Time: 03-08-2014 19:43

User: kslagle

PubDate: 03-09-2014

Zone: KY Edition: 1 Page Name: A 12 Color:

Black Yellow Magenta Cyan

A12 lll

SUNDAY, MARCH 9, 2014

KY

THE COURIER-JOURNAL

CHEMICAL

“What troubles me is that

Z ZONES ONES
Worst-case scenarios for chemical spills in Louisville
Risk management planning was required by the Clean Air Act of 1990 for companies that store and use especially flammable and toxic substances in large quantities. The plans include an evaluation of worstcase and more-likely accidental release scenarios, a prevention and safety program, and an emergency response program. The goal is to help plants operate more safely while providing the public and first responders with knowledge about risks in their communities This map illustrates the worst-case scenarios for all current risk management plans filed by companies operating in Louisville. Each assumes the unlikely scenario that the entire contents of a regulated hazardous chemical quickly and catastrophically escapes.
15

DANGER

Eboni Cochran, western Louisville resident
65 265

“There are no alternative options available to replace hydrogen fluoride at our site, as it is an essential raw material used for manufacturing HCFC-22.”
Lisa Randall, regional public affairs manager, DuPont

71

3
841
71

N

64

10 9
264

21

11
65 64 64 265

1 2
264

6

JEFFERSON COUNTY
7

841

5 20 12
841

17
265

The circles represent the projected maximum reach – with dangers still present – of chemical vapors or explosive discharges in any direction from each of the companies. Using EPA guidelines, companies estimated the population within each zone of vulnerability. Depending on wind direction, speed and other factors, not everyone within a zone would be affected.

65

13

COUNTY COUN UNTY

8

14

THE CHEMICALS
TOXIC TOXIC TOXIC TOXIC TOXIC
FLAMMABLE

TOXIC

FLAMMABLE

Anhydrous ammonia
Exposure to high levels of ammonia in air may be irritating to your skin, eyes, throat and lungs and cause coughing and burns. Lung damage and death may occur after exposure to very high concentrations of ammonia. Release scenario Liquid spill from pipe leak vaporizes or gas leak liquified by pressure. Locations on map

Chlorine
Chlorine is a potent human irritant. Exposure to low levels can result in nose, throat and eye irritation. At higher levels, breathing chlorine gas may damage the lungs. Chlorine reacts with water to produce acids. The acids are corrosive and damage cells in the body on contact. Release scenario Hose or valve failure. Gas leak liquified by pressure. Locations on map

Chloroform
Breathing chloroform can cause dizziness, fatigue, and headaches. In humans it is a central nervous system depressant that once was used medically as an anesthetic. It can kill people at very high concentrations. Release scenario Valve failure causing liquid spill and vaporization. Location on map

Hydrogen fluoride
Acute inhalation exposure to gaseous hydrogen fluoride can cause severe respiratory damage in humans, including severe irritation and pulmonary edema. Irritation and burning of the eyes, nose, and upper and lower respiratory tract, sore throat, cough, chest tightness and wheezing have been reported. Release scenario Leak causing liquid spill and vaporization. Location on map

Oleum
Because of the tendency to liberate sulfur trioxide on contact with air, oleum is also known as fuming sulfuric acid. It irritates and burns the eyes, nose and throat. It can cause gagging, chest tightness and pain, fluid in the lungs, suffocation and death. Release scenario Leak causing liquid spill and vaporization. Location on map

This is a flammable gas and dangerous fire hazard. Poisonous gases are produced in a fire. Can irritate eyes, nose, throat and cause fluid buildup in the lungs. Release scenario Leak causing vapor cloud and possible explosion. Location on map

Difluoroethane Formaldehyde

Breathing formaldehyde can irritate lungs, eyes, nose and throat. It is corrosive and can cause fluid buildup in the lungs. Release scenario Hose or tank failure causing liquid spill and vaporization. Locations on map

Butane

This flammable gas is a dangerous fire hazard. Poisonous gases can be produced in a fire. Release scenario Leak causing vapor cloud and possible explosion. Location on map

16

17

19

12

5

1 10 18

2 11 20

6 14 21

7 15

9

3

4

13

8

WORST CASE
Map no. Company 1. American Synthetic Rubber Co.

MAPPED
Chemical Ammonia gas Ammonia (anhydrous) Chlorine Chlorine Chloroform Ammonia (anhydrous) Ammonia (anhydrous) Hydrogen fluoride Oleum Ammonia (anhydrous) Ammonia (anhydrous) Difluoroethane Chlorine Ammonia (anhydrous) Ammonia (anhydrous) Formaldehyde Formaldehyde Ammonia (anhydrous) Butane Ammonia (anhydrous) Ammonia (anhydrous)

Zone Release Radius Residential Quantity (lbs.) time (min.) (miles) population 7,750 10 1.1 3,500 5,480 2,000 2,000 61,800 8,500 172,000 25,000 76,000 12,000 30,000 180,000 263,900 40,914 10,943 16,263 17,500 141,822 1,927 45,000 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 n/a 10 10 10 0.6 45 20 n/a 10 10 0.9 0.9 1.3 3.5 2.8 1.2 16.0 3.6 3.2 1.2 0.2 14.0 5.6 3.6 1.6 3.2 1.4 0.4 0.6 2.6 13,001 2,010 17,152 67,805 73,561 10,519 810,000 161,714 110,000 2,127 182 760,000 31,119 55,000 6,561 95,802 1,250 2 3,145 58,220

MORE LIKELY
Chemical Acrylonitrile* Ammonia (anhydrous) Chlorine Chlorine Chloroform Ammonia (anhydrous) Ammonia (anhydrous) Chlorine Oleum Ammonia (anhydrous) Ammonia (anhydrous) Butane Vinyl acetate monomer* Ammonia (anhydrous) Ammonia (anhydrous) Formaldehyde solution Formaldehyde Ammonia (anhydrous) Butane Ammonia (anhydrous) 1, 3-butadiene*

2. American Cold Storage 3. B.E. Payne Water Treatment Plant 4. Brenntag Mid-South Inc. 5. CITGO Petroleum Corp., Louisville Terminal 6. Crescent Hill Water Treatment Plant 7. Dean Dairy Holding LLC 8. Dupont Louisville Works 9. Forth Technologies Inc. 10. JBS USA pork processing plant 11. Kentucky Distribution Center 12. Louisville Packaging 13. Lubrizol Advanced Materials Inc. 14. Mill Creek Station 15. Millard Refrigerated Services 16. Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. 17. Nuplex Resins LLC 18. Ralcorp Frozen Bakery Products 19. Sealed Air, Louisville 20. Sysco Louisville Inc. 21. Zeon Chemicals LLC

13,500,000 3,080

Release Radius Residential Quantity (lbs.) time (min.) (miles) population 1,922 62 0.2 110 150 n/a 0.1 1 900 n/a 0.1 10 200 60 0.1 104 4,700,000 555 1.2 4,373 5,520 1,400 735 100 31,000 1,140 200 14,700 350 7,320 972,778 310 1,010 786 632 890 60 10 15 12 40 60 n/a 5 1 60 10 0.7 20 n/a 10 n/a 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.38 0.2 0.2 0.34 1.2 0.2 0.6 0.1 0.1 33 0 0 199 150 0 2 20 0 0 496 11,795 400 0 42 1

NOT MAPPED Zone

*Symptoms associated with acrylonitrile poisoning include limb weakness, labored and irregular breathing, dizziness and impaired judgment, cyanosis, nausea, collapse and convulsions. Exposure to vinyl acetate monomer can cause eye and respiratory tract irritation. Exposure to 1,3-butadiene can cause irritation of the eyes, nasal passages, throat and lungs. Neurological effects, such as blurred vision, fatigue, headache and vertigo have also been reported at very high exposure levels. SOURCES: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Health, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, New Jersey Department of Health and Courier-Journal research by James Bruggers

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