Tensile stress σz will result in elongation strain in the z direction (εez ) and compressive p strain in the x direction (εcx ):

ε ex =

σx

E

and

ε cz = vε ex

ε ez =

σz

E

and

ε cx = vε ez

If both σx and σz act simultaneously, hence the total strains at the respective x and z directions

ε x = ε ex + ε cx =

σx

E

+ vε ez =

σx

E

+v

σz

E

ε z = ε ez + ε cz =

σz

E

+ vε ex =

σz

E

+v

σx

E

εx = y

d y dx 2

2

σx =

Eε x 1− v2

2 ⎛ E ⎞⎛ d y ⎞ ⎜y 2 ⎟ σx = ⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 − v ⎠⎝ dx ⎠

σ z = −vσ x

σx =

Eε x 1− v2

ε cx = vε ez

y εx = rx

εz =

y rz

σx = ⎜

1 1⎞ ⎛ E ⎞ ⎛ E ⎞ ⎛ E ⎞ ⎛ Ey ⎞⎛ ⎜ ⎟ ( ) ( ) ( ) ε = ε + ε = ε + v ε = + v ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ez x ex cx ex 2 2 2 2 ⎜ rz ⎟ ⎝1− v ⎠ ⎝1− v ⎠ ⎝1− v ⎠ ⎝ 1 − v ⎠⎝ rx ⎠

σz = ⎜

1 1⎞ ⎛ E ⎞ ⎛ E ⎞ ⎛ E ⎞ ⎛ Ey ⎞⎛ ⎜ ⎟ ( ) ( ) ( ) ε = ε + ε = ε + v ε = + v ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ez cx 2 ⎟ z 2 ⎟ cz 2 ⎟ cz 2 ⎟⎜ rx ⎟ ⎝1− v ⎠ ⎝1− v ⎠ ⎝1− v ⎠ ⎝ 1 − v ⎠⎝ rz ⎠

ε ez = vε cx

y εz = rz

εx =

y rx

2 ⎛ E ⎞⎛ d y ⎞ ⎜y 2 ⎟ σx = ⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 − v ⎠⎝ dx ⎠

t 2

M=

−t 2

∫σ

x

ydA

M=

⎛ E ⎞ 2d y ⎛ E ⎞d y y dA = y 2 dA ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 2 ⎟ 2 ∫ ∫ 1 − v ⎠ dx ⎝ 1 − v ⎠ dx −t 2 −t 2 ⎝

2 2

t 2 t 2

t 2

678

t 2

t/2 dA dy σx

Compressive

x

3 2 ⎛ E ⎞ t d y M =⎜ ⋅ ⋅ 2 2 ⎟ 1 − v 12 dx ⎝ 142⎠ 43

t3 2 2 I = ∫ y dA { = ∫ y dy = 12 −t 2 −t 2

Tensile

x=1 unit

-t/2

d2y M =D 2 dx

For a stripe with h 1 unit width (z direction) and thickness t, ∴A =t X 1, ∴dA dA=dt=dy dt dy

M is the total moment if plate deflects in the y direction along xx axis with the deflection along z-axis can be neglected

**From the top view of plate
**

z x

Side view of plate x-axis

Circular flat plate that deflects at x-axis axis

θ

y -y

x

θ Law of similar triangle

x dy 1 1 dy = ⇒ = rz dx rz x dx

y - axis dy t/2

An element with width dz and Mx = bending moment at xaxis per unit length

x-axis -t/2 dz

1 1⎞ ⎛ Ey ⎞⎛ ⎟ ⎜ v + 2 ⎟⎜ rz ⎟ ⎝ 1 − v ⎠⎝ rx ⎠

t 2

M=

−t 2

∫σ

x

ydA

σx = ⎜

Bending moment of element with thi k thickness d and dy d width dz at y-axis

} M x dz = ∫ σ x y dydz

t 2 −t 2

Bending moment of element with thickness dx and Mz = bending moment at y-axis per unit length

6 47 4 8 3 ⎡1 ⎡1 Et 1⎤ 1⎤ v D v + = + Mx = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 1 − v 2 ⎣ rx rz ⎦ r r z ⎦ ⎣ x

(

)

⎡1 1⎤ M z = D⎢ + v ⎥ rx ⎦ ⎣ rz

1 d2y = 2 rx dx

⎡1 ⎡ d 2 y v dy ⎤ 1⎤ M x = D⎢ + v ⎥ = D⎢ 2 + ⎥ dx x dx r r ⎣ ⎦ z ⎦ ⎣ x

1 1 dy = rz x dx

⎡1 ⎡ 1 dy 1⎤ d2y⎤ M z = D⎢ + v ⎥ = D⎢ +v 2 ⎥ r r x dx dx ⎦ ⎣ x ⎦ ⎣ z

For plate with clamped edges, the obtained d fl ti deflection with ith w=-y:

Mx =

Mz =

P 2 a (1 + v ) − x 2 (3 + v ) 16

P 2 a (1 + v ) − x 2 (1 + 3v ) 16

Pa 2 ˆ Mx =− 8 ˆ = − v Pa M z 8

2

[

]

P x2 − a2 w= 64 D

(

)

2

[

]

Px 4 Pa 2 x 2 Pa 4 y=− + − 64 D 32 D 64 D dy Px 3 Pa 2 x ∴ =− + dx 16 D 16 D d2y 3Px 2 Pa 2 ∴ 2 =− + dx 16 D 16 D

ˆ > M ˆ v <1⇒ M x z

Mx =

P 2 a (1 + v ) − x 2 (3 + v ) 16

[

]

P 2 Mz = a (1 + v ) − x 2 (1 + 3v ) 16

ˆ > M ˆ v <1⇒ M x z

[

]

Pa 2 (1 + v ) M =M = 16

o x o z

εx =

y r

and σ x = Eε x = E

y E σ ⇒ = x r r y

Pa ˆ Mx =− 8

2

E EI σ x 2 M = ∫ σ x ydA = y dA = = I ∫ r −t 2 r y −t 2

t 2 t 2

t 2

2

=I 67 8

y=

t 2

ˆ = Pd M=M x 32

σx =

1

Mt 6 M = 2 2I t

t3 I = ∫ y dA = 12 −t 2

2

3P ⎛ d ⎞ σx = ⎜ ⎟ ⇒∴ t min 16 ⎝ t ⎠

2

⎛ 3P ⎞ = d⎜ ⎜ 16σ ⎟ ⎟ x ⎠ ⎝

2

**SIMPLY SUPPORTED FLAT PLATE
**

• For simply supported plate, the edge / boundary conditions: P

w

**dw 1 Px 3 C1 x C2 INTEGRATION Px 4 C1 x 2 φ =− =− + + ⎯⎯ ⎯ ⎯⎯→ y = − w = − + + C2 ln x + C3 dx D 16 2 x 64 D 4
**

DIFFERENTIATION

φ =0=

C2 ⇒ C2 = 0 0

1 Px 3 C1 dy =− + x 2 dx D 16 d2y 1 3Px 2 C1 =− + 2 dx D 16 2

⎡ d 2 y v dy ⎤ M x = D⎢ 2 + ⎥ dx dx x ⎣ ⎦

Px 4 C1 x 2 y = −w = − + + C3 64 D 4

C3 = 0

⎡ Px 2 ⎤ (3 + v ) + C1 (1 + v )⎥ M x = D ⎢− 2 ⎣ 16 D ⎦

dw 1 Px 3 C1 φ =− =− + x dx D 16 2

Pa 2 (3 + v ) C1 = 8D(1 + v )

Pa 2 (3 + v ) C1 = 8 D(1 + v )

dy 1 Px 3 C1 =− + x dx D 16 2 d2y 1 3Px 2 C1 =− + 2 dx D 16 2

⎡ d 2 y v dy ⎤ P 2 M x = D⎢ 2 + a − x 2 (3 + v ) ⎥= x dx ⎦ 16 ⎣ dx

(

)

⎡ 1 dy d2y⎤ P 2 2 ( ) (1 + 3v ) M z = D⎢ = a 3 + v − x +v 2 ⎥ dx ⎦ 16 ⎣ x dx

[

]

2 Pa ˆ =M ˆ = (3 + v ) M x z 16

ˆ M = M x

Pd 2 (3 + v ) = 64

t3 I = ∫ y dA = 12 −t 2

2

t 2

t y= 2

⎛ Pd 3 σ x = (3 + v )⎜ ⎜ t2 32 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⇒∴ t min ⎠

Mt 6 M σx = = 2 2I t

1

2

⎡3 ⎛ P ⎞⎤ = d ⎢ (3 + v )⎜ ⎜σ ⎟ ⎟⎥ 32 x ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣

2

**Comparison between clamped edges and simply supported plates
**

dw 1 Px 3 C1 x C2 INTEGRATION Px 4 C1 x 2 φ =− =− + + ⎯⎯ ⎯ ⎯⎯→ y = − w = − + + C2 ln l x + C3 2 64 D 4 dx D 16 x

Clamped edge plate Simply supported plate Mx=0 @ x=a w=0 @ x=a φ=0 @ x=0

w=0 @ x=a φ=0 @ x=a φ=0 @ x=0

Mx = P 2 a (1 + v ) − x 2 (3 + v ) 16 P 2 Mz = a (1 + v ) − x 2 (1 + 3 v ) 16

[

]

[

]

P 2 a − x 2 (3 + v ) 16 P 2 Mz = a (3 + v ) − x 2 (1 + 3v ) 16 Mx =

(

)

[

]

ˆ = − Pa M x 8

ˆ = −v Pa and M z 8 ˆ >M ˆ v <1⇒ M

x z

2

2

⎫ ⎪ ⎬at x = a ⎪ ⎭

2 Pa ˆ =M ˆ = (3 + v ) at x = 0 M x z 16

∴ t min

⎛ 3P ⎞ = d⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 16σ ⎟ x ⎠ ⎝

1

2

∴ t min

⎡3 ⎛ P = d ⎢ (3 + v )⎜ ⎜σ ⎝ x ⎣ 32

⎞⎤ ⎟ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦

1

2

**General thickness of flat plates
**

Clamped edges Simply supported

Minimum thickness of plates

∴ t min

⎛ 3P ⎞ = d⎜ ⎜ 16σ ⎟ ⎟ x ⎠ ⎝

1

2

∴ t min

⎡3 ⎛ P = d ⎢ (3 + v )⎜ ⎜σ ⎝ x ⎣ 32

⎞⎤ ⎟ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦

1

2

∴ t min = CD P

f

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