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Notes on the Pangong Lake District of Ladakh, from a Journal Made during a Survey in 1863 Author(s): H. H.

Godwin-Austen Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. 37 (1867), pp. 343-363 Published by: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) Stable URL: . Accessed: 12/09/2012 13:02
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t1te Subterranean A>'ater-sulop

220 feet above sea-level,wllereasthe ater, in the two vallevs between which the hill giving lise to this springis situated,is not more than 80 feet. A^ain, at a section acrossthe country east and west, 25 miles north of liurrachee, the sllbterranean water issues at 280 feet abos-esea-level,whilstthe Hubb River in the adjoinint, valley standsat 110 feet.
Sectionat 3Iugg?6r Pur.

Section25 miles q?orth of EEarrac7zee.




Manyother sectionswouldgive solnewhatsimilarresults. With this evidenceof the presence of subterranean water we are bound not to stop in our inquiries, and hence arises the question,whereis the source? In dealing with tllis question^re start with the absolutecertainty that whereverwateris foundinland,whetherin the shape of springs or rivulets,it has but cxne oritin, namely,the supply flom the cloudsin the irm of rain alld snow. We alae in the habit,becallsesome large poltion of tllese zones just beyondthe Tropicscontainsvast deserts,and has no rivers

"have their wet season in February and tIarch.hsvard of the 30tll degree of latitude.* ."a hydrographical basin equal in estent to that of tlle great River Euphrates. as is the case irl every coulltryin the world undersimi]arcircumstallces. showeryin the months of Septemberand October.lve observe a11the rainfallof the region comprised within a line from :EXhelat through Ghuzneeon the east.that there is literally no rainfall.000 feet above sea-level. But if we glance at a map of Asia..I am of opinionthat this range alone." he goes on to state. For the purposes of this paper I think I call showsuffieient a prsors ev(lence of considerable rainfallin the mountainons partsof these countries. and part of August. culminatingto one point. viz. As reeards the subterranean supply in the hills from lVurh racheenorthto Khelat.eof rain. and that consequently there must. the Lake Hamoon.and averages I believe four inches per anilum.and its being the southernterminusof an elevatedrange of mountains.whicllis spokenof often as being destitul. 341 draining towardsthe ocean. Turnintto the map. the prosimityof Kllelat to Surrachee. so that fouror five days seldom pass withouteither sleet or rain.anBeloochistan and ltestern Sincl Eill-districts. and not to the deselt portionsof Seistanto the west and south-west.with an enormous areaof mollntain land flom 3000 to 12. from Novemberto Marc]linclusive). even Sind. the "Aria Palus. be a considerable subterraneous supply avavilable in that tract lying to the sout. must be an enorinous sourceof subterrallean water. we observebetweenthe easternborclers of Persia and the western boun(lary of the Sind and Punjaub valleys a tract of country 330. on tlle elevated parts o:fwhich snow lies for many parts of the year.more or less so. if no other accessorv were avvailable. I aln of opinionthavt. from 6()0()to 12."sllbjectto heavy ills of snow.and the longitude of 62? on the westl.culminatingin the great lateral range of the Hindoo Rush.' I have no doubt that these remarksrefer especiallyto the mountaillous tractsof AfEghallistan and Beloochistan.and therefore enfleavour to arrive at an approsimation of the averagerainfall by otller lneans.. I have not obtained accessto any meteorological registersof this region.viz.000 feet abovesea-levelS and. ancl also June. the 34th degree of latitude on the north. bllt it is a Tnistalze.. 200 milesSits positionwith regardto the slope of the countrtT. ElrentIekran and Lus. and the whole of the cold season (vir. gauged a rainfall of 4() inches in some parts vithin tllree months last summer. runningeast and west (portions of whichare covered+^ith perpetual snow). as it is knownto geographers. July. which is northanfl south.000 sqllaremiles in extent. as Pottinger remarks. the 30th degreeof latitude on the south. vis.or.

althougll this allowsfor a discharge from *all the rivers combined of 1.08.or a little overan average of oneinchof rainfillper annum.214?466 cubicfeet. BIost tratellers afflree in assigning the dimellsiorls of thisluLe during the periodof the meltingof the snows to be 70 miles wr. enableus to roughlyestimate by analogythe axTerage aillill of least one inch perdiem.les. in the suanmerfow t litiual tv 3-1such rivers as theX 'l'haIllses ill sunlmesr tlow.alow is 12V?) alad the tenlpe1ature of lunning A7ater at lAusllile t3l)?.still tlleseret. In Sind. we mllst asstlmefor evaporation.will. or say 350 square miles. clllrint. at Staines.and fortile othereightmonths let US asslmle tlle loss from thosecauses not to exceeda quatter of an inchperdiem. vegetbltioll.w-iz. illdeed +henn as Alajor llawlinson inbrmsus.and alt. Nowwehavea perfect rightto assume thatthisquantity of 1 31 ra\Ts * I:qual to A()sllch rivers as the Thames.and do not includethe portiondue to percolation.nd perc olatiorl. andlAlSl66 t cubic feetpermillute during the otheraight morlths (the discharge of the Euphrates being estimated at 14. by 15 to 20 miles in blzealdth.whenwe knowno dewcan possibly ?all.This lake is described as being slowhere morethan 3 tv 4 feet in round numbers. until it sTlall llave been furtherinvestigated. a.s qenerally supposed that evapollation is considellablyless overl$rt.hougll it . dvlving the foursumnzer laolltls. +t}ilst at Greenx ich 5 feetis a.000geographical n. .or neallyrine tiines the estimated discharge of tlle Helmund andthe otherrivers Kowing into LakeHamoon) it ouly represents 1*31 inch. II1 CCI1CUtta ( hU1Mid C1imate) 15 feet per allnumis tho amount proved by registrvS beiIag nearly half an inchperdiem. the sulnluer solsticea evaporation mustbe excesslvef frola flle absoiption by tlle scorching prevalellt in thatseason. springs.333 + cubicfeet pernlinuteduring tlle four nwonths wllensnow is mclting.llosxed s in Bombav *26of all inch is tlle alnount of dailyevaporatioll during the dryulonths. the summer heat in a bun^. say lO00 squaremiles whilstPottingel leadsus to understand that its ordinary dimensions alse30 by 12.and coveredwith reeds Captain Conolly says that W}r fourmonths in the yeal. lilSethoseof the Helmund andits tributaries.istries rekr to evaporatiorl pure and slmple. arelost in a sea of malshes.342 BAPTXS ont1Ze Subterranean ater-supp ].613. I havefollncl ponds to loseoneincll itl depthpelsdienl frolnAunustto Januaryn and lakes in the rl'hurr Desertto lc)sehalf bIn-i}neh perdiele llutiltlley declrease sv Tnueh in depthas to leceivetheirequivalent in evaporation Doa.eareastilaTl small ones. ThissI beiieve.. the interior. Ol. it \07ill tllenbe found that.

r or southward. grits.Sind Elill-districts.s west of and conglomerates. and off Cap(3 Ormuz. -NoZes rzadedqrznga S?rveytn 1863.IS. To the north of the Ill(lus. ale llow seen on the left nr .H. orderto attempt to convey lny ideas alld infolmatioil on this ver.sol:tllhallk tlle3uL(e .and tllat accordingto tradition the Iielmulld formerlydischarged there is room for a strong inferitself illtO tlle IIldianOceann available.interesting subjeet.h range of leountainswhich separatethe Indus dainage f:lonlthat of the Shayok or Niibla hiver. to have been led into such a lengthy paper.lgeriarl I lteglet that I have felt it necessary. F..S. December 10.hthe sea ill the neighbourhood nrater hIonge.fiom its jllnetion with thc Dras Ptiver. The tertiary. The axis alld great mass o:fthis range is granitic. The great mass of coarsesand-stones.. and thence towardsthe east for a considerabledistance it holds the same led clays. lW7ater is fros a of Ladakh. the A. GODWIN-AUSTEN.G. seen on tlle right bank of the Indu.xvhileat Pituk belowLeh. tlle granitichill on wllicllthat large andvellZ known monasterystands abuts on the Indus itseli. Bead.luce of the river. Joqxrxat lopographical Survey.lies a hit. It is recordedby navigators of Cape burst up throut.and should it llave no better eSect than to excite inquiry and attention to this subject.and the stratificaiormationof this part is undoubtedly inclines either to tion of the hills wherellot horisontalgenerallt.tlle same thing has beell observed I doubt not if atteation were called thereto the saule pllenomenonwould be observedin other parts of the coast. on tlle west this extends to withill a very short dist. BY CAPt. arldAYestean anBeloochisfan a 343 inch per annule is at least ollly one-thirdof the avelage rainZ whichwouldgive us total averageraillfallof 4 inchesper f:all.and that tlle absorl?ed whole of this basin is elevated nluch above tl-lesea-level. LaZze Distrzet ostthePctnyong NArIII. 1866. position.I shall considertlle labour1 have bestowedarllply repaid. to the tlle ence ill my opinionthat a vast body of whole of tilat region betweenthe 3()th parallel of latitude and tllat large springsof fiesh tlle sea. It will be recollected that u:nder the eastssTald somewhatsiinilarconditionsthe French engineers a few years broughta perennial flow of water in many parts of since haxTe Desert. basin. and as we know anllumovertlle areaof this geographical that in everycountryin the worlda portionof the rainfall (estito one-twelfth)percolatesand is lnatedvariouslyfroin orle-third by tlle soil and the permeablestrata.

her side. of wllich I saw numbersat the Durgo bridge.Ladakh. BIountainsrise to a great height on eit.erials circumstallcesattendint. wherevery 821All portions of the alluviumstill adheredto the slopesand precipices. the Chinlray l."botll high.hejunctionof the stlqearus whole valley is very open-low cliSs of alluvial feet.altitude. an after sojourllon the Pangong this. called lranls-se 8n0\\7y .y.sand shingle that are seen a]ong the mulatiolls 1argevalleys of these mountaills. On the abovegranito range are severalpasses leading into the ShayokVa. The mountainson the northernside are perfeetly hare a little grassgrowingonly along the bottomof the valley9 whichhad a steady easy slope the whole way to Durgo. 344 GODWIN-AIJSTEN east in the directionof Stock and Himis.ngLa. 1.a. and the cumulatedthe mat. sfenery is not reinarkable reachingthe village of Durgo. The villate o1 this tlalueis peak.scarcelya man suSeredfrolll vta the Kay La. the " Cha.rgera+Tines. their subsequentdenudation. when our party crossedtlle ChangLa. being emerges out of the Before3 of oIle of tllose large accuvalley uponthe level sultface narvow of a]lusial sand. and the save for its huge scale and bleakness. while the easter the western branch leading to the WATari runs up to the two passes aboveInentioned. we all suSeredmoreor of the rarifiedair. On the returnjourney less fromthe eiCects feet higher. the snowthat had fallell in the early part of the naonthstill la.. r]^he' sanclsand clays can be tracedthe whole distance on both sides this preand it is self-evidentthat at no very distant periocl sented a long reaeh of water. S4S0 this cause: we had thell been living for some tirlle at a high . SOUthe1I1 No.250 feet above the level of the sea. The stream is considerable.ced level of tlle plateauon xvhich -alley in and out of its numerousravines in a perfectlyhorizontal lille of a diCerentcolour. which lTeryprobablyhad not a little tv say to our immunityfrom the fatigue and heaclacheengendeled at high elevatiolas. towerillg above Tall19Se.their formation. whichthere dividesinto two la. kind of fish. state that its thicknessat belowDurgowas olrel 1500 to 2()()() t. arldI do not think I am exaggeratingwhell I.c is a distanceof 8 miles. well exemplified:tlle At this spot the vast scouringprocessw-as acrossthe I stood could be tra.all of greatelevation.and. anclon the directroadfromLeh to the Pangon Lake are two. 'l'heascentto the first is gradualfromthe village of Tagarin Valley.on thePanyonyLake Distrief. and at the is {afine elwdof the vallev. are as yet but little unclelstood. On the 15th July. fully confirmed From Durgoto Tank. viz. more wonderfill."and the " Kay La. and the roacl and containsa slnall quite level. The powelflll force that acthat formthem is now extinct.470 and 18.

and drainsthe LungYunhma Valleyand the mountains on the northof the IndusRi-er. I am inducefl to think for a part of that the X ates may in some yearsblow0ne3 way. Thisbedof talusactually clivides.hele and theren whereit l:)reaks out in a sluallrill to loseitself in thf3 loosegravela few yardslosrerdovn.lrge.butwhereit takesthe mol e direct easterly direction it opensout considerablv. Mtiany of the hollses arebuilt close ullder a large massof deposits forn. this is at firstrathershut in and confilled by the mountains that risein cliffson eitherlland. partto the west.Ladakh. Tlle physical appearance of the wholelelltth of thisvalleyshowedunrnistakable signsof its havingat oneperiod beenthe bed of a lake.r presentsize.andit is entirely formed by the loose shing]ebrought downa sornewhat largelateral ravine fromthe snosvy peaksto the south. but the learel of the olcL lake-bedextenfls up to :zithina vervshortdistazIce of the pass. svhence one obtains the firstview of the Pangolog Lake. its natTlral baror bund. A risel)f 15(} again ocGurS .time it was continuous with the portion lelowrrankse andthattlle mass of alluvium above Durgo was contemporary Wstll that above tITlClit. Abovethe two lakes.this actiollis nowhere so well seen. Over distances of morethan a mile it is cleep whitesancl.ig a belt at footof nlountains of the northerll side. If the supplyof waterto the Pangont. high cliffsof the alluvialshint.whenthe glacielss weredouble the. irl othersanother. the stonesfirmly cemented in it. Lake wereequalto what it mllst formerly have been. andto this causeit mllstoweits present esistence at the nlouth of tlle narrow gorgetosvards the Pangont. the collection of whichis a good clealdueto the willd. t.gODWIN-USTEN onthePangong LaheDista ief.Tragiime Bur Tso. partto the eastwalld.llis ridge of Sultokhfollms the atershed acrossthe natllralexit forthe waters of the greatlake. telacling everyyearto increase the heiglltof leve1. 'Thenzainstreamcomesfromthe southward.about300 feet high alldsome 400 yarcis distantbom the stream.there is no lollgerany waterin the bed of the streamsave at interval.and a verv fair area undercultivation. or more properly speaking. 345 l. tlle continllal flowof mater wouldsooncarryoff these talusacculnulations fiom the mountains aboveSurtokhthere beingnowno foreein actionbr this purpose. It is joilledat Tankse bv the small stream that drains the valleyup whichtlle roadto the Pant. At tlle low pass ot Surtokh. Down to this sallclthe talus frornthe motlntains runs.out of whichthe soft beelshave beenwashedaway. the SI1OWS of winterand the waters of the side ravines tend to raisetlle mainvalley-level evely year The PangongTso (lake)is alsout2.miles distalltfromthe low ridge of the SurtokhLa.

Sucll is t}le one that flows through the little oasis o:f ttUtl. Its colouris of all intense l)lue.h a nallowbelt of .Ce 0t' this . reds.e. A trigollometrical its height has been determilledtrigoclose to the water'seclffle. Tlle thlee glacieis. Tlle Pangong Hill Survey Statioll is a short easy pull of sozue1000 feet abovethe lake.few slnall appearedcoulparatively patches of snow.wllere sluall glaciersjust which extend down show abovethe ulassesof tlle old moraines. and the stream from (Shushalgives from a distanceno signs of its proxiluity. for ollly tlle nlost considelal)leof these streams flld an exit itl its watel7s.931 feet above the sea. ClOSSillo t0sro of its A^7aterSn irl Sa1l4S illterstloatified and higher learels of forrrler over the plesellt rubble like that distlzibuted with an anU. On the 22nd Julv my malch lay of tile Pangong.fromthe ends of these glaciers.some 1() feet quiet curreIlt )lciltyof +Xoodallfla t'te l)laill. acrossthe spursof northbank an(l high up amongthe snowypeaks to the south. and lorovus. Little streams floxv inclines. flo+sting thlout. Finclil1>7 fillbllly t)t. ulliting solue distance. Ill tlX3 withthe cooliesand men of BIun. of a collversation soznethlee or four tnarches on. +sheresections ae well displayed or three raxT. by these has formed a nainiaturedelta. Frola the heigllt at .to lose themselvesill tile silt alld sandsthat skirt the edge of tlle lake.e of AIelukis passedon the right hand.I learet that. not a SGrAp of green.the wateras clear as crystal. of the presentlale wouldfind thein again an feet in the mraters stationlies exit dowllthe valley to Tankse. oltailwinga most colllmalldillg vies.and that it was llOt necessaryto follow the rlorthernshore. downthese steep to the level of the lalze. and I was rathersurprised with a 011 colaillg suddelllyupon a fine body of watel. At about8 miles fiorn Aluil.nes. thence to their bases was o:le successionof sllades of silver threads.purples. or clowxn silt broucrht coulse arin of sllallowwaterrunning out into the la]e. up and downit. The level ground betaeen the shoresarldthe foot of thf3laountaillxineleasesmucll irl breadth as olle proceedseast.346 GODWIN-USTEN LaleeDistl ict. the lalse narlowedto a nlele stream wllich xvasfordable. it onvesits size to tlle streamsfrola alsoveths3villa^.the illvalsial)le colouringof Tibet.. From a fine viexvof the firstlong reach of thos elevated nzark-stone alld interestingpiece of water is obtailled.the stratgglintvilla. shilting the shwore over the salLdy.there wLls xvind blew off it.0\T{tllevSl-ll'fil. only on tlle highest lay a. l On the Panyony ada1th. nometrically to be 13.these all low.ular sulice.but far too saline to feel in tlle air as the quite a salt-water l)e drinliable.vllicholle stood. and the last on the lakelxarkpet is 3 miles further.reell grass. stony plain. Knobsand pealis were seen for manv a luile along the spurs that descendedfroln tlle ranges boulldillgtlle olthern shores.

PhursookbrJneda circular. as to vvllenor ly svllozn it had beenbuilt. still. considering how soonevents are forgottenby such rnen.y luountai1As bounding itls sides. the level spaceat the top +vas enclosedby a low stone wall. Passong olle large bay we roundeda low narrow point of leach only to find the existenee Of allotller Phutsook. that adheredto the boots in huge lumps al1clreluL1ailled like a celxlentupon e^rerything it carneill COllttlCt witl1.beire I had fiI1ished n1ysurveywork irom this position. a narrow beachran alo1lC the footof these formed oi-talus cementedbyr Jilue. and sailed in and out of it. in whieh a lille-of-battlesllip mic. It must be colBparatively an ancientwork. A narrowstrait only colneets it xvithtlle xvateroutsidee It Xas evide1ltlyof great (leptllin places whele the l1illscame downin cli?s Upool it. morlling. It was a lowerin.alld. which. could give any accoulltof it.iollbeyonll rllso l)a}T. I pitched campby the sideof it. 'lnhefirst or loweL Llkeis 40 uliles in len .<ht have xdoated. Towarals the shore of the lake rise two very conspicuous isolatedlow roclKy knobs.. who were all fromthis districtof PanOon^.exclusive of tlle ul3g-)er lon. quite 10 .a mile apart. rllhebay formeda pertectharbour.shelteredlittle laLe in itself.when dry. Orleand a hal:E luile beyondTuggu Nuggu low spursabutt upon the lalie in clSs of 150 to 200 feet high.its age may be only 15Vto 200 yealls. The extent of level ground hele is came on to rain harcl. dotted olrerin the vicinity of the stleam with a few low bushes. or on a line of trade. 'i'he showerpassedoff up the lake. hafl now by the wet been turned into a sticky loaln. This had?ormerly beella fortified post. LadakAl. while a detachedoutworkhacl been built on the low SpUl' that rall out on the east sicle: none of nly coolies. callecl nicegreensheltered spotunder tlle the second 33. is covereclwith a hard incrustatlonof linwe aIIda salt that claclclesunderthe feet.wlwich +sre sat out on the top. with very deep +vaterwashinnr the ballk. and it haci a fiIle eSect on the view ill that directionn with the lirlesof falling raill over the exy)anseof waterand the mList. The nest morning I walked across and ascencled the most eastern eluinence. Cl'lle state of the plain.GODWIN AUSTEN on the Pargo? Lake Dist}ict. tllis formsthe boulldary l}etweell tl1e WaslzinilP>ajah's territoly al1dthe Chineseclisttiet of Rudokh. 347 square lniles. WYere this lake ill a less elesrated useful would the wter-columunication prove up and dowllthe extent of its two long portions. and the way leads alon<r tlle nalour shole at theil foot. giving a total of 73 slliles.llaving the strailge soulleling name of TugguSuggu.and hetweenthese is the confluenceof the Chushalstream and the Pangong Tso.and over the rest gl'owS a scantycoarsegrassiil tufts.. porl.

beds BTO111d k)ack powerthat wouldhave transportinffl by tlle increasecl depositecl carried the materialsfurther out into the lake. save perhapsnear the debouchement the estreme westerntriblltaries. WNthether lie is clue to glacial in which its +vaters Otthe clepression 011t when tllis high region was. The firstthillffl is the evidenceof th.on the PanyongLake District. AUSTEN 348 GODWIN that must strike Syak. BEyliadsof dead freshwater shells now strewthe shore. as is actionin the first instaneeS is a hazardons deeply overlaid by ice and sno^T most probalule. beds of w&ter-plants. folmerlyfresh for its entire length. xnrith to be seen in tlaelittle dry ravinesthat cut throughthe plain. westerll on both the Valle of Dras. while its sustenance of these molluscs. wouldS I tllink. I Lymnta and Plarborbis.and one hit.somewhat clear np the Tnvsteryattacheclto the llllge masses of of the alluvial depositsseen in the valleys of all the great zixTels and Leh to SlzarcloS Cllurlgmo fioul tlle Claang Himalayas. with grass and rushes. bankswouldhave been fringeclprobablwr There is a point in the historyof the Pangong Lahe on +hicll aspect: it is a good deal of theoryas to its olcler may be basecl the formersize and estent ol: its waters. A closer inspection.Lszdaklz. thougll I searchedclilicentlv. These thro^n up by the lie so thick in sonle of the l)ays. while at the san(3 time the level of the waters would naturallyllave been much higller Its waters must then generlly have held much alreadymento formthe shell-becls silt and mud in suspensiorl is taking tioned. gleat changes.:. AVhen lakes. and also. which is quite 18 miles.whieh I laadhopedto clo in the upper these sliglltlv braekish.are leds of angular dsSbrzs. I thilsk. that These sections pro+Te the lake existed priortoaoertainly(ltlrinythe latter palt ofntlle the scooping great glacial period in the Himala-as. :Frozn that there of the beds of debrisand finer del)osits. and in lt must have gronvn. the alternation qllestion. a11(1 of Sul. wavesin a long white ridgeS they can be taken up in handfuls. wherethe water ^as ve1sy shells e:xistedthe formerlalQemust llave had quite a diCerent for the aspectfromits presentolle.with solue levelliny.we can inCer haxJebeen milder ancl moister seasons than at present exist have been to colderancldrier: duringthe first. At the present clayno deposit of any kincT of the Ghushaland plaee.s lal. On every side unmisthe presentone takable traces that the lea7elwas much aboare are seen in tlle lines of olcl beaehes ancl in the beds of sancl interstratified shellsn containillgthe fossil remainsof fresh-water whichsas T mentioned before. that never founda large bivalve only one very smallPzstdzt6nw I founclinside one of the specimensof Lyrftntcs:nor did I ever finfl a living specimen.hly problezllatical.e llaving been any one of observation. They are principallyof but.5rlanc1 in the Valle+t .

the ridgeof hills bouIlding it to nortl. and the rayineswould be seen with fine rllnning streams in them.shingle. I ask maynot the snowfall in tllis partof the Himalayas be nuchless noxv thanformerlyn and the country passing through a periodof diminislling falls? Slow as SUc]1 ellanges maybe. the ravines of whieh ranup illtO the hillsill widebeds.frorn 2()0to 900 JTards in breadthvSeseral broadlateral drainage-plai. I lookeddownuporla terrace10 feet belowthe surface. they are by no meansimprobable or impossible. Give a greater rainfallto the Pangongdistrict.40() feet. Onthe southa verylowridge of about500 feet-in placesnot morethan300. but this we xsere both of us nluchsurprised to findwasnot tLe case forwe nowbelweld alaead of us an enolnousgla-el-covered valley stretching away to the bot of ulountains at least18miles further to the eastszrard.From the ountain-spurs havingapproached so closeto the broad bed of the Syam go Tratger. where the stratification of the sandandclaycouldbewellseen. as it does. The mTater of the Pangong.sepalated this valley-plain frolnanotller broadone of a like character.butpartook in its drygravelly bed a gooddeal of the natureof those valleysI hadseenbetween Pal and the :Kiung GarlgLa.and would covera greaterareafromthe junctionof the greattributary there.lay to about 4 to 5 lnilesoff. in deep. that th+3 level of its watershas been alternatirlg with moistand dry periods of time. its elevation about16. th+3 bottorn was ot visilole leyond tllis. Lad(lAh. wehadbeenled to imagine its course hereedzed.veryciear mrater.GODWIN-AUSTEN ontAae Pa7zgonq LczAze District. urhich terinillated in a cliS. As a proofthat the watersof the PangongLake in foruler times have f:allen belowits presentlevel. These depositsat Ote wouldbe solnewhat higher. aIld the spurs came with a very gradual fall towards tile valley.but were only 300() bet above it.depending.the large valley and its tributaries then drainedwouldresemble nlostcloselyon eitherside the sand.rtlaillly on tlle wintersnoxv.ns ^^7as . andconglomerate cleposits now seen at Tankseand on the alDove-nauled rivers. 3fi9 Thell<nand (:llandrabagha (Chenat)rivers. rl'llis open valleyhadthe mostpeculiar aspectof any I hadyet seen.nable me.allowing time would cut througl the barrier at the Salrtokh Lan andelTentually dossTn through the wholelength of the alluvialdepositsin this lake-basin. andit. and it was too far out to e.and a lowersnow-line. withmy present means. the absence of watel7. now above2Q000 feet. to sound thedepth Theonlydeductio to nlalie fromsuch comparatively recentcllangesis. I maystate that on a longpointof land in the little Bay of Phursook. having also takena beTld.andits breadth in widestpart about2 lailes.and.the slow processof mhichmaybe even now goirlgoll allnostimperceptibly to nlan.

y be seen ill the now existing large glaeiersbelow their termin3w1 caiffW. for near RepebLun.lyirlg on the Lind River (a tributary of the Jhelum). it is neGe sary to add a few words regardint. 10 miles lO miles fi om the pass. This I thillk clearly glacial. from the northernlirwe of hills that run parallelwith it. as naa. ancltllat they extencled into the Slardo Valley on the Indus. having very lart. a fine mass of moraine protrudes into the plain nearly a qualter of a mile.nitude that glaciers like those in the Waralkoram nlust have once attairled.thick beds of debrzs are to be seen.but at tlle debouchement.ion presented much the same appearancetllat the neighbourhoodof tlle Atustakll does now. gravels (moreor less angular).lleyin the vicinity of a range equal in meall altitude to the ll.350 GODWIN-AUSTEN on t1ze PanyongLaAeDistrict. The indicationof glacier estension are also seen on tlle llortllof the Zogi La. 70 to 80 miles is by no lneallsimprobable. the only types of which are to he seen in those now filling tllle valleys of the WarakoramJ far nortll in Baltistan. this moraineHlUSt hawre been formedafter the salley around Skardohad assurnedsomewllat its present configllration. Proofs are not +^ranting that in ages past tlle valleys of tlaeHilualayacontained glaciers of enortnouslent. where at present some very sina11 glaciers exist.. Moreover. Hou7 much further this glaoier esteneled towards the plain of the KashmirValley it is irrlpossible to say. alld tllat this re2. and in the ChangGhungmo.the callse I as3ign to their formation.arldglaeial accumulations are very soon swe}?t a\57av.every va. About half-waybet+X-een the villates of the Ellngun and Gond. for this basin ha3 at some ps3riod been filled up with beds of lacustrinedeposit.l rock rising alsovethe town.hestill the series. Takint 5500 feet as the lowest lilait of lts extensioll.glavelsnancleonc)lolulerates. \\70 .elays alld sandsS near rTankse.e allgular blocks on its and thickness.LadaAh also folmed a junetioll with the one were in. marks of glacial aetion ale unmistakablein tlle deep groovesor stri out in tlle llard metamorphic slates.OUUtaillS north >f Kashmlr nust have been onca the bed cf these movinglivers of ice. In the foregoillgpa(tesreferencehas been made to the great accumulations of l)oultlers. This point is 20 nailes in a dilect line from the head of the valley. Tlle Sind River is still o1: veryconsiderable size. to a lleight that osertops the present isolatee. I)utt is quite llatural to supposethat on a milder climate succeedint. Smallerones fromthe ridge to the south we knowdid. at a height of 150 to 200 feet alsovethe present level of the river. It is mft belief that the lJras plainwas once buriedill ice. betweenthe presewllt glacierof tatuchoi ancl Pundras. 'Inhe imaginationcan harcllyconceivethe enormous mat. and at the village of Gond itself.the coarserlJecls bein(rtlle lli^. Wasllmir.

UppertSIayok of ? (Sontemplation level of the courltry 13. 351 ozlthePanyong wouldbe the firstto be removed these largerallusialdeposits the valley. of theiresistence period ravinebelow.alsoelerating in courseof time the whole valley-levelwould have been Skardo. well. of a glacialperiod the efSects acrosstlle mainvallersat some haveexl. in tllesemountaitls. mulations water of ice a1ld forees whellsuell powerful ima.wlliletlle dowzrn furtller of glaciers by the extinction andabove thosearound to preserve coldwasyet intenseenough of detrttus in the Skardo. mentof suchriversas tlle Indus. Furtller.. Even in the valley of tlle Jhelum. be formed should barrier thatthe wholemassof sllch a mighty havecomposed thatwould of moraines the debrts of ice.and other theire:xistence lnayoxve placesalongthe baseof the Himalayas..q beautifully of plant.000is the loavest and the accllof lalQes tlle formatiorl renders sucha condition to veryeasfT of detritalmattera naturalsequence.GODWIN-AUSTEN LakeDistrict lcldakll. case wheregzaveldepositsare seen.. and viz. Whell glaciers extended of the zmightv ran^. 1lpthe river. it doesnot follow. fardowllthe werein action. It mTas a gorgeas in so narroxv aceunlulation this.000 to Indus and Chant. and the Sutlej. eanbe seen Tllatglaceiers. outS . 'T'he free fromalgae.theirresultswouldllave extended alld are to be SOtletlt forat the deboucllelines? main-draina. territory. Slardobasinwere? rangesbothto the northand sollthof the IndusnearBasho. and stlch eSects are still iil progress Eimalayas.e &c.ended of the must llavebeellt]le appearance to 5000feet xvhat down where12. andin nearlyevery is mostprobable. around 1lpto the heightof the great deposits brought througllcarlbe seen of ice-action otllerinstances Inllumerable near the FotuLa.a spot now far removed belowBaraAlula action.can be pointed whoseglacier to the mainriverinto WhiCll stoppage a temporary has formed in the highest it ran. These exuvix piled up wouldhave andthe bedof the lateralvalleyas thc bedof the gorge5 raised itself.the glacier the activeeause. fillint. some sidx3 havingits sourceshigh up.wherethe wateris lnuchless salt. I will illstance out the Kashmir fromsuch causesin on roadto Leh.frolnits continued the Intlllsthere presents. not the case This ls the latter perfectly sandand pebbles. Thoughthe vast accumlllations fromthe high dueto the glaciers I conceive.Ganges. of imnaense I believe that the :nore recerltaccumulations suchas of rocksfromthe innerrangesS composed boulder-beds may be seen in the Noon NuddeeDeyrahDhoon. closedowllto anddammed must have extended whichglaciers as somemightbe leclto suppose. to a glacialperiod In the lowerlake there is not a vestigeof any sortor kincl &bankof lulueclearwaterwashe.

the has formed downfrornthe abovealea? long be a continuous to whatwouldotherwise broadbarrier of the the old configuration of water. rentlering to see the pooryaks. I naay of rubble in brea(lth 5()0ralzds hranchof whieh verylargelatelal ravineat Ote. whichill former square the plain of Ote.Lte Dist}ict.patcilesof a coarse withvegetable are also seell here and there alongthe shore. The watersof the westernenclare far more salt evento the taste.'Pal. up in the broad areall sopped strearus outoecabreaks whichacts like a perfectsponge:the stream yards hereand thereonlyto hideitself a fewhundred sionall+T Lanakhseen beingabove the fort of sc down. Alany Ptiver the Chushal distancebut at a eonsi(lerable havetlleir sources of the ravines dly bedsfronz200 to 300 alldup to the lake have broacl aear the instance and sands. A curious waters whose of streams Panong is the alluostentireabsence of them sorne tlle greatareatlwat findan exit in it. considerilag of the iw glacialrills and the drain.but water-weed makinga strugglefor and evidently luxurialltlyn not growing nearas possilule. thatit is by anymeans entered savewhenwe hadthe weusedto takewater. not a singlerilljoinsit is particularly slsore Thenorthern on the upper at .and it was quite a pleasure take a 11 of it.lesf clra. there are none.niilg distarlce carried timeshaslDeen miles. the last is seento flowilltO flle lake.also. and the same :rnay to ()te.but it thanthoseof that nearOte. Thewestern is due 34?and1OIIgitUD1e78'30D.In nearlyall the lligherravilles are seen. whenfor threedaysthey calriedourbaggage. for. featureof the had dranknothingbut salt water..beinglost in butit nowhere khur. eIldof tlle Pangont. areextremely mater under tlleretlle stones growth. alldfol manyluilesbeyond.andin one spotthese sprillgs quite fresh the mrater distanceout illtO the lake.butthe and glacielsof the secondorcler is plentifuln bed of the mainvalley. ISylookingout carefully the under out from in threeplacesflowing springs we discovered up for son:le werebubbling bank.. the sands Tsolies.who around.z.tllenceits direction znlatitude SS7ater .noticeable is fairly the twoportions is not untilthe streaintllat conllects thenceforthe whole drinkable. Thiswasno douljt lleaeh Sart of the greater lake. lvanyong on tAze 352 GODB'INY-AUSTEN andcovered slippery. The silt.'> for its entiredistaneeuntil arriving flom shore.with the exception Chushalstrean Oll its sollth shore. be saiclof tlle southern lake." of the plaill. fora lise of sorne12 feetwouldcover water the Oteplainevenrlcow. extremewest end. At this part. LadaA. the lon(rest for a of GhangChullgmo mountaills rus backilltO tlle snowy an areaof lleally400 altogether of 40 n. eastward clistance luckto fillda springof reallyfresh. frolnthe BIarse dry.and tlle streaulat the Blik La.

"TsoNyak.and their ravinesterminating to this valleyon the south.risingto the heightof 600 to and tlle lake.Surpo loombas. andhas lake verymuch. tlle largestof these are the usvl."or getherthe mean breadth " tSiddle Lake.someof the peaks on whichattaill an altitudeof 21. with the aid of a most interesting scientific some portable liind of boat. the highestpeaksbeing20. The glaciers.and the only buelwas a root. at jungle. that drainsthe considerable the down fromthis has narrowed square miles. To the south-west a highrangerunsparallelto the lake. especially in the vicinityof the streamtllat unitesthe lake woodis foundin tro lakes.andof a verycoalsekind.forming of a.I 1500feet. butthe level of the lake being from their 13. forma fineboundary the lakeveryc]osely as far as Ote. milein breadth.GODWIN-AUSTEN Panyonq LakeDistrief. Onbothbanksof the second in places.003feet. severalverylarge lateralravinesdescendinto it. At Algrongand Numplenty. as a rule. LadaA^. abovein small perpetual snow. dry. rl'engun. the depth of tllis lake.500feet. On Algrong. be deepin suchplaces.precipitollsly. southern watershed folloxvs and between thatplaceandPal It thele extends furthersouth.llbroad.there is another.Wiam the northern shore. it eve:l up to 18.000to 19. in longitude of the first longreachare of no mountains to the north-west greatapparent elevation. wllichis 20.353 onfAe and south-east to latitude 33?40'. covered as they arewith The abovefine line of mountains.000. Descencling tlle extensiveplain llear tlle latter bet+veen Pa1jUI1g and PLll. it thentakesa bendeasterly.generally terminatin.beyondthe very large valley of ChangBurlnall. Wherevera tributary scanty. It would should imagine. it was met with no more. nevertheless. SXXVII.or valleys. this ran(re of Taulise.e the ravines wereveryrocky. In July therewasverylittle St1OWto or the main bfeseen. Theterminal lie close on the edgeof the lake. bllt on the northern kumit tormed a scrubby Silung. VOL. At Ote it is much richer.000feet ill the (Shang fromthe small ridtr. all withthe beds.and ont a gooddealof woody stunted plant. tract of 150 the Dal-Loomba.931 feet above the sea. Altocontracted the lvaters to a quarter of the second lake. 79?50'. is excessively enquiry to sound. which findsits exit at the Oteplain. detractsconsiclerably range knobs of the spurs fromtlaeabove altitude.andI neverfound save svhere Chungmo. The follo-ws that latitudeas far as Noh. the silt carried a low pointjutting out intoit. feet high. is from1S. andto the east-south-east terminates in a peakabove. 2 A .5()0 range which. grravelly . and only on the very highestportion.whichthrow3 of a scarcity is foundall over the country." ravinejoins the shorethere is grass.growing lusuriantly shore."is muchless thanthe firstor true "Pangong.

save the comes in view. too gleat it tearsup the frozen becolues fows over tlle sulfaceof t}e ice. Ofthe birds. andat last seeing p1toportiolls thatthe bank had the ridge quite6 feet lligll and. NVhen and flowingwestxYard.and I saw many young I)etween diver mriti goose teal.a sand-piper of smallell wasa greatsearcity rTl-lere seell on tlhe shole. it an inchor t+^o this I found measuring on the werehigherand betterdeveloped also that the banlss no e+Taporatio:nd culves of the bays. Late Districtn on the Parzgong AUSTEN 354 GOD0NTIN by low spurson every side.I was and oll questioning forsuchan appearance. LakeTsoNyak (the second) someflatground. On of course.but couldnot manage mllch +sished a ridge of shore of Tso Syak. shoreof tllis last is situatedthe smallvillageof Noll.bounded peak rearsits head.tcarsand rootsup tlle water.Laz^zk7z. a red-headed hroods. The 131ahulini duck made up tl. water-birds. norther:n tlle filst .le and a very black plumaged white bocly.and Pal the second Threeanda half lnilesbeyond of half-a-mile into it through a small streamis foundflowing lake called Tso beyondwhichis arlotller sandyflat ground) again Rum.nd secondlakes. a few the grassymaidansof the coupleof these were grazingo:rl in the stream geesewereplentiful shore.moreover.nton the shoresof the Pangongn anlmalI saw was the kvang. Duringsummer.-tail .beirlt.Mrith clrains to free itself. at intervalsn On the northern sand and earthruns parallelto the line of beach. Rum below.havinga lengthof aboutfourmiles. I noticed.and. the old oneof thesebalzis showillg tllrough sketchof a section face of the on the perpendicular surfacegrassstill gro^Ting is on the inlandside. to accoullt puzzlecl whenthe lake is winter.wherea conspicuous and the easternside of the "Maidan. I give a sligl-lt liberated. Dulingthe nlannerabos-e the banksin tlle curious the only wholetime I spe. but in the wintertllis nlustcease. northern fromthe north. of icen uppercasixlg detailed. earthorlthe shore. a slnallstream east. and. ground. then learntthat cluring tlze guicles. at firstI the large butobserung this to the actionof ssarres. doesso.>' windsits waythrough shorethat the olllyone on the northern joins the lake. attrilouted of thesebaulSs in soane situations. the pressure can find no exit. \vestern doultncarrlesoff a great amountof the surpluswaterthat its intoit. rthelargefisllwereoccasiorlally ^vas. uplleaved over6 feet. leen fairly tulned up. lakeends. underthe ice accumulates naturally the +^Jater flozenoverhard. aftercrossing con is reached. wllich. and bilds. Near the with rllso as beforedescribed. ThisplaceI up a tributary a short distance it. as if with a giganticplougll. to accomplish to visit. llected. or wild ass of Tllibet.

comefrombothNoh whospend the piece of glound.becomes they say. " encampments. broughta roci. The Champas of coldmustbe veryconsiderable.against a considerable in thisstateorlemorning. fortunately sport. They becamefierce fishernwen.sheep. this lake is full of them.are of shawl-wool timeof yearthe flocks grazed in the higher valleys on the young rich grass that springsup in some placesafter the snowhas left the grourld.I was tolcl. I had in the body.placesit in the part of the rThanadar of Leh aIldgreater render forthe tentsagainst up as a protection that the interiorfloorof their I obsersTed them still snugger. andlludok. 2 A 2 .I shouldsay it undoubtedly ago: proxiinity by whomit lvasbuiltye. 'Thesefish formeda on the additionto ourfood as long as we remained wrelcolue and some of the lake. in goodbags.andOte.standirlfr belongsto the side of the plain.thouththe lakefreezes or Chant. Duringthe summermonthsthe lake shallolv andwe did not fall in with a soul the whole is quitedeserted. I suppliedmy old Bhllt Moonshie guardwith llooksand lines. andPangong rolling the ^^Javes watched down. andtlle richdeepblue of its hills and Inountains. surrounding as they coloula waters. Shassan there. " maidans downto the level c. up to Pal. seenforthe firsttimein the slightlybrackish of the upper lake. largest I caught being about 4 lbs.GODWIN-AUSTEN on the PanyongLaAeDistrict. 355 there by the fishwhichare at Ote. X had the height.Ladakh. in weight-the theyranabouta pound somefive-and-twenty. " Champa thick. the hardrockyshore.andsitting to see its surface fortune es brought wax in.ars authorities. Walls of stoneandearthare built Rajah's Washmir the wind. wllichlnustlualSe lllltshadbeendugdown abodes. At that distarlce goats. Though of beaches up thoughts the lalze has its beautiesin the varied tints of so barren. or we might not have got so far. is the country in olclEnglallcl.never lies long at Snow. anddashing longextentof its sulface.attracted eaglewasplentiful out flowing water. themwarm I foulldthe summerwillds of this coulltrvcol(l enough.judgingby the district lllen of the Pangong on a lowrockon the north-westere site of an old fort. The saidplain is a disputed claimit. they are brought l)uringwillter dottedwithblack slearthe lake.andarecovered in deep and had near NumK:um. they much longer onlysomewhat the tenchin shapeand colour.alld.becomingquite of an ernerald-green neartlle shore.when a good strongwindiS lolowing dulsing whichrise to the waves. It is a fine sight to see the lake andbrought downa a storn. the winteron the lake at Ote.catclling a verygood afternoon's waterundertlle rocks. though.andyaks. resemble withslime like thosefish. to a deptllof 3 feet.andthe degree all overaTery Ote.

anda low nulla-bed wherea longbroad it. men.on tonvards Ourroaci the cliSs. in torrents camedowllto the givethe newsof our arrival aboutto ricle set my Bllut andhaveit thencesentoll to Rudok I instantly to writea letter to the goernor of the place down Moonshie to mv payinga that he wouldraise no difficulty requesting rllhenest twodays visitto the place andsee its Inonasteries.. us. The letter*X7as the eSectthat it as not ill his porerto ^.iveme leaveto vislt in Lhassato ilom his sllperiors . They up some lateral ravine ollt of sight.anci thein. was miserably nothingbut cloud. The amountof arelike I canwell imaffline. of Rudok. turned being abouttwo luiles to the pointthey had rounded. From tlle to bllow the shoreunder verylollground dullgleenplaillof Pal was seen.viz.must be a very minusquantity. forthe hills wereburied I remained with t..ched sorne of the first nativeswe had seen. rea. or onebeinga Lhama out verymildindividuals. lay over this. tllere in he hacistrictorders . It raine(l was. my and of Rudokroelein with sometwentyfollowers. in densecloud. Tlley saFrus at the same time.and. Governor of tea. Zirnskang alld pitchedhis tellts on the otherbarlkof the little streamS a cameover at once to see me. at Pal.sleet. on the edge of a frozensheet of water for miles.and on its lowpassthe broad the blacktents of a smallTartar westernside we discovered +rasnow certainlyknownto these camp. at the intrusion ulorenoisyandfurions until long afterthe tents were put up. thc the wlloleperiotlof my sojourn cold.. Whattlle winters comfortin a of the large Tibetanbreed. and broughta letter om the witha presertt togetller and a whitescarf. otlr had disappeared knownto the Rudokmen.three mendriving yaks in our direction. jovial fellow.On the 1st of August enjoya little warmth of thatdaycamein sight andin the afternoon Paljung.356 GODWIN-AUSTEN on the PanyonyLakeDistl ict Ladakll. During stretchin.3117 SQ that I was unableto proceed a gooddeal of rairl on the thild daythe surYey workill an easterndirection.1863. As our approach beinga next day. ranfromthe hills on tlle northout itltO longpromontory Pal. Campwas pitcled at Paljllng. not to be reconciled was me that one of their number informed TheseChanlpahas into Nohat once. clisadvantageous wc andbrightness. andtlJrlled but failedto oxertake andbolted: we followed. f mayhave seen it under and I tlust at times it does circumstarsces.therefbre. Budok. stout. Threemen cameout to meet people. He was a nativeat Lhassa! sllort.weathel.with a few solitaryfile davs. Their dogs. approach duringtlle ni. andsomeslleepandgoatsfor lny (bricks) of twodamuns and was to thell read by the Aloonshie.were rnuch and were of strangers.and rain.

churned witll butter. and all mountedon little shaggy. At the eastern end of the PangoIlg the hills somewhatdecrease in altitude. I gave llim a fbw presentsand we parted. I hadto give up the ideaof seeingRudok. whichis al+^rays kept simmeling on the fire. I made no secret of my work.lled lIlyagreement.they mayexteildbr soinedistance.and thallkecl me with manysalaarus. rl'}ley Mere a11very jolly and atniable. after my dinner.GODWIN-AUSTEN on t/le Panyo7 laAe District. and that I would accept the presentsas a sign of fisiendst ip. T1le 5th brolie.rere also may turn out to be connected with Pangongrl'. it is by no meansa bad lel eragewhen madewithgoodfresh butter.soprobably bounded by steep sides. fortunately clearandbrigllt. I xvas invited overto theirtents previous to startinffl. and showed>lld explaiIled the map of the lalte to him.but I heldout for one laore march towards tlle place.alld that it would eventuallybe knownif he permitted it. evidently to the glzeat pleasllre of the Zimskang.and gained my point. anda curiously dressed ralable friend the Zinaskangstuckto me like a leech.ionwas considerable. Havingreceivedordersnot to btillgon anycollision with the (Sh.I)ut I saidtheymustabideby theirfir.but not beforeshowingsorneallgerat their absurd wishes.tile bretldtll of this hit.witha fewof his agreement. At a small hill called ToboNokpovhence I hadpromised to returnthe previous day-I ful{. The Zimskangagain came over. He addedthat he could not use forceto preventmy furtherprogress. and I was enabledto get ilatersections with otherrays. I laave found the peopleof Thibet far in adlance of those of Hindustan as regards drawings. the llighest lyingto the northof Noh.ners crossin^.withtheirenorzmous flat mushroom-shaped hats. but sturdy ponies. east of camp.about 9 o'clock at night to beg T would not proceedanyfurtller. wllo was no^^r more pleasant than ever.On the UthAugustllly tents ^Tere struckto leave Pa1.sllich were not discernible at twenty miles.nese officials. so I started earlyalong tlle shoreof the lalvein direction of Noh. azld tl-le eastern endof the lake. andwhattheyare meant to represent. TheafterIloon of thatday I was enabledto ascendthe limestone mountain.but he tlustedI would not lose him his appointment ly so doin.the wholedar. andI observedin the far distance two or threepiecesof water. to partakeof a parting cup of salted tea.alld fix lBy true positionvthe range aroulld Rudok. Lookingin a directiondue east from the higher pOilltS I aseended the countryappeared flat but unclulating.and the Rudoknzen did tlle same. and extendedup to a snowy . Ladak11.whichhe thoroughly 1lnderstood.357 prevelltforeit.ll ret. the frontier.

Nearlya11their worldly on the poniesthey on sheep. at the clrawinC and delit. the road Themolnirlg forsomedistanceover the dead level plain. lsTith several the higher ravinesof the curiousenough. The morningof the 7tl] brokeclear early.on the PanyongLake l)istrief. Ladath. WAialking the hills and country to obtaina viewo+rer seenin the centreof up this.cold. called the valley to the pass in our front. wasnot botlnded the horzon. aftel whichthey were sent on to the hilllordsand zuasters.xvhich aTery +^7as . sunny. lay north-westelly for by water.270bet.whereslle sat for her the youngladyblought macle of her. wereof no great elevationaboveit. The little calnpof Champas intoPal we should llS. level expallding to ascend left rosea hill.we startecl and bright. flowint. lavender.whicllwas patchedwith forze of stlmtedgrowthand ulentyof good glass.d. One of the Champa wllichis not seen on the Ladakh a peculiarllead-dtess +^ore sicle. I had of coralbeads. a long. ()n the top the ground opengroundto the nolth. not morethan uoulltains frolll themintothe 3000feet. on the intowicle. rode. havinga scent like side to collect the rootsof a los shrub.broa.tlle effeetwas by shortstrings overto my tent. +solnell uas at tlle forehead near tlle attachment ornamcuts. it had once leen co^Tered distinctly that sllo+ved shells are seen for some wa. the way. The women and pitchingof the tents than their uIlpacking.we tllen rose deadfresh-water slopeof somethree miles. of silvercoinsattached werea numbelz as to lie on the forehead.anclcloudy. Tlle usual narrovfillet of cloth wornby the Ladakll withtorquoise and co+Tered xvastreblethe usual+vidth. about1000feet.hted portrait. 16. aseended gradually \!as nearly the DingoLa. the packing. 358 GODWIN-AUSTEN on the south. anclsilxrer from^hich.y.the lowerslopesfallinggraclually valleT.across. dlo-e the former.a small tazn+ras a shortdistance had once evielently the level gloulld llorthof the pass. Themorelexel surface rangethatrosesuddenly to andwas seen stretchin^.very gradual from it o+rer verylow *rith whichat last contlactetilltO a raYine boundecl with theirmarch continued hills. andwas a gloundwas callecl ToboRuberu. anci girlswasverynice-lookilag.which I determined around. good. The valleywas herelligh. ^7e lett pendant a bat of silverset withsmalltorquoises.and with a fresh breeze. by ally mountains.forn a but these are all absorbed countryhave plenty of watern waterfew miles clownin the sancland gravel of the broacl and nearlylevel.olllya fewarticlescarried carried in in factn did :rnore ancl. The ellcamping of water streams gOQCi level pieceof green grass.alld gone straightinto Noh goodswere withoutmeetinga soul. and hadwe been onedaylater colnillg llave mssed them altogether.

which got up in all directions. The rocks were all of limestone formation. The Deenjor La was reaGhedabout 10 o'clock.rising graduallyto a low pass called Pa Luen. but tlle Champaswere eridently on the watch. The rise was gentle the whole wav. save that the broad gravelly bed was coverecl with a luxuriant growtll of furze. As I came up to the usual pile of stones oll the clest. and couldonly fix a peak or two loomingup throut. he had colue fiom an encamplYlent up the valley. it as here called Drukkel. The longest of these valleys hacl a direction nortllwest. WYe patted vith our Champa friendsat a place calletlChulpan. while we proceededon along the side of the hillXs of the rigilt ballk. I found no fossils. which at this spot branchedinto three broadarmsthat penetrated into the lllountains on the llorth for some eigllt llliles. but it resembledin appearancethe Palsozoic rocks of Dras. al<d descendingon the other side to axlothertributaryof the Da1 Loomba. wherethey ellcampedto grazetheir goats alld sheep for a few days. this sssalmedwith hares. Betwee1l campand the DeenjorLa the s7alley bore the same character.ancl it 00ras not until we had proceecledallotllel two miles tllat waterwas foun(-l ill the bed of the ravine. This plai formsthe head of one of the branchesof the Oal Loomba.dififerillg slightly ilom the Europeatzin not being quite so thorny.-).though we should llot have supposecl a hunlan being to have beell within miles. Ladakh.with a strike llearly east and west.and espied us the momentwe toppeclthe pass of Sa Lam. but very tough ancl acid.GODWIN-AUSTEN onthePanyony LakeDistrict. spreldillg out into a broad? gravelly plain. NVl-lere we halted fuel grew ill plenty the yellowi-lowerecl 'I'ibetall furze.zno ran: no +^ater was here to be found. and fell in like mallner into the valley on the nortll.showingits general lewrel llad been ulliforlu.who joineclus. &c. on accountof a dense ha%e in that direction. I oUtainedfrom the peak a fine view.and I hacl solue good shooting. and I quickly followedthem dOWIl the valley. I Tnanaged to get a little . a horselllanwas see riding do+sn the valley from the north. alld up this OU1' roaclto the Challc Chvin*.46. My own camp alld tlle 'Tartars had gone oo. 'l'hevalley was still broad. This was very characteristicof these regions. on the left side of whieh was a sharply-defilled scarp. two fine Avi.s ummoncame round a spllr to tlle rightnat about 200 yalds' distance. I foutldit by boiling-pointthermometerto be3 17. 359 extended over the greater part of the area. I was mucll disappointed. AYhen on the Sa Lanl. Scattered plants of rhubarbare here seen. and said he xvassent to escort us on to the pass ahead. but could see no more of the easternend of the Pangong near Noh. OU1 zlloveinents +^rere therefore well known.hthe Inist.but the hill-si(les descencledinto it with steeper slope.

A fine massof llill rose to tlle south. and the wind was bitterly cold. Up the mountainsto tlle therev.but missedthem. It svas a bitter cold evenIinishedwe int.nitaon the east. There on anotherlwiglllearel ainated a short s-av do+sTn aSIlotrack of allyliind to be seell llere.going to bed It was not until late that I got lDack with the prospect of a stiS ascent next day. the water o:S off) quite little streamfrozen hard. ancl up tlle valley numerousTibetan antelope. Thf3 still colJered 13eds the to the southof the Pallgongwere 5!ell seen. +^hilethe yalts and servants proceeded up the western (the tosraldsa patchof green grass.Xrllence Bul ma Loornba being cl little grass and furzethere skirtedthe stream. wllichoverlooked to a Tow lDrallell plain.alld the baclssof the y. southandavest.wllereI thought Loomba). The valley and ran towardsnorthbelowcamptook the usual configuration. I was up and the at this hour it was very cold. I followed the eastern golge that tera narrow pass.and my guides told me O eyondwas grazedover lv a llomad tril)e.that tlley *^rere sionally calue to Tanltseto excharlge their wool for grain.240 feet high. massive snonvsplendidview.bleaL. thence to Ilchi. -. Xppearingeasy and near. of whicll they had none. +vith moulltains great snowyrange near the Indus beyonclRudok. I sent tlle CAlUp on to the stream steeper the ascent. and occaauthorities.iks +X7ele +z7ere soon ver)T early .and inhospitable. west. and I still longed to go on in that direction. Chalhg stony. that tlse COUlltiy called Kil'ghiS. I toolttlle easternbranch.. uritha bed about one-fourthof a lnile broad.Lada1z1z. Pa?lgony On tAle AUSTEN GODAXINT nearer. :Nertse would be follnd. and 1lp this I determinedto a fine view-of a country. andfurther The ]abourwas renarded)for fromtlle summit I obtained a lalge amountof work. and a very tllis the staff Oll tlle top of Wiepsarlg delightful little pull up it loolzed. Several hiangs ascend to Wiepsan.and this provedto be the case. Florn avater was visible. at about reached the confluenceof a large valley from three miles vYe the north. A. proviIlg than I hadanticipated.360 Lake Distrief. and did ca the top. were llere seen. After marcllingup the gra-elly -ide hill for fire miles sThose tullled to the east and endedin an extensive eleuain tributary vatedplain on tlle surfaceof wllichlay sollle lalge snow-bedssTewererathel at a lossto fillcl^ater. and thence trigonometricalstation.nakecl. who did not own allegiance to the Rudok gleat thieves ancllobbels.:. to camp.Vork dowll aoain. and into a terra incot. 'I'lleseare the peoplewho wanderover the plains. Ouly in a tributaryof the ?rreat wasa wayto Ote wasanvthinggreen. but the camp+vasin as sheltereda spot as ^recould find. to loe20. (Illdthere was sonle good grass heie for the yaks. this was a good clecal and comnzenced belo+s.