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Unit- 2 (Two) HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING • • • • • • • • Human Resource Planning Predetermining HR needs in terms of quality & quantity Estimating the

size & composition of future workforce Due to the dynamic nature of environment – technological change, globalization, change in nature of job, OD, shortage & requirement of critical skills led to importance of HRP HRP is the process of determining an organization’s HR needs - Decenzo &Robbins Human Resource Information System HRIS is a device for providing skill inventory information Computer based data system for systematically track most of the information about employee and jobs Collect, analyze, store, retrieve & disseminate information about employees &job Useful for storing employment, training and compensation information on each employee

Contents of HRIS Personal data- name, address, dob, marital status Skill data- qualification, training, special skills, capabalities, language spoken etc Position data- current position, duties, responsibilities, occupational history, jobs held in other organizations, work locations etc. d) Compensation data- current salary, salary history, bonus, overtime payments, deduction from salary, tax information,award received etc. e) Performance data- current & past performance appraisal data a) b) c) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Uses of HRIS Human resource inventory development Human resource forecast Human resource development Job analysis To make succession and replacement planning To determine current & probable productivity of employee Establish link between corporate objectives & strategies, corporate planning & HR planning Human Resource Inventory Skill inventory of HR currently employed in the organization It includes – names,education, training, salary level, languages spoken, capabalities & specialized skills of all employees From HRP viewpoint, What skills are currently available in the organization Can take advantage of opportunities to expand or alter the organization’s strategies Useful in- training need assessment, promotion & transfer To identify current or future threats to organizations ability to perform Staff turnover rate, sickness & absenteeism rate,etc.

HRP Process 1. Assessing current human resources Human resource inventory, HRIS, Job analysis 2. Forecasting HR demand- external environmental forces, organizatinal objectives, business plan, succession plan, workforce factors such as:- work load norms, employee reallocation, seperation, turnover, contingent workforce Management judgement, expert forecasts, statistical analysis may be used to forecast demand 3. Forecasting HR supply Internal sources forecasts: potential additions & losses to HR inventory, External sources forecast- education & training institute, labour market etc 4. Matching demand and supply forecast- shortage & surplus


5. Preparation of action plan Recruitment action plan Development action plan Retention action plan Redeployment action plan Redundancy action plan Promotion & succession action plan

Unit: 3 (Three) JOB ANALYSIS Job analysis: The process of studying and collecting informations relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate product of this analysis are job description and job specification. It analyze the content & characteristics of the job and requirements/ qualifications needed to perform those jobs. Job description: Job description is an organized, factual statement of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job. It should tell what is to be done, how it is done, and why. It is a standard of function. It defines the authorized content of the job. It contains : job title, location, job summary, duties, machine, tools and equipments, materials used, supervision given or received, working conditions, hazards etc. Job specification A statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly. It is a standard of personnel and designates the qualities required for acceptable performance. A statement of human qualifications necessary to do the job. Usually contains such items: education, experience, training, judgement, initiative, physical effort, physical skills, communication skills, emotional characteristics, sensory demands such as sight, smell, hearing and many others depends upon the nature of job. • • • • • • • • Uses of Job analysis HRP- number & types of human resource are determined by the jobs which need to be staffed. Job related information is provided by JA. Recruitment & selection- an understanding of the types of skills needed and the types of job that may open in future helps HR manager to plan recruitment and knowledge about the work to be done and qualifications needed helps to select right person- match the right people with the right job. Training & development- what a given job demands from the incumbents in terms of knowledge & skills? Training & development programmes can be designed depending on the job requirements. Job evaluation- determination of relative worth of each job to determine wage & salary differentials. Relative worth is determined mainly on the basis of job description & specification. Remuneration- remuneration should be based on relative worth of each job. Employee need to be compensated on the grades of the job which they occupy. Otherwise feeling of inequity may arise. Performance appraisal- Job Analysis helps to fix standards for performance in relation to which actual performance is compared and assessed. Safety & health- provides information regarding hazardous conditions, unhealthy environmental factors. So that corrective measures can be taken to minimize and avoid the possibility oh human injury. Personnel information- planning, acquisition, development, utilization and remuneration purpose Job Analysis helps by providing information. Methods of collecting Job information Observation- job analyst carefully observes the job holder at work and records what & how s/he does and how much time is needed for completion of given task.

Job analysis techniques The hay plan.job holder fill in the given structured questionnaire. Hay plan is based on interview between job analyst & the person in the job. people and things. but the response-sheet contains fewer subjective judgements and tends to be either yes-or-no variety. Information gathered using Hay plan relates to four aspects of managerial job: i) objective of the job ii) dimensions to be covered by the job holders in that position iii) nature & scope of the position iv) accountability Purpose : recruitment. Studies motion at work.job analyst interviews the job holder & supervisor about the job. placement. Desirable or undesirable. Checklists.analyse managerial jobs.job holders records in detai their activities each day in a diary. since executives are engaged in numerous tasks it is difficult to specify their duties and responsibility. Technical conference method. job evaluation. Guidelines-oriented job analysis (GOZA). JOB ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 1.a conference of supervisor who possess extensive knowledge about a job are used. Job analyst use a checklist containing 197 job factors related to managerial concern & responsibilities. Person or behaviour.GOZA techniques analses job after completion of following steps: i) Listing the job domains of the incumbents ii) List the important or critical duties typically requiring person to perform in a job iii) Determine how frequently these critical duties are required to be performed & their importance iv) Determine requisite skills/ knowledge v) Determine physical characteristics . Questionnaire. Method analysis is used in organizations that rely heavily on human labour to carry out repetitive and routine tasks accurately & efficiently. Generally structured form is used.• • • • • Interview. A statistical analysis on job factors will be conducted to find the different job factors relating to the position of individual managers. • • • • • • All jobs are categorized under above 5 job dimensions. 4. Person or behaviour.focused technique. Diary method.focused technique. management development & organizational analysis. Physical abilities analysis (PAA) – analyse the physical abilities/ strengths required by job holders to perform the jobs. 194 job items are categorized in 5 job dimensions: i) Job dimension relating to decision making /communication/ social responsibilities ii) Relating to performing skilled activities iii) Relating to physical activities/ environmental conditions iv) Relating to operating vehicles/ equipment v) Job dimension relating to information processing. Information collected is categorized under those three associated functions.used to analyze the nature of jobs in terms of data. Management position description questionnaire (MPDQ) – designed to analyze managerial position. The critical incident technique (CIT). PAQ contains 194 items. selection. 1. The analyst must make judgements about the informations to be included and its degree of importance. which are then approved by their supervisor.similar to questionnaire. Job focused techniques Functional job analysis (FJA) . Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) – to find the personal or behavioral requirements for performing a job. It can cover many activities but job holder has to tick only those tasks that are included in their jobs.critical job incidents that represents effective or ineffective performance. 3. Metods analysis – analysis of non managerial job. Information is collected through using a position questionnaire. 2. 2. This techniques identifies the crical incidents that occured durung last 6 to 12 months.

If the demand for a particular skill is high relative to the supply. Sons of soil. It is an ongoing process because employee leave the firm in search of greener pastures-some retire and some die in the saddle. takes over other units-all necessitating hiring of new employees. Human resource planning. Cost. recruitment process becomes simpler because large number of people can be attracted with minimum effort. Internal factors: Recruitment positions and in the country level for executive and professional positions has effect on recruitment. Use one ore more methods and techniques of Job Analysis. In fact. Review relevant background information. Select representative positions. c.It is the perception of the job-seekers about the company that matters in attracting qualified prospective employees. Size of the firm.If unemployment rate is high. c. child labor act have effect on recruitment. Eg. 5.Recruiting internally or externally. More importantly.such as organization collecting data on job activities. supervisory and middle.Cost incurred in recruitment process.with job holder & immediate supervisor to confirm that informations is factually correct & complete.because there may be too many similar jobs to analyse. the recruitment function stops only when the company ceases to exist. 2. Develop a job description and job specificationUnit: 4 (Four) RECRUITMENT Recruitment is the process of searching for and obtaining applications so as to build a pool of job seekers from whom the right people for the right jobs may be selected. diversifies. It takes time. The situation of demand and supply of specific skills affects recruitment. multiple job openings simultaneously may minimize cost. The purpose of recruitment is to build a pool of applicants.According to Dessler 1. process chart & job description 3. policy of temporary and part time workers. Labor market. . an enterprise grows. Verify the job analysis information. 2. d. It is usually unnecessary to analyse the jobs of 200 assembly workers when a sample of 10 jobs will do 4. Recruitment represents the first contact an organization makes with potential employees.Preferences to local or people of their respective state in matters of employment. It is through recruitment that many individuals will come to know a company and eventually decide whether they wish to work for it. Political-legal. must operate within budgets.A company cannot attract prospective employees in sufficient numbers and with required skills overnight. FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT External factors Supply and demand. recruitment of local citizens. an extraordinary recruiting efforts may be needed. specially for non-managerial.Availability of manpower in a local area. b. recruitment process is said to end with the receipt of application. Theoretically. Effective HRP greatly facilitates the recruiting efforts. e. 6. · · · · · · · 1) a. d. scheduled tribes. required employee Describe other characteristics JOB ANALYSIS PROCESS Six steps in doing job helps to determine the types of data and methods to collect. Actually analyse the job. a. Unemployment rate. working conditions and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. Image. f. b. Decide how you will use the information.Reservations of jobs for scheduled castes.Bigger the size less problematic. minorities and other ethnic and backward classes.

Selection Tests Intelligence tests Tests of general intellectual abilities. To select person who will show a higher degree of success after the training period. employee referral. a. Steps in selection:Application form evaluation-> selection tests-> selection interview-> reference checks-> physical examination-> hiring decision Selection methods Qualification and experience method. 2. vocabulary. paying charges to a leasing company or consulting firm that handles payroll. The alternatives to recruitments are: a) Overtimeb) Employee leasing. memory etc. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) External methods/sources: Advertisement – Professional or trade associationsEmployment exchangeUniversity/collegesWalk-ins. . write-ins and talk-insConsultantsContractorsCompetitorsE-recruiting- ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT Organizations search for alternatives to recruitment because of the cost of recruiting. c) Temporary employment Unit. people who have left the company for some reasons or other are willing to come back and work d) Previous applicants. Growth & expansion. comprehensive selection method. employee benefits and routine HR functions for the client company.e.“finders fees”. Internal methods: v Job posting. Texas instrument c) Formers employees.Promotion. human resource inventory search q Internal sources a) Present employees. musical. Infosys. Aptitude tests It measures whether an individual has the capacity or latent ability to learn a given job if given adequate training. Wipro.Staff outsourcing. They measures not a single trait but rather a range of abilities such as. interview method.An organization going on growth and expansion will have more recruiting on hand than the one which finds its fortune declining.Although not truly an internal source. clerical. verbal fluency.Retired employees may be willing to come back on part time basis. transfers. written test and interview method. can be contacted quickly to fill an unexpected opening. linguistic. A capacity to learn in the future. Microsoft. RECRUITMENT METHODS 1.5 (Five) SELECTION Selection is the process of choosing among people who apply for work with an organization. Specific capacities or aptitudes are. academic etc.mechanical. may recommend someone. work proficiency method. b.Selection process is a series of steps used to decide which recruits should be hired. job rotation b) Employee referrals.reasoning. numerical abilities. written test method.

This technique helps identify hypersensitive applicants and those with low or high stress tolerance. This test covers abilities such as. semi-structured interview: major questions to be asked are planned in advance and are same for all candidates but other questions vary from candidate to candidate. typing. A selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicant’s oral responses to oral inquiries. e. d. In this test applicants is asked whether s/he likes. Achievement tests Concerned with what one has accomplished. Measures candidates preference in different types of job. It helps to shows the demonstrable relationship and job performance. 5. 7. Interview for the same job may or may not get the similar questions. activities. confirmity. such as: selection. 3. an achievement test is given to measure how well they know it. dictation. Asks interviewees to describe how they reacted to actual situations in the past. Unstructured or Nondirective interview: An unstructured conversational. finger and manual dexterity etc. agreeableness. A few questions may be specified in advance. E. Interest in specific profession and occupation is tested. Selection Interview An interview is a procedure designed to obtain information from a person through oral responses to oral inquiries. interview in which the interviewer pursues points of interest as they come up in response to questions. Behavioral interview: A series of job related questions that focuses on how the candidate reacted to actual situations in the past.Gary Dessler 1. Asks job related questions to draw conclusions about what the applicant’s on the job performance will be based on his or her answers to questions about past experiences. 4. Situation tests It evaluates the candidate’s behavior in a particular situation or in a situation which is similar to some aspects of the job to be done in the future.verbal.c. When applicants claim to know something. Interviewer are provided some flexibility. Trade tests such as. Test batteries This test helps to fit candidate with wide array of jobs. extroversion. f. Job related interview: A series of job related questions that focuses on relevant past job related behaviors. appraisal and exit interviews Types of selection interviews . Asks interviewees to describe how they would react to a hypothetical situation today or tomorrow. dislikes the particular occupation. Personality tests It measures personality attributes of candidate such as emotional stability. Mike has $ 20 more than Todd. machinists etc. computer operator. The questions and acceptable responses are specified in advance and the responses are rated for appropriateness of content. finance. Interest tests/Vocational tests Most organization realize that a person who is interested in a job or tasks will do much better than who is uninterested. How much money has Mike and how much money has Todd?” Administering interview: . Generally no set format to follow. An interviewer at Microsoft asked a tech service applicant this: ”Mike & Todd have $ 21 between them. Stuctured or Directive interview: An interview following a set sequence of questions.electricians. Stress interview: An interview in which the applicant is made uncomfortable by a series of often rude questions. smartness etc. and other types of job like to use them to see how candidates think under pressure. Puzzle questions: Recruiter for technical. 2. numerical. peoples. Situational interview: A series of job related questions that focus on how the candidate would behave in a given situation. Managers uses several types of interviews. intelligence. g.g.

e.the degree to which a particular selection device accurately predicts the important elements of work the degree to which a particular trait is related to successful performance on the job. a person who is tested a second or third time with the same test under the same condition will obtain approximately the same score. If no clear relationship exists. Types of validity Content validity. If a test possesses high relaiability .• • • • • • Personal or Individual interview Panel Interview Serial Interview Mass Interview Telephone Interview Computerized Interview • • Reliability and Validity of Tests Reliability. a) Unit. (probationary period).training. then the test may have to be revised. Usually conducted by industrial psychologist by observig various behavior of the applicant and measuring how these behavior or traits relate to the job. discharge (handle). Need of training Training directly contributes to the development of human resources. In this context training enhances the knowledge.transfer. Present test score is compared with actual performance of the candidate generally after a year. Validity. managerial and behavioral aspects. operative level) System and practices get outdated due to new discoveries in technology. .it validates tests using current employees as the subjects.It refers to the relationship between the test score and performance on the job (accuracy). Typing test Construct validity.such a test can approximate the work to be done on the job. Relationship between the test scores and job performance. Predictive validity can be used as screening device where as concurrent validity acts on current employees.7 (Seven) TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Training refers to the imparting of specific skill. The scores from the current employees are immediately analyzed with their previous performance appraisal report. It is the most widely used HRD mechanism in the world for the development of human resources. If there is a relationship between test scores and performance. abilities and knowledge to employee ( development of those employees who do not supervise activities of others. skills and attitudes of employees to increase efficiency and effectiveness on the prsent job as well as expected future job.It refers to the degree of consistency of results obtained. It is expected that employees apply their newly acquired knowledge & skill on the job in such a way as to aid in the achievement of organizational goal.the degree to which test scores determine the future job behavior of the candidate. then a valid test has been found. It is concerned with measuring important characteristics related to job behavior. Measurement of psychological quality of applicants such as intelligence (abstract in nature). The objective of training is to achieve a change in the behavior of those trained. including technical. i) ii) iii) To establish criterion related validity one of two measures can be used Predictive validty. b) Concurrent validity. It plays a great role in determining the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization. Criterion related validity.g.

It determines the overall training needs. technological) changes are identified to determine training needs. Supervisory recommendation method In this method supervisor identify gap in knowledge and skills and recommend needed training for the employees. 2.cost. TRAINING PROCESS 1. Job requirement – employee capability = training needs • Methods of determining training needs 1. group survey (group of present employees. 4. career planning discussion. The result of survey becomes training needs. It should be SMART. job performance standard 3.what business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? 2. Performance analysis method Organizational performance method. absenteeism. exit interview.- Improved performance Fill manpower needs Prevent obsolescence Aid in solving operational problems Attitude formation Improve health and safety Benefit to employees themselves Determining training needs Training need is a gap between the existing capabilities of an employee and the requirement of the job.identifies actual performance on the current job.experts are asked to give opinion on desired competencies to perform the job effectively. former employees and supervisors). i.environmental (political-legal. 4. This desired competencies determines training needs. Establishment of training goals. Organizational objectives and strategies. Job description. Competency survey.accident rates etc. Employee performance analysis. ii. Designing training programme. sales performance. Training need survey methodIn this method direct questioning is used to gather opinion about training needs through individual survey (each employee).clear behavioral standard of expected results are necessary so that training programme can be effectively designed and results can be evaluated.goal achievement. Task analysis method Collection and analysis of task related information. strategies and structure change. Management audit method Environmental assessment. socio-cultural. Overall performance such as. Objectives.performance standards for each task are set.specifies desired performance standard. 5. labour turnover. needs are identified for effective task performance. quality control. Assessment of training needsJob requirement – employee capability = training needs 3. job specification.details are found about how tasks are done.every training programme must address certain vital issuesi) who are the participants or trainees ii) who are the trainers iii) what methods and techniques are to be used for training . performance test etc. production performance. Performance deficiencies and problem faced by the employees are identified to determine training needs throughemployees performance appraisal needs are identified to manage such changes.

Also known as ”training through step-by-step learning” steps: i) Preparation. quick correction of error and provision of extra practise if required. iv) Follow-up.craft & technical areas. Working as a ”assistant to” type of position.small group meeting conducted according to an organizational plan. if there are any errors they are corrected. Evaluation of the programme.a techniques that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. It provides immediate feedback. develop alternative solutions and select the best alternatives as accurately as possible and implement it as manager faces and tackles..providing informations about job. ”if the learner has not learned. • Job instruction training (JIT). that is correcting performance deficiencies. the teacher has not taught. telling & showing them each step of the job. It provides an opprtunity for trainees to actually put in to practise the knowledge they have observed from text book. Implementation of training programme. To ensure that any changes in trainee’s capability is due to training programme and not due to any other condition. • • • Off-the-job training LecturesSeminars.” • Internship training. carpenters. lectures and discussions. It is based on the principle. how far the program has been useful must be judged to get feed back. stressing why and how each step is carried as it is shown. Trainees are placed in such an artificial environment which looks alike the real working place & condition.specially useful for preparing supervisors to train operatives.mechanics. ii) Presentation. Provides opportunity to expose their analytical and judgemental abilities. Types of training Apprenticeship training. Case study. duties and responsibilities to the trainees. Generally trainees sit facing one another around a conference table where instructor introduce the topics and invites views from the participants on problem areas related to the topics. it needs to be implemented.learning by doing under the guidance of experienced worker. Role playing.iv) what should be the level of training v) what learning principles are needed vi) where is the programme conducted (vi) how far the program has been useful must be judged to get feedback. analyze causes. iii) Practise. • • • • . The role players are provided either with written or oral descriptions of a situation and the role they are to play.since huge sum of money and time are spent on training programme.providing essential information in a clear manner by positioning the trainees at work site. Learn not only from the instructor but also from each other. Evaluating training programme The main objective of evaluating the training programme is: to determine if they are accomplishing specific training objectives.from the written description of the actual business situation the trainees determine problems. It is abstraction of real working conditions in the lab or class room. Simulation. 5. Programme implementation involves: i) deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities ii) scheduling the training programmes iii) conducting the programme iv) monitoring the progress of trainees.trainees are assigned parts to play infront of the class.once the training programme has been designed.having the trainee try out the job to show that s/he has understood the instructions. Participants are expected to make some views and ask questions.encouraging the questions and allowing the trainee to work alone. jewellers. Student of technical and professional subjects are sent to organizations to get practical experience of theoretical knowledge they have learnt in colleges.trainee is trained on the job by immediate superior. Trainee work as an employee for specific period. Trainer follow up regularly. 6.

2. Test-retest method In this method participants are given a test to establish their level of knowledge before they enter the training programme. Criteria for evaluation Criteria used for evaluating training effectiveness: 1. knowledge. Corrective action Methods for evaluating training progarmmes 1. Performance in practical work situation. Organizational results. 3. role play. Another group is experimental group whose member undergo training. After the training the participant’s job performance is reevaluated. Training surveys Direct questioning to trainees to get reaction. 2. participation in discussion. Pre-post performance method The actual job of each participants is evaluated and rated prior to training. suggestions for improvement etc. 5. Process of training evaluation Steps: i.behavior indicates the performance of learners. Cost effectiveness analysis It assesss total value of training benefits against total cost of training.physical facilities. presentation method. The errors are carefully observed and recorded. training is regarded effective. Learning criteria. One group is control group whose members work without undergoing training. After the completion of training. Measuring actual outcomes iii.examine the impact of training on the work group or the entire company. A systematic process of training & growth by which manegerial personnel gain & apply skill. Two groups are evaluated at the end of the training. • • • • • • . achievement of training objectives. Setting intended standards ii. attitudes & insight to manage the works in their organization. they retake the test. knowledge and skills of training. Behavior change criteria. Experimental control group method Two groups are formed. Observation method Observation method is done by closely observed during the training programme.learning measures assess the degree to which trainees have mastered the concepts. 4. generally after the end of training participants are asked to fill-up form containing. Reaction criteria. Finally. credibility of training is greatlt enhanced when it is proved that the organization has benefitted tangibly from it. Training is effective if benefit exceeds costs. The change in test scores indicate the change in the level of knowledge resulting from training. MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT All those persons who have authority over others and are responsible for their activities & for the operations of an enterprise are managers. Changes in job behavior. Changes in job performance is attributed to training. If the performance of the experimental group improves. timing . 6.reaction measures reveal trainees’ opinions regarding the training programme. Finding deviation iv. Any activity designed to improve the performance of existing managers to provide for a planned growth of managers to meet future requirements is management development. Purpose: Increase managerial capabalities Enhance managerial effectiveness Facilitate environmental adaptation 3.• • To determine their cost effectiveness. trainer effectiveness. 4. contents.

also learns decision making process. real problems are discussed. This discussion is facilated by professional behavioral scientist. It has been suggested that one who generally is low in parent. In these committees. They are usually dominant. 3. high in adult and high in child is likely to be most effective in dealing with others. In the absence of superior has to work as ”acting” of superior. illness. d. child and adult. listens with an open mind. ”ought” and ”mustn’t”. a. . Committee assignments Techniques where juniors are assigned to board or committes by the chief executives. The purpose is to provide diverse knowledge or overall knowledge and familiarizing with the different sectionsl job before they are posted as managers in the department. follow up suggestions & correct errors. Simulation exercise etc.Chris Argyris 1. it is called mentoring. when it is to be done. Basic assumptions of TA is that every individual personality holds three ego states: the parent. Lecture/seminar course 4.• • • Improve managerial decision making Facilitate managerial succession & career development Aid managerial job satisfaction & retention MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD On the job Coaching: when manager takes an active role in guiding another manager. that is why they are emotional and acts according to the feeling of moment.job development Sensitivity training method to develop or changing behavior through group processess. give & receive feedback. S/he has to learn about the full duties & responsibilities of the position currently held by his superior. Off. to learn by watching others and to solve specific organizational problems. it is called coaching. state opinions. Insight in to why others act the way they do Improved listening skill Insight in to how group operates Increased tolerance & understanding of others Experimentation with new ways of acting toward people & feedback about how these new ways affect people Group experience designed to provide maximum possible opportunity for the individuals to expose their behavior. In TA trainess are taught to analyze their interactions with others in terms of ego state being expressed. different views are debated and decisions are taken. experiment with new behavior & develop awareness of self & of others. The effectiveness of this techniques on the ability of the coach. scolding and authoritative and they use frequently such words as ”should”. Coach sets goal. Objectives are: Improved understanding of how & why trainees act toward others and how their action affect others. Job rotation transfer or movement of executives from one job to another.the.. So in this ego state person may be obedient or manipulative. charming at one moment and repulsive the next. The juniors get an opportunity to share in managerial decision making. • • • • • • 1. The parent state is an ego state of authority & superiority. b. c. Transactional analysis Used to improve interpersonal relations. a. transfer or promotion. Understudy assignments: potential managers are assigned to work under experienced manager with a title ”assistant to”. Organization ensures that a fully trained persons are available to replace manager during long absence. how. Learns the complexities of problem that superior has faced and how to solve them. and actively engaged in probability estimating & rational decision making. tells what. If the coaching is done by someone other than immediate supervisor/manager. The child contains all the influence that are natural to an infant. Small group gather in unstructured learning situation where they discuss & interact with themselves. The adult stage is objective and rational. The adults deals with hear & know reality. 2.

to those who take the decision about the career progress. training. Self-assessment by employees2. achievements. performance etc. Identification of high potential occupation5. The career development is the process of guiding the placement. provides opportunities and challenges and strengthens work cultures. movement.. A career path is the sequential pattern of jobs that form a career. It helps to develop individuals and groups. Change the job.Employees who put organizational loyalty above career loyalty may change the job in the same organization if they find that career opportunities in other jobs in the same organization are better than those of present job. Various career development actions prove useful if an employee is committed to career development.They should expose their skills. To increase managerial competence To attract competent person and retain them in the organization To provide suitable promotional opportunities To enable the employees to develop and make them ready to meet the future challenges To increase the utilization of managerial reserves within an organization To correct employee placement To reduce employee dissatisfaction and turnover To improve motivation and morale PROCESS OF CAREER PLANING: 1.Unit. The main purpose of career planning is to integrate individuals’ and organizational growth needs.8 (Eight) CAREER PLANING AND DEVELOPMENT • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A career is a sequence of positions occupied by a person during the course of a lifetime. Setting career plans7.-Decenzo & Robbins Career is a sequence of separate but related work activities that provides continuity. if they wants career development. Identification of occupational orientation 4. development and educational programs provided by the organization and various institutes. if they find career opportunities elsewhere are better than those of the present organization. Exposure. Setting career goals to meet the career issues6. The career development actions are: Job performance. Career planning is the process by which one selects career goals and the path to these goals.Employee may resign the present job. planned training activities and planned job assignment. order and meaning in a person’s life.Edwin Flippo A career is all the jobs that are held during one’s working life.Employee must prove that their performance on the job is to the level of standards established. knowledge. and growth of employees through assessment. Career goals are the future positions one strives a part of career. Implementing career plans• • • • • • • • CAREER DEVELOPMENT Career development consists of personal improvements undertaken by the individual employee. Exploring opportunities3. The most important aspect of career development is that every employee must accept their responsibility for development. . qualifications. Resignation.

ii) They are means of telling a subordinate how they are doing and suggesting needed changes in their behavior. information. advice and encouragement to switch over to other career or organization. Pupose of performance evaluation The overall objectives of PE is to improve the efficiency of an employee by attempting to mobilize the best possible efforts from individuals employed in it. quality & quantity of output. Such evaluation achieves four objectives includiing the salary reviews. Process of performance evaluation The evaluation process consists following steps: 1. Why Career development program? 1.Test these possibilities against the realities of the organization or the job market. judgement etc.Identify and organize your skills. Growth opportunities 2. Measure actual performance 4.9 (Nine) PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Once the employee has been selected. trained & motivated the next step of MGMT is to find out how effective it has been at hiring and placing. planning job ratation and assistance promotion. Testing against realities.Convert these inventories into general career fields and specific job goals.internal and external mobility. Retention of personnel 6.Cummings PE plans are designed to meet three needs. the development & training of individuals. They let them know where they stands with the boss. Avoid obsolescence 5. it is also concerned with potentials of the employees for future performance. Conversion into general fields and a specific goals.Decenzo and Robbins Individual career development is a three-step self-assessment process: Identification and organization. attitudes. Discuss the appraisal with the employees . cooperation. skills or job knowledge. demotions or terminations. It is the assessment of an individual’s performance in a systematic way against such factors as job knowledge. transfers. interests. i) They provide systematic judgements to back up salary increases.• • Career guidance. dependability. Competition for high talent personnel 4. The tools used to ascertain whether an employee has shown her/his best performance on a given job is called performance evaluation. Establish performance standards 2. work-related needs. there are two types of mobility in career development actions. one of the organization & the other two of the individuals. leadership abilities.Counseling provides. Improved utilization of personnel • • • • • • • • • • Effective organizational career development techniques include: Challenging initial job Dissemination of career option information Job postings Assessment centers Career development workshops Continuing education and training Periodic job change • Sabbaticals For more see: HRM. Quality of working life 3. So. Compare actual performance with standards 5. initiative. The assessment is not only concerned with past performance. iii) They are used as a base for coaching and conselling the individual by the superior. Communicate performance expectations to employees 3. Unit. where career opportunities are better. and values.

The actual assessment is done by HR department. If necessary. Critical incident. dependability. Group order ranking. Major relative standards major are: 1. E.. where two or more statement is provided to raters and raters has to identify which statement is most descriptive of the individuals being evaluated. cooperativeness. starting from the best to worst or viceversa.performance of individuals are compared against other individuals. The supervisor tick these ”yes” & ”no” column according to their performance on given statement and forward the list to HR department where actual evaluation is done by alloting certain point to each ”yes”. C= good. Each scale ranges from excellent to poor. Promotion. transfer.this system consists of several numerical scales each representing a job related performance criteria such as. The rater checks the appropriate performance level on each criteria and computes the employees total numerical score. D= fair. traits. analytical ability. separation decisions 5. Paired comparison. Reward management 3. attitude. 3. 2. B= very good. output. Career & succession planning 7. The danger is taht it may give the employees the impression that everything they do will be recorded which may harass them. 2.dependability. second & third division. Validation of selection tests 6. Essay appraisal. Supervisor directly observes & records examples of behavior under the categories that indicate effective or ineffective performance frequently through out the year. behavior and potentiality of the employee on the job in a essay form. Policy formulation • Methods of performance evaluation Relative standards. one at a time. attendence. Supervisory understanding 8.a checklist of statements on the traits of the employees and their job is prepared in 2 columns that is ”yes” & ”no”. Performance feedback 2.this approach focuses on certain critical behavior of an employee that makes all the differences between effective and non effective performance on the job. cooperation etc. 5. After the completion of comparision. Same procedure is repeated to other employees.appraiser compares each employee with every other employee. Forced choice. 4. This procedure can provide a sound basis for feedback to the individual so it is useful for devlopmental purpose. Then A is compared with C D & E in that order. the results can be tabulated and a rank is created from the number of times each person is considered to be superior. Each individual gets their own rank.for outstanding A.developed form of checklist. Checklist. initiative. initiate corrective action Uses of performance evaluation 1. grouped or ranked in to a particular classification by the evaluator according to the selected features such as. two or more person can not get the same rank. Graphic rating scale.there are 5 employyes named A B C D & E.g. judgement. Such as. first. The main advantage of this method is that it reduces biasness because rater doesn’t know the right answer. Behaviourally anchored rating scales (BARS) Management by objective . Training & development decisions 4. leadership & organizing capacity etc. 6.employees are placed. The performance of A is first compared with B and decision is made about whose performance is better.6.the appraiser describes the performance. E= poor and F= hopeless or distinction. Individual ranking: supervisor or rater ranks the performance of subordinates in the order of their merit. self expression. 3. Absolute standard 1.

post appraisal interview. • Factors that can distort appraisals Leniency error. and it is even more difficult to get agreement on what criteria will determine performance. Peer appraisals 3.generally supervisor & subordinates work together to establish goals. it is hoped. Halo error. the inability to distinguish between and among ratees.10 (Ten) COMPENSATION ADMINISTRATION Compensation refers to all forms of financial returns. peers and internal & external customers. and benefits employees receive as part of an employee relationship. measure and review their own performance. Necessary corrective actions are taken. rewards to accurate appraisers. Suggestions for improved performance appraisal: i) behaviorally based measures ii) combine relative and absolute standard iii) ongoing feedback iv) multiple raters v) selective many jobs it is difficult to get consensus on what is a good job. from supervisors. punished . Appraised by subordinates 6. Central tendency error prone rater rates all employees as average. tangible service. -Milkovich Designing pay structure that will attract. a form of range restriction. if evaluator knows.when evaluator rate other people in the same way that the evaluators perceive themseves. then they are making similarity error. Steps of MBO . Central tendency. Self control.MBO is a process that converts organizational objectives in to individual objectives.the actual level of goal attainment is compared with the goals agreed upon. peer evaluations. Action planning. Similarity error. by considering the paying capacity of the organization is compensation management.a complete survey on individuals Unit. The immidiate supervisor 2. trained appraisers. not rewarded.what are the consequenses of appraisa? Employee can be rewarde. As a result appraisal is frequently made by using substitutes for performance. Some evaluator mark high and others low. Low appraiser motivation.ratings are collected ”all around” an employees. If all individuals in an organization are appraised by the same person there will be no problem.Goal setting. Periodic review. 360 –degree feedback. estimating time requirement and determining the resources required to complete each task. Inappropriate substitutes for performance.tendency to rate high or low on all factors due to the impression of high or low rating on some specific factor. These reviews should take place at least two to three times a year. Rating committees 4. criteria that. subordinates. establishing the relationship between these activities.subordinate themselves systematically monitor.This step includes identifying the activities necessary to accomplish the objectives. Self ratings 5. • • Purpose: Establish fair & equitable pay system Attract & retain competent human resources • • • • • . The evaluator explores reasons for goal that were not met and for the goals that were exceeded.every evaluator has his or her own value system which acts as a standard against which appraisals are made. retain and motivate the competent employees and which is perceived as fair by the employees. may not give the realistic appraisal.means are determined to achieve ends.reluctance to make extreme ratings in either direction. Positive leniency error and negative leniency error. closely approximate performance and act in its place. Who should do the appraising? 1.

iv) All the jobs are compared one. 4. market rates for similar first. Difference between job evaluation & performance evaluation q Job evaluation i) The job is rated keeping in view such factors as responsibilities. 2. third. Competition 7. fourth.process of describing the duties of a job. vii) Methods of job evaluation 1. assess training need iv) Compulsory & done regularly v) Performance evaluation is done by peers. physical efforts.the number of grade is decided. experience. Productivity Establishing pay plans Pay plan is concerned with assigning a monetary value to each job in the organization. Steps : 1. Equity considerations 5. skills. ii) Job is rated before employee is appointed iii) Purpose is to establish satisfactory wage differentials iv) Not compulsory v) JE comittee & experts does JE q Performance evaluation i) Employee is rated on the basis of performance. responsibility and other job characteristics are taken in to consideration while forming the job grade. factors corresponding to these grades are developed. supervisors. iii) These factors are assumed to be constant for all jobs.systematically determining the value of each job in relation to all jobs within the organization. vi) It uses pay rate for each compensable factors. job conditions etc. consultant & agencies. Methods of job evaluation Ranking method. second. employee themselves. Grading method. award.• • • • Improve motivation & morale of employees Improve image of the organization as a ”fair pay” employer Comply with legal framework related to compensation Compensation administration Determinants of compensation policy Legal framework 2. conditions of work and additinal relevant informations.ranking.worth of each job is assessed on the basis of its importance & content than compared with each other & rank of each job is determined. JE seeks to rank all the jobs in the organization & place them in a hierarchy that will reflect the relative worth of each job. Compensation structure.published surveys. skills required. iii) Purpose is to reward. working conditions etc required for performance of the job. . The degree of skill. 2. authority relationship. punish. Union pressure 3.mental with the key factors v) The worth of the job is obtained by adding together all the point value. Wage & salary survey. group of people or combination of these. 3. skills. 3. Jobevaluation. ii) Performance evaluation takes place after the employees has been hired & placed on the job. Factor compariion methodi) Selection of key factors ii) Key factors may be. Job evaluation 6. advertisement. basic information about job are collected through job analysis. informal communication. creation of job grades 1. after analyzing these informations jobs are matched with the grades. Organization’s compensation policies 4. Job analysis.

Used for managerial & professional employees. Bonus. educational assistance etc. pension & gratuity progarmmes. It should not be expected to motivate employees. Used for sales personnel. Used for production worker. Group incentives. Scanlon plan. Such as . insurance. cultural activities. study leaves etc. Unit. Point method.responsibilities. Given in addition to wage & salary Variable pay linked to performance Types of incentives 1. Trends in benefits & services: Cafeteria style of benefits: the cafeteria approach allows employees to pick and choose those benefits that are desirable. Core benefits are provided to all employees. efforts. tihar. 3. sponsored events. • • • INCENTIVES Monetary benefits paid to employees for outstanding performance. counselling. a) b) c) 2. leave of absence. Absence of adequate benefit can contribute to employee dissatisfaction and increased absenteeism and turnover. free tea/coffee. sick leave. Individual incentives: reward linked with the individual performance. Such as social securities.compensation is based on number of units lumpsum payments for meeting performance goal.based on sales performance in terms of value. Legally required benefits: certain benefits must be supplied by the organizations for its employees. vaccations-paid leave.evaluates the compensable factors. Suggestion plan. Uses points instead of pay rates according to the level/ degree of compensable factors. skills. commission. job conditions etc. Each factor is further subdivided in to sub factors. Where task are interdependent and requires team work and the output of individual employee canot be measured such incentive is provided. Organizational incentives.reward for useful ideas for improvement of organizational effectiveness from the employees.4. SERVICES Those facilities which is provided by the organization at no cost to the employee or a significant reduction from what might have to be paid without the organization’s support. ii) Determine the level of factors. company picnic. discount. credit unions. Individual incentive plans are: Piece is based on the ratio of labor cost to productivity. remainder of the money to be spent on benefits left to the decision of each employee.reward linked to the combined performance. Voluntary benefits: rest period.unemployment compensation. i) Compensable factors are determined.reward linked with the overall performance of the organization. workers compensation.14 days. housing. disability 2. piece rate. Benefits: Something for everybody • • • Types of benefits 1.11 (Eleven) INDIECT FINANCIAL COMPENSATION Benefits are membership based rewards offered to all employees regardless of performance. Bonus.several levels are created for each factor. All employees are entitled to a share of saving in labor cost through bonus payments (productivity gain sharing). regardless of whether it wants to or not. iii) Allocate points to sub factors and levels iv) Apply the point system matrix. holidays-dashain. a) b) .

Industrial health is: i) the prevention and maintenance of physical. or insufficient space for movement inside the plant. Environmental causes– tools. a substance. and enacted a series of labour acts and policies. Employees. physical plant & general work environment.carelessness. Every year thousands of workers are injured in factories and mines. inadequate ventilation. mental & social well being of workers in all occupations. Constitute wage boards. managers and government. Causes of accidents: Human causes. daydreaming. Industrial safety or employee safety refers to the protection of workers from the danger of industrial accidents. Trade unions look to LR in order to secure improved terms and conditions of employment and to obtain improved status for the workers in their work. Safety means freedom from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. a person. equipment. death. their respective associations. mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. to voice any grievances. employers. Partial disablement. They understand LR as a means to motivate workers and to sustain their commitment to work. Accident is an unplanned and uncontrolled event in which an action and reaction of an object.c) Employee shares some portion of profit. Employers have economic power in their hands and use it to affect workers’ destiny. Employees perceives LR as a method to improve their conditions of employment. labour courts.WHO Industrial health refers to a system of public health and preventive medicine which is applicable to industrial concerns. or a radiation results in personal injury. total disablement. government and judiciary are the parties which have stakes in labour relations. inability to do the job. . The government seeks to protect the interest of both employers as well as employees. ii) prevention among workers of ill health caused by the working conditions.a state of complete physical. iii) protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health and iv) placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to their physical & psychological equipment. or as a result of some unsafe work conditions or unsafe acts of employees themselves. The injuries may be caused as a result of any unsafe activity. or other human deficiency etc. tribunals. Unit-12 (Twelve) HEALTH AND SAFETY The life of industrial workers is full of risks and hazards. The role of employers’ association is relevant in as much as they represent employers in collective bargaining and develop machinery for avoidance or settlement of disputes. to exchange views and ideas with management and to share in decision making. intoxication. unsafe and insufficient lighting arrangements. One of the important consequences of all this is increased dangers to human life. the human factor is more responsible for the vast majority of accidents. Among both these sources. or defective plant or shop lay out. Unit-13 (Thirteen) LABOUR RELATIONS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Labor relations are the complex of interrelations among workers. Accident prevention measures include: Education Skill training Engineering Protection Regulation enforcement as Health. The basic objective of industrial health is the prevention of disease and injury rather than the cure of disease..

insubordination. destruction of property etc. 3.adherence to rules. 2. Dishonesty related. does not impose its views or decisions .is a procedure in which a neutral third party studies the bargaining situation. outside criminal activities. it becomes a grievance. Industrial disputes mean any dispute or differences between employers and employers.late for work.• The judiciary is relevant as it has the authority to settle any dispute and to review any legislation. rules regulations etc. with a view to persuading them to arrive at an agreement by mutual discussion between them.means a mandatory settlement of industrial dispute by a labour court or tribunal. 1947. gambling. Grievance procedures 5. ii) preparation for negotiation iii) negotiation iv) ratification v) contract administration. not reporting accidents. Grievance is a written complaint filed by an employee claiming unfair treatment. 7. Conciliator works as facilitator only. concealing defective work etc. which is connected with the employment or non-employment or terms of employment or with the conditions of labour of any person. failure to obey safety rules. Arbitration. Outside activities related. drunk. Institution of labor welfare officer & labor welfare work 2. working for competing firms. defective work. 4. habitual tardiness. leaving work without permission. particularly when it is against the constitutional provisions. Mediation-where third party plays more active role and suggests various proposals for settlement of dispute but parties involved in the disputes are free to accept or reject such proposals. or between employers and workmen.representative of employee and management sit together and negotiate to settle the dispute.a process by which representative of workers and employers are brought together infront of third party. Industrial dispute Industrial dispute mainly relate to the strife between employers and employee. absenteeism.. procedures. Causes of grievances 1.Industrial Dispute Acts. Management practices • • • • • • • . Conciliation. conciliator. or between workmen and workmen. When employees complaint is brought to the notice of management. abuse of leave etc. Collective bargaining Discipline Discipline. wage garnishing etc. information falsification. listens to both the parties and gather information and then makes recommendations that are binding on the parties. Disciplinary action: i) Oral warning ii) written warning iii) suspension iv) Pay cut v) demotion vi) dismissal Grievances Grievances are employee’s perception of unfair treatment on the job. Bipartite & tripartite bodies 4. and standard of acceptable behavior in an organizational setting. Preventive measures: 1. The collective bargaining process consists the following steps: i) organizing & certification.unauthorized strike. fighting on the job. Job behavior related.theft. Collective bargaining. Code of discipline. Adjudication. embrassing speeches. Workers’ participation 6. India • • Methods of settlement 1. 5. Works committees 3. punching time card of others. Interpretation differences 2. The third party may be an individual or group of people. regulations. Disciplinary problems: Attendance related.

number of organizations of many countries are operating in different countries.Management takes legalistic view in handling grievances. HR issues in international business: 1. The HRM issues and problems arising from the internationalization of business. Selection & appointment • Recruitment policy Ethnocentric: recruitment from parent country nationals Polycentric: from host countries nationals Geocentric: recruitment regardless of nationality Regiocentric: recruitment made on the basis of regional needs 2. 3. 2. Personality traits 5.first rather than providing only predeparture cross-cultural training. while Level-4: provides skill building in areas like language and adjustment and adaptation skills. Grievance procedure: Grievant → Supervisor (verbal complaint) Grievant → Department head (written complaint) Grievant → Grievance committee (appeal for review) Grievant → Top management ( appeal for review) Voluntary arbitration ( referred for arbitration) decisions binding on all Unit-14 (Fourteen) INTERNATIONAL HRM Due to the increasing trend of globalization. policies and practices which firms pursue in response to the internationalization process. Open door policy.internationally oriented management practices have emerged and been adapted. there is also increased use of software & internet for cross-cultural training. It follows the contract with employees and equalize purchasing power across country. previous international experience & ability to operate independently. employers are using returning managers as resources to cultivate the global mindsets of their home office staff. Criteria for selection: some of the most important criteria are. Preparation & training. Second. Due to the competition in the global market. Third. Compensation. Labor union practices 4. Legal compliance. Handles the grievances as specified in the contract. technical & management expertise. Working conditions Handling employee grievances 1.Employees are invited to walk in any time and express their grievances to higher level management. hardship allowances & others The balance sheet approach. in-country cross-cultural training during the early stages of an overseas assignment. family support. 3. Level-2: aims at getting participants to understand how attitudes are formed & how they influence behavior Level-3: training provides factual knowledge about the target country. Trends in expatriate training.• • • • • 3. Selection system 4. language proficiency. • • 5. IHRM is now of growing concern/importance for the companies that are operating or going to operate with the trend of globalization. Liberalization policy of developing countries has attracted many foreign direct investment as well as many multinational companies. more firms are providing continuing. In these companies people of many countries work together.what sort of special training do overseas candidates need four step approaches Level-1: training focuses on the impact of cultural differences & on raising trainees’ awareness of such differences & their impact on business outcomes. The basic idea is that each expatriate should enjoy the same standard of living s/he would have at home. and the human resource strategies.cost of living criteria.domestic employment record. Incentives .

empathy. Five factors important in international assignee success & their components: 1. kindness.6. Family situation. alertness. initiative & energy. perseverance 2.adaptability of spouse and family. openness.resourcefulness. emotional stability. flexibility/ adaptability. it will bring another big problem on the part of expatriates as well as the organization itself. creativity. independence. industriousness. responsibility. ability to deal with stress. Extra-cultural openness. willingness of spouse to live abroad. If an organization fails to foresee the problems of repatriation. imagination. nonjudgmental. knowledge of local languages. outgoingness & extroversion. high motivation. Performance evaluation7. organizational ability.variety of out side interests.respects. integrity. adaptability. political sensitivity. Repatriation. Relational skills. interest in foreign culture. positive self –image 4. display of respect. tolerance for ambiguity. courtesy & fact. Job knowledge & motivation. willingness to change. frankness.managerial ability. flexibility.this is the problem of returning home after success or failure in the foreign assignment. belief in mission & job. stable marriage . administrative skills. dependability. spouse’s positive opinion. overseas experience 5. confidence 3.