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Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences

Driving Growth in India and the UK
A report and recommendations from the RSC and Chemical Research Society of India

The Royal Society of Chemistry is the UK Professional Body for chemical scientists and an international Learned Society for the chemical sciences with some 47,500 members worldwide. It is a major international publisher of chemical information, supports the teaching of chemical sciences at all levels and is a leader in bringing science to the public. The RSC has global offices in Philadelphia, Beijing, Shanghai, a recently opened office in Bangalore and Tokyo and plans to open one in Brazil in 2012.
Organised in collaboration with

In memoriam
Just weeks after the Developing Talent workshop, one of the delegates, Agnimitra Banerjee, sadly drowned in flash floods in Pune on 4 October, 2010. Agni was an Indian PhD student who spoke strongly and passionately about the role of the younger generation chemists.

| Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences

Foreword Key findings 1 2

Introduction 6 Report steering committee 1. Educating students in the chemical sciences 7 8

1.1 Recommendations for India and the UK

11 12 14

2. Attracting and retaining the best talent 2.1 Recommendations for India and the UK

3. Facilitating research in the chemical sciences

3.1 Recommendations for India 3.2 Recommendations for the UK

15 15

4. Creating an environment that encourages innovation

4.1 Recommendations for India and the UK


5. Facilitating industry-academia collaborations

5.1 Recommendations for India and the UK


6. Improving Indo-UK joint ventures in the chemical sciences

6.1 Recommendations for India and the UK


7. Funding opportunities for joint India-UK research

7.1 Department of Science & Technology, Government of India 7.2 UK-India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI) 7.3 Wellcome Trust 7.4 Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India 7.5 Royal Society: International Exchange Schemes 7.6 The Leverhulme International Networks Scheme 7.7 European Union 7.8 Research Councils UK

23 24 24 25 25 25 26 26

Developing Developing Talent Talent inin the the Chemical Chemical Sciences Sciences |3 |

We have no doubt that working in partnership will strengthen our research capabilities. At the same time. nor is there enough crossover between academic research and industry to foster innovation. politicians and industry. However. N. The people of India are creative and innovative but cultural barriers often deter risktaking and many inventions are not fully realised. historic ties and widespread use of the English language should present opportunities to collaborate in scientific research and investment. UK President Magdalen College. R. behind Germany and the US. There is no doubt that science and technology will play a central role in developing both the Indian and UK economies.000 basic science PhDs each year from elite Indian institutions. Rao FRS FRSC Chairman. Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister of India National Research Professor Honorary President & Linus Pauling Research Professor Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research 1 | Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences Professor David Clary FRS FRSC Chief Scientific Advisor. Professor C. the UK economy is slowly coming out of recession. and this report highlights what more could be achieved through increased collaboration for both countries and their respective economies. Drawing on contributions from scientists.FOrEWOrd The challenges that India faces are immense: providing clean water. energy. Oxford University . India has enormous untapped potential in its young people and is producing over 1. But this is not enough to meet the demands of industry for a skilled workforce. India has the second fastest growing economy in the world. The population of India is also changing. investment in science has tripled and investment in the chemical sciences between 2007 and 2010 was over £12 million. The UK is in a unique position to leverage collaborations with India. in spite of those challenges. This is a timely opportunity to build on the significant strengths of both the UK and India in the chemical sciences. Since 2007. This could result in fewer opportunities for UK trained post graduates in academia and industry and a decline in investment in science and innovation. the Indian government has embarked on a wide range of economic and trade reforms creating fantastic opportunities for investment and growth. Foreign Commonwealth Office. whilst one sector of the population lives in relative comfort and affluence with access to education and healthcare. the report recommends positive steps that each country can take to respond to the challenges that both India and the UK face today: challenges that we all face in providing for a growing worldwide population. The UK is India’s third largest research collaborator. over 400 million people survive on less than $2 a day. Within the UK. climate change and the need to develop an economic infrastructure. However. the UK government needs to make more of its historic links with India to strengthen opportunities for shared ventures and investments. This growth is moving India into an unprecedented era of change. with more people accessing higher education and aspirations for a better standard of living increasing. However. Since 1991. The Indian government is investing heavily in higher education and putting science and research at the heart of this expansion. provide opportunities for investment and entrepreneurship and lead to a better future for the people of India and the UK. Shared legal and education systems. food and healthcare for a growing population. UK higher education and research are facing budgetary restrictions as the government tries to reduce the public deficit. However. the government’s recent Plan for Growth also aims to increase and encourage investment in new business and international collaboration. all against a backdrop of poverty.

have led to high economic growth and increased trade and industrialisation. from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and other grant awarding bodies. July-August 2010. which is very large and complex by nature. General Electric). Prahalad & R. To capitalise on the needs of a population that will move out of poverty over the next few decades. Specific solutions are needed for Dr. Harvard Business Review. Inclusive innovations tend to be ‘destructive’ or explosive. ‘Doing More from Less for More: The Emergence of Gandhian Engineering’ C. 1 www. rather than incremental ones. born of aspiration coupled with scarcity of resources: the ‘More from Less for More’ innovation. CEO. Certain kinds of technological innovations are spectacularly successful in the current Indian scenario There are more than 400 million people in India who survive on less than $2 per day. more could be done to support early career academics. K. K. This runs contrary to the dictum of a typical profit making business: ‘more performance from less people (or for less cost) for more profit’. C. Mashelkar. with innovations being patented internationally and making their way to the market.rae. India also provides an environment where the highest ‘intellectual capital per dollar’ is to be obtained (Jack Welch. The Jaipur Foot is one such innovation (see page 20). Continuing reforms are expected to release a still greater potential for growth. the business process innovation that has gone into the non-linear growth of mobile telephony in India is another. A.KEY FINdINGs India has huge untapped potential With a population of roughly a billion. there are grants available to support particular research projects. It implies more benefit using fewer resources to address the needs of more people. A peer review panel ranks each subject area and these rankings determine the allocation of research funding that each higher education institution receives from their national funding council. technological innovations that are not merely cheap but ultra-cheap and yet can significantly enhance earning capacity would be remarkably successful. Harvard Business Review. Innovative yet affordable healthcare procedures are an example of Indian technological ingenuity with potential for a worldwide market. India could have as much as 18 % of the world’s working age population by 2050 (15-59 years) so that one in six of the global workforce will be Indian. making the country a prime destination for ‘medical tourism’. Indian economic reforms since 1991 have created the possibility of remarkable growth in Indian industry Trade and economic reforms introduced in India at the beginning of 1991 by the current Prime 2 ‘Doing More from Less for More: The Emergence of Gandhian Engineering’. just the top 7 % in terms of IQ would equal in numbers the entire population of the UK. Prahalad & R. MLM or inclusive innovation Professor Mashelkar speaks of a novel kind of innovation.2 The UK has rich experience to share in matters of education and research The UK has a tradition spanning centuries of research within high quality educational institutions. Currently. July-August 2010.1 In addition. Current opportunities in both academia and in industry make a career choice in the basic sciences a worthwhile one. Indian Innovation might aptly be called Indovation. The pharmaceuticals industry has been part of this change. Mashelkar. Examples abound of innovative medical procedures in India. making India the second fastest growing economy in the world. A. Manmohan Singh (former Finance Minister). Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences | 2 . This is subject to nationwide quality control through the Research Assessment Exercise which is undertaken every five years on behalf of the four UK higher education funding councils to evaluate the quality of research in each subject area in British higher education institutions. eg. Although considerable attention is paid to developing the research careers of young scientists. 7 www. UK and American current access to higher education.5 %. Historically. 3 www. an increase from 20.000 to 50.worldbank. 6 Trends in HE: Creation and analysis of a Database of PhDs.7 Approximately 1.600 polytechnics •  10.asp 4 Professor Ramesh Mashelkar’s presentation at this workshop.5 If the current growth rate continues. even with the planned expansion in higher educational facilities.4 The UK has considerable experience of technological innovation and in translating innovations to the marketplace The UK has an excellent track record in largely unmanaged academic research which has contributed directly or indirectly to areas such as medicine (eg.740 and 6. Changes in science 3 | Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences .org.The Indian government is making a significant investment in higher educational facilities The gross enrolment ratio in higher education in India is currently 11. There is also growth in patent applications and granted patents.000 vocational schools •  50. this could be fully realised with more emphasis on translational research in chemistry into commercially viable or investment-ready propositions and used to generate wealth. There are now: five new Indian Institutes of Science and Education •  and Research (IISER) seven new Indian Institutes of Management (IIM) •  eight new Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) •  20 new Indian Institutes of Information •  Technology (IIIT) 30 new central universities •  1. A major increase in publications has occurred since 2001 accompanied by a corresponding increase in international research collaborations. DNA sequencing.6 the numbers of PhDs emerging. will not be enough for the future needs of industry and academia. Indian research is in a phase of rapid growth Statistics for Indian scientific publications taken from the SCOPUS database. India has huge untapped potential in its young population Although chemistry provided the highest number of PhDs over the last ten years compared to any other science degree in India. India will move from tenth to fifth place by 2015.8 % in 1996 to 2.600 universities to be on a par with Korean. cell cycle regulation. computers. •  Yet. 5 Thompson Reuters National Science Indicators’ ScienceWatch. embryonic stem cell technology) as well as in other areas (eg.nic. jet engines).3 The current government is planning a huge expansion in facilities. it would require a total number of 2.000 basic science PhDs emerge annually from the elite Indian institutions. and ten times that number are required over the next few years merely to maintain the current growth rate and to contribute to the required talent pool: this demand could present opportunities for further UKIndia collaboration. 3. given India’s vast population.930. NIAS. Anita Kurup and Jagadish Arora. show that the percentage contribution to world-wide publications grew from 1. significantly lower than the global average of 26 %. have been responsible for the UK has a science capability second only to the US. respectively. including greater government investment in R&D. CAT scanners. This is the road that India could also benefit from taking. penicillin.000 skills development centres.000 publications. 2010.6 % in 2008.

There are benefits to both the UK and India from engaging in collaborative research The UK is India’s third largest collaborator behind the US and Germany and although UK-India collaboration is growing. so increasing research collaboration appears to benefit both countries. In contrast to the UK. Inevitably. The R&D allocation has been rising since 2000 and almost doubled between 2001 to 2002 and 2002 to 2003. Costs are low in India. these advantages may disappear as the Indian economy continues to grow and a better lifestyle becomes accessible to more Indians. The UK is facing budgetary restraint in higher education While India has increased spending on science to boost the economy. However. this will have a negative impact on future UK growth leading to a decrease in available research talent and impacting on current and planned research programmes.5 million (~ £12 million).India needs to develop a strategic vision that will guide the future development of the chemical sciences The strategy employed by the Indian central government funding agencies is to support projects or ventures in ‘mission mode’. although some individual disciplines (astronomy. There are also 8 ‘India as a Global Leader in Science: A Vision for India’. with UK-India collaborations having an impact of 1. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture). installation. The Prime Minister’s Scientific Advisory Council recently presented a vision document entitled ‘India as a Global Leader in Science’.24 times the UK average value. with most of its population gaining access to facilities for education and healthcare. it is essential that basic science is at the heart of the strategy. However. A report commissioned on behalf of the Research Councils UK. Funding in the chemical sciences is mainly distributed over physical. the interface of organic chemistrybiology-pharmaceuticals. Two factors appear to be responsible for the underutilisation of funds: a shortage of trained young people and a shortage of good quality proposals.8 This report asserts that if India is to become an economically prosperous and inclusive nation by 2030. medicinal biology) did put out decadal vision documents. The report presents a vision for the growth of Indian science and a roadmap for India to emerge as a global leader in science. organic and green chemistry projects. an overall vision for the growth of the sciences does not appear to be in operation. National Mission for a Green India. the rate of growth is less than that for UK collaboration with other expanding research economies. as well as for investment in academia Currently salaries. operating and manufacturing costs are low. commissioned by the Indian Academy of Sciences. National Literacy Mission. a report from the Science Advisory Council to the Prime Minister. Moreover. Collaborative papers involving the UK and other countries show an increase in the Rebased Index (RBI). a few years ago. The latest five-year plan (2007) has an allocation three times greater than that of the previous plan. 9 ‘Bibliometric study of India’s research output and international collaboration’ Evidence. inorganic. Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences | 4 . no UK organisation appears in the list of top ten collaborators with Indian institutions. spending on UK research budgets and on supporting infrastructure is being significantly reduced. making it competitive for industrial R&D. special initiatives for funding projects in areas such as metal-based drugs.9 the impact of UK-India co-authored papers shows a country-specific increase. some available research funds remain unused at the end of the year. September 2010. Although India’s share of global publications is still small (2 %) compared with the UK (9 %). There appears to be no shortage of funding for scientific projects in India The Department of Science and Technology (DST) is one of the major funding agencies for scientific projects in India. New Millennium Initiatives (eg. Thomson Reuters. and glycobiology (targeting diabetes). a parameter measuring impact of publications. National Mission on Education through Information & Communication Technology. A total of 297 projects were funded by the DST between 2007 and 2010 at a cost of INR 880. Various missions are currently in operation (eg. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative) are also centrally funded.

Several historical and cultural issues need to be addressed in changing the current educational scenario in India As in the USA. being set up as broad research-enabled undergraduate teaching institutes. leaving academic staff with little time for research. The idea of innovation itself faces challenges from traditional Indian cultural values Traditionally. Thus innovations that break with established paradigms may be discouraged. has transited rapidly to service industry. in recent times. and the numbers are small. 5 | Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences . There is also an unwillingness to take risks as the true value of failure is not culturally appreciated and there is intolerance for it. but the model is unlikely to be applicable to extant universities due to various structural/political constraints. frequently requiring up to two years training. although a large number of students are trained to post-graduate level. nor their authority challenged. Prevailing and historical social inequalities impede meritbased appointments. If a younger person questions received wisdom it may not be taken kindly. In India. Such thinking inhibits the evolution of commercial spin-outs from research. Teaching assignments take up a high percentage of staff time because of faculty shortages following difficulties in the appointment of new faculty members. and differing policies are in place. India lacks the broad manufacturing base to be found in developed countries as a result of its primarily agrarian background which. elders are held in high respect and are neither questioned. To derive financial profit from such activity is regarded by some as betrayal of values. Students emerging from educational institutions do not have the background and skills that enable immediate productivity in industry. academia-industry interactions. many Indian universities are not research-active. Elite institutions award high quality PhDs but tend to be focused on narrow areas (multidisciplinary degrees are very rare). There is little mobility of personnel between industry and academia in India compared to the UK. Many universities are controlled by their state rather than the central government. The new Indian Institutes of Science. The quality of education is variable. eg. Education and Research (IISERs) are designed to overcome some of these difficulties. integral to the commercial success of innovation. This is taught at home and reinforced at school. Industry could assist academia in bridging this skills gap as a medium to long-term investment. the possibility of placements in industry for graduate students or researchers. are weak The pursuit of academic research is considered to be an activity that is carried out for its own sake.

However. does not feel the need for high-end innovation to survive in the markets. both public and private. The chemical sciences have a key role to play in global social and economic development. along with a programme of building new universities and research institutes. many Indian institutions. barring a few. In the chemical sciences. Until such time. were designed for a time before India was open to the current global forces. Although the country’s science system has undergone perceptible changes over the past five years. India seeks to develop into a nation where technology leadership is a national priority. India has been relatively unaffected by the 2008 global recession. the demand for PhDs will continue to remain weak. Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences | 6 . Only when Indian markets saturate and Indian companies have to aggressively compete in global markets. Research and development in the chemical sciences in India is growing rapidly with increasing funding from the central government. compared to the better known successes in engineering and medicine. knowledge transfer from academia to the commercial sector is very low. This may have serious consequences for the development of the pharmaceutical and chemical industries and may impact their ability to compete internationally. too many talented young chemists do not see themselves following a career in industry. At the moment. The central government’s decision to increase and improve the academic infrastructure by creating eight new institutes of technology and five institutes of science. India seems like an emerging giant based on the large number of scientists and engineers produced by the country. especially aimed at closing the gap between higher education and research. their commercial awareness does not develop. education and research. the weak linkage between academic research and its potential applications means that the chemical sciences may not become a major driver of growth as India develops into a global R&D platform. a newly confident global culture and strong flows of highly qualified people returning from the US and Europe. is an excellent step. technology and innovation can transform lives by providing solutions to issues such as human health. As students are not exposed to these ideas. However.INtrOductION India is one of the world’s fastest growing economies. The weakness in demand arises because industry in India. and it is pursuing a path of rapid economic growth driven by its technological development. Indeed. The industry is on a strong growth cycle in India. largely driven by the strength of domestic markets. the largest employers of PhDs in science and engineering in India during the last decade are Indian public institutions (universities and national laboratories). India is relatively weak at technology transfer. The challenge for the UK is to take a more strategic approach to collaboration if it wants to be part of India’s future as a centre of global innovation. energy shortages and sustainable development. The biggest challenge will be for India to improve the quality of science and technology (S&T) personnel with PhDs whilst maintaining the quantity. More Indian science will be done interdependently—so developing stronger UK-India collaborations in education and research is essential. links between industry and academia are relatively weak. food and water quality and availability. Science. with an impressive performance since liberalisation of its economy in 1991. Younger chemists need to be equipped with the skills to make significant contributions in academic research or industrial careers if India is to become a leading nation in the chemical sciences. patents and establishing spin-out businesses based on new technology emerging from academic research. Indian chemical science is still perceived as weak. Despite this tremendous growth and support from the government. India’s growth is being fuelled by the size of its young population: a rapidly increasing graduate base. but India’s knowledge base appears to contrast with this perception when taking into account the variable quality of its education system and the shortages of top talent. This may be because a culture has yet to develop where applications for innovative research are sought. will innovation then become a part of the board room agenda. and close links—both academic and commercial—are developed with industry.

students of the chemical sciences from both the UK and India. facing a future of budgetary restraint. other sciences. Conversely. benefit from the predicted rapid growth in Indian science in the wake of the ongoing rapid expansion of educational facilities and increasing investment in education and research? By what measures can both countries plan a future in which young people are encouraged to choose chemistry. cultural and financial—which affect education. The workshop brought together Indian policy advisors. University of Bristol Professor Colin Bain. Oxford University Dr Pradip Bhatnagar. at the National Chemical Laboratory in Pune. Shell India 7 | Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences . or engineering as their vocations? Access to education and training will be needed to provide the skills required for long-term success in an environment of innovative research that encourages commercial exploitation of technological developments. National Chemical Laboratory Dr Alejandra Palermo. Education and Research. how can UK science. Recommendations for future actions are collated in this document and. Daiichi Sankyo India Pharma Pvt. and its experience in innovative research and commercialisation of technology. The frank and open discussions highlighed various issues—structural. Loughborough University Professor Sourav Pal. important factors are sharing know-how and experience. academic researchers and innovators. RSC Professor Krishna Ganesh. research and industry in the chemical sciences. others could readily be taken up as new joint ventures between India and the UK. while some major issues are well-known and measures to address them are already in process at the Indian governmental level.What can be done to change this situation? In considering how India and the UK may co-operate for mutual benefit. Report Steering Committee Professor Mike Ashfold. scientists from Indian and multinational industry as well as people from various funding organisations. India. This document is based on presentations and discussions that featured in the India-UK Developing Talent High Level Workshop held from 16 to 17 September 2010. and fostering interactions between talented scientists in both countries. Specific issues include the means by which the UK may partner with India as it strives to develop its potential as a knowledge society and how India could benefit from the UK’s tradition of excellence in education. Durham University Professor Hagan Bayley. Council Scientific and Industrial Research and National Chemical Laboratory Dr Hugo Vits. Dr David Clark. Pune Professor Ray Jones. Ltd. Indian Institute of Science. RSC Dr Swaminathan Sivaram.

journalism. notably social or religious background. To meet such goals it is vital to develop soft and life-long competency skills as a part of science courses. adversely affect the quality of teaching. caste and economic circumstances. and in many places the objective of education has narrowed down to the pursuit of high marks. it remains to be seen how these fare in actual implementation. venture capital and entrepreneurship (vii) technology transfer (viii)  transition from research to policy administration (ix)  technology assessment and strategy planning and (x)  science in relation to public policy. Opportunities for quality higher education are limited. gender. These involve fusing short courses training in law. Rote learning is the norm in education in a culture where the teacher’s word is not to be questioned.1. as envisaged by the Right to Education Act 2010. There is a societal perception that teachers in India have low self-esteem and a poor sense of responsibility which. although it is recognised that it would be expensive to equip many schools nationwide. Curricula need to be upgraded to include researchrelevant material and cutting-edge developments. Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences | 8 . Students should be trained in: (i) making sense out of manuals (technical writing) (ii)  communicating science to the public (journalism) (iii)  patent laws and intellectual property rights protection (iv)  regulatory and ethical issues in product development (v) environmental issues (vi) business development. EducAtING studENts IN tHE cHEMIcAL scIENcEs A sound education is essential for scientific talent to blossom Several impediments to children’s education exist in India. education and technology along with the mainstream science courses. there are children who are not at liberty to go to school as they are required to work for the family. safety and risk analysis procedures need to be introduced at an early stage in education. management. Only a small fraction of students are found fit to pursue research careers while a majority of students would look for alternative careers in science. perhaps at high school. It is felt that today’s students appear to prefer to use simulation techniques rather than develop a deep understanding of fundamentals. Indian universities conduct limited research. The onus of the implementation of the Act is on state governments across the country. Rigorous and quality-monitored didactic practices at undergraduate and graduate level need to be instituted across the country. Evaluation tends to place emphasis on the reproduction of learnt material. It is therefore important to bring awareness of the importance of science in all avenues in life. the major effort coming from elite research institutes which do little undergraduate teaching. It is important that higher education should be seen as intrinsically valuable and not merely as a route to a degree. although sweeping structural changes are envisaged by the present government and could go a long way towards remedying the situation. finance and economics. Even with free and compulsory education. syllabus committees should include representatives from research and industry. Laboratory practices. Focussing on excitements in research and researchbased career opportunities is not enough to motivate students to take up science. when coupled with little accountability within the system.

chemistry has the advantage in that it can encompass all the above mentioned categories. Common to the UK and India is the struggle to attract and retain the very best young people in science. the range of career opportunities • discover available how to market themselves to employers • learn in job applications and interviews • seek expert advice on career planning • investigate further study options globally with employers and chemical • network scientists. Chemistry is an increasingly popular subject within the UK context. specifically chemistry. presentations and webinars. The two countries also share the need to develop the requisite skills in students. key to the quantitative aspects of chemistry. teaching and research in India have had limited contact with universities engaging in little research but producing many degree-holders. The five recently established Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research are structured along the lines of the elite research organisations. in collaboration with Pfizer. In particular. which provides students with a high return on investment as they venture into their professions.It is important to identify the student’s aptitude and interests in these subjects and then channel them to appropriate streams. Student intake is via nationwide competitive examination. This type of event could be organised in collaboration with the CRSI. They are research-led teaching institutions with multidisciplinary research alongside undergraduate teaching and are capable of awarding Masters and Doctoral degrees. allowing students to: Case study: The Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Concept Historically. An important issue in UK chemistry education is the lack of maths preparation at undergraduate level. The RSC jointly with the Chemical Research Society of India (CRSI) and industry could develop ChemCareers for India to provide support and advice to Indian graduates. and to foster links between academia and industry in order to effectively translate new research and development into a contribution to the economy. interactive media. launched Discover Maths for Chemists. or directly for PhD degrees. 9 | Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences . to create an environment that stimulates innovation. Admission takes place after Std XII (exam qualification equivalent to A-level) for a BSc-MSc degree. and elite research institutes conducting most of the research in the country but engaging in minimal teaching. providing a wide choice of career opportunities. which aims to address the emerging skills gap within the chemical industry and help to ensure that talented graduates will be suitably skilled. This would not only help develop multifarious talents in students but also open up interesting and niche science-based career paths. The RSC organises every year a career fair (ChemCareers) which features major employers. The RSC. This compartmentalisation has worked to the detriment of both.

teaching aids and software. Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences | 10 . for education evaluation need to be • Metrics adopted to raise standards and to introduce higher education in the • Internationalise chemical sciences. research-oriented courses for • Develop undergraduate and MSc courses at university level. IISERs being an example of this. curricula to include cutting-edge R&D • Update and to make students more industry aware.1. college and university teachers • Inspire of the chemical sciences through exposure to applications and developments in the field. in the UK as this would impact favourably on graduate education. uniformity in the quality of education in India. need access to modern equipment in • Students laboratories. exposure to new developments and their applications. facilitate exchange of both students and faculty. and to resource material. engage them in distance learning programmes. Mechanisms need to be created to teaching and research should be • Indian integrated to provide students with vital and interdisciplinary academic • Multidisciplinary research needs to be encouraged in India and of soft skills into curricula should also • Inclusion be considered (see page 11).1 R  ecommendations for India and the UK school. enable such training.

there are both ‘supply side’ and ‘demand side’ issues to address.000 middle-to-high school students each year. It is important to recognise that the relationship between industry and academia is a two-way issue. In addition. in some cases. In the UK. appointment procedures lack transparency. basic science is not seen as inferior to engineering (if anything the reverse has been true) but professional degrees (such as medicine and law) are often perceived as the best route to status and financial security for talented science students. teaching assignments are high. To address some of these issues. the higher education sector is in a state of rapid expansion and has the capacity to absorb a higher level of talented doctoral graduates. Transferrable skills training is embedded in the MSc and PhD programmes and even at an undergraduate level students engage in original research projects. of these. In the UK. Industry requires scientists with skills at a variety of levels. In the Indian family system. A subset of these are selected at the schoolleaving board examination for INSPIRE internships. Increasingly. Accreditation of courses by the RSC ensures that undergraduate degree programmes contain a strong practical training element. On the other hand. the RSC has been active in changing the public perception of chemistry through campaigns such as ‘Chemists don’t all wear white coats’ that challenge the public’s association of chemistry with polluting industries. and despite the increasing managerialism of funding bodies and universities. and a fraction of these receive a handsome scholarship at BSc/MSc level. In recent years. career opportunities lie in smaller companies and spin-outs 11 | Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences . to become rich in the process. There is a risk that the recent increase in tuition fees for undergraduate degrees in the UK will drive the brightest students towards careers with the clearest career pathways and greatest earning power. the Indian Department of Science and Technology (DST) has launched in 2008 the INSPIRE programme (Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research). So long as Indian industry pays PhD scientists the same as MTech engineers. there is a higher level of job security. the development of organisations and networks to facilitate the exploitation of research results has enabled academics to commercialise their research and. In the UK. another fraction will be funded into PhDs with an assured faculty position.2. In the UK. university posts are not seen as attractive: infrastructure for research is inadequate outside of the institutes and a handful of elite universities. For each category. promotion is merit-based and can be very rapid for high-flyers. an academic career path is still seen as an attractive option by science students: salaries are competitive with those in industry. AttrActING ANd rEtAINING tHE BEst tALENt The question of how to attract students into the basic sciences and then retain the best available talent is common to both India and the UK. and salaries are unattractive. Medicine. career paths are not well developed for academic research posts and industry does not reward scientists for the effort expended in their research training. In India. Science is seen as a second option for students unable to gain entry to the elite engineering schools. cultural factors play an important role in determining career choice. The Indian system lacks a clear career path to an academic career (post-doctoral positions in Indian universities are disdained by bright PhDs seeking post-docs overseas). industry is closely engaged with universities at many levels from advisory boards and visiting faculty through ‘sandwich’ courses and industrial placements to industry-funded research projects. there needs to be a clear career path with rewards that are commensurate with the level of education and training required. career advancement is not linked to performance. The main issue in the UK is the decline of the manufacturing base and the transfer of ownership to multinationals with the consequent closure or contraction of research laboratories in the UK. In the UK. students will choose to study engineering in preference to science. the brightest Indian students tend not to be attracted to the basic sciences. levels of research activity are generally low. academic careers still offer a substantial degree of intellectual freedom. from ‘trained hands’ through to research group leaders to senior managers with scientific training. with a mature higher education system. the parents and family elders have a large say in career decisions and their perception of basic sciences needs to be addressed along with that of the young people themselves. On the one hand. In India. The programme initially targets around 200. academic posts will remain highly competitive and attainable only by a small percentage of the PhDs trained each year in the UK. In India. engineering and increasingly information technology are perceived as favoured careers carrying status and the assurance of a well-paid job.

marketing. The RSC has a large volume of outreach material that could be used in India. such as entrepreneurship.where the career paths are more poorly defined and less secure. Not all students who enter a basic science degree programme will decide on a research career. commerce. closer engagement of industry with universities would expose students to career opportunities in industry at an early stage and help shape curricula to provide the level and quality of training required by industry and academia. media and journalism and intellectual right property issues. The excitement of chemistry needs to be brought out so as to counter the prevailing view among many young people in the UK that studying science is ‘hard and boring’. the attractiveness of industrial research careers will improve. In India. with appropriate modifications. for example. though potentially more exciting. media and public administration. law. in turn. allow industry to provide a higher level of reward to its scientists. As Indian industry evolves from import substitution and low-cost production to innovative product development. Such an outcome is not undesirable since society needs talented scientists in teaching. there are organised schemes for student placements in fields such as secondary education and journalism. degrees Industry placements have long been a feature of UK chemistry education and are an integral part of engineering education in India. A programme of internships in chemistry should be developed jointly between universities and Indian industry. the earlier the better. Academics and industrial scientists need to see it as part of their professional responsibility to go into schools to share the excitement of chemistry and educate pupils in career opportunities. in collaboration with industry and other organisations such as the RSC. Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences | 12 . industrial placement opportunities • Provide of university students on bachelor and master To attract the best students into science it is essential to capture their interest at school. it is important that students are introduced to alternative career paths and understand the range of career opportunities that are available to science graduates and receive appropriate transferrable skills training. Within the UK. Appreciation of the range of career opportunities for trained scientists in India is more limited. should provide career development programmes in their (already very successful) annual symposium. A better trained workforce would. these opportunities need to be communicated to students. communication. with high staff turnover negating the benefits of in-house training programmes. has introduced some of these skills in its educational training. career development programmes • Provide through the CRSI in collaboration with the RSC school-level outreach programmes • Establish relating to the chemical sciences in India and industry CRSI. However. Retention of talented scientists is an important issue in Indian industry. 2.1  Recommendations for India and the UK the image of chemistry in India • Improve and the UK The RSC has long had a publicity programme aimed at informing the public about the role of chemistry in modern society and the contributions that chemists can make in a wide range of occupations. The Chemical Research Society of India (CRSI) should work with the RSC both to exploit the existing RSC resources and experience to promote chemistry as a profession in India and to develop new promotional materials jointly. IISER Pune.

such as the Researcher in Schools programme. eg. communicating science The UK has models. teaching.opportunities for students to explore • Create alternative careers to research which still utilise their training and background. Inform and the media A group should be formed in India with the objectives of communicating scientific achievements to the media and providing a list of media-trained experts willing to be consulted by journalists seeking an authoritative view. 13 | Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences . graduates and postgraduates about career choices For instance. communication of scientific • Stimulate achievements to the public and involve awareness of research opportunities • Increase among undergraduate students. that might be adapted to the Indian system. visits to industrial bodies. educate Indian science undergraduates. the presentation of research opportunities during the last year of their courses. India has a vibrant press that could offer opportunities for science writers to bring the excitement of science to the wider population and provide expert comment on scientific issues. poster sessions involving research students and academics at their institutions or the CRSI annual national symposia.

The volume of research conducted in universities is low. resulting in heavy teaching loads for the existing faculty. social and political factors that impede the appointment of sufficient faculty members. headquartered at Ghaziabad. this is linked to structural. exchange schemes and complementary curricula. academics from research intensive institutions could mentor university students or host summer schools. In state universities many academic staff taking decisions on research related issues do not have much research experience themselves. skills programmes. faculty from the elite research institutes engage in limited teaching and such institutes simply cannot produce sufficient numbers of Masters and PhDs to service basic sciences research as well as the needs of industry. The majority of the basic science students in India that follow an academic career are those who have their doctoral training in elite institutions (IISc. to permit its 37 laboratories to award degrees in science and technology (PhD. but not BSc or MSc as yet). pooling resources and faculty to create a national level academy. The training will be in areas not usually provided by Indian universities. However.3. Focus is on research and imparting instruction in areas that are not taught in regular universities. It is expected to produce 1000 PhDs in S&T and 120 PhDs in engineering annually from the fifth year onwards. The CSIR. Various short-term measures are being adopted by universities to fulfil the teaching requirements (eg. Eventually it is hoped that industry will use the AcSIR to acquire degrees for their own employees in their research facilities. Universities produce most of the MSc and PhD qualified personnel but research-oriented courses need to be designed and implemented. Opportunity for UK-India academic collaboration The UK government has encouraged UK universities to internationalise their HE provision and seek out partners to develop mutually beneficial research projects. is setting up the Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR). IITs. despite the significantly higher pay in Indian industry. with some research also being pursued in industry and in universities. For instance. or central universities). The lack of research exposure is one of the main impediments to motivating students towards research. FAcILItAtING rEsEArcH IN tHE cHEMIcAL scIENcEs Many good students of the basic sciences in India prefer to continue in academic research rather than to go into industry. The institution will network between the 37 CSIR laboratories. Most research in the chemical sciences takes place in elite research institutes and government-funded laboratories across the country. AcSIR will be able to use infrastructure and scientific manpower of CSIR and will award degrees in areas of S&T. Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences | 14 . The objective is to stem the growing shortage of skilled manpower in the science and technology industry and the dwindling numbers of PhDs per annum. University students need to be made aware of opportunities for research through innovative programmes. guest lecturers drawn from among retired faculty). This new bill could develop links between UK and Indian universities. It will focus on research and impart training in areas not ordinarily provided by the existing universities in India. particularly in awarding joint PhDs. India.

and to identify core areas where resources should be invested 15 | Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences .3. however. infrastructure in universities should be a priority funding bodies increasingly see a PhD • The degree (typically three to four years) as Certain structural problems lead to a dampening of research ambition in the UK. The move towards funding ‘research leaders’ with large grants may leave the large middle rank of research unable to access funding for independent research. awards PhDs students so that they gain exposure to key issues transferrable skills. 3. there has been a move towards joint appointments between departments and the establishment of multidisciplinary laboratories. as well as provide free online web-based resources. tax benefits. vocational training in the research process rather than as a significant contribution to research achievement “candidates should demonstrate a new and significant contribution to learning”.1 Recommendations for India students need more exposure to the career paths of PhD students to • Undergraduate • Improve research laboratories: investing in the scientific encourage research and learning mentoring practices for both students • Develop and faculty engaged in research Research institutes could mentor university students. discouraging the hiring of faculty with a multidisciplinary background.2 Recommendations for the UK up Doctoral Training Centres along UK • Set lines to facilitate the acquisition of key and interactions between faculty members • Increase of research institutes and universities policy meetings such as the • Organise Developing Talent workshop and include more industries engaged in research to • Enable affiliate with a university or laboratory that academia-industry interactions to • Foster facilitate a better understanding of the research conducted on both sides. Recently. their particular requirements. and how each can assist the other for mutual benefit Government should give incentives to industry to foster academia interactions. The emphasis on identifiable impact hinders curiosity-driven and adventurous research which demonstrably has led to new discoveries. numbers of multidisciplinary • Increase appointments and encourage collaboration representatives from various • Stimulate stakeholders to create a vision for chemical benefits from less management rather • Research than more Research Councils’ policy in the UK is increasingly top-down conveying a greater role for the Research Councils in dictating the areas of research. organise summer schools. sciences research in India. eg. and research networking nationally and internationally funding for early career academics to • Improve encourage ambitious research Research funding is highly competitive and will become even more so following the recent freezing of the UK science budget. across laboratories Teaching in basic science has traditionally been discipline-based.

technological. Angel financiers are a rarity. lack an understanding of market pull and this relates to the lack of strong industry-academia collaboration. the government has a third stream of funding to assist commercialisation. particularly in India. and institutions. not merely a demonstration that it works. What is required for the development of technological innovation processes? The essential building blocks of innovation are outlined in Figure 1. In the UK. Risky ventures are neither encouraged. the government of India committed to raising overall research expenditure from 0. Innovation depends on well-educated and qualified engineers. have established industrial liaison or research commercialisation and technology transfer offices. there is a general trend towards recognising innovation in policy and business sectors as shown by the government of India’s eleventh five-year plan to 2012 which not only emphasises innovation but also foresees a massive spend on science. It is possible to identify barriers to innovative thinking. India. with varying degrees of success. The link between research and business is becoming closer. CrEAtING AN ENVIrONMENt tHAt ENcOurAGEs INNOVAtION Innovation is the successful commercial exploitation of a new idea. and financiers. financial and business activities leading to the commercial introduction of a new or improved product or service. Industry-academia interactions are low. this target sent a clear signal that public policy was focusing on R&D. organisational. Academic researchers. Although this had only attained 0. India needs to attract and nurture the best and the brightest across the entire country. Governments throughout the developed world have demanded that in return for public investments in research. universities.88 % of GDP in 2008. scientists. their staff should become active in directly supporting innovation and technology transfer. Many universities. business and management professionals.8 % to 2 % of GDP by 2007. nor are they supported financially. India and the UK need to create a generation of individuals who can compete in the knowledgeoriented global economy. In 2003. in general. It includes the scientific. Moreover. The process of identifying and transferring research innovations to the market is not developed.4. though rapidly changing. lawyers. Innovation is broader than invention—the creation of a new idea and its reduction to practice—and it includes all actions required in the commercialisation of new technologies. to the detriment of both. Innovation Human Capital Education Employment Career opportunity Creative ideas Thought Process Technology Science Leadership Vision Alliances Ideas Investment Funding Risk taking Figure1. had been a society where conformity had been a norm. The essential building blocks of innovation Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences | 16 . technology and innovation via a budgetary increase of 220 %.

electronic sensing platform for single molecules. her company had an IPO oversubscribed by 33 times. The foot is not patented. Oxford Nanopore now employs 90 people and by the start of 2011 had raised GBP £50 million from a range of UK and US institutional and individual investors. Oxford Nanopore is developing a platform technology—GridION—that can be used for DNA sequencing or protein analysis using different varieties of Nanopore sensing apparatus. Case Study: The Jaipur Foot A collaboration between an orthopaedic surgeon and a master sculptor educated up to the fourth grade. Indian financial markets are not innovation-supportive: R&D risk is not considered as a long-term asset. Oxford Nanopore was founded in 2005 on the basis of Professor Hagan Bayley’s research at Oxford University to develop a novel. Further collaborations with additional universities and in-house progress mean that the company’s intellectual property portfolio spans more than 250 patents and patent applications. Oxford Nanopore had early labs at Oxford’s Begbroke science park but has now moved to its own building at the Oxford science park. The foundation of the company was supported by seed funding from the University of Oxford and UK Company IP Group. run. high quality leadership in promoting • providing science • creating an infrastructure for high quality education. It costs about $28. wood and aluminium. made its way through challenging circumstances like the lack of financial support and reliable infrastructure. It can be assembled in 45 minutes and lasts five years. The company founded on an innovative business model. The nation has to create an environment conducive to venture capital and angel financing. By 2004. with $250 as seed capital. It is clear that the role of Government is crucial in enabling India and the UK to enhance their innovation capacity. undergraduate education in rural India an environment where innovation-driven • ensuring industry flourishes. crossing $1 billion on its first day of listing on the markets. and today is rapidly moving towards commercialising novel biologics with a “Made in India” label. oncology and autoimmune disorders. the Jaipur Foot is a prosthetic limb made out of rubber. Case Study: Biocon Kiran Mazumdar Shaw began to work from a garage in Bangalore in 1978. Biocon started as an industrial enzymes manufacturing company and evolved into a biopharmaceutical company with a research focus on diabetes. polyurethane. It is now made in 18 different countries. The limb permits a patient to walk. The recent creation of the National Innovation Council headed by Professor Sam Pitroda indicates that Indian Government has been proactive in this area. climb and sit on the ground: totally adapted to India’s needs. using local materials. less than one thousandth of the cost of such prostheses elsewhere. The philosophy of “let us recoup our investment right now and let somebody else worry about the future” has been a major cause of India lagging behind in innovation.Case Study: Oxford Nanopore Technologies (www. A difficult question however is “What is the appropriate role for Government?” Pertinent areas include the following: 17 | Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences .nanoporetech. Not investing in the future means falling behind.

and support the sharing of infrastructure. Encourage industry to influence universities curricula and give seminars. Provide risk resources and tax breaks for angel investment. appreciation of risk-taking and failures. Appreciate intellectual property rights (IPR) issues. provide research funding of mutual interest. with examples of worldwide successful innovation. attitudinal changes in education. there has to be a connection between invention and a culture of commerce Foster links required to encourage innovation. innovation alone will not make India • Individual or the UK into innovative countries. Identify potential innovations and facilitate the spin-out companies. developing an the business sector of a country could • Growing and should play a huge role in improving the quality of education Business could provide internships or mentoring of students and teachers and create incubators for novel ideas. Exploit available expertise in India. India has taken steps to improve higher education but early education. Expose potential stakeholders to the long-term value of innovation through workshops and literature. • Introduce starting at school level. enable short-term placements and promote further training of researchers from industry. in the UK and elsewhere by means of collaborations and exchanges.1  Recommendations for India and the UK culture of curiosity has to be embedded in • The early stages of education Recently.4. Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences | 18 . and stimulating a questioning attitude (a healthy irreverence) a network of alliances as a highway to • Create innovation Foster industry-academia interactions. facilitate movement of personnel between domains. Creating wellrounded students with mastery in mathematics and science is imperative for the long-term growth of any nation. especially in the rural and sub-urban area is lagging behind.

major Indian companies. Top performers are subsequently recruited into the industrial organisation. India has seen a recent rise in private investment in R&D. such as Tata have been investing in high-tech companies abroad. Meanwhile. an essential pre-requisite is that the education and training of university science graduates should be at the level required to enable subsequent close collaboration in research and innovation between academic and industrial partners. Indian industry is still driven by short-term incremental needs. FAcILItAtING INdustrY-AcAdEMIA cOLLABOrAtIONs The interdependence of industry and academia has evolved and intensified in many countries around the world driven by funding constraints and the need for greater efficiency in fundamental science and technology development. Most institutions in India do not have structured processes for interacting with industry. employees in industry are also encouraged to pursue doctoral programmes. However. This has been less evident in India because funding pressure on academia is not as great as elsewhere. 19 | Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences . Critical inputs in areas such as legal. The absorptive capacity to pull a concept from the academic lab and convert it into a process or product is still in its infancy in India Government efforts to push universities and research institutions closer to industry should be viewed in the context of what industry actually wants from academia. Incoming multinationals wish to use local talent to develop innovation in India for India. Although the situations described are common practice in the UK. government should play a role in fostering whichever model is adopted. underlining the need for academia and industry to engage closely in dialogue and actions on a different basis. A growing number of multinational companies are setting their R&D centres in India. In some instances. Should schemes aimed at improving the industry/academia interface be undertaken in a piecemeal fashion as a result of initiatives taken by individual academic and industrial bodies? Or would a grand encompassing scheme provide a more effective mechanism? Or should both avenues be pursued such as in the UK? Clearly. with the majority of new companies belonging to knowledgeintensive sectors. fundamental research research cultures (different from their • distinctive own business) • new ideas. There have been attempts to design course curricula jointly with a view to enhancing both quality and relevance to the requirements of business. Future prospects seem very different from past experience. contracts management and IPR are not routinely available to faculties. A deeper understanding of industry’s needs is essential: • well-educated.5. equally. the drive to innovate by industry is absent to a large degree. The mechanism for scouting for opportunities and making the connection between needs and solutions is left to individual faculties. Correspondingly. This apart. they are less common in India. talented science graduates • creative. in pursuit of technology. These are some of the important reasons for poor interaction with industries. Some in industry are working with universities to provide in-house research resources and also a contribution to teaching. An equivalent of the Office of Technology Transfer does not exist in most cases. industrial bodies have collaborated with universities to recruit both undergraduate and graduate students who work on live projects for three to six months. It remains a matter for debate as to the best way forward. This situation is now changing as India becomes increasingly integrated into the global economy with resultant changes in industrial structures.

Maharashtra. with many building blocks of this ecosystem missing in the Indian environment. institutions. involving 4-8 month collaborations.Case Study: Industrial Internships. It partnered with the local governments and academia to create an enabling environment by allowing access to IBM software. Dow India For fresh PhDs. sharing best practice with the UK will benefit both countries. it helped develop innovators and empowered future workers in the larger global workforce. There are also opportunities available for MTech projects to work in Dow R&D Laboratory. must be prepared to invest in the • Industry resources required by innovators working in would particularly benefit from an • India environment that permits a flexible IPR to exist. It provided guidance in a few selected instances to transfer to market and build sustainable businesses for entrepreneurs. Gujarat. Dow India provides 11 months Industrial Postdoctoral positions. Tamil Nadu. even just after submitting the thesis. licensing fees.1  Recommendations for India and the UK and academia must recognise the • Industry mutual long-term benefits of collaborations Both entities need to be willing to act on the basis of mutual understanding of each other’s needs and objectives. Uttar Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. IBM has produced about 15. The basic eco-systems for taking early stage scientific discoveries to wealth creating processes and products are still under creation. Thus. eg. Madhya Pradesh. course material. research by providing start-up funding. should partner with government • Industry in nurturing research-intensive academic allowing the timely publication of research results and at the same time rewarding innovation The culture of start-ups and spin-offs is still in very early stages of evolution. They often publish their work. Orissa. develop a product or file for a patent. Industrial study tours and sponsoring projects in universities/ institutes are also undertaken by Dow in India. who can then act as a bridge between science and business. 2-4 month Summer Internships. It assisted start-ups and new business opportunities by providing access to technology resources. especially in areas related to chemical sciences. Up to 10% of their technical manpower needs can come from such programmes! 5.000 certified and industry-ready software professionals. This requires an adjustment of attitudes on both sides. by setting up Centres of Excellence where researchers at all levels have access to state-of-the-art research equipment and technical infrastructure Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences | 20 . India lacks critically a class of personnel who understand both business processes as well as S&T. Students with a Masters degree are offered a-6 month Research Associateship. training and curriculum development. translational work funding and technical support Case Study: IBM’s ‘Global Entrepreneurship Initiative’ IBM established 150 centres of excellence at several colleges in the States of Karnataka. All these activities spread awareness in schools and colleges of the opportunities in industry in general. About 60% of these candidates are ready for future employment.

but were critical of the graduate students laboratory and “soft” skills of many applicants. The educational focus in India and in the UK is very much on the academic content in a science student’s curriculum.6. and is appreciated and expected by the future employers of the chemistry graduates.bris. and possibly for academics too. UK has pioneered an initiative specifically designed to enhance the practical laboratory training experience of its (and other UK) chemistry undergraduates. verbal and written communication skills in English. short-term placements in quality laboratories elsewhere. time management. ‘virtual’ experiments. Through Bristol ChemLabS. and self-test questions with feedback. Exposure of Indian students to international conferences and workshops. documentation skills) is definitely more prevalent in the UK than in India.chemlabs. was recognised as a universal problem. they have developed a webbased learning platform (the Dynamic Laboratory Manual) which contains pre-. in particular. Soft skills modules that could supplement the regular coursework would serve this purpose. This software is commercially available in several forms (see www. IMprOVING INdO-UK jOINt VENturEs IN tHE cHEMIcAL scIENcEs Indian industrial delegates highlighted the large pool of talented Indian-trained Masters and PhD. as well as numerous video clips demonstrating laboratory techniques. would also help raise awareness and hone both soft and technical skills. in. Such skills training could be a great asset. presentation team working. Visits of UK students to India and vice versa would be of benefit to both. Case Study: A laboratory skills enhancement programme The University of Bristol. 21 | Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences . Academics are rightly reluctant to dilute course content.html) and could provide an immediate way to start remedying this shortcoming. but complementary soft skills training (eg. The former.and postlaboratory training and assessment elements. but one which is exacerbated in the case of India by the shortage and/ or limited access to state-of-the-art equipment in many universities within the country.

provides a huge market for the ‘right’ kind • India of innovation A new product must not be cheap but ultra-cheap to reach the poorest. industry must recognise the mutual • Indian benefits of interaction with academia and seek ways of funding research of common interest for ‘Innovation Partnerships’ between • Funding India and the UK. or fulfil a widely and dearly held aspiration. intellectual property rights specialists and business people experienced in the spin-out process would help build this culture in India. yet capable of increasing the common man’s earnings. The RSC is well positioned to foster academiaindustry interactions in India by organising networking events. disseminating the good practice delivered through the initial workshop. can participate Such programmes need to be tailored to Indian needs and could be web-based. including the • Exposure role of angel investors and specialist financiers and intellectual property agreements. as in the UKIERI Phase II. each open to a restricted number of staff and students who would become the subsequent local teachers. A two-day workshop. repeated at a number of geographic sites in India. to UK spin-out processes. however.6. should continue and be enhanced Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences | 22 . either at home or at their places of study. would be very stimulating for India Partnering with academics. college and university teachers industry is rich in business model • Indian innovation and technological innovation which can be transferred A stronger collaboration between academia and industry would spur innovation and knowledge transfer in the academic environment. Set-up technology transfer offices in universities and research institutions. distance learning programmes in • Establish which school.1 R  ecommendations for India and the UK RSC in collaboration with the CRSI should • The organise and generate funding for workshops that allow further training in universities This could also be of interest to UK universities. students in many schools and colleges in rural India do not have reliable access to the internet. The RSC West India section is a good example of this kind of activities in the Mumbai area: this should be expanded to other areas in India.

with proposals for funding being written by interested researchers. joint workshops. it provides funding towards basic infrastructure. enabling facilities. and for attracting new and finally supporting about 1000 PhD students into assured faculty positions.1 Department of Science & Technology (DST). paring down the number of supported students through BSc and MSc. Government of India DST funding is available for projects with Indian principal investigators and >51% of the project’s scientists being Indian. chemical sciences. visits.000 middle to high school students each year. mathematics. REsEArcH FuNdING OppOrtuNItIEs 7. engineering sciences and earth and atmospheric sciences. creating an environment for promoting R&D in emerging areas. this programme starts with about 200. permitting flexibility to enrich their supported •  29 projects India-UK on Fuel Cell Technology • India-UK Initiative Program on Solar Energy • Off-grid technologies in bridging the urban-rural divide • Science Bridges Award. providing scholarships after school.htm Fast Track Young Scientist Programme Innovation in Scientific Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE) Programme Funds research in the life sciences. • Funds for Improvement in Science & Technology (FIST) Programme Promotion of University Research and Scientific Excellence (PURSE) Consolidation of University Research for Innovation and Excellence in Women’s Universities (CURIE): India-UK Science & Technology Cooperation www. Aimed at attracting and retaining scientific talent. Fourteen universities have been awarded this grant. joint projects • Supports Networking Arrangement (1-to-1 meetings and thematic •  workshops) Science and Innovation Council set up in 2006 • India-UK U K-India Research initiative (UKIERI Phase I and Phase II). based on publications and their quality. http://dst. Aimed at universities and institutions with postgraduate This is targeted at improving R&D infrastructure in women’s universities. Projects are generally received in passive mode. This is an evidence-based reward 23 | Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences .

The Wellcome Trust ‘R&D for Affordable Health’ award is a new £30 million initiative specific for India. medical humanities. David Cameron and Indian Prime Minister Dr.htm • • • • • • The funds are available for: collaborations across borders centre of gravity of the proposal needs to be in India funding meetings every six months Technology Transfer Office support during life of the award no financial ceiling co-funding welcome. support partnerships and develop student mobility and skills development programmes. Innovation Partnerships 3. UKIERI Phase 1 was launched in 2007 and concluded in March 2011. There is a provision for sharing UKIERI Phase II: 1. In recognition of the substantial achievements and building on the success of this initiative. Calls for bids will be announced in June 2011. Currently the endowment is worth £13 www. The funding agreement is a bespoke Technology-transfer/Awards/R-andD-for-Affordable-Healthcare-inIndia/index. Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences | 24 . The technology transfer section funds applied research. Enhancing Mobility The next phase of the programme will be funded by both governments and have collectively committed £5 million/ INR 357. The extension was announced by the UK Prime Minister Mr. allowing an annual expenditure of over £600 million. The programme aims to deliver systemic change by reaching out to larger numbers. government and industry have joined together to deliver a step change in education and research between the UK and India. public engagement. Skills Development 4. the process by which innovations are translated into new health products. and commercial freedom to operate is ensured. It will also provide opportunities for professional and leadership development of schools. Building a New Generation of Leaders 2.7.2 UK-India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI) Phase II UKIERI is an excellent example of public private partnership where academia. Both the UK and Indian Government are seeking private funding for the UKIERI Phase II. The Trust supports: biomedical science and health research.ukieri.wellcome. higher education and vocational institutions. translational research. Manmohan Singh in July 2010. 7. www. the programme has been extended for five years from 2011 to 2016. focuses on funding gaps and is motivated by the public good. therefore the programme supports early stage funding of projects.8 million per year for the next three years.3 Wellcome Trust Wellcome Trust is a global charity set up in 1936 through the will of Sir Henry Wellcome and aimed at improving human and animal health. The purpose is to maximise the impact of research innovations on health by facilitating their route to market.

UK has been a th Raman research fellowships •  major player) Raman Fellowship can be extended through RSC/CSIR partnership (exchange both ways. The award is made to that institution. Networks should be newly constituted collaborations. and two or more overseas institutions (normally up to a maximum of seven institutions in total). including engineering.cfm These collaborations enable a Principal Investigator based in the UK to lead a research project where its successful completion is dependent on the participation of relevant overseas institutions. Distinguished/Senior Foreign Scientist Exchange •  Scheme launched by CSIR aiming to develop international linkages STIO Scheme to create centre of excellence in CSIR through •  scientists and technologists of Indian origin AcSIR (Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research) recently •  approved by Indian Cabinet • CSIR Fellowship Scheme for Developed Countries.5 Royal Society: International Exchanges Scheme http://royalsociety. India Indian funding from the CSIR is available for projects led by Indian scientists. However. The Principal Investigator should be employed at a university or other institution of higher or further education in the UK. with joint funding mechanism).6 The Leverhulme International Networks Scheme www. Applications can be submitted at any time. but excludes clinical medicine. providing an opportunity for collaborations between Indian scientists and scientists elsewhere. 25 | Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences . which must agree to administer the This scheme is for scientists in the UK who want to initiate collaborations with overseas scientists (including India) through either a one-off visit or bilateral travel. A significant research theme must be identified at the outset which requires for its successful treatment international collaboration between one or more UK universities. • NB: CSIR-British Council exchange of scientists programme is no longer available but it should be reinstated with joint funding from both organisations. Raman Research Fellowship (for CSIR Young Scientists—global •  placements include UK—totally funded by CSIR. an exception is made for areas of research supported by specialist funding agencies and in particular for for allocation among the participating institutions. Applications for research on any topic within the entire array of academic disciplines are eligible for support. 7. which combines elements of both former programmes: The International Travel Grants and the International Joint Projects. Existing opportunities Society Joint Project Scheme • CSIR-Royal Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI) • UK-India UKIERI-DST Programme with joint funding for joint projects • RCUK-DST Programme (joint funding) • EC projects under FP7 (CSIR as a major player). New opportunities Under XI Plan. This is a new and more flexible travel scheme.7.leverhulme. The scheme covers all areas of the life and physical sciences.4 Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).

MRC funding for international activities (for medical researchers) and EPSRC funding for International activities (for academic researchers in the Engineering and Physical Sciences). The budgets vary from call to call as do conditions for eligibility and deadlines. http://cordis.europa.7 European Union Framework Programme 7 The European Commission’s Directorate-General for Research has published a series of calls for proposals under the ‘Cooperation’. ‘People’ and ‘Ideas’ Programmes of the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). BBSRC International workshops BBSRC India Partnering Awards • • www.aspx Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences | 26 ‘Capacities’. This is for BBSRC-supported To foster long-term relationships between researchers funded by BBSRC and Indian scientists in areas of research of direct relevance to BBSRC’s current scientific strategy. including those in research grantholders and staff employed at institutes of BBSRC. to initiate or prepare joint proposals or to gain access to new techniques or materials. BBSRC David Phillips Fellowship Annual award to support early stage researchers (with between two and six years of postdoctoral experience) from anywhere in the world to study in the UK. Typical awards are for first contact meetings.8 Research Councils UK Summary of BBSRC funding for international activities (for academic researchers from the Biological Sciences). Main objectives are: to set up partnership links between UK and Indian life science  laboratories to promote the exchange of UK and Indian scientists. The application must be made by the Principal Investigator in the UK.aspx International Scientific Interchange Scheme (ISIS) The scheme aims to help scientists add an international dimension to their BBSRC funded research by making and establishing new contacts with international counterparts. particularly  young post docs.7. Typical awards provide up to £10k for workshops related to BBSRC strategic priority areas and to promote collaboration with India. Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) www.html 7.

often across disciplines. Supporting travel and subsistence. with the objective of exploring the possibility of more substantial future visits. UK travel and subsistence. Networks can include overseas partners. travel and part-time co-ordinators. These grants are available in the areas of engineering. This funding can also be used. Funding is available to support workshops. where necessary and justified. Provides world-leading UK research groups with continuity for key research staff so that they can carry out longer-term and adventurous research with enhanced national and international networking. N + N meetings can be held to exchange ideas and expertise internationally. to visit overseas laboratories and gauge the state-of-the-art. Working at an overseas research organisation as part of an MRC fellowship MRC will support the costs of up to one year of an MRC fellowship spent outside the UK for the purpose of research training (up to two years in the case of career development awards). Lead applicant must be supported/based at a UK university but can be Indian national. materials and information and communications technologies.htm Including overseas co-applicants and collaborators on MRC Grants MRC permits co-applicants and collaborators on MRC grants to be based outside the UK where the nature of the research makes this Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) www. or to start new collaborations. and consumables. Overseas Travel Grants Visiting Researchers Bilateral Research Workshops Networks Platform Grants 27 | Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences . equipment.aspx Responsive Mode Research Grants These grants can be used to support international collaboration and can include the costs of collaboration. EPSRC will fund travel and accommodation expenses of UK participants and. Provides support for a scientist or engineer of acknowledged standing to visit a UK laboratory for up to a year.mrc. as well as the UK-based costs such as www. but lead applicant must be UK based. core meeting costs.mrc. travel and subsistence for research staff to work in a partner’s laboratory overseas. eg. and salary costs of the principal investigator. this funding can also be used to travel abroad to learn new techniques. UK-based activities that link research groups and industrial Research Council (MRC) Fellowships MRC offers a wide range of non-clinical and clinical fellowships to support researchers at different stages of their scientific careers. Roughly equal numbers attend from each side. to develop new or enhanced collaborations. for meetings in the UK. to fill postdoctoral researcher and project student places with candidates from a partner’s laboratory.epsrc. Applications must be made by the UK host. Costs for non-UK based researchers can be included in such proposals.

The remit of the network is to serve science interests across the whole of the UK government. with state-of-theart research and high quality education. www. India Developing Talent in the Chemical Sciences | 28 . India Established in 1942. Central India and 900. Additionally. Pune. Pashan. Dr Homi Bhabha Road. promotes and facilitates R&D collaborations between academia. Pune. Maharashtra. is a premier institute dedicated to research and teaching in the basic sciences. Pune . India The Indian Institute of Science Education and Research.fco. the largest chain of public funded research organisations in world.iiserpune. Pune.National Chemical Laboratory (NCL). It has a successful record of research partnership with industry.Science & Innovation Network The Science & Innovation Network is a key delivery mechanism for strengthening the UK’s capacity in this area through international collaboration. Homi Bhabha Road. Pune. It aims to facilitate new scientific partnerships and catalyse the early stages of new collaborations. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR). India www. C-32. www. Indian Institute of Chemical Research Society of India. http://crsi. CSIR carries out cutting-edge research in diverse areas spanning virtually the entire spectrum of science and technology ranging from aeronautics to oceanography to biotechnology to petroleum to healthcare to food technology and the like. The network responds to new and emerging science and policy priorities. India CSIR. As a unique initiative in science education in India. The network encourages. India www. and to improve the quality of chemical education at all levels. India.res. Anusandhan Indian Institute of Science Education & Research (IISER). Karnataka. NCL Innovation Park. IISER aims to be a Science University of the highest calibre. Established in 2006. Dr. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. workshops and other events to facilitate research. Bangalore -5600012. it organises conferences. promote and foster talent in chemistry and the chemical sciences in India. devoted to both teaching and research in a totally integrated 2 Rafi Marg.csir. Pune 411021.411008. India CSIR-NCL is a research and development organisation with a focus on chemistry and chemical engineering. Maharashtra 411008. It belongs to the family of CSIR. G Block. research establishments and businesses in the UK and their Indian partners.ukinindia.res. Bandra-Kurla Complex. Sai Trinity Building. New Delhi-110001. the institute falls under the purview of the Ministry of Human Resource Development. India Indian Institute of Science Education & Foreign & Commonwealth Office British Deputy High Commission India Naman Chambers. Bandra (East) Mumbai – 400051. C/o Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry. A conglomerate of 37 laboratories and three units with an annual budget of over $300 million. Chemical Research Society of India The CRSI was established in 1999 as part of the 50th Anniversary celebrations of India’s independence. It also recognises and honours achievements in chemical research through awards and grants. CSIR is a premier research and development organisation in India. It was set up to National Chemical Laboratory (NCL). Sutarwadi Road.

rsc. Bangalore – 560001. Royal Society of Chemistry Registered Charity Number: 207890 Burlington House Piccadilly. This laminate is sustainable. compostable and can be recycled. India Email: international@rsc. The laminate used on this publication is produced from refined wood pulp from timber harvested from SFI managed forests. London W1J 0BA. 23. Kasturba Road © Royal Society of Chemistry 2011 .This publication uses paper produced with recycled fibre together with virgin FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) fibre from sustainable forests. UK Tel: +44 (0)20 7437 8656 Fax: +44 (0)20 7437 8883 Royal Society of Chemistry British Deputy High Commission India Prestige Takt.