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Timoshenko beam theory

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The Timoshenko beam theory was developed by Ukrainian-born scientist and engineer Stephen Timoshenko early in the 20th century.[1][2] The model takes into account shear deformation and rotational inertia effects, making it suitable for describing the behaviour of short beams, sandwich composite beams or beams subject to high-frequency excitation when the wavelength approaches the thickness of the beam. The resulting equation is of 4th order, but unlike ordinary beam theory - i.e. Euler–Bernoulli beam theory - there is also a second order spatial derivative present. Physically, taking into account the added mechanisms of deformation effectively lowers the stiffness of the beam, while the result is a larger deflection under a static load and lower predicted eigenfrequencies for a given set of boundary conditions. The latter effect is more noticeable for higher frequencies as the wavelength becomes shorter, and thus the distance between opposing shear forces decreases.

Deformation of a Timoshenko beam (blue) compared with that of an Euler-Bernoulli beam (red).

If the shear modulus of the beam material approaches infinity - and thus the beam becomes rigid in shear - and if rotational inertia effects are neglected, Timoshenko beam theory converges towards ordinary beam theory.

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1 Quasistatic Timoshenko beam o 1.1 Boundary conditions

2 Damping 3 Shear coefficient 4 See also 5 References Quasistatic Timoshenko beam[edit] Deformation of a Timoshenko beam.1 Axial effects o 2. The normal rotates by an amount to .2 Example: Cantilever beam 2 Dynamic Timoshenko beam o 2. and is the displacement of the mid-surface in the -direction. The governing equations are the following uncoupled system of ordinary differential equations: . are the components of the displacement vector in the three coordinate directions. the displacements of the beam are assumed to be given by where are the coordinates of a point in the beam. which is not equal In static Timoshenko beam theory without axial effects. is the angle of rotation of the normal to the mid-surface of the beam.    o 1.

The rotation and the transverse shear force are not specified. an approximation that is valid when where is the length of the beam. The bending moment applied to the beam also has to be specified. for a homogeneous beam of constant cross-section. These relations. If one end is free. for a linear elastic Timoshenko beam. shear force and bending moment have to be specified at that end. Four boundary conditions are needed for the problem to be well-posed. The bending moment and the shear force in the beam are related to the displacement and the rotation . Typical boundary conditions are:   Simply supported beams: The displacement is zero at the locations of the two supports. are: [show]Derivation of quasistatic Timoshenko beam equations Boundary conditions[edit] The two equations that describe the deformation of a Timoshenko beam have to be augmented with boundary conditions if they are to be solved. Combining the two equations gives. Example: Cantilever beam[edit] .The Timoshenko beam theory for the static case is equivalent to the Euler-Bernoulli theory when the last term above is neglected. Clamped beams: The displacement and the rotation are specified to be zero at the clamped end.

For a cantilever beam. one boundary is clamped while the other is free. Following normal convention. If a point load is applied to the free end in the positive direction. we have . Let us assume that the clamped end is at and the free end is at . We also assume that the sign convention of the stress resultants ( and ) is such that positive bending moments compress the material at the bottom of the beam (lower coordinates) and positive shear forces rotate the beam in a counterclockwise direction. we assume that positive forces act in the positive directions of the and axes and positive moments act in the clockwise direction. a free body diagram of the beam gives us and Therefore.A cantilever Timoshenko beam under a point load at the free end. from the expressions for the bending moment and shear force. Let us use a right handed coordinate system where the direction is positive towards right and the direction is positive upward.

the displacements of the beam are assumed to be given by where are the coordinates of a point in the beam. may be described with the coupled linear partial differential equations:[3] . The second equation can then be written as Integration and application of the boundary condition at gives The axial stress is given by Dynamic Timoshenko beam[edit] In Timoshenko beam theory without axial effects.Integration of the first equation. and application of the boundary condition leads to at . are the components of the displacement vector in the three coordinate directions. Starting from the above assumption. and is the displacement of the mid-surface in the -direction. the Timoshenko beam theory. allowing for vibrations. is the angle of rotation of the normal to the mid-surface of the beam.

homogeneous beam of constant cross-section these two equations can be combined to give[4][5] [show]Derivation of combined Timoshenko beam equation Axial effects[edit] If the displacements of the beam are given by where is an additional displacement in the Timoshenko beam take the form -direction. is the elastic modulus. Note that unlike the Euler-Bernoulli theory. called the Timoshenko shear coefficient. the translational displacement of the beam. is the shear modulus.where the dependent variables are . Normally. then the governing equations of a . . isotropic. a rectangular section. for These parameters are not necessarily constants. the angular displacement. is the second moment of area. is the cross section area. Also. is a distributed load (force per length).          is the density of the beam material (but not the linear density). For a linear elastic. and . the angular deflection is another variable and not approximated by the slope of the deflection. depends on the geometry.

we assume a damping force that is proportional to the velocity with the form the coupled governing equations for a Timoshenko beam take the form and the combined equation becomes . in addition to axial forces. Any external axial force is balanced by the stress resultant where is the axial stress and the thickness of the beam has been assumed to be .where and is an externally applied axial force. The combined beam equation with axial force effects included is Damping[edit] If.

Hutchinson. The attempts to provide precise expressions were made by many scientists. the empirically measured damping rates are frequency-insensitive. there's more than one answer). but depend on the amplitude of beam deflection. whereas viscosity leads to a frequency-dependent and amplitude-independent damping rate of beam oscillations. John W. including Stephen Timoshenko. generally it must satisfy: The shear coefficient depends on the Poisson's ratio. G. R. For solid rectangular cross-section. For solid circular cross-section. i. Raymond D. . Cowper. In engineering practice. Shear coefficient[edit] Determining the shear coefficient is not straightforward (nor are the determined values widely accepted. etc.e. the expressions by Stephen Timoshenko[6] are sufficient in most cases. Mindlin.A caveat to this Ansatz damping force (resembling viscosity) is that.