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Unit 10

The Definite Article
Unit Description:
How does Hebrew mark the difference between "a boy" and "the boy"? This is the question that will we try to answer in unit 10. We will return to reading and discussing verses from the story of the creation (Genesis 1) and the Tower of Babel (Genesis 11).

New Words in this Unit Total New Words

15 150

Unit 10
147

beautiful straight. = masculine * This name is usually written ‫ָה‬ ‫ יְ הו‬and read as ‫ָי‬ ‫אדֹנ‬ ֲ “LORD.s.) soul.” and read as ‫ֹהים‬ Unit 10 148 . particularly when this name appears next to the name ‫ָי‬ ‫אדֹנ‬ ֲ .s. person. right he came down he went up ‫מה‬ ָ‫כ‬ ְ‫ח‬ ָ ‫כּוֹכב‬ ָ ‫בב‬ ָ‫ל‬ ֵ / ‫לב‬ ֵ Nouns ‫ֶפשׁ‬ ֶ‫נ‬ ‫ֹלה‬ ָ‫ע‬ ‫פּה‬ ֶ Proper Nouns ‫יהוה‬ ‫שׁלֹמֹה‬ ְ ‫אַחר‬ ֵ ‫טהוֹר‬ ָ ‫מא‬ ֵ‫ט‬ ָ ‫ָפה‬ ֶ‫י‬ ‫ָשׁר‬ ָ‫י‬ ‫ָרד‬ ַ‫י‬ ‫לה‬ ָ‫ע‬ ָ Adjectives Verbs m.s. living being (f.Vocabulary Category Hebrew Transliteration hokmāh kôkāb lēb / lēbāb népeš ‘ ō lā h peh yhwh šəlōmōh ’ahēr tāhôr tāmē’ yāpeh yāšār yārad ‘ ā lā h f.) star (m.) mouth (m. emotions) (m.” But in some cases.s. = feminine Pronunciation hokhma kokhav lev / levav néfesh ’ola pe ’adonay* shəlomo ’aher tahor tame yafe yashar yarad ’ala s.) heart (mind.s. it is written ‫יְ הוִ ה‬ ִ ‫אל‬ ֱ “GOD.s.) whole burnt offering (f. pure unclean fair.) LORD* (name of Israel’s God) Solomon another clean. will. = singular English wisdom (f.

Slides from the Unit Unit 10 149 .

Unit 10 150 .

Unit 10 151 .

Unit 10 152 .

Unit 10 153 .

Unit 10 154 .

Unit 10 155 .

doubled by a dagesh) when the definite article is added. ‫“ = סוּס‬horse” or “a horse.) Noun-Adjective Agreement Nouns and the adjectives that describe them must agree with each other in definiteness.” depending on the context. The letter ‫ה‬. For example.” Exception: In some words in which the first consonant is followed by a shewa. Regular Form: The definite article in Hebrew is not a separate word as it is in English. the Hebrew definite article attaches to the beginning of the word it marks. A Hebrew word that does not have the definite article can be translated with or without “a. (This phenomenon only occurs in some words. For example. Instead. The regular definite article is composed of three elements: 1. ‫הטּוֹב‬ ַ ‫הסּוּס‬ ַ = “the good horse. The short [a] vowel patah. For example. The definite article marks something or somebody specific.e.) English convention does not require us to translate the definite article twice. that first consonant is not geminated (i. 3. A strong dagesh doubling the first consonant of the word. the dagesh still appears. if a noun has the definite article.” even though there is no dagesh in the letter ‫י‬. For example. ‫דים‬ ִ‫ל‬ ָ ְ‫הי‬ ַ = “the children. In other words. in other words that begin with a shewa. (Remember that the adjective must also agree with the noun in number and gender.” The Definite Article Meaning: The definite article (“the”) is used in Hebrew in generally the same way as it is in English. ‫הסּוּס‬ ַ = “the horse. 2.” Unit 10 156 .Grammatical Remarks The Indefinite Article Hebrew has no indefinite article (“a”). so will the adjective that describes it.

The Conjunction: The regular conjunction ְ‫“ ו‬and” appears as the long [û] vowel ‫ וּ‬when it is attached to a word that begins with one of the following: 1. as in ‫בין‬ ֵ ‫וּ‬. e. out of a desire to not accidentally break the third commandment by misusing the divine name.g.” with all capital letters. * According to the International Phonetic Alphabet. 2. so the form of the conjunction changes.” Unit 10 157 .Notes from the Text ‫ יהוה‬is the personal name of Israel’s God. in which case we pronounce [’ĕlōhîm] and translate as “GOD.” The first and last vowels of ‫ָי‬ ‫אדֹנ‬ ֲ were added to the consonants of the name – ‫ָה‬ ‫( יְ הו‬the hataf-patah changed to a shewa under the ‫ – )י‬to remind the reader that this name was to be pronounced [’ădōnāy]. Many English translations render this as “LORD. A bilabial consonant (‫פ‬/‫מ‬/‫ – )ב‬The original pronunciation of the ‫ ו‬was probably [w]. In Hebrew tradition. this name was read ‫ָי‬ ‫אדֹנ‬ ֲ “LORD. but its original vowels were not preserved. so it very naturally morphed into the “bilabial”* vowel [û] before one of these consonants. this is a “close back rounded vowel. Sometimes it appears as ‫( יְ הוִ ה‬with the vowels of ‫ֹהים‬ ִ ‫אל‬ ֱ “God”). ‫שׁלֹמֹה‬ ְ ‫וּ‬. which is very close to these three bilabials (consonants that are pronounced with the lips). so nobody knows exactly how it was pronounced. A consonant pointed with a shewa – Hebrew cannot begin a word with two shewas.” Some reading traditions choose to read ‫השֵּׁם‬ ַ “the Name” whenever they see the letters ‫ יהוה‬with either set of vowels.

7:18) ‫מאָה‬ ֵ‫ט‬ ְ ‫ָה‬ ‫חיּ‬ ַ (Lev. 15:5) ‫אַחר‬ ֵ ‫אישׁ‬ ִ (1 Kings 20:37) ‫פשׁ‬ ֶ‫נּ‬ ֶ‫ה‬ ַ ְ‫( ו‬Lev. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English. ‫חד‬ ָ‫א‬ ֶ ‫לב‬ ֵ (Ezek. 25:11) ‫ָפה‬ ָ ‫שּׁה י‬ ָ‫א‬ ִ (Prov. 11:22) ‫בים‬ ִ ‫כּוֹכ‬ ָ ‫ה‬ ַ (Gen. ‫לה‬ ָ‫ע‬ ָ ‫שׁלֹמֹה‬ ְ ‫ָשׁר‬ ָ ‫מים וְ י‬ ִ‫תּ‬ ָ ‫ֹלה‬ ָ ‫גּד‬ ְ ‫מה‬ ָ‫כ‬ ְ‫ח‬ ָ ‫מא‬ ֵ‫טּ‬ ָ‫ה‬ ַ ‫מּקוֹם‬ ָ‫ה‬ ַ ‫ֹלה‬ ָ ‫וְ ע‬ ‫ָרד‬ ַ ‫ָה י‬ ‫יְ הו‬ ‫קּטֹן‬ ָ‫ה‬ ַ ‫פּה‬ ֶ‫ה‬ ַ blameless and upright the unclean place Solomon went up the small mouth great wisdom and a burnt offering the LORD went down 2.Homework 1. Match the Hebrew phrase on the left to the correct translation on the right. 5:2) one heart Unit 10 158 . 11:19) ‫טהוֹר‬ ָ ‫ָהב‬ ָ ‫( ז‬Exod.

Add the definite article to each of the following words. Circle the adjective that agrees with the preceding noun in number. gender. Unit 10 159 . ‫דה‬ ֶ‫שּׂ‬ ָ ‫בר‬ ָ‫דּ‬ ָ ‫אָך‬ ְ ‫ל‬ ְ‫מ‬ ַ ‫קוֹל‬ ‫גּוֹי‬ ‫בא‬ ָ‫צ‬ ָ ‫ַער‬ ַ‫נ‬ ‫ֶלד‬ ֶ‫י‬ ‫דה‬ ֶ‫שּׂ‬ ָ‫ה‬ ַ 4.3. and definiteness.

25:11) ‫ָפה‬ ָ ‫שּׁה י‬ ָ‫א‬ ִ (Prov.Homework Answers 1. 7:18) ‫מאָה‬ ֵ‫ט‬ ְ ‫ָה‬ ‫חיּ‬ ַ (Lev. ‫לה‬ ָ‫ע‬ ָ ‫שׁלֹמֹה‬ ְ ‫ָשׁר‬ ָ ‫מים וְ י‬ ִ‫תּ‬ ָ ‫ֹלה‬ ָ ‫גּד‬ ְ ‫מה‬ ָ‫כ‬ ְ‫ח‬ ָ ‫מא‬ ֵ‫טּ‬ ָ‫ה‬ ַ ‫מּקוֹם‬ ָ‫ה‬ ַ ‫ֹלה‬ ָ ‫וְ ע‬ ‫ָרד‬ ַ ‫ָה י‬ ‫יְ הו‬ ‫קּטֹן‬ ָ‫ה‬ ַ ‫פּה‬ ֶ‫ה‬ ַ Solomon went up blameless and upright great wisdom the unclean place and a burnt offering the LORD went down the small mouth 2. 5:2) one heart pure gold a beautiful woman the stars another man and the person an unclean animal Unit 10 160 . ‫חד‬ ָ‫א‬ ֶ ‫לב‬ ֵ (Ezek. 15:5) ‫אַחר‬ ֵ ‫אישׁ‬ ִ (1 Kings 20:37) ‫ֶפשׁ‬ ֶ ‫הנּ‬ ַ ְ‫( ו‬Lev. 11:22) ‫בים‬ ִ ‫כּוֹכ‬ ָ ‫ה‬ ַ (Gen. 11:19) ‫טהוֹר‬ ָ ‫ָהב‬ ָ ‫( ז‬Exod. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English. Match the Hebrew phrase on the left to the correct translation on the right.

Circle the adjective that agrees with the preceding noun in number. ‫דה‬ ֶ‫שּׂ‬ ָ ‫בר‬ ָ‫דּ‬ ָ ‫אָך‬ ְ ‫ל‬ ְ‫מ‬ ַ ‫קוֹל‬ ‫גּוֹי‬ ‫בא‬ ָ‫צ‬ ָ ‫ַער‬ ַ‫נ‬ ‫ֶלד‬ ֶ‫י‬ ‫דה‬ ֶ‫שּׂ‬ ָ‫ה‬ ַ ‫בר‬ ָ‫דּ‬ ָ‫ה‬ ַ ‫אָך‬ ְ ‫ל‬ ְ‫מּ‬ ַ‫ה‬ ַ ‫הקּוֹל‬ ַ ‫הגּוֹי‬ ַ ‫בא‬ ָ‫צּ‬ ָ‫ה‬ ַ ‫ַער‬ ַ ‫הנּ‬ ַ ‫ֶלד‬ ֶ ‫היּ‬ ַ 4.3. gender. Add the definite article to each of the following words. and definiteness. ‫בה‬ ָ ‫נה טוֹ‬ ָ‫שׁ‬ ָ ‫גּדֹל‬ ָ‫ה‬ ַ ‫בּיִ ת‬ ַ‫ה‬ ַ ‫קּדוֹשׁ‬ ָ‫ה‬ ַ ‫מּקוֹם‬ ָ‫ה‬ ַ ‫מים‬ ִ‫תּ‬ ָ ‫אישׁ‬ ִ ‫דּיק‬ ִ‫צּ‬ ַ‫ה‬ ַ ‫הדּוֹר‬ ַ ‫קנִ ים‬ ֵ‫זּ‬ ְ‫ה‬ ַ ‫כים‬ ִ‫ל‬ ָ‫מּ‬ ְ‫ה‬ ַ ‫טנּוֹת‬ ַ‫ק‬ ְ ‫לדוֹת‬ ָ ְ‫י‬ Unit 10 161 .

As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. 1910.. 8. by A. 12) Unit 10 162 .O.. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. (§35 = pp. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. Cowley. Lambdin. 1996. Oxford. T. §21 = pp. (§35 = pp. Joüon. 5. Rome. Kautzsch. 110-12) 2. 1976.Recommended Bibliography 1. P. E. Introduction to Biblical Hebrew. (§14. T. Muraoka. §18. Norwich. Second English Ed.. 112-14) 3.