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Chapter 2.

 InstaIIation and performance reading
Secticn 2.1: Pump instaIIaticn
2.1.1 New insIallaIion
2.1.2 LxisIing insIallaIion
2.1.3 Pipe ßow Ior single-pump insIallaIion
2.1.4 LimiIaIion oI noise and vibraIions
2.1.S Sound level (L)
Secticn 2.2: Pump perfcrmance
2.2.1 Rydraulic Ierms
2.2.2 LlecIrical Ierms
2.2.3 Liquid properIies
CorrecI advice and selecIion oI pump Iype Ior an insIallaIion
has larger implicaIion Ihan whaI meeIs Ihe eye. 1he
larger Ihe pumps, Ihe greaIer Ihe cosIs wiIh respecI
Io invesImenI, insIallaIion, commissioning, running
and mainIenance - basically Ihe liIe cycle cosI (LCC). An
exIensive producI porIIolio combined wiIh compeIenI
advice and aIIer-sales service is Ihe IoundaIion oI a correcI
selecIion. 1he Iollowing analysis, recommendaIions and
hinIs are general Ior any insIallaIion, buI Io a greaIer
exIenI relevanI Ior medium-sized and large insIallaIions.
We will presenI our recommendaIions Ior Iwo Iypes oI
insIallaIion. New and exisIing insIallaIions.
2.1.1 New instaIIation
-  lI Ihe pipework has noI been planned yeI, you can base
Ihe selecIion oI pump Iype on oIher primary selecIion
criIeria, e.g. eIIiciency, invesImenI cosIs or liIe cycle
cosIs (LCC). 1his will noI be covered in Ihis
secIion. Rowever, Ihe general guidelines, which are
presenIed, also apply Ior pipework IhaI has noI yeI
been planned.
-  lI Ihe pipework has already been planned, Ihe selecIion
oI pump is equivalenI Io replacing a pump in an exisIing
insIallaIion.
76
2.1.2 £xisting instaIIation - repIacement
1he Iollowing Iive sIeps will help you make an opIimum
pump selecIion Ior an exisIing insIallaIion.
Pre-investigaticn cf the instaIIaticn shcuId incIude 
the fcIIcwing ccnsideraticns:
-  8asic pipe Ilow - pipes in and ouI oI Ihe building, e.g.
Irom ground, along Iloor or Irom ceiling
-  SpeciIic pipework aI Ihe poinI oI insIallaIion, e.g.
in-line or end-sucIion, dimensions, maniIolds
-  Space available - widIh, depIh and heighI
-  AccessibiliIy in connecIion wiIh insIallaIion and
mainIenance, Ior insIance doorways
-  AvailabiliIy oI liIIing equipmenI or alIernaIively
accessibiliIy oI such equipmenI
-  lloor Iype, e.g. solid or suspended Iloor wiIh basemenI
-  LxisIing IoundaIion
-  LxisIing elecIric insIallaIion
Previcus pump instaIIaticn
-  Pump make, Iype, speciIicaIions including old duIy
poinI, shaII seal, maIerials, gaskeIs, conIrolling
-  RisIory, e.g. liIeIime, mainIenance
future requirements
-  Desired improvemenIs and beneIiIs
-  New selecIion criIeria including duIy poinIs and
operaIing Iimes, IemperaIure, pressure, liquid
speciIicaIions
-  Supplier criIeria, e.g. availabiliIy oI spare parIs
Adviscry
-  Ma|or changes mighI be beneIicial in a long or shorI
Ierm or boIh and musI be documenIed, e.g. insIallaIion
savings, liIe cycle cosIs (LCC), reducIion on environmenIal
impacI like noise and vibraIions and accessibiliIy in
connecIion wiIh mainIenance
SeIecticn
-  MusI be based on a cusIomer-agreed lisI oI prioriIies
lor Ihe selecIion oI Ihe correcI pump Iype and advice on
insIallaIion, Iwo main areas are imporIanI. Pipe Ilow and
limiIaIion oI noise and vibraIions. 1hese Iwo areas will
be dealI wiIh on Ihe Iollowing pages.
5ection 2.1
Pump instaIIation
2.1.3 Pipe fIow for singIe-pump instaIIation
ligure 2.1.1 is based on single-pump insIallaIion. ln parallel insIallaIions accessibiliIy plays a
ma|or role Ior how good a pump choice is.
1he evaluaIion criIerion is as simple pipework as possible, hence as Iew bends as possible.
Pipewck
1o the pump:
AIong fIoor
8est choice
8est choice
8est choice
8est choice
8est choice
8est choice
8est choice
Cood choice
Cood choice
Cood choice
Cood choice
Cood choice
Cood choice
Cood choice
Cood choice Cood choice
Cood choice Cood choice
Least good choice Least good choice
Least good choice
Least good choice
Cood choice
8est choice
8est choice
8est choice 8est choice
8est choice
8est choice
Not appIicabIe
from ground
A. In-Iine cIose-coupIed
(horizontaI or verticaI
mounting)
from ceiIing
WaII-
mounted
from the pump:
AIong fIoor
AIong fIoor
1o ground
1o ceiIing
1o ground
1o ceiIing
WaII-
mounted
AIong fIoor
1o ceiIing
Pump type
1o ground
C. £nd-suction Iong-coupIed
(onIy horizontaI mounting)

8. £nd-suction cIose- coupIed
(horizontaI or verticaI
mounting)
5cores:
8est choice
Cood choice
Least good choice
Not appIicabIe
lig. 2.1.1 Pipework and pump Iype
77
AccessibiliIy plays a ma|or role in how well a speciIic pump
choice is in connecIion wiIh insIallaIion oI several pumps
in parallel. 1he accessibiliIy is noI always easy Ior in-line
pumps insIalled in parallel because oI Ihe pipework, see
Iigure 2.1.2. As iI appears Irom Iigure 2.1.3, end-sucIion
pumps insIalled in parallel provide easier accessibiliIy.
2.1.4 Limitation of noise and vibrations
1o achieve opIimum operaIion and minimise noise and
vibraIion, iI may be necessary Io consider vibraIion
dampening oI Ihe pump in cerIain cases. Generally, Ihis
should always be considered in Ihe case oI pumps wiIh
moIors above 7.S kW. Smaller moIor sizes, however, may
also cause undesirable noise and vibraIion. Noise and
vibraIion are generaIed by Ihe roIaIion in moIor and
pump and by Ihe Ilow in pipes and IiIIings. 1he eIIecI
on Ihe environmenI depends on correcI insIallaIion and
Ihe sIaIe oI Ihe enIire sysIem. 8elow we will presenI 3
diIIerenI ways oI limiIing noise and vibraIion in a pump
insIallaIion. loundaIion, dampeners and expansion |oinI.
foundation
lloor consIrucIions can be divided inIo Iwo Iypes. Solid
Iloor and suspended Iloor.
5oIid - minimum risk oI noise due Io bad
Iransmission oI vibraIions, see Iigure 2.1.4.
5uspended - risk oI Iloor ampliIying Ihe noise.
8asemenI can acI as a resonance box,
see Iigure 2.1.S.
1he pump should be insIalled on a plane and rigid surIace.
lour basic ways oI insIallaIion exisI Ior Ihe Iwo Iypes
oI Iloor consIrucIion. lloor, plinIh, IloaIing plinIh and
IoundaIion suspended on vibraIion dampeners.
lig. 2.1.3.
3 end-sucIion pumps in parallel, easier mainIenace access
because oI pipework
lig. 2.1.4. Solid Iloor consIrucIion
lig. 2.1.S. Suspended Iloor consIrucIion
lig. 2.1.2.
3 in-line pumps in parallel, limiIed mainIenance
access because oI pipework
fIccr
ScIid grcund
fIccr
WaII
Crcund ñccr
8asement
fIccr
ScIid grcund
78
5ection 2.1
Pump instaIIation
fIccr
DirecI mounIing on Iloor, hence direcI vibraIion
Iransmission, see Iigure 2.1.6.
PIinth
Poured direcIly on concreIe Iloor, hence as Iloor, see
Iigure 2.1.7.
fIcating pIinth
kesIing on a dead maIerial, e.g. sand, hence
reduced risk oI vibraIion Iransmission, see Iigure 2.1.8.

fcundaticn suspended cn vibraticn dampeners
OpIimum soluIion wiIh conIrolled vibraIion
Iransmission, see Iigure 2.1.9.
As a rule oI Ihumb, Ihe weighI oI a concreIe IoundaIion
should be 1.S x Ihe pump weighI. 1his weighI is needed Io
geI Ihe dampeners Io work eIIicienIly aI low pump speed.
lig. 2.1.6. lloor
lloor 8ase plaIe Pump uniI
lig. 2.1.10. 1he same
IoundaIion rules go
Ior verIical in-line
pumps
lig. 2.1.7. PlinIh
lloor PlinIh 8ase plaIe Pump uniI
lig. 2.1.8.
lloaIing plinIh
lloor Sand PlinIh 8ase plaIe Pump uniI
lig. 2.1.9. loundaIion
suspended on
vibraIion dampeners
lloor
vibraIion dampeners loundaIion 8ase plaIe Pump uniI
Pump uniI

loundaIion
vibraIion
dampeners
lloor
79
Dampeners
1he selecIion oI Ihe righI vibraIion dampener requires
Ihe Iollowing daIa.
-  lorces acIing on Ihe dampener
-  MoIor speed considering speed conIrol, iI any
-  kequired dampening in ° (suggesIed value is 70°)
1he deIerminaIion oI Ihe righI dampener varies Irom
insIallaIion Io insIallaIion buI a wrong selecIion oI
dampener may increase Ihe vibraIion level in cerIain cases.
1he supplier should IhereIore size vibraIion dampeners.
Pumps insIalled wiIh vibraIion dampeners musI always
have expansion |oinIs IiIIed aI boIh Ihe sucIion and Ihe
discharge side. 1his is imporIanI in order Io avoid IhaI Ihe
pump hangs in Ihe Ilanges.
£xpansion joints
Lxpansion |oinIs are insIalled Io.
-  absorb expansions]conIracIions in Ihe pipework
caused by changing liquid IemperaIure
-  reduce mechanical sIrains in connecIion wiIh pressure
waves in Ihe pipework
-  isolaIe mechanical noise in Ihe pipework (noI Ior meIal
bellows expansion |oinIs)
Lxpansion |oinIs musI noI be insIalled Io compensaIe Ior
inaccuracies in Ihe pipework, such as cenIre displacemenI
or misalignmenI oI Ilanges.

Lxpansion |oinIs are IiIIed aI a disIance oI minimum 1 Io
1.S
.
DN diameIer Irom Ihe pump on Ihe sucIion side as well
as on Ihe discharge side. 1his prevenIs Ihe developmenI oI
Iurbulence in Ihe expansion |oinIs, resulIing in beIIer sucIion
condiIions and a minimum pressure loss on Ihe pressure
side. AI high waIer velociIies (>S m]s) iI is besI Io insIall
larger expansion |oinIs corresponding Io Ihe pipework.
lig. 2.1.11. lnsIallaIion wiIh expansion |oinIs, vibraIion dampeners and
Iixed pipework
8ase plaIe
Pump uniI
vibraIion
dampeners 
lloor
Lxpansion
|oinI
loundaIion
80
5ection 2.1
Pump instaIIation
ligures 2.1.12-2.1.14 show examples oI rubber bellows
expansion |oinIs wiIh or wiIhouI Iie bars.
Lxpansion |oinIs wiIh Iie bars can be used Io minimise Ihe
Iorces caused by Ihe expansion |oinIs. Lxpansion |oinIs
wiIh Iie bars are recommended Ior sizes larger Ihan DN 100.
An expansion |oinI wiIhouI Iie bars will exerI Iorce on
Ihe pump Ilanges. 1hese Iorces aIIecI Ihe pump and Ihe
pipework.
1he pipes musI be Iixed so IhaI Ihey do noI sIress Ihe
expansion |oinIs and Ihe pump, see Iigure 2.1.11. 1he Iix
poinIs should always be placed as close Io Ihe expansion
|oinIs as possible. lollow Ihe expansion |oinI supplier's
insIrucIions.
AI IemperaIures above 100°C combined wiIh a high pressure,
meIal bellows expansion |oinIs are oIIen preIerred due Io
Ihe risk oI rupIure.
2.1.5 5ound IeveI (L)
1he sound level in a sysIem is measured in decibel (d8).
Noise is unwanIed sound. 1he level oI noise can be
measured in Ihe Iollowing Ihree ways.
1. Pressure - L
p
. 1he pressure oI Ihe air waves
2. Power - L
W
. 1he power oI Ihe sound
3. lnIensiIy - L
l
. 1he power per m
2
(will noI be
covered in Ihis book)
lI is noI possible Io compare Ihe Ihree values direcIly, buI iI
is possible Io calculaIe beIween Ihem based on sIandards.
1he rule oI Ihumb is.
lig. 2.1.14. MeIal
bellows expansion
|oinIs wiIh Iie bars
lig. 2.1.12. kubber bellows
expansion |oinIs wiIh Iie bars
lig. 2.1.13. kubber
bellows expansion
|oinIs wiIhouI Iie
bars
SmaIIer pumps, e.g. 1.5 kW: l
w
  = l

 + 11 d8
larger pumps, e.g. 110 kW: l
w
  = l

 + 16 d8  
120
100
80
60
40
20
20 S0 100 200 1 2 S 10 20kRz S00Rz
0
lrequency
kRz
Pain threshoId
Lp (d8)
1hreshoId of hearing
5peech
Music
lig. 2.1.1S. 1hreshold oI hearing vs. Irequency
81
1he LU Machine DirecIive prescribes IhaI sound levels
have Io be indicaIed as pressure when Ihey are below 8S
d8(A) and as power when Ihey exceed 8S d8(A).
Noise is sub|ecIive and depends on a person´s abiliIy
Io hear, e.g. young vs. old person. 1hereIore, Ihe above-
menIioned measuremenIs geI weighI according Io
Ihe sensibiliIy oI a sIandard ear, see Iigure 2.1.1S. 1he
weighIing is known as A-weighIing (d8(A)), expressed as
e.g. L
pA
, and Ihe measuremenIs are ad|usIed depending on
Irequency. ln some cases iI increases and in oIher cases iI
decreases, see Iigure 2.1.16. OIher weighIings are known
as 8 and C buI Ihey are used Ior oIher purposes, which we
do noI cover in Ihis book.
ln case oI Iwo or more pumps in operaIion, Ihe sound level
can be calculaIed. lI iI is pumps wiIh Ihe same sound level
Ihe IoIal sound level can be calculaIed adding Ihe value
Irom Iigure 2.1.17, e.g. 2
.
pumps is Lp + 3 d8, 3
.
pumps is
Lp + S d8. lI Ihe pumps have diIIerenI sound level, values
Irom Iigure 2.1.18 can be added.
lndicaIions oI sound level should normally be sIaIed as
Iree Iield condiIions over reIlecIing surIace, meaning Ihe
sound level on a hard Iloor wiIh no walls. GuaranIeeing
values in a speciIic room in a speciIic pipe sysIem is
diIIiculI because Ihese values are beyond Ihe reach oI Ihe
manuIacIurer. CerIain condiIions could have a negaIive
impacI (increasing sound level) or a posiIive impacI
on Ihe sound level. kecommendaIions Io insIallaIion
and IoundaIion can be given Io eliminaIe or reduce Ihe
negaIive impacI.

d8 (A)
10
0
10 100 1000
-10
-20
-30
-40
-S0
-60
-70
-80
10000 Rz
4 8 12 16 20 24
S
10
1S
6

lig. 2.1.16 A-weighIing curve
lig. 2.1.17 lncrease oI Ihe IoIal sound pressure level wiIh
equal sources
lig. 2.1.18 lncrease oI Ihe IoIal sound pressure level wiIh
diIIerenI sources
£xperience vaIues:
  kise of Perceived as:
+ 3d8 !usI noIiceable
+ Sd8 Clearly noIiceable
+10d8 1wice as loud
82
5ection 2.1
Pump instaIIation
5ection 2.2
Pump performance
When you examine a pump, Ihere are several Ihings
you have Io check. 8esides checking Ihe pump's physical
condiIion, Ior insIance iI iI is rusIy or makes abnormal
noise, you have Io know a number oI values in order Io
be able Io Iell iI Ihe pump perIorms as iI is supposed
Io. On Ihe nexI pages, we will presenI Ihree groups oI
values you may need Io Iocus on when you examine a
pump's perIormance. Rydraulic Ierms, elecIrical Ierms,
mechanical Ierms and liquid properIies.
2.2.1 HydrauIic terms
When you wanI Io examine pump perIormance, Ihere are
a number oI values you need Io know. ln Ihis secIion, we
will presenI Ihe mosI imporIanI hydraulic Ierms. llow,
pressure and head.
fIow
llow is Ihe amounI oI liquid IhaI passes Ihrough a pump
wiIhin a cerIain period oI Iime. When we deal wiIh
perIormance reading, we disIinguish beIween Iwo Ilow
parameIers. volume Ilow and mass Ilow.
VcIume fIcw {0}
volume Ilow is whaI we can read Irom a pump curve or
puI in anoIher way, a pump can move a volume per uniI
oI Iime (measured in m
3
]h) no maIIer Ihe densiIy oI Ihe
liquid. When we deal wiIh e.g. waIer supply, volume Ilow
is Ihe mosI imporIanI parameIer, because we need Ihe
pump Io deliver a cerIain volume, e.g. oI drinking waIer
or waIer Ior irrigaIion.1hroughouI Ihis book Ihe Ierm Ilow
reIers Io volume Ilow.
Mass fIcw {0
m
}
Mass Ilow is Ihe mass, which a pump moves per uniI oI
Iime and is measured in kg]s. 1he liquid IemperaIure has an
inIluence on how big a mass Ilow Ihe pump can move per uniI
oI Iime since Ihe liquid densiIy changes wiIh Ihe IemperaIure.
ln connecIion wiIh heaIing, cooling and air-condiIion sysIems,
Ihe mass Ilow is an essenIial value Io know, because Ihe mass
is Ihe carrier oI energy (see ReaI capaciIy).
lig. 2.2.1. CalculaIion examples
£xampIes Unit
Water
VoIume fIow D 10 m
3
Jh
Density 998 943 kgJm
3
Mass fIow D
m
9980 9403 kgJh
2.77 2.62 kgJs
at 20
¨
C at 120
¨
C

m
D
m

= =

83
Pressure (p)
Pressure is a measure oI Iorce per uniI area. We
disIinguish beIween sIaIic pressure, dynamic pressure
and IoIal pressure. 1he IoIal pressure is Ihe sum oI Ihe
sIaIic pressure and Ihe dynamic pressure.
Static pressure
1he sIaIic pressure p
sIa
is Ihe pressure, which is measured
wiIh a pressure gauge placed perpendicular Io Ihe Ilow or
in a non-moving liquid, see Iigure 2.2.2.
Dynamic pressure
1he dynamic pressure p
dyn
is caused by liquid velociIy.
Dynamic pressure cannoI be measured by a normal pressure
gauge, buI is calculaIed by Ihe Iollowing Iormula.
1
2
where.
is Ihe densiIy oI Ihe liquid in |kg]m
3
j
v is Ihe velociIy oI Ihe liquid in |m]sj
Dynamic pressure can be converIed inIo sIaIic pressure
by reducing Ihe liquid velociIy and vice versa. ligure 2.2.3
shows a parI oI a sysIem where Ihe pipe diameIer increases
Irom D
1
Io D
2
, resulIing in a decrease in liquid speed Irom v
1

Io v
2
. Assuming IhaI Ihere is no IricIion loss in Ihe sysIem,
Ihe sum oI Ihe sIaIic pressure and Ihe dynamic pressure is
consIanI IhroughouI Ihe horizonIal pipe.
1
2
So, an increase in pipe diameIer, as Ihe one shown in
Iigure 2.2.3 resulIs in an increase in Ihe sIaIic head which
is measured wiIh Ihe pressure gauge p
2

ln mosI pumping sysIems, Ihe dynamic pressure p
dyn
has
a minor impacI on Ihe IoIal pressure. lor example, iI Ihe
velociIy oI a waIer Ilow is 4.S m]s, Ihe dynamic pressure is
around 0.1 bar, which is considered insigniIicanI in many
pumping sysIems. LaIer on in Ihis chapIer, we will discuss
dynamic pressure in connecIion wiIh deIermining Ihe
head oI a pump.
lig. 2.2.2. Row Io deIermine Ihe sIaIic pressure p
sIa
, Ihe dynamic
pressure p
dyn
and Ihe IoIal pressure p
IoI

lig. 2.2.3. 1he sIaIic pressure increases iI Ihe liquid velociIy is reduced.
1he hgure applies Ior a sysIem wiIh insignihcanI IricIion loss
D
2
D
1
p
sIa
p
IoI
p
dyn
A
P
8
p
1
p
2
v
1
v
2
p
sIa
p
IoI
p
dyn
p
IoI
p
sIa
p
sIa
p
IoI
D
84
5ection 2.2
Pump performance
2
4
6
8
10
12
H(m)
D
DuIy poinI Ior brine aI 20´C
DuIy poinI Ior waIer aI 20´C
DuIy poinI Ior waIer aI 9S´C
DuIy poinI Ior diesel aI 20´C
7
.
3

m
1
0
.
2

m
1
0
.
6

m
1
2
.
7
5

m
1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar
8rine aI 20°C
1300 kg]m
3
1 bar = 7.3 m
WaIer aI 20°C
997 kg]m
3
1 bar = 10.2 m
WaIer aI 9S°C
960 kg]m
3
1 bar = 10.6 m
Diesel oil aI 20°C
800 kg]m
3
1 bar = 12.7S m
lig. 2.2.S. Pumping Iour diIIerenI liquids aI 1 bar aI Ihe discharge side
oI Ihe pump resulIs in Iour diIIerenI heads (m), hence Iour diIIerenI
duIy poinIs
Measuring pressure
Pressure is measured in e.g. Pa (N]m¹), bar (10
S
Pa) or PSl
(lb]in¹). When we deal wiIh pressure iI is imporIanI Io know
Ihe poinI oI reIerence Ior Ihe pressure measuremenI. 1wo
Iypes oI pressure are essenIial in connecIion wiIh pressure
measuremenI. AbsoluIe pressure and gauge pressure.
AbscIute pressure {p
abs
}
AbsoluIe pressure is deIined as Ihe pressure above
absoluIe vacuum, 0 aIm, IhaI is Ihe absoluIe zero Ior
pressure. Usually, Ihe value "absoluIe pressure" is used in
caviIaIion calculaIions.
Cauge pressure
Gauge pressure, oIIen reIerred Io as overpressure, is Ihe
pressure, which is higher Ihan Ihe normal aImospheric
pressure (1 aIm). Normally, pressure p is sIaIed as gauge
pressure, because mosI sensor and pressure gauge
measuremenIs measure Ihe pressure diIIerence beIween
Ihe sysIem and Ihe aImosphere. 1hroughouI Ihis book Ihe
Ierm pressure reIers Io gauge pressure.
Head (H)
1he head oI a pump is an expression oI how high Ihe pump
can liII a liquid. Read is measured in meIer (m) and is
independenI on Ihe liquid densiIy. 1he Iollowing Iormula
shows Ihe relaIion beIween pressure (p) and head (R).
where .
R is Ihe head in |mj
p is Ihe pressure in |Pa = N]m
2
j
is Ihe liquid densiIy in |kg]m
3
j
g is Ihe acceleraIion oI graviIy in |m]s
2
j

Normally, pressure p is measured in |barj, which equals
10
S
Pa. Rowever, oIher pressure uniIs are used as well, see
Iigure 2.2.4.
1he relaIion beIween pressure and head is shown in Iigure
2.2.S where a pump handles Iour diIIerenI liquids. 1he
head oI Ihe pump depends on Ihe Iype oI liquid. As iI
appears Irom Ihe Iigure, Ihe pumping oI diIIerenI liquids
resulIs in diIIerenI heads and hence diIIerenI duIy poinIs.
 
1 Pa = 1 NIm
2
10
-S
1 9.87
.
10
-4
7S0
.
10
-S
1.02
.
10
-4
7S0
1.02
.
10
-S
1 10
S
0.987 10.2 1.02
760 1.013 1.013
.
10
S
1 10.33 1.033
736 0.981 0.981
.
10
S
0.968 10 1
73.6 0.0981 0.981
.
10
4
' Physical aImosphere '' 1heoreIical aImosphere
0.0968 1 0.1
Pa bar
Cenversien tabIe fer pressure units
atm* at** mH
2
D mmHg
1 bar
1 atm
1 at = 1 kpIcm
3
1 m H
2
D
lig. 2.2.4. Conversion Iable Ior pressure uniIs
8S
lig. 2.2.6. SIandard end-sucIion pump wiIh dimension diIIerence on
sucIion and discharge porIs
Hcw tc determine the head  
1he pump head is deIermined by reading Ihe pressure on
Ihe Ilanges oI Ihe pump p
2
, p
1
and Ihen converI Ihe values
inIo head - see Iigure 2.2.6. Rowever, iI a geodeIic diIIerence
in head is presenI beIween Ihe Iwo measuring poinIs, as iI
is Ihe case in Iigure 2.2.6, iI is necessary Io compensaIe Ior
Ihe diIIerence. lurIhermore, iI Ihe porI dimensions oI Ihe
Iwo measuring poinIs diIIer Irom one anoIher Ihe acIual
head has Io be correcIed Ior Ihis as well.
1he acIual pump head R is calculaIed by Ihe Iollowing
Iormula.
where .
R is Ihe acIual pump head in |mj
p is Ihe pressure aI Ihe Ilanges in |Pa = N]m
2
j
is Ihe liquid densiIy in |kg]m
3
j
g is Ihe acceleraIion oI graviIy in |m]s
2
j
h is Ihe geodeIic heighI in |mj
v is Ihe liquid velociIy in |m]sj
1he liquid velociIy v is calculaIed by Ihe Iollowing
Iormula.
where.
v is Ihe velociIy in |m]sj
O is Ihe volume Ilow in |m
3
]sj
D is Ihe porI diameIer in |mj
When combining Ihese Iwo Iormulas, head R depends
on Ihe Iollowing IacIors. 1he pressure measuremenIs
p
1
and p
2
, Ihe diIIerence in geodeIic heighI beIween Ihe
measuring poinIs (h
2
-h
1
), Ihe Ilow Ihrough Ihe pump O
and Ihe diameIer oI Ihe Iwo porIs D
1
and D
2
.
1he correcIion due Io Ihe diIIerence in porI diameIer is
caused by Ihe diIIerence in Ihe dynamic pressure. lnsIead oI
calculaIing Ihe correcIion Irom Ihe Iormula, Ihe conIribuIion
can be read in a nomogram, see appendix l.
h
2
h
1
v
1
p
1
D
1
D
2
v
2
p
2
86
5ection 2.2
Pump performance
CaIcuIaticn exampIe
A pump oI Ihe same Iype as Ihe one shown in Iigure 2.2.7
is insIalled in a sysIem wiIh Ihe Iollowing daIa.
O = 240 m
3
]h
p
1
= 0.S bar
p
2
= 1.1 bar
Liquid. WaIer aI 20
0
C
SucIion porI diameIer D
1
= 1S0 mm
Discharge porI diameIer D
2
= 12S mm.
1he diIIerence in heighI beIween Ihe Iwo porIs where Ihe
pressure gauges are insIalled is h
2
-h
1
= 3SS mm.
We are now able Io calculaIe Ihe head oI Ihe pump.
As iI appears Irom Ihe calculaIion, Ihe pressure diIIerence
measured by pressure gauges is abouI 1.1 m lower Ihan
whaI Ihe pump is acIually perIorming. 1his calls Ior an
explanaIion. lirsI, Ihe deviaIion is caused by Ihe diIIerence
in heighI beIween Ihe pressure gauges (0.36 m) and
second, iI is caused by Ihe diIIerence in porI dimensions,
which in Ihis case is 0.77 m.
lig. 2.2.7. SIandard end-sucIion pump wiIh diIIerenI
dimensions oI sucIion and discharge porIs (Lxample)
h
2
- h
1
= 3SS mm
v
1
= 3.77 m]s
2
p
1
= .5 bar
D
1
= 15 mm
D
2
= 125 mm
v
2
= S.43 m]s
2
p
2
= 1.1 bar

87
lig.2.2.8. 1he sysIem pressure R
sIa
in a closed sysIem
has Io be higher Ihan Ihe physical heighI oI Ihe insIallaIion
lI Ihe pressure gauges are placed aI Ihe same geodeIic
heighI, or iI a diIIerenIial pressure gauge is used Ior Ihe
measuremenI, iI is noI necessary Io compensaIe Ior Ihe
diIIerence in heighI (h
2
-h
1
). ln connecIion wiIh in-line
pumps, where inleI and ouIleI are placed aI Ihe same
level, Ihe Iwo porIs oIIen have Ihe same diameIer. lor
Ihese Iypes oI pumps a simpliIied Iormula is used Io
deIermine Ihe head.
DifferentiaI pressure {Ap} 
1he diIIerenIial pressure is Ihe pressure diIIerence
beIween Ihe pressures measured aI Iwo poinIs, e.g. Ihe
pressure drops across valves in a sysIem. DiIIerenIial
pressure is measured in Ihe same uniIs as pressure.
System pressure
1he sysIem pressure is Ihe sIaIic pressure, which is presenI
aI a poinI in Ihe sysIem, when Ihe pumps are noI running.
SysIem pressure is imporIanI Io consider when you deal
wiIh a closed sysIem. 1he sysIem pressure in (m) R
sIa
in
Ihe lowesI poinI musI always be higher Ihan Ihe heighI oI
Ihe sysIem in order Io ensure IhaI Ihe sysIem is Iilled wiIh
liquid and can be venIed properly.
h

Dry cooler
Chiller
R
sysI
> h
R
sysI
88
5ection 2.2
Pump performance
NPSR
O
R
lig.. 2.2.12. NPSR-curve
Cavitaticn and NPSH
CaviIaIion occurs somewhere in a pump when Ihe pressure
is lower Ihan Ihe vapour pressure oI Ihe liquid, see Iigures
2.2.9 and 2.2.10.
When Ihe pressure on Ihe sucIion side drops below
Ihe vapour pressure oI Ihe liquid, (Iigure 2.2.10 yellow
doI). small vapour bubbles Iorm. 1hese bubbles collapse
(implode) when Ihe pressure rises (Iigure 2.2.10 red doI)
and releases shock waves. ConsequenIly, impellers can
be damaged by Ihe energy released. 1he raIe oI damage
Io Ihe impeller depends on Ihe properIies oI Ihe maIerial.
SIainless sIeel is more resisIanI Io caviIaIion Ihan bronze,
and bronze is more resisIanI Io caviIaIion Ihan casI iron,
see secIion 1.6.3.
CaviIaIion decreases Ilow (O) and head (R), which leads
Io reduced pump perIormance, see Iigure 2.2.11. Damage
due Io caviIaIion is oIIen only deIecIed when Ihe pump
is dismanIled. lurIhermore, caviIaIion resulIs in increased
noise and vibraIions, which can consequenIly damage
bearings, shaII seals and weldings.
CaIcuIaticn cf the risk cf cavitaticn
1o avoid caviIaIion, Ihe Iollowing Iormula is used Io
calculaIe Ihe maximum sucIion head.
h
max
- Maximum sucIion head
R
b
- AImospheric pressure aI Ihe pump siIe, Ihis is Ihe
IheoreIical maximum sucIion liII, see Iigure 2.2.13
R
I
- lricIion loss in Ihe sucIion pipe
NPSR = NeI PosiIive SucIion Read (is Io be read aI Ihe
NPSR curve aI Ihe highesI operaIional Ilow), see Iigure
2.2.12.
b
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
 
|
P
a
]
lmpeller inleI  lmpeller ouIleI 
a
p
p
1
vapour pressure
p
lig.. 2.2.9. lmplosion oI caviIaIion bubbles on Ihe back oI impeller vanes
O
R
Curve when
pump caviIaIes
lig.. 2.2.10. DevelopmenI oI pressure Ihrough a cenIriIugal pump
lig.. 2.2.11. Pump curve when pump caviIaIes
a = front of impeIIer vanes
b = 8ack of impeIIer vanes
a
b
a = front of impeIIer vanes
b = 8ack of impeIIer vanes
89
ImpIoding vapour bubbIes
1he NPSR value indicaIes Io whaI exIenI Ihe pump is noI
able Io creaIe absoluIe vacuum, IhaI is Io liII a Iull waIer
column 10.33 m above sea level, see Iigure 2.2.13.
NPSR can eiIher be named NPSR
r
(required) or NPSR
a

(available).
NPSR
required
1he required sucIion head Ior Ihe pump
NPSR
available
1he available sucIion head in Ihe sysIem
1he NPSR value oI a pump is deIermined by IesIing
according Io lSO 9906 and is made in Ihe Iollowing
way. 1he sucIion head is reduced while Ihe Ilow is kepI
aI a consIanI level. When Ihe diIIerenIial pressure has
decreased by 3°, Ihe pressure aI Ihe pump's sucIion side
is read, and Ihe NPSR value oI Ihe pump is deIined. 1he
IesIing is repeaIed aI diIIerenI Ilows, which Iorm Ihe basis
oI Ihe NPSR curve in Ihe end.
PuI in anoIher way. When Ihe NPSR curve is reached, Ihe
level oI caviIaIion is so high IhaI Ihe head oI Ihe pump has
decreased by 3°.
R
v
- vapour pressure oI Ihe liquid, Ior more inIormaIion
concerning vapour pressure oI waIer, go Io appendix D.
R
s
- SaIeIy IacIor. R
s
depends on Ihe siIuaIion and normally
varies beIween 0.S m and 1 m and Ior liquids conIaining
gas up Io 2 m, see Iigure 2.2.1S.
2.2.2 £IectricaI terms
When you wanI Io examine a pump perIormance, you need
Io know a range oI values. ln Ihis secIion we will presenI
Ihe mosI imporIanI elecIrical values. Power consumpIion,
volIage, currenI and power IacIor.
Liquid with air
Q |m
3
ís]
 
R
 
|
m
]
NPSR
Vented Iiquid
lig.. 2.2.1S. 1ypical NPSR-curve Ior liquid conIaining gas
NP5H
H
b
H
f
h
H
v
20
15
12
10
8,0
6,0
5,0
4,0
3,0
2,0
1,0
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
1,5
120
110
90
100
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

Hv
(m)
tm
(¨C )
150
130
140
25
35
45
40
30
lig.. 2.2.14. SysIem wiIh indicaIion oI Ihe
diIIerenI values IhaI are imporIanI in
connecIion wiIh sucIion calculaIions
Height above
sea IeveI
(m)
0
500
1000
2000
1.013 10.33
0.935
100
9.73
0.899
0.795
9.16
8.10
99
96
93
8arometric
pressure
p
b
(bar)
Water
coIumn
H
b
(m)
8oiIing point
of water
(¨C)
lig.. 2.2.13. 8aromeIric pressure above sea level
90
5ection 2.2
Pump performance
Power consumption (P)
 
Pumps are made oI several componenIs, see hgure 2.2.16.
1he power consumpIion oI Ihe diIIerenI componenIs is
designaIed in Ihe Iollowing way.
P
1
1he power inpuI Irom Ihe mains or, puI in anoIher
way, Ihe amounI oI power Ihe consumer has Io
pay Ior
P
2
1he power inpuI Io Ihe pump or Ihe power ouIpuI
Irom Ihe moIor. OIIen reIerred Io as shaII power
P
H
Rydraulic power - Ihe power IhaI Ihe pump 
IransIers Io Ihe liquid in Ihe shape oI Ilow
and head
lor Ihe mosI common pump Iypes, Ihe Ierm power
consumpIion normally reIers Io P
2
. Power is measured
in W, kW.
LIhciency in connecIion wiIh pumps normally only covers
Ihe eIhciency oI Ihe pump parI
P
. A pump's eIhciency is
deIermined by several IacIors, Ior insIance Ihe shape oI
Ihe pump housing, Ihe impeller and diIIuser design and
Ihe surIace roughness. lor Iypical pump uniIs consisIing oI
boIh pump and elecIric moIor, Ihe IoIal eIhciency
1
also
includes Ihe eIhciency oI Ihe moIor.
lI a Irequency converIer is included as well, Ihe eIhciency
oI Ihe enIire uniI also has Io incorporaIe Ihe eIhciency oI
Ihe Irequency converIer.
P
1
P
2
P
H
lig. 2.2.16. Pump uniI wiIh indicaIion oI diIIerenI power
consumpIion levels
91
VoItage (U)
Like pressure drives Ilow Ihrough a hydraulic sysIem,
volIage drives a currenI (l) Ihrough an elecIrical circuiI.
volIage is measured in volIs (v) and can be eiIher direcI
currenI (DC), e.g. 1.S v baIIery - or alIernaIing currenI (AC),
e.g. elecIriciIy supply Ior houses, eIc. Normally, pumps are
supplied wiIh AC volIage supply.
1he layouI oI AC mains supply diIIers Irom one counIry Io
anoIher. Rowever, Ihe mosI common layouI is Iour wires
wiIh Ihree phases (L1, L2, L3) and a neuIral (N). 8esides
Ihese Iour wires, a proIecIive earIh connecIion (PL) is
added Io Ihe sysIem as well, see Iigure 2.2.17.
lor a 3x400 v]230 v mains supply, Ihe volIage beIween
any Iwo oI Ihe phases (L1, L2, L3) is 400 v. 1he volIage
beIween one oI Ihe phases and neuIral (N) is 230 v.
1he raIio beIween Ihe phase-phase volIage and Ihe phase-
neuIral volIage is deIermined by Ihe Iormula on your
righI.
CurrenI is Ihe Ilow oI elecIriciIy and is measured in ampere
(A). 1he amounI oI currenI in an elecIrical circuiI depends
on Ihe supplied volIage and Ihe resisIance] impedance in
Ihe elecIrical circuiI.
Power (P) and power factor (cos or Pf)
Power consumpIion is indeed oI high imporIance when
iI comes Io pumps. lor pumps wiIh sIandard AC moIors,
Ihe power inpuI is Iound by measuring Ihe inpuI volIage
and inpuI currenI and by reading Ihe value cos on Ihe
moIor]pump nameplaIe. cos is Ihe phase angle beIween
volIage and currenI. cos is also reIerred Io as power IacIor
(Pl). 1he power consumpIion P
1
can be calculaIed by Ihe
Iormulas shown on your righI depending on wheIher Ihe
moIor is a single-phase or a Ihree-phase moIor.
L
1
L
2
L
3
N
PL
400V 1hree-phase suppIy
230V 5ingIe-phase suppIy
lig. 2.2.17. Mains supply, e.g. 3 x 400 v
]
]
AC single-phase moIor, e.g. 1 x 230 v
        
AC Ihree-phase moIor, e.g. 3 x 400 v
 
             
92
5ection 2.2
Pump performance
1he volIage beIween any Iwo phases (L1, L2, L3)
is Ior a 3x400 v]230 v mains supply, 400 v.
1he volIage beIween one oI Ihe phases and
neuIral (N) is 230v. 1he raIio beIween Ihe
phase-phase volIage and Ihe phase-neuIral
volIage is.


2.2.3 Liquid properties
When you are making your sysIem calculaIions, Ihere are
Ihree properIies you mighI need Io know abouI Ihe liquid
in order Io make Ihe righI calculaIions. Liquid IemperaIure,
densiIy, and heaI capaciIy.
1he liquid IemperaIure is measured in °C (Celcius), K
(Kelvin), or °l (lahrenheiI). °C and K are acIually Ihe
same uniI buI 0°C is Ihe Ireezing poinI oI waIer and 0K
is Ihe absoluIe zero, IhaI is -273.1S°C - Ihe lowesI possible
IemperaIure. 1he calculaIion beIween lahrenheiI and
Celcius is. °l = °C
.
1.8 + 32, hence Ihe Ireezing poinI oI
waIer is 0°C and 32°l and Ihe boiling poinI is 100°C and
212°l.
   
1he densiIy is measured in kg]m
3
or

kg]dm
3
.
1he heaI capaciIy Iells us how much addiIional energy a
liquid can conIain per mass when iI is heaIed. Liquid heaI
capaciIy depends on IemperaIure, see Iigure 2.2.18. 1his is
used in sysIems Ior IransporIing energy, e.g. heaIing, air-
con and cooling. Mixed liquids, e.g. glycol and waIer Ior
air-con have a lower heaI capaciIy Ihan pure waIer hence
higher Ilow is required Io IransporI Ihe same amounI oI
energy.
93
-40 -20 0 20 60 80 40 100 120´C
2.0
2.4
2.8
3.2
3.6
4.0
4.4
0.S
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
k!/kgK kcal/kgK
0° pure waLer
20°
34°
44°
S2°
lig. 2.2.18. ReaI capaciIy vs. IemperaIure Ior eIhylene glycol