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Internal combustion engines, particularly diesel engines, are widely used as prime movers in the transport industry, power generation and also used in agricultural applications. Diesel engines operate at a relatively higher efficiency compared to their counterparts. Current and future legislation on emissions require engine developers to produce cleaner and more efficient power plant systems. Energy demand is increasing due to ever increasing number of vehicles employing internal combustion engines. Also, world is presently confronted with the twin crisis of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. Fossil fuels are limited resources hence, search for renewable fuels is becoming more and more prominent for ensuring energy security and environmental protection !"#$. %esides them, some other aspects such as increasing fuel price, the idea of supplying the fuel demand from local sources, lessening the import of the crude oil and creating new employments have been promoted these investigations. For the developing countries of the world, fuels of bio&origin can provide a feasible solution to the crisis. 'hen (udolf Diesel invented the diesel engine more than a century ago, he demonstrated the principle of compression ignition engine by employing peanut oil as fuel and suggested that vegetable oils would be the future fuel for diesel engines. )owever, petroleum was discovered later, which replaced vegetable oils as engine fuel due to its abundant supply. *hus, it is highly desired in present conte+t to direct the research towards renewable fuels of bio&origin, which are environment friendly, provide improved performance, while being used as diesel substitute and must not be harmful to human health !"#$. ,nstable situation on the crude oil mar-et resulting in an unpredictable price rise, as well as an increasing effort to see- for diesel substitutes led to an interest in using neat vegetable oil !##$. .ince the calorific value and Cetane number of the non&edible oils in their pure form are comparable to diesel oil, the changeover is considered relatively simple however, the impediments are their high viscosity. India is producing a host of non&edible oils such as linseed, castor, mahua, rice bran, -aran/a 01ongamia glabra2, neem 0A3adirachta indica2, palash 0%utea monosperma2, -usum 0.chlelchera tri/uga2, etc. .ome of these oils produced even now are not being properly utili3ed, and it has been estimated that some other plant&based and forest derived oils have a much higher production potential. 4egetable oils have comparable heat content,


Cetane number, heat of vapori3ation, and stoichiometric air5fuel ratio with mineral diesel !"#$. *he non&edible oils such as neem, mahua, -aran/a, babassu, /atropha and tobacco seed oil are easily available in many parts of the world including India and are very economical comparable to edible oils. 1ongamia pinnata 06aran/a2 can be cultivated on any type of soil, and have low moisture demand. *he cultivation of these plants is easier and plant has high oil content 0#789:;2 !#"$. *he -inematic viscosity of -aran/a oil was found to be ":.< times more than that of diesel determined at =:>C. It reduced with increase in diesel amount in the blend and preheating the -aran/a vegetable oil !"?$. A similar reduction in specific gravity was also observed. )owever, the calorific value of biodiesel was found to be 9@."# AB5-g, which is less than the calorific value of diesel 0=#.#" AB5-g2 and greater than that of the -aran/a oil 09= AB5-g2. As the percentage of 6aran/a vegetable oil in the blends increased, the calorific value decreased. *he flash points of -aran/a oil and biodiesel were found to be greater than "::>C, which is safe for storage and handling !""$.

1.1 Use of vegetable oils as an alternative fuel
4egetable oils are being considered world over as one of the most promising candidates for alternative to diesel fuel. *he reasons are their renewable nature, ease of production and their suitability to diesel engines. 4egetable oils are also referred to as bio&fuels. .everal vegetable oils are being e+amined as fuels in different regions of the world. In India, edible oils have been e+cluded from being used as fuel due to their shortage even now. Inedible vegetable oils can be a valuable supplemental source of energy for India. *he country is blessed with a largely tropical climate, with a wide variety of vegetation, including oil seed bearing trees. Among the inedible vegetable oils that can be considered as potential fuels are oils of sal, seed, /atropha, mahua, neem, cottonseed, rice bran and -aran/a. .tudies have revealed that some of these oils can directly substitute diesel in generating sets and irrigation pump sets 0which need no modifications2. .uch oils when used are -nown as .traight 4egetable Cils 0..4.C2. After being e+tracted in e+pellers they are only filtered to remove suspended solid particulates !@$. *he alternative diesel fuels must be technically and environmentally acceptable and economically competitive. From the viewpoint of these requirements, triglycerides 0vegetable oils2 and their derivatives are considered as viable alternatives for diesel fuels.


*hey are biodegradable and renewable fuels. *hey have reasonably high cetane number. *he flashpoint of vegetable oils is high and hence it is safe to use them. 4egetable oils typically have large molecules, with carbon, hydrogen and o+ygen being present. *he typical molecular structure of diesel and vegetable oil is presented in Fig." 0a2 and 0b2 respectively as shown belowD ) E )− C− E ) ) E C− E ) ) E C− E ) ) E C− E ) ) E C− E ) ) E C− E ) ) E C− E ) ) E C− E ) ) E C− E ) ) E C− E ) ) E C− E ) ) E C− E ) ) E C− E ) ) E C −) E )

0a2 Diesel oil


) C E EE H − C − O − C− E E

0b2 4egetable oil Fig."." *ypical molecular structure of 0a2 diesel oil and 0b2 vegetable oil From the figure it can be observed that vegetable oils are triglycerides with non&branched chains of various lengths and different degrees of saturation. 4egetable oils contain a substantial amount of o+ygen in their structure. 'hereas, diesel oil is a saturated, non& branched hydrocarbon molecule with carbon number varying from "# to "?. *hey have higher molecular mass and viscosity. Contrary to fossil fuels, vegetable oils are free from sulfur and heavy metals. *he problems with substituting triglycerides for diesel fuels are mostly associated with their high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character. Developing vegetable oil derivatives that appro+imate the properties and performance of hydrocarbon based diesel fuels can mitigate these problems, and ma-e them compatible with it through !"$D • • • • 1.1.1 1yrolysis Aicro&emulsification %lending *ransesterification P rol sis 1yrolysis is the conversion of one substance into another by means of applying

heat i.e. heating in the absence of air or o+ygen with temperatures ranging from =7:FC to ?7:FC. In some situations this is with the aid of a catalyst leading to the cleavage of chemical bonds to yield smaller molecules. ,nli-e direct blending, fats can be pyroly3ed successfully to produce many smaller chain compounds. *he liquid fractions of the thermally decomposed vegetable oil are li-ely to be similar to diesel fuels. *he pyroly3ate has lower viscosity, flashpoint, and pour point than diesel fuel and equivalent calorific values. *he cetane number of the pyroly3ate is lower. *he pyroly3ed vegetable oils contain acceptable amounts of sulfur, water and sediment and give acceptable copper corrosion values but unacceptable ash, carbon residue and pour point !<$. 1.1.! "i#ro$e%ulsifi#ation Aicroemulsions are defined as colloidal equilibrium dispersions of optically isotropic fluid microstructures, with dimensions generally in the " & "7: nm range. *hese are formed spontaneously from two normally immiscible liquids and one or more ionic or non&ionic amphophiles. A microemulsion is designed to tac-le the problem of the high viscosity of pure vegetable oils by reducing the viscosity of oils with solvents such as simple alcohols. *he formation of micro emulsions 0co&solvency2 is one of the potential 7

A micro&emulsion can be made of vegetable oils with an ester and dispersant 0co&solvent2 or of vegetable for stable colloidal dispersions. %y using appropriate blends.# *ransesterification of triglycerides with alcohol *he reaction. 4egetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol.1. the glycerine component of a vegetable oil is replaced by an alcohol. 'ater 0from aqueous ethanol2 may also be present in order to use lower&proof ethanol. Efforts can be made to lower the viscosity of .& 'lending . with or without diesel fuels. *he droplet diameters in micro&emulsions range from ":: to "::: A°. *his process is widely used to reduce the viscosity of triglycerides. 6C).4C can be mi+ed with diesel fuels in various ratios and be used in unmodified engines.( Transesterifi#ation An ester is the condensation product of an acid and an alcohol. problems arising due to the use of only . acid or en3ymatic in nature. or an alcoholysis.1. 1. can be eradicated. *he stoichiometry for the reaction is 9D" alcohol to lipids however in practice this is usually increased to @D" to increase product yield. *he transesterification is represented by the following equationD Fig. where the alcohol component of an ester is replaced with a different alcohol. A catalyst is usually used to speed up the reaction and may be basic.". where the acid component of an ester is replaced by another acid. carbonates and corresponding sodium and potassium al-o+ides such as sodium @ . *ransesterification may be either an acidolysis.4C by dilution with solvent or ethanol or by preheating the oil !"$. an alcohol and a surfactant and a cetane improver. *he al-alis that are generally used include GaC). thus increasing water tolerance of the micro& emulsions.4C in the engine. In the alcoholysis transesterification. as shown in above figure is reversible and thus an e+cess of alcohol is usually used to force the equilibrium to the product side. 1.

ethanol. conventional diesel fuel and #:. *he most commonly used ratio is %#: i. *he mi+ture at the end of the reaction is allowed to settle. polyunsaturated character. *he type of catalyst. *he /et tends to be a < .e. Cperational problems are related to starting ability.metho+ide. vegetable oil ester. heating5 pyrolysis. biodiesel 0%"::2 alone can be used in diesel engines or it can be blended with diesel and then used. large droplet si3e and thus high spray /et penetration. ring stic-ing and lubricating oil dilution. )igh viscosity of vegetable oils causes poor fuel atomi3ation. as the reactions are faster.! Proble% )it* vegetable oil Although vegetable oils may be used directly as fuel in diesel engines without refining but it posses several problems mainly related to viscosity and carbon residue. operational and durability problems. *riglycerides are readily transesterified in the presence of al-aline catalyst at atmospheric pressure and at a temperature of appro+imately @: to <: ° C with an e+cess of methanol. ignition. due to economical reasons and availability. . *he high viscosity. mi+ture of ?:. Al-ali&catalysed reactions are used more often commercially than acid catalysts. "::. combustion and performance. Aethanol is most often used for commercial and process reasons related to its physical and chemical nature 0shortest chain alcohol and is polar2. propanol. Aethyl ester so obtained is -nown as biodiesel. carboni3ation of in/ector tip. *hese problems can be minimi3ed by blending5dilution. It has been observed that the straight vegetable oils when used for long hours tend to cho-e the fuel filter because of high viscosity and insoluble present in the straight vegetable oils. Cnly simple alcohols can be used in transesterification such as. per o+idation process and transesterification. *he properties of bio&diesel as a fuel are comparable to that of diesel. butanol and amyl alcohol. 1roblems associated with vegetable oils during engine tests can be classified into two broad groups. etho+ide.odium hydro+ide is the most common al-ali catalyst that is used. methanol. micro emulsion. propo+ide and buto+ide. 1. )owever ethanol is becoming more popular as it is a renewable resource and does not raise the same to+icity concerns as methanol. and e+tremely low volatility of vegetable oils are responsible for the operational and durability problems associated with its utili3ation as fuels in diesel engines. the reaction conditions and the concentration of impurities in a transesterification reaction determine the path that the reaction follows !"$ !<$ . namely. *he lower glycerol layer is drawn off while the upper methyl ester layer is washed to remove entrained glycerol.. Durability problems are related to deposit formation. as vegetable oil might either destroy the piston or get between cylinder I piston as unburned particles or because of bad spray of the in/ectors 0which then hit the rim of the piston or the cylinder wall2. *he general perception is that higher heating temperatures reduce the viscosity of vegetable oils and offer gains in engine performance.vegetable oil fuelled operation. I would recommend any diesel engine providing that the oil is hot before it hits the in/ector pump and is purged before shutdown.& +olution of t*e . reduces the viscosity drastically 0depending on level of blending2 and the fuel handling system of engine can handle the vegetable oil&diesel blends without any problems. the fuel in/ection system is made up of parts that are very close fitting. *he problems with direct&in/ection diesel engines seems to be mostly associated with carbon build&up on in/ectors and that can be reduced significantly if not eliminated by use of heated vegetable oil . For dual tan. *his reduced lea-age will allow the pressure to develop faster and could contribute to ? . fuel line. such as the plunger8barrel assembly. Consequently. In our e+perimental set&up direct&in/ection engines are best being run on two tan. with heated tan. *he most direct impact of a viscosity increase is to decrease the amount of fuel lea-age that occurs past the plungers that develop the pressure in the in/ection system. vegetable oils need to be heated to a temperature that is high enough to give a low viscosity similar to diesels.roble% )it* vegetable oil )eating and blending of vegetable oils reduce the viscosity and improve volatility of vegetable oils but its molecular structure remains unchanged hence polyunsaturated character remains !"?$!H$ . there is no problem with direct&in/ection. but not so high as to damage the in/ection system !"=$. )igh viscosity of -aran/a oil can be reduced by heating the oil using waste heat of e+haust gases from the engine and also blending the -aran/a oil with diesel. )owever. As a result. 'hen the vegetable oil is warm. %lending of vegetable oils with diesel. In our e+perimental study a heat e+changer is designed to preheat the vegetable oil using waste heat of the e+haust gases.I if cold. 1. )igh fuel inta-e temperature may have adverse effects on these closefitting parts since diesel engines normally run with fuel supplied at ambient temperature.solid stream instead of a spray of small droplets. the fuel is not distributed or mi+ed with the air required for burning in the combustion chamber !"#$.

CHAPTER ! -ITERATURE RE. fuel system failure.earlier in/ection timing. performance. and lubricating oil contamination e+isted when vegetable oils were used as alternative fuels. *he advance in in/ection timing is due to the higher bulmodulus of compressibility. Jater in the "H=:Ks. Cne hundred years ago. or speed of sound. during the period of 'orld 'ar II. (udolf Diesel first tested vegetable oil as fuel for his engine. %ecause of the increase in crude oil prices. emissions and combustion characteristics of vegetable oil as fuel in compression ignition engine.piston rings. 'ith the advent of cheap petroleum. (esults of these studies indicated that potential ha3ards such as stuc. limited resources of fossil fuels and the environmental concern. vegetable oils were used again as fuel in emergency situations. A detailed review of the literature on the use of 6aran/a oil as alternative fuels is also presented. It has been e+perienced that the use of . there has been renewed focus on vegetable oils and animal fats for the production of bio&diesel fuel !"$. carbon buildup on in/ectors.1 Introdu#tion *hus many researchers have been involved in testing programs designed to evaluate long term performance characteristics. in the fuel blend.4C as fuel in conventional diesel engines results in a number of problems which are related to the type and grade of oil and local H . which leads to a more rapid transferal of the pressure wave from the fuel pump to the in/ector needle and an earlier needle lift !#:$. appropriate crude oil fractions were refined to serve as fuel and diesel fuels and diesel engines started evolving together. *his effect diminishes as the blend of vegetable oil in diesel is decreased.IE/ *he literature survey discusses the development. Despite the success when diesel engines are operated on vegetable oil for short term performance tests. !. the real measure of success when using vegetable oil as a diesel fuel e+tender or replacement depends primarily on the performance of vegetable oils in engines over a long period of time.

0*able#.I. *he prominent characteristics of vegetable oils when compared to diesel are & higher viscosity higher density lower calorific value and absence of sulphur or aromatic hydrocarbons. Aany researchers have concluded that co-ing is a potential serious problem with unmodified vegetable oil fuels.climatic conditions."2 ": . engines are significantly different from those of hydrocarbon based diesel fuels. *he in/ection. atomi3ation and combustion characteristics of vegetable oils in C.

9: 0#< oC2 =9.": 0#< oC2 ":. 0""2 "" . to use vegetable oil in C.unflower Mehyl Esters0 6aran/a (atan/yot Cotton seed .holds the vegetable oil and the other petro&diesel 0or biodiesel2. It contributes to inefficient burning.unflower & Got available *able #.=: 0#< C2 9H. usually <:&?:: C. engine we have to either modify the oil to suit the engine or modify the engine to suit the properties of oil.7: *he high viscosity of vegetable oils results in poor fuel atomi3ation and which further leads to inefficient mi+ing of oil with air..and runs on . *he engine is started on the petro&diesel tan. 1reheating .traight vegetable oils and also meet the emission requirements of many countries Fangrui Aa and Ailford A.Fuels Diesel 6aran/a (atan/yot Cotton seed .oyabean .oyabean . the engine is switched over to the second tan. hence in unmodified engines .4C reduces these problems drastically.": 0#< oC2 9H.:: 9<. *his causes deposit formation.and runs on petro&diesel for the first few minutes while the vegetable oil is heated to lower the viscosity."# =". *he modified multi&fuel engines developed by Elsbett in Lermany and Aalaysia.7? 9H.4C. 'hen the fuel reaches the required temperature.9: 0#< oC2 9@.7: 0#< oC2 9H.7< "?< "@7 & & & Cetane Gumber =<.4C -its.:: =:.I. Dieselmotoren&und Leratebau Lmb) in Lermany have shown good performance when used with . 'ith two& tan.7: 9<.@= & o H"= @7. )ence.@# & H"? 7?.97 7# o H"# #<.:: =7.4C.?: 0=: C2 9=. and DA.:: ##: H"# 7:. carboni3ation of in/ector tips and ring stic-ing.9: 0=: C2 9<.<@ =:. Fuel heaters are electrical or use the heat of engine coolant and the e+haust gases as a heat source.4C can be used with higher blends when preheated.": 0#< oC2 "".4C -it has been used.@: 0=: oC2 @.": 9?.": & 7#.:: #:7 o H"= #".. two tan.7# & ?<@ ??: ?<= ?<# ?<? H.H= 0=: oC2 "".:: =7. one tan. For running the engine with ." Comparison of fuel properties Calorific Density 4iscosity Flash 1oint 4alue 0-g5m92 0mm#5s2 0 FC 2 0AB5-g2 ?"7 =.7: & & =?. )anna 0#92 have suggested the preheating of the vegetable oil prior to in/ection as the solution to the problems of straight vegetable oils.

It was observed that by preheating the mahua oil and its blends with the diesel fuel.#. !@$ 55 50 45 40 Viscosity ( mm²/s ) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 30 40 50 60 K100 (KO) K80 K60 K40 K20 70 80 90 Temperature ( ºC ) Fig. "# . especially the bra-e power output and the e+haust emissions characteristics. limits of viscosityD For Lrade A diesel & #.t at 9? FC *he optimum blend will be selected on the basis of temperature of the .4C heater." Effect of temperature on viscosity of 6C and its blends with diesel!@$ %I.7 to "7.4C blend due to the .t at 9? FC For Lrade % diesel & #. the viscosity reduces e+ponentially with the temperature. *he following fig.4C in two tansystem at different temperatures and found very encouraging results.7 c. approaching diesel li-e performance.< c.: to <. *he higher -inematic viscosity of 6C in comparison to diesel may be attributed to greater intermolecular attraction of the long chains of their glycerides molecules and fatty esters respectively.#. al." shows the variation of the viscosity with the temperature for 6aran/a and its blends.Lodiganur et. It was found that by preheating the oil. the engine performance. is improved significantly. 0=2 conducted several e+periments with preheated .

*his prediction is also confirmed e+perimentally. GC+ . Dilip .O %reda 6egl 072 has carried out numerical analysis of in/ection characteristics using biodiesel fuel. "9 . higher emissions levels resulted from combustion of rapeseed oil in direct in/ection 0DI2 and small&cylinder indirect in/ection 0IDI2 engines than combustion in larger&cylinder IDI engines. In/ection process at many different operating regimes and using several fuel blends are then investigated numerically. 0"72 established that all of the engines run on rapeseed oil passed the ECE (=H regulation relating to CC. mean in/ection rate. *he considered fuels are neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil and its blends with mineral diesel D#. harmful emissions can be reduced by ad/usting appropriately pump in/ection timing in dependence on the biodiesel content. which influence the most important engine characteristics. while -eeping engine performance within acceptable with numerical analysis of in/ection process using biodiesel5mineral diesel fuel blends with the aim to search for the potentials to reduce engine harmful emissions. in/ection pressure and carried out endurance tests for long term sustainability.eri%ental studies )it* biodiesel or +.. e+periments and numerical simulation are run on a mechanical control diesel fuel in/ection A system at several operating regimes. %reda 6egl 092 optimi3ed the in/ection timing e+perimentally for the biodiesel and found that the in/ection timing has to be retarded from #9 : before *DC 0for petro& diesel2 to "H: before *DC.!. )e also conducted tests on Geem&diesel blends to optimi3e the blend ratio. Emissions of CC and )C increased by up to ":: percent and #H: percent. )C. but it is li-ely that these levels could be reduced if the in/ector timing is advanced. compared with those for diesel fuel. respectively. some measured emissions increased while others decreased when rapeseed oil was used as a substitute for diesel fuel. mean in/ection pressure.! E1. )emmerlein et al. Attention is focused on the in/ection characteristics.harma 0@2 concluded that Geem oil can be conveniently used to substitute Diesel oil to the e+tent of #:. *o verify the mathematical model and the empirical e+pressions. *he analysis of the obtained results reveals that. in/ection delay and in/ection timing. )owever. his wor. Further. and soot emissions in the "9& mode test. especially on fuelling fuelling at some stage of in/ection.

smo-e opacity. CC and )C emissions. )owever. 'hile operating the engine on Batropha oil 0preheated and blends2. bra-e specific fuel consumption 0%.on dual fuel operation of diesel engine using the 6aran/a oil and J1L as fuels and found the successful results. to ?:. constant speed. Avinash 6umar Agarwal et al. A single cylinder. by volume and in running a diesel engine with these fuels. . and #@. 7:.C. 0#2 have carried out investigations in studying the fuel properties of -aran/a methyl ester and its blend with diesel from #:. )ence it can be concluded that the blends of -aran/a methyl ester with diesel up to =:.igar 0<2 performed the wor. smo-e density and GC+ to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on the above&mentioned fuels. 1. performance and emissions were observed to be marginally inferior "= . )e concluded that 6aran/a& Diesel blend 06#:2 and 6aran/a methyl ester blend 0%#:2 fuels can be conveniently used as substitutes for diesel in single fuel mode.FC2. E+periments were also conducted using various blends of Batropha oil with mineral diesel to study the effect of reduced blend viscosity on emissions and performance of diesel engine.. respectively. four stro-e. %ased on the result of this study it was found that blends of -aran/a methyl ester with diesel reduced emissions such as CC. )owever. for higher blend concentrations. ). up to biodiesel blend %=: and with a further increase in the biodiesel percentage in the blend it reduced. direct in/ection diesel engine typically used in agricultural sector was used for the e+periments. by volume could replace diesel for running the diesel engine for getting less emissions without sacrificing the power output and will thus help in controlling air pollution. *he acquired data were analy3ed for various parameters such as thermal efficiency. smo-e density and GC+ on an average of ?:. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque.(aheman et al. performance and emission parameters were found to be very close to mineral diesel for lower blend concentrations. the bra-e power output increased on an average @. power. CC#. water cooled. specific fuel consumption and emissions such as CC..0"?2 have carried out e+periments to study the effect of reducing Batropha oilKs viscosity by increasing the fuel temperature 0using waste heat of the e+haust gases2 and thereby eliminating its effect on combustion and emission characteristics of the engine.

4C for the research. red brown. *hus there is an ample scope for utili3ing the energy source 06aran/a oil2 as fuel !"<$. *he iodine value of -aran/a oil is ?#.<?. nondrying and inedible.alueD *he iodine value of a substance is a measure of the degree of chemical instauration in a chemicals olefinic bond.. "?2 Iodine . Calorifi# . *hus iodine number refers to the amount of iodine required to convert unsaturated oil into saturated oil.#. #7. It is chiefly found along the ban-s of streams and rivers or near the seacoast. is moderately frost hardy and is highly tolerant of salinity. of the total estimated produce. 0"<.7. which equate to less storage stability. )igher iodine value indicates more unsaturated Aahua. %y analy3ing and comparing the properties of these oils. but the harvest season e+tends in general from Govember & December to Aay & Bune. of this yield might be safely considered as oil because the yield of oil from seeds is around #= to #<. *he botanical name of 6aran/a tree is 1ongamia 1innata. Duffield has suggested that iodine value greater than ""7 are unacceptable.". *he tree starts bearing at the age of = & < years. indicating a yield potential of H:: to H::: -g seed5ha 0assuming ":: trees 5ha2. "7 . A comparison of the physical properties of 6aran/a oil and Diesel is given in *able #.alueD *he calorific value of a fuel is a measure of the amount energy 0calories2 that the fuel contains per unit mass. *he pods come to harvest at different periods of time in different parts of the country. *he physical and chemical properties. Iodine values are used to determine the o+idative stability of a fuel in order to determine storage stability. !. Geem.erties of fuels *he 6aran/a oil is bitter.1 P* si#al and #*e%i#al . %ut only ?::: tons of oil is presently being utili3ed which is only @. 6aran/a and Batropha are the front runners in India in terms of the production and availability. It resists drought well. thic-.9 +ele#tion of 2aran3a oil for stud As per the information available about the inedible oils in the literature. 6aran/a is chosen as .&. *he calorific value of -aran/a oil is 9<&9? AB5-g as compared to =:&=< AB5-g that of diesel. of vegetable oil are important for combustion and storage as fuel. *he yield of the seed is said to range from H&H: -g per tree. *he total yield in India is estimated to be about "97::: tons.

Comparison of physical properties of -aran/a oil and diesel . *he cloud point of 6aran/a oil is "7 °C and of diesel fuel is "9 °C. *he density of the fuel is important because many diesel engine fuel in/ection pumps use the weight of the fuel for measurement and dispensing.=<# :. *he density of -aran/a oil is :.H" D It is the measure of the thic-ness of a fluid.7 ". Aoreover it is important for the flow of oil through pipelines. 6aran/a oil has a viscosity of <=."= .? @@ Densit D *he density of a fuel is a measure of its weight per volume.=<9 & "."= 7".#7 =: ". 4iscosity is an important measure of a fuel because the atomi3ation characteristics of the fuel are affected by it. "@ .7H .. ==. such as fuel filters.7= . " # 9 = 7 @ < ? H ": "" "# "9 1arameters . *his measure becomes important in cold climates. Go.*able #. in/ector no33les and orifices.?@ -g5m9 at "7 °C temperatures.:@ #=.#. and that of diesel is :.@@ ":#.2 Color in "5= inch cell 0MN7(2 (efractive Inde+ 0=: FC2 . Cloud PointD Cloud 1oint is the temperature at which the fluid develops ice crystals and begins to clog small openings.?#&:.H: & :.9: :.t at 9: °C. once it is in/ected into the combustion chamber. 4iscosity of fluids varies inversely to temperature.: #9: Diesel : 9?. Cetane Nu%berD It is the measure of ignition quality of diesel fuels.aponification 4alue Iodine value Acid 4alue 0Aa+. )igher Cetane number has shorter ignition delay. *he Cetane number of diesel is =?.pecific Lravity 09: FC2 Cloud 1oint 0FC2 1our 1oint 0FC2 Calorific 4alue 0AB5-g2 4iscosity 0.=<H :.H= "7 &# to &7 9<&9? <=.7= =<.t at 9: °C.?: . A denser fuel would therefore be dispensed in a lower volume.t at =: °C and ?. ma+. *his is the amount of time it ta-es for the fuel air mi+ture to ignite.t at ":: °C while that of diesel is ?.?# & :.t at 9:: C2 Cetane number Flash 1oint 0FC2 6aran/a oil "?7 & "H7 ?: & H: #: :. .2 Aoisture 0.?@ "9 " =:&=< ?.

-aempferol.@H.7 #. starch.Pour PointD 1our point is the lowest temperature at which a fluid will flow.=.<" phosphorous 01#C72 :. ester 9. *he pour point of -aran/a oil is 8# °C to 87 °C while that of diesel is around " °C ma+. pongamol. Fatty acid composition of 6aran/ oil is given in *able #. this ma-es it easier to handle and store.7. pitch and losses =. -anugin. Fatty Acid " # 9 = 7 @ < ? 1almitic . O&sitosterol. moisture.. protein. *he flash point of -aran/a oil at #9: °C is much higher than that of diesel. "..9.= CHAPTER & "< .< =. *his measure is relevant in cold places.9 ":. saponin. which is @@ °C.# & 7.H. Air&dry -ernels have "H. pyroligneous acid 9@. acid =.= & ?.# & =.7?.2 9. pinnatin.. <. methanol ". and gas :.@. Fatty acid composition of 6aran/a oil .H ==. Destructive distillation of wood yields."# cu m5-g.H #..". 4las* PointD Flash point of a fuel is defined as the temperature at which it will ignite when e+posed to a flame or spar-. glabrosaponin.9 H.@# and lime 0CaC2 ".9. :. tar H.9.7 & <". gamatay.=.tearic Cleic Jinoleic Jignoceric Arachidic %ehenic Eicosenoic ." & 9."@. :. Aanurial values of leaves and twigs are respectivelyD nitrogen "... #<. on a dry basisD charcoal 9". pongapin.9 ". "<.7 & "#.9 *able#. :.. crude fiber.. 'hile this higher flashpoint of -aran/a oil does not affect its combustion in CI engine. and tannin.=. Chemical compositionD 6aran/a oil is reported to contain al-aloids demetho+y-anugin.? & "?. neoglabrin. Go. and #.7=.=. glabrin.=H.tructure Formula "@D: "?D: "?D" "?D# #=D: #:D: ##D: #:D" C"@)9#C# C"?)9@C# C"?)9=C# C"?)9#C# C#=)=?C# C#:)=:C# C##)==C# C#:)9?C# 'eight 0.< & <.. quercitin. @. -arangin. acetone ". -an/one."" potash 06#C2 :. ash."=. fatty oil.

Fuel supply system consists of a burette flow meter. 9. Fig. which was used to measure the volumetric fuel consumption." 6irlos-ar Diesel Engine A4" Aodel "? . Cooling circuit was a run through system. *his fle+ibility of use ma-es it a versatile engine and is frequently used as mobile genset. four&stro-e Diesel engine. which has been modified to measure various parameters required to determine the performance of the engine. *hermocouples were installed at various places on the engine to measure different temperatures.+ET$UP *his chapter discusses the details of the engine and smo-e meter used for e+perimental investigation. *he air was inducted to the Engine through a calibrated air bo+.1 Introdu#tion E+perimental setup consisted of 6irlos-ar single cylinder water&cooled.E5PERI"ENTA. which was used to measure the airflow rate. having a water flow meter. Aeasurement of smo-e was done with the help of )art ridge smo-e meter. agriculture pumpset for remote areas etc. *o the Engine an electric Dynamometer was coupled to measure torque. An alternator is connected to this engine in the laboratory to evaluate the feasibility of use with alternate fuels. . &.

tion 6irlos-ar Cil Engine "odel A. Lovernor type Class of governing Filter type Air Fuel Jubricating Cil & & & & & mounted without camshaft Aechanical centrifugal type %" Dry oil bath filter filter type with with paper paper paper -'0bhp2 mm mm liters & & element %ypass element %ypass element Diesel as per I. C. "#. #. of In/ection 1umps and *ype & high speed.ingle cylinder. 7.1 +. of cylinders Direction of rotation I. flange "".:2 ?: "": :. Co%. ?. @.onent Game of the engine *ype of engine Unit & & Des#ri.1 4ertical. "@.e#ifi#ations of t*e Engine +."2 was used for study as it is most versatile water cooled engine and is widely used for agriculture purpose as well as electric generation. . D "=@: @. D =H@8"H?# "=. engine " Counter cloc-wise 0'hen loo-ing at flywheel 2 9. "9. four stro-e cycle.7 D " " number.tro-e Cubic Capacity Compression (atio Go.I. single acting.< 07.! Engine 6irlos-ar ma-e single cylinder Diesel engine 0A4"2 0figure9. "7.No. (ecommended fuel specification Fuel Cil *an.&. ". totally enclosed.7 )D& type 9 as per I. <. =. Go. 9.Capacity Jubricating Cil specification & liters & "H .779 "@. H." Table &. *he specifications of the engine used are as mentioned below in *able =. ":. (ating at "7:: rpm %ore .

Aode of .& "odifi#ation in engine *he main modification of the e+perimental setup are two fuel tan-s 0Diesel and 6aran/a oil2. A heat e+changer is used to preheat the vegetable oil using waste heat of the e+haust gases.9 "..: Cooling 'ater < "H. #@. in/ection pump and in/ector in order to prevent deposits and cold starting problems. Apparatus required for starting & E+tension shaft .FC at rated hp per "7::rpm Fuel refilling time #9. ##. *he engine is started with diesel and once the engine warms up. it is switched over to 6aran/a oil. lit. diesel before stopping the engine until the 6aran/a oil is purged from the fuel line. A #: . permissible permissible bacinta-e depression Aethod of Cooling Cooling water flow rate 0For run through system cooling2 0Attached with water flow meter2 Jubricating oil sump capacity Jubricating oil consumption . 'eight of engine Engine alone Flywheel Aa+imum pressure Aa+imum -g -g -g 1a pa & lit5min #:.:. After concluding the tests with 6aran/a oil. #". #=. heat e+changer. lit.7 ".tarting & Lear end 5 Flywheel end )and start "?."<. #7. the engine is again switched bac. of sfc ma+imum #=7 g5-'h0"?: g5bhp5hr2 @ hrs 0'hen engine running at rated output2 &.tarting )andle Decompression arrangement "@: ""= 99 #. *his purging typically ta-es about "7 min at idling.

( D na%o%eter 1ower&star ma-e electric dynamometer was used to measure torque.# Diagram of e+perimental set &up &.thermocouple was provided in the e+haust line to measure the temperature of the e+haust gases.#. Fig 9. 7: C5s Continuous . *he specifications of alternator used are given below in *able9. =. @. #.tion 1ower star 9. No. ". 7. 9.e#ifi#ations Aa-e 64A 4oltage Current Frequency (ating #" Des#ri. 4oltmeter and ammeter were used to measure the voltage and current consumed by the load in the load ban-. It consisted of an alternator to which electric bulbs were connected to apply load. Te#*ni#al +.! +.e#ifi#ations of t*e D na%o%eter +. Table &.7 #9: 4olt "= Amp.

erature %easure%ent of inta9e air. An orifice of diameter #:mm having C d Q :.:::9"="7 0meter#2 hw Q Aanometer reading 0meters2 ρw Q Density of water 0"::: -g5cubic meter2 ρa Q Density of air 0"."7< -g5cubic meter2 &. In order to measure the fuel consumption the valve was turned to a position so that the fuel started going to the engine from the burette. It was used to dampen out the pulsation of air. &. *he outlet was at the bottom. *he amount of air induced was obtained with the help of the following relation Air induced 5 second Q Cd P Aorifice P 0# P g P hw P ρw 5 ρa2"5# 'here Cd Q :. so that the burette got filled with the fuel while the supply of fuel to the engine was not interrupted.and the engine through a *ee valve. 1. *his volume divided by the time gave the volumetric flow rate. which was measured with the help of a manometer mounted on one of the side walls. A glass burette having mar-s was connected to fuel tan. e1*aust gas and )ater ## .@ 0m95s2 Aorifice Q :. 1ressure inside the air bo+ remained less than atmospheric pressure during operation. Initially line was connected to the engine and burette.6 Air flo) %easure%ent Airflow to the engine was measured with the help of an Air bo+ 0=7P=7P7: cm 92.<. A "7:: &. (. *he time ta-en by the engine to consume a fi+ed volume of fuel was measured with the help of stopwatch.8 Te%. through which it was connected to the air filter mounted on the engine.@ was fitted at the entrance on one of the side walls.7 4uel flo) %easure%ent %urette method was used to measure the volumetric fuel flow rate.

It contains two dimensionally and optically similar tubes. indicated thermal efficiency and mechanical efficiency were found under different operating conditions of load and in/ection pressures as mentioned above. e+haust gas and cooling water. *his smo-e meter wor-s on a comparative basis 0figure9. e+haust gas meterR..tion tests *he engine was first run on 6aran/a&Diesel blend under different load conditions 0no load to full load2 as well as different in/ection pressures 0"@:.! +%o9e %easure%ent E+haust smo-e was measured with the help of REnvirotech A1A <:: . *he reference tube is connected to the clean air blower. &.ariation of in3e#tion ti%ing and in3e#tor o.*hermocouples attached to a si+&channel selector switch and digital panel meter were installed at required points on the engine to measure temperature of inta-e air.. #". the spring load on the in/ector needle was varied leading to change in in/ector opening pressure. "<.1 Perfor%an#e and fuel #onsu%. &. *he smo-e tube is #9 .ening ."?: and "H: -gf5cm#2 to set a basis of comparison. &.. and "7 degree %*DC2 From the above tests bra-e thermal efficiency.: ...ressure (emoving or inserting shims of different thic-ness between the fuel in/ection pump and cam varied the in/ection timing of the diesel& -aran/a blend fuel. and e+haust emission characteristics using Diesel and 6aran/a&Diesel blends. A series of e+periments were carried out over a considerable period of time to determine and compare the engine performance and smo-e emission characteristics using Diesel and 6aran/a&Diesel blends. Air is drawn from the clean air inlet through a damper. &. From the e+perimental data thus generated conditions of optimum in/ection timing and optimum in/ection pressure were obtained for all loads.#2. bra-e specific fuel consumption. %y ad/usting a screw on top of the in/ector."<:.eri%ental te#*ni<ue A series of e+periments were carried out over a considerable period of time to determine and compare the engine performance. *he engine was then run with 6aran/a&Diesel blends under similar conditions of load and in/ection pressure under different fuel in/ection timing 0#9. E1. "H.

9 Envirotech A1A <:: . Fig. #= . *his inlet tract contains a temperature sensor. then moving the light and photoelectric cell to the smo-e tube for an instantaneous comparative reading of the opacity of the tube sample. *he opacity of the smo-e sample is compared to a clean air sample by first ta-ing reading through the clean air tube to set the meter *he light source and photoelectric cell are each mounted on an arm pivoted on each end of a spring located control shaft. which is operated by a control -nob. 9. a picoff for the manometer connection and a vane at the tube entry.connected to the smo-e inlet via the smo-e bypass valve. moisture trap and has a pressure relief valve controlled outlet.

*his pin is critical to proper pump operation and if damaged will require replacement of the complete pump. ma-ing sure the fuel rac. If at all possible. (eplace fuel in/ector pump. (econnect fuel line from fuel filter to pump. *he in/ector pump internal unit can now be loosened and removed. . Addition of shims will retard the timing and removing shims will advance the timing. then reassemble.hims must be added until the timing mar-s are aligned. #. <. It may be necessary to remove fuel lines from in/ector no33les to aid in pump removal 7. ?. @. %e certain that all plates.CHAPTER ( E5PERI"ENTA. *here are several shims located /ust below the pump top plate which will be used to ad/ust the timing. (emove in/ector pump side cover.on the flywheel is below the throttle lever at full speed. . If timing is satisfactory. H. *his will enable you to visually above the pointer.::@ inch insure that the fuel rac. fuel lines and connections are tight and free of lea-s so that safe operation may be e+pected when the engine #7 .teps necessary for fuel timingD ". 9. (emove air inta-e manifold so that the fuel in/ector pump can be removed without interference.1 "et*od to #*ange fuel in3e#tion ti%ing .pin inside the pump properly aligns with the opening in the top of pump housing when being removed to prevent binding or shearing of the pin. *ighten in/ector pump cover in place. =. *hese shims are .and are equal to "&SF or appro+imately 9""@T of distance on the circumference of the flywheel. it is better to operate the engine with the timing advance rather than retarded. . *he opposite is true if the flywheel aligns with the housing opening and is properly inserted into the slotted arm. covers. the fuel is being in/ected sooner than required and the fuel timing must be image to the right. (epeat steps # thru "# on engine timing.PROCEDURE In e+perimental set&up different sets of reading are ta-en by changing the fuel in/ection timing from #9 to "7 degree before top dead centre by inserting different shim of different thic-ness and by changing the in/ection pressure from "@: to "H: 6gf5cm# (. If the mar.

It retains a particle which becomes separated from inside the high pressure pipes due to vibrations during operation. Its compression can be ad/usted by a set screw. *he inlet passage in the no33le holder body leads to the annular groove or the inlet passage of the no33le body and thus connects the no33le with the pressure line of the in/ection pump. *he no33le holder servesD • • • *o fi+ the no33le on the engine cylinder. ":.! "et*od to #*ange in3e#tion . AICC )&. *his tester permits accurate chec-ing and setting of the opening pressure and observation of the spray pattern of no33les. *o facilitate ad/ustment of opening pressure. CautionD %e sure all fuel lines and connections are -ept clean during ad/usting. An edge type filter is normally installed in the connector for protection. *o connect it with high pressure pipe from fuel in/ection pump. to prevent fouling of no33les when reassembled. (. *he no33le is fi+ed to the pressure face of the holder with retaining started. *he high pressure pipe is connected to the connector on the no33le holder body. !#=$ #@ .ressure *he opening pressure of the no33le can be chec-ed and read/usted on a no33le tester. In engine no33le assembled with no33le holder. Clean engine thoroughly. A pressure spring is located in the upper portion of the holder body and presses on the no33le needle. *he initial tension of the spring determines the opening pressure.56DE1 HHA.

finali3ation of the optimum 6aran/a& Diesel blend was done. In this preheated 6=: blend with diesel is used as fuel having viscosity similar to diesel.FC2 has been plotted against load for various in/ection #< . consequently. horsepower and mass. %ra-e specific fuel consumption is a comparative parameter that shows how efficiently an engine is converting fuel into wor-. *his is mainly due to the fact that in/ection timing influences the mi+ing quality of the air 8fuel mi+ture and. Effect of the in/ection timing and in/ection pressure on performance parameter li-e bra-e specific fuel consumption.tion In/ection timing is a very important parameter that significantly influences all engine characteristics.e#ifi# fuel #onsu%. viscosity was reduced by both preheating and blending. 6. Engine performance and smo-e emission are covered in e+perimental investigations. %efore carrying out detailed e+perimentation. attempts were made to reduce its viscosity by preheating the 6aran/a oil using the e+haust gases coming out from the engine. *his parameter is preferred.pecific Fuel Consumption 0%. From the fig #." AICC Go33le 1ressure *ester CHAPTER 6 RE+U-T+ AND DI+CU++ION (esults obtained from e+perimental investigations are presented and discussed in this chapter. because all quantities are measured in standard and accepted physical unitsD time. the combustion process. ma-es a blend having viscosity equal to that of pure Diesel at room temperature." it is observed that at this temperature range substitution of Diesel by 6aran/a oil to the e+tent of =:. including harmful emission. Diesel oil. In the present study.! Effe#t of in3e#tion ti%ing on bra9e s. %ra-e . *hus the results in this chapter pertain to 6aran/a&Diesel blend having =:.1 Introdu#tion After finali3ing 6aran/a oil as substitute fuel. It was observed e+perimentally that the blend could be preheated up to 77&@7 UC with heat e+changer developed. It was found that temperature obtained in the heat e+changer is not adequate to bring down the viscosity in close range to diesel. 6aran/a oil and @:. rather than thermal efficiency.Fig =. bra-e thermal effiency are presented. It was then decided to use 6aran/a oil as blending fuel in Diesel to obtain 6aran/a&Diesel blend. 6.

Fig." to 7.FC observed at "@: 6gf5cm# and increase in %. . Further increases in fuel in/ection pressure results in increased %. Figures 7. At "< U %*DC.FC 0Fig.#2. different trend are observed in %. 'hen we retard the in/ection timing. Jowest %. In/ection pressure is varied from "@: 6gf5cm # to "H: 6gf5cm#at every in/ection timing. minimum %.FC as a function of load at different in/ection timing from #9U to "<U %*DC. *o ta-e the effect of in/ection timing on performance parameter in/ection timing is varied from #9 U to "7U %*DC. load for 6aran/a&Diesel blend irrespective of in/ection pressures." to 7. #? .FC at an in/ection timing of #9 U %*DC.FC.7 shows the variation of %.FC decreases with increase in of power output and then starts increasing after a point for all in/ection pressures under study.FC observed with increase in in/ection pressure. %ra-e specific fuel consumption decreases as the fuel in/ection pressure increases "@: to "?: 6gf5cm# 0Fig 7. which occurs at around ?:&?7. As seen from plots %.FC 0:.pressures at constant speed of "7:: rpm for different in/ection timing from #9U to "7U %*DC. *he point at which it becomes minimum is referred to as the Tbest economical loadT point."2. 7.7 show some typical curves for variation of %.#H:? 6g56'h2 is observed at in/ection pressure "@: 6gf5cm # at an in/ection timing "< U %*DC. 7.light increase in the specific fuel consumption was observed at retarded in/ection timing from "<U to "7U %*DC.

Fig 7.pecific Fuel Consumption as a function of Joad at an in/ection timing of #9 U %*DC #H ." 4ariation of %ra-e .

9: .

Fig 7.pecific Fuel Consumption as a function of Joad at an in/ection timing of #" U %*DC 9" .# 4ariation of %ra-e .

Fig 7.pecific Fuel Consumption as a function of Joad at an in/ection timing of "H U %*DC Fig 7.9 4ariation of %ra-e .pecific Fuel Consumption as a function of Joad at an in/ection timing of "< U %*DC 9# .= 4ariation of %ra-e .

7 4ariation of %ra-e .pecific Fuel Consumption as a function of Joad at an in/ection 99 .Fig 7.

*ypical variation of %ra-e *hermal Efficiency 0%*E at standard conditions2 with load for various in/ection pressures at constant engine speeds are shown in Figures 7. 9= . of full load for all in/ection pressures under study. In this %ra-e thermal effiency curves are plotted at different in/ection timing and in/ection pressure. . (eduction in bra-e thermal efficiency from &=.:. as it provides a measure of net power developed by the engine.1 to &=. *his can be attributed to good fuel atomi3ation and good mi+ing air&fuel supply. percent has been observed over the change in in/ection timing from "<U to "7U %*DC.& Effe#t of in3e#tion ti%ing on bra9e t*er%al effien# %ra-e *hermal Efficiency 0%*E2 is an important parameter.":.. It has been observed from these plots that the bra-e thermal efficiency was slightly increases with retarding the in/ection timing from #9U to "<U %*DC after that decrease in %*E are observed from "<U to "7U %*DC.@ to 7. which is readily available for use at the engine output shaft.. From these plots it was also observed that ma+imum value of %*E lay between ?:&H: .timing of "7 U %*DC 6. 1lots showing the variation in bra-e thermal efficiency as a function of load for different in/ection pressure and in/ection timing indicate that for 6aran/a&Diesel blend the ma+imum value of %*E was obtained at "@: -g5cm# through out the operating range. *he ma+imum value of thermal efficiency at that in/ection pressure &=.1 > for in/ection timing "< U %*DC.ame pattern was observed for all in/ection pressures under study.

@ 4ariation of %ra-e *hermal Effiency as a function of Joad at an in/ection timing of #9U %*DC 97 .Fig 7.

< 4ariation of %ra-e *hermal Effiency as a function of Joad at an in/ection timing of #"U %*DC 9@ .Fig 7.

Fig 7.? 4ariation of %ra-e *hermal Effiency as a function of Joad at an in/ection timing of "HU %*DC 9< .

Fig 7.H 4ariation of %ra-e *hermal Effiency as a function of Joad at an in/ection timing of "<U %*DC 9? .

": 4ariation of %ra-e *hermal Effiency as a function of Joad at an in/ection timing of "7U %*DC 9H .Fig 7.

lowest %. Different trend are observed at different in/ection pressure.tion Fig.6.( Effe#t of in3e#tion . In this at in/ection pressure "@: 6gf5cm#.FC observed at "< U %*DC.e#ifi# fuel #onsu%. after that %. 7.cylinder pressure because more of the fuel burns after *DC."" to 7. Fig 7."" 4ariation of %ra-e ."= shows the effect of in/ection pressure on bra-e specific fuel consumption for different in/ection timing.pecific Fuel Consumption as a function of Joad at an in/ection 1ressure of "@: 6gf5cm# =: .ressure on bra9e s. (etarding the in/ection timing decreases the pea.FC start increases.

"# 4ariation of %ra-e .pecific Fuel Consumption as a function of Joad at an in/ection 1ressure of "<: 6gf5cm# =" .Fig 7.

Fig 7.pecific Fuel Consumption as a function of Joad at an in/ection 1ressure of "?: 6gf5cm# =# ."9 4ariation of %ra-e .

pecific Fuel Consumption as a function of Joad at an in/ection 1ressure of "H: 6gf5cm# =9 ."= 4ariation of %ra-e .Fig 7.

"7 4ariation of %ra-e *hermal Effiency as a function of Joad at an in/ection 1ressure of "@: 6gf5cm# == .6. For all the in/ection pressure ma+imum thermal Effiency obtained at "< U %*DC.ressure on bra9e t*er%al effien# Fig. *his is mainly due the good mi+ing of air& fuel mi+ture and good spray atomi3ation."7 to 7.7. Fig 7."? shows the variation of bra-e thermal effiency versus load for different in/ection timing from #9U to "7U %*DC for all in/ection pressure.6 Effe#t of in3e#tion .

"@ 4ariation of %ra-e *hermal Effiency as a function of Joad at an in/ection 1ressure of "<: 6gf5cm# =7 .Fig 7.

Fig 7."< 4ariation of %ra-e *hermal Effiency as a function of Joad at an in/ection 1ressure of "?: 6gf5cm# =@ .

"? 4ariation of %ra-e *hermal Effiency as a function of Joad at an in/ection 1ressure of "H: 6gf5cm# =< .Fig 7.

. /et blac. *his soot is a graphite structure.. . *his is possibly a result of poor spray atomi3ation and non 8uniform mi+ture formation with 6aran/a oil. 4ariation of smo-e as a function of load for Diesel as well as preheated 6aran/a&Diesel blend at an in/ection pressure of "@: -gf5cm # and in/ection timing "<U %*DC is shown in Figure colour and is called smo-e. . As seen from the plots the e+haust gas temperature increases with load.nder these conditions more fuel is burned and the prevailing temperatures inside the combustion chamber become very density is measured e+perimentally for different in/ection pressure and in/ection timing..6. =? .mo-e density increases from "? ). A curves for variation of e+haust gas temperature with load for Diesel and 6aran/a&Diesel blend are shown in Figure 7. from this it is observed that effect of in/ection timing and in/ection pressure on smo-e is not very significant. . E+haust gas temperature indicates the cylinder temperature.. to 7# ).mo-e is produced during acceleration.erature . resulting in increased e+haust gas temperature. *he temperature of e+haust gas was measured at all the e+perimental conditions.#:. to @? ). *his thermal crac-ing is in the form of soot5carbon."H. with the increases in load in case of diesel oil while the smo-e density increases from 9# ). %ecause of this high temperature there is thermal crac-ing of molecules rather than normal o+idation. overloading or even during full load operation of the density for 6aran/a&Diesel blend was greater than that of diesel. At increased load conditions generation of heat is increased and time available for heat transfer being the same 0constant speed engine2. with the increases in load in case of preheated 6aran/a&Diesel blend .7 +%o9e e%ission and e1*aust te%. .. which shows minimum smo-e during idling which increases with load. It is also seen that the e+haust gas temperature for 6aran/a&Diesel blend was less then the e+haust gas temperature for Diesel through out the load range for all in/ection pressures under study.

mo-e Density as a function of Joad =H ."H 4ariation of .80 70 60 Smoke Density (HSU) 50 40 30 Diesel 6 =: %lend 1reheated 20 10 0 0 1000 2000 Load (Watt) 3000 4000 Fig 7.

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1000 2000 Load (W) 3000 4000 Diesel K40 Blend Preheated E !aust "as Temperature(C) Fig 7.#: 4ariation of E+haust Las *emperature as a function of Joad 7: .

*here was significant effect of in/ection pressure on engine performance. #. )eating of the 6aran/a& Diesel blend is done by utili3ing the heat content of the e+haust gases coming out from the engine. For 6aran/a& Diesel blend in/ection pressure of "@: -gf5cm# was found to be the optimum in/ection 7" . *he properties of 6aran/a &Diesel blend are comparable with those of pure Diesel. constant (1A. <.I. run on 6aran/a&Diesel blend and Diesel oil at different in/ection pressure and in/ection timing. @. First step towards the optimi3ation of the performance parameters was to find the optimum 6aran/a&Diesel blend. ". was best possible in the temperature range of 77&@7 UC as the viscosity of blend becomes equal to that of pure Diesel. four stro-es. A suitable e+perimental setup was developed to reduce the viscosity of 6aran/a oil close to that of conventional diesel in order to ma-e it suitable for use in a C. A successful operation of a compression ignition engine. engine and to evaluate the performance parameter with new alternate fuel. From this heat e+changer the temperature of the 6aran/a 8 Diesel blend could be raised to 7:&@7 UC throughout the operating range of load. It was found that substitution of Diesel oil by 6aran/a oil to the e+tent of =:. as highest bra-e thermal efficiency and lowest bra-e specific fuel consumption were observed over the entire load range at this in/ection timing. *here was significant effect of in/ection timing on engine performance. =. 7. in/ection pressures and in/ection timing without causing any undesirable combustion phenomena was observed. the following conclusions may be drawn from the present study. 9. *he viscosity of 6aran/a oil was reduced by 0i2 preheating the oil 06aran/a oil2 and 0ii2 by blending the 6aran/a oil with diesel. For the above 6aran/a&Diesel blend in/ection timing of "<U %*DC was found to be the optimum in/ection timing. fuelled with 6aran/a&Diesel blends over a wide range of load.CHAPTER 7 CONC-U+ION Cn the basis of the observations and the results of the e+perimental investigations on a single cylinder. stationary. compression ignition engine. water cooled.

tudy the effect of vegetable oil on engine component li-e in/ection pump. )C. ":. . .pressure. engine and the comparison of the performance parameter of the 6aran/a&Diesel blend with diesel.light low values of bra-e thermal efficiency and higher values of bra-e specific fuel consumption could be attributed to low calorific value of 6aran/a oil as compared to that of Diesel oil. "". Aodified maintenance schedule may however be adopted to control carbon deposits formed during long term usage of vegetable oil blends.lightly more smo-e emissions were observed with 6aran/a& Diesel blend over the entire load range mainly due to poor atomi3ation of 6aran/a oil. .e for furt*er resear#* ". 7. #. 1lots showing variation of smo-e with load. =. no33le. is formed as a result of thermal crac-ing of molecules at elevated temperatures. GC+. . Effect of different in/ection timing and in/ection pressure on smo-e is not very significant. as highest bra-e thermal efficiency and lowest bra-e specific fuel consumption were observed over the entire load range at this in/ection pressure. showed minimum smo-e during idling which increases with load.tudy the effect of advancing and retarding of in/ection timing on emission characteristics li-e CC. . 7# .I. . It was also seen that the e+haust gas temperature for 6aran/a&Diesel blend was less than the e+haust gas temperature for Diesel oil through out the load range for all in/ection pressures under study. H.tudy the effect of advancing the in/ection timing on performance parameter and emission characteristics.1 +#o. ?.imilar patterns were obtained for all in/ection pressures under study. . E+haust gas temperature increases linearly with load. .tudy on different blends of 6aran/a&Diesel can be carried out in stationary C.

#::=. a tree found in rural India.haranappa. Atsushi . .#::? H.. (amadhas A. Gwafor.A. Baipur. groundnut.. ). (ana 1rathap (eddy and Ch.harma. pp. #::@. Gagoya "". ":. .(eferencesD ".. <.I. Loukou Kouakou. *he Fifth International .sing %iodiesel FuelW Energy I Fuels. C. Combustion and E+haust Emission Characteristics in a DI&CI Engine.tudy on the performance and e+haust emissions of a diesel engine using preheated Aahua oil and its blends as fuelW International Conference on IC Engines and Combustion 0ICCGICE&#::<2. %reda 6egl. engine fuels 8 a reviewW (enewable Energy #HD <#<&<=#. VE+perimental Investigation of Cptimal *iming of the Diesel Engine In/ection 1ump . . .tudies on alternate fuel substitution in engine operated end utility systemW A 1h.. pp.. M.harma. of vegetable oils as I. %. Influence of 1hysical and Chemical 1roperties of %iodiesel Fuel on In/ection. %iomass and %ioenergy #< 0#::=2 7:< 8 7"" 6o/i Mamane. Dilip . 4ol. Bawaharlal Gehru *echnological .uryanarayana Aurthy. Emission characteristics of diesel engine running on vegetable oil with elevated fuel inlet temperature. VDiesel engine emissions and performance from blends of -aran/a methyl ester and dieselW %iomass and %ioenergy #< %reda 6egl.himamoto. and 1hadatare. #::<D 7. Development of biodiesel from -aran/a. Baipur. Bayara/ . C. V.D thesis. copra and sunflower %iomass and %ioenergy. VComparative investigation on combustion and performance of a dual fuel engine using J1L and %iodiesel 06aran/a Cil2W A 1h.. Fuel 0#::<2 79 .C.ymposium on Diagnostics and Aodeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines 0CCACDIA #::"2.igar.eta and Mu3uru . Henri Planche .#9<<8#9?<. "=@:&"=<:. =.ingh. cabbage palm. AGI*.D thesis AGI*. A. #::@ Lodiganur . cotton. . VGumerical analysis of in/ection characteristics using biodiesel fuelW Fuel 4ol.niversity 6u-atpally . Abolle´ Abolle. *he viscosity of diesel oil and mi+tures with straight vegetable oilsD 1alm. 1. (aheman. . )yderabad. #::=. @. #::@. and Auraleedharan C. ?. L.?7. V. Buly #::". #.C. V.#:.

org Jast accessed on Ban. Avinash 6umar Agarwal. "?. #::?. L. ). (ichter..AE..Agarwala. (in-e.rivastava and Aadhumita 4erma.. )anna. Ailford A..ound and Its Impact on In/ection *iming. A. 1erformance evaluation of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine. 6orte. 1. Bournal of 6CGE. V%iodiesel productionD a reviewW %ioresource *echnology 4ol. "HH".html. Internal Combustion Engines #::7.6. Deepa.purdue. 7= . 4. H":?=?.choroder.KK . )alit Masar et al. *. #=. . Fangrui Aa. XX1erformance. Deepa. Jim et al.niversity Ames. (enewable Energy.). G.AE *echnical 1aper .tate . *echanical information on fuel in/ection equipment for diesel engine by AICC %C. 4an Lerpen.hort. Applied *hermal Engineering #7 0#::72 9:=#89:7# "<. *at and B. Fuel ?9 0#::=2 #?<8#H" . pp.E. www. 'arrendale. L.. characteristics of Batropha oil 0preheated and blends2 in a direct in/ection compression ignition engine.biodiesel. Iowa . Fuel 0#::<2 A. Aeasurement of the temperature dependent viscosity of biodiesel fuels. . %ari. Adnan 1arla-. "@. (enewable Energy #< 0#::#2 99H897" )emmerlein.Agarwal. 1e-demir et al. "&# #9. "#. Avinash 6umar Agarwal.(eport on Aeasurement of %iodiesel . Effects of preheating of crude palm oil on in/ection system performance and emission of a diesel engine.. Aethyl ester of -aran/a oil as an alternative renewable source energy.<:. httpD55www. Iowa #". ##.#::< . *. Jo-esh 6umar. "HHH.eries Go. .). E+haust Emissions and Durability of Aodern Diesel Engines (unning on (apeseed Cil. vol.C) #:. *he effects of in/ection timing on GC+ emissions of a low heat re/ection indirect diesel in/ection engine. "7. %ial-ows-i and *.Gational (enewable Energy Jaboratory. 1erformance and emission Applied *hermal Engineering #< 0#::<2 #9"=8#9#9 19. 6erschbaum.peed of . "&"7. "9.1A. "=..edu5newcrop5du-eYenergy51ongamiaYpinnata. 9:. 1reliminary approach towards a CDI system modification operating on neat rapeseed oil."#. and .

D Cd of orifice Q :.?# g5cc 77 .JAE . of cylinders2P0APJ2P0Go. of wor-ing cycles2 %.pecific heat of e+haust gases Q " -B5-g&6 Density of diesel fuel Q :..2 4olumetric Efficiency Q 0volume of air actually induced2 5 0swept volume2 Air induced 5 s Q Cd P Aorifice P 0# P g P hw P ρw 5 ρa2"5# .FC Q 0Fuel consumed in -g5hr2 5 0bra-e power2 %*E Q 0bra-e power2 5 0heat supplied2 Aass flow rate of air Q 0Air induced 5s2 P 0Density of Air2 CCG.2 )eat ta-en away by e+haust gases Q 0mass flow rate of air N fuel2P0specific heat of gases2P0rise in temp.APPENDI5 FC(A.@ Diameter of orifice Q #: mm .upplied to the engine Q 0mass flow rate of fuel2P0calorific value2 )eat ta-en away by water Q 0mass flow rate of water2P0specific heat of water2P0rise in *emp.*AG*.wept 4olume Q 0Go.ED )eat .

@-B5-g . 7@ ."7< -g5cubic meter (oom temperature Q 9# °C .Density of 6&=: fuel Q :."? -B5-g Density of water Q "::: -g5cubic meter Density of air Q ".pecific heat of water Q =.?<? g5cc Calorific value of diesel fuel Q ==.::: -B5-g Calorific value of 6&=: fuel Q =:. : =7.