Vedic Mathematics Perhaps the most striking feature of the Vedic system is its coherence.

Instead of a hotch-potch of unrelated techniques the whole system is beautifully interrelated and unified: the general multiplication method, for example, is easily re ersed to allow one-line di isions and the simple squaring method can be re ersed to gi e one-line square roots. !nd these are all easily understood. "his unifying quality is ery satisfying, it makes mathematics easy and en#oyable and encourages inno ation.In the Vedic system $difficult$ problems or huge sums can often be sol ed immediately by the Vedic method. "hese striking and beautiful methods are #ust a part of a complete system of mathematics which is far more systematic than the modern $system$. Vedic %athematics manifests the coherent and unified structure of mathematics and the methods are complementary, direct and easy."he simplicity of Vedic %athematics means that calculations can be carried out mentally &though the methods can also be written down'. (ut the real beauty and effecti eness of Vedic %athematics cannot be fully appreciated without actually practising the system. )ne can then see that it is perhaps the most refined and efficient mathematical system possible. Amazing Science (Part 1) Preamble *hen we look at scientists who are credited with the most important ideas of our time we find mainly +reeks, ,uropeans, !mericans listed. -et western history seems to ha e been arbitrarily begun during the +reek era. In fact, when we extend the boundaries of history to iew the longer span of history we find some de elopments predating /modern/ history originating in India more than 0,111 years ago. "he ancient thinkers of India were not only scientists and mathematicians, but also deeply religious, esteemed saints of their time. *hile it may surprise some to think of religious sages as mundane scientists, the Indian iew is that religion &uni ersal' and science are but two sides of the same coin - in short2semantics. *hether one calls a natural phenomena wind or the wind god - Vayu - one is speaking of the same thing. -et it seems that ha ing a spiritual foundation not only brought out important disco eries still in use today, but these disco eries also were helpful without causing harm or destruction. In fact this article will cite the origins of some and here-to-for mis-credited disco eries as coming from India. 3ome examples include so-called !rabic numerals, the concept of the .ero, so-called Pythagorean theory, surgery and more. It may seem astonishing, but the ancient texts are there to show the thinking and writing of these great Indian thinkers. *hy is India not credited4 It seems that in the *est we ha e a condescending, ,uro- or +reco-centric iew that ci ili.ations older than +reece were unci ili.ed barbarians. "his notion was further melded into our collecti e psyche through 5ollywood$s portrayal of ancient cultures. )ne only has to look at old " mo ies to see ancient tribes shown as barbaric, superstitious idol worshipping people. " himself was shown to be a non-speaking animal-like person. In fact, in the original books, " was a well-educated and highly eloquent speaker. 6hau inistic misrepresentation exists e en today. 7early e ery book written on the history of mathematics is equally biased. "he one bright spot is the 6rest of the Peacock. , en this year, during the recent 5indu festi al, the 8umbha %ela - the largest human gathering in history &91 million people' the modern-day press mainly reported on the most negati e aspects of the e ent. It was not credited as the largest gathering, nor was it pointed out that for : week, the area was the worlds largest city &larger population than ;ondon, "ehran, <io, Paris, 6hicago, (ei#ing, 5yderabad and =ohannesburg put together'. Virtually no one spoke of the sacredness of the e ent, the hardships people endured for this holy e ent. >urther, the whole e ent went off without a hitch - adequate food, water, electricity - a mar el by any standards. "here were more than :?,111 tons of flour, 9,@11 tons of rice, A1,111 public toilets, :A hospitals, ?0 electric power centers, A1,111 police, :,1B1 fire hydrants and much more. <arely was an ardent de otee inter iewed or photographed. Instead reporters and cameramen only focused on the minority elements - naked sadhus smoking gan#a &mari#uana' and implying prayers were to some lesser god. (ut it sells newspapers and "V news. In truth, the Indian media showed an equal amount of bias and lack of cultural pride. In short the media still portrays India in a deeply condescending manner. (ut I digress. "he point is that westerners ha e been brought up for decades incorrectly iewing ancient ci ili.ations as intellectually and culturally inferior to modern man. 3o it is no surprise to be surprised in learning some of the greatest disco eries not only came from India, but from ancient India. It shakes the ery foundations of pre#udicial beliefs. 5ere are but a few examples of India$s enlightened thinkers. Amazing Science Cosmology & psychology !ccording to India$s ancient texts, around ?111 (6, sage 8apil founded both cosmology and psychology. 5e shed light on the 3oul, the subtle elements of matter and creation. 5is main idea was that essential nature &prakrti' comes from the eternal &purusha' to de elop all of creation. 7o deeper a iew of the cosmos has e er been de eloped. >urther, his philosophy of 3ankhya philosophy also co ered the secret le els of the psyche, including mind, intellect and ego, and how they relate to the 3oul or !tma. Medicine (Ayurveda), Aviation !round @11 (6, 3age (haradwa#, was both the father of modern medicine, teaching !yur eda, and also the de eloper of a iation technology. 5e wrote the -antra 3ar as a, which co ers astonishing disco eries in a iation and space sciences, and flying machines - well before ;eonardo CaVinchi$s time. 3ome of his flying machines were reported to fly around the earth, from the earth to other planets, and between uni erses. 5is


gentle and inexpensi e.designs and descriptions ha e left a huge impression on modern-day a iation engineers. "hinoplasty. and blood circulation &excluding surgery'. !ryabhatt was the first to proclaim the earth was round. into ash. and heart diseases. 5e was a geometry genius credited with calculating pi to four decimal places.' was another eminent astronomer. cures. !long with herbs. using anesthesia and plastic surgery. pharmacology. water. ether. . Perhaps his most important contribution was the concept of the . pharmacology. 5e wrote about causes and cures for diabetes. . !lood circulation !round this era and through D11 (6. constellation science. Surgery. >or example he presented cures for arious diseases of plants and trees. Cetails are found in 3hul a sutra./ Chemistry alchemical metals In the field of chemistry alchemical metals were de eloped for medicinal uses by sage 7agar#una.annaeus &the modern father of taxonomy'. rotating on an axis. >urther. it sees F stages of disease de elopment &where modern medicine only sees the last two stages'.0@9 6.Fth century (6. it is safe.Dth century (6. and needles.urope. anatomy.' is called the /father of botany/ because he classified flowering plants into arious families. . copper. "his was around :. 8nowledge of botany &Vrksh-!yur eda' dates back more than 0. caesarean and cranial surgeries. 5e is credited with performing the world$s first rhinoplasty. sage Ci odasa Chanwantari de eloped the school of surgeryE <ishi 8ashyap de eloped the speciali. the scar heals quicker and pre ent infection. !otany and animal science Varahamihr &DBB . "he modern surgical world owes a great debt to this great surgical sage.111 years before .ed fields of paediatrics and gynaecology. !treya showed a correlation between mind. 5e wrote many famous books including <as <atnakar. 5e also discussed how to make these flying machines in isible by using sun and wind force. remo ing the toxic elements. D9F 6. botany and animal science. constellation science.. author of the one of the main !yur edic texts. which is still used in India$s !yur edic colleges today. >urther. wind. orbiting the sun and suspended in space. body. blood circulation and more. de eloping the trigonomic sine table and the area of a triangle. )ne of the !yur edic surgical practices being used today in India in ol es dipping sutures into antibiotic herbs so when sewed into the person. !trea was quick to emphasi. geography. I7oteE "he following institution offers more knowledge on the sub#ect of !yur edaJ Atomic theory 3age 8anad &circa F11 (6. 5e used surgical instruments .111 years. <ishi 3ushrut is known as the father of surgery H author of 3ushrut 3amhita.ord !treya . these metals produce quick and profound healing in the most difficult diseases.ed for his contribution to medicine. Panschsiddhant. "here are much more fascinating insights disco ered by sage (haradwa#.' wrote texts on astronomy and mathematics.uropean medicine had no idea of these ideas. Parashara described plant cells 2 . and classified all the ob#ects of creation into nine elements &earth. 5e stated that e ery ob#ect in creation is made of atoms that in turn connect with each other to form molecules nearly A. 6irca @th . many of which modern science still has no answer.. 6olebrook said. "he eminent historian. were in the fields of geography.ord !treya is recogni. sage 3ushrut is known as the />ather of surgery/. 8atyayana.' is recogni.ed manner according to their dosha or constitution and not in any generic manner. 8anad described the dimension and motion of atoms. %any of his other contributions captured in his books (ruhad 3amhita and (ruhad =atak.e. nearly A. 5e also practiced amputation. In the field of medicine &!yur eda'. lancets. amputation. and perhaps abo e all else. physiology. In his book. en modern science recogni. Astronomy and mathematics 3age !ryabhatt &b. classified the principles of anatomy. In fact. paediatrics. 5e discussed how to heal thousands of diseases.111 years before 6opernicus. (y carefully burning metals like iron. and de eloped :A0 surgical instruments including scalpels. proper nutrition according to dosha. it treats people in a personali. Perhaps the most referred to <ishiGphysician today "he 6harak 3amhita was the first compilation of all aspects of ayur edic medicine including diagnoses.ord !treya. embryology. 5e outlined a charter of ethics centuries before the 5ippocratic oath. tin. caesarean and cranial surgeries. ". discussed in India$s <ig Veda. "(. gynaecology anatomy. space. pharmacology. he noted that the moon and planets shine due to the sun. spirit and ethics. many great de elopments occurred. em!ryology. Astronomy. light or fire. and the chemical reaction with one another. !t that time. diet and lifestyle.ed as the founder of atomic theory. mind and soul'. 5e formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses. )ther sages of mathematics include (audhayana. physiology. that there was a mindGbodyGsoul relationship and that the root cause of all diseases and the best medicine for all conditions is spiritual and ethical life. etc. !yur eda being the science of $life$. embryology.ero. 8anad and other Indian scientists were the global masters in this field.many of them look similar to instruments used todayE and discussed more than ?11 types of surgical operations. time. anesthesia. )ther unique quality of !yur eda is that it unco ers and cures the root cause of illness.7. e en today many of these disease causes and cures are still unknown to modern allopathic medicine. anti!iotic her!s *hile . of 6harak 3amhita. the 6harak 3amhita. 3age Parashara &:11 (6. 6irca 0 . and !pastamba. /6ompared to scientists of .011 years before =ohn India as the first country to de elop and use rhinoplasty &de eloped by 3ushrut'. .

instein$s association with the famed Indian physicist. in each successi e condition. (haskaracharya II &:::D .that is when that which is called the body is changing incessantly e en like the rapid locomotion of a steed of good mettle. it was written about centuries before in the ancient Vedic literature.xtraction of . e en as one cannot mark the changes in the flame of a burning lamp. In the :Ath century 6. . they de eloped such power of discrimination & i ek'. In water. It should also.!lbert .mpty 6hamber$ "he constituent elements of the body.. Perhaps it was . compass and map for how to de elop safe and helpful disco eries for the future betterment of from ore by distillation was used in India as early as D11 (6.instein is credited with the idea that one can tra el faster than the speed of light.?11 (6. !nother of his books. they are destroyed. 7early A. "he ery ascetics cannot support their li es without killing creatures. 3econd.. planetary positions. 011 years before 3ir Isaac 7ewton./ . %acteria& Viruses "his mobile and immobile uni erse is food for li ing creatures.e pieces are dated back to :. he expounds on planetary positions. the book was translated into . the first is that India should be proud of its ama. . on earth.who then has come whence or not whence. who taught us how to count..ila ati and ( as a.. who knows what our modern-day scientists will disco er4 "here are two points here. without which no worthwhile scientific disco ery could ha e been made. 3anti Par a. eclipses. arithmetic and geometry. *ith the falling of the the eyelids alone. In the Bth century 6.111 years later.lsewhere it has been shown that 5ar eyLs great disco ery about the circulation of the blood was not unknown to the <ishis. which are translated in se eral languages of the world. modern scientists$ disco eries can quickly bring only helpful ideas to help humanity.the outer and inner walls. though perfectly steady &as in a bree.111 years -later <obert 5ooke. be possessed of the eighteen wellknown merits. while . and fruits.111 years.111 (6. 3 ... ) king. "his disco ery is not new of modern physiology.mislabelling it $!rabic numerals$.mi. . cosmography. that shows no sign of rust or decay. "his has been ordained by the gods. are so minute that they cannot be noticed. (ose that led to his introduction to the iews about the speed of light. and their death. while setting forth the meaning with perspicuity.atin. Physiology >rom "he %ahabharata. cannot be marked. 3ection 666KKI <eproduced from Page $. cosmography. "he flame of a burning lamp. +old #ewellery is a ailable from ?. an !rab mathematician. In his book. and mathematical techniques. sap color-matter and something not isible to the eye . >irst their disco eries are in use today as some of the most important aspects of their fieldE and are alidated by modern technological machines. force of gravity In the field of mathematics. "hey number-names to denote numbers.::@? 6.uropean *illiam 6ampion patented the process some A. "hrough deep meditation and reading the ancient Vedic texts. *hile . there are innumerable creatures. using a microscope described the outer and inner wall and sap color-matter.instein. #he $ecimal !ncient India in ented the decimal scale using base :1. 6opper statues can be dated back to 011 6. or whence does it not arise4 *hat connection does there exist between creatures and their own bodies4 I7ote: "he fact of continual change of particles in the body was well known to the 5indu sages. 3iddhant 3hiromani. "he instance mentioned for illustrating the change of corporal particles is certainly a ery apt and happy one. "he birth of particles. "wo of his most well known books are . "here are two unique aspects to India$s ancient scientists. *ith a core of achie ements and be properly credited. 3ection 666KKI 3ulabha said: ) king. undergo change e ery moment in e ery creature. eclipses. Alge!ra. *hen such is the state of the bodies of all creatures. is really the result of the successi e combustion of particles of oil and the successi e extinguishments of such combustion.' contributed to the fields of algebra. *hat higher duty is there than supporting one$s life4 "here are many creatures that are so minute that their existence can only be inferred. 3urya 3iddhant discusses the force of gra ity. howe er.eless spot'. and second is that India lea es a blueprint. "here is an iron pillar in Celhi dating back to D11 6. It is not true that one does not slaughter them. or whose is it or whose is it not. Metallurgy India was the world-leader in %etallurgy for more than 0. which ser e di erse functions in the general economy. arithmetic and geometry. their disco eries brought peace and prosperity rather than the harm and destruction of many of our modern disco eries. 3pirituality gi es helpful direction and science brings speed. 3age 3ridharacharya de eloped the quadratic equation around BB: 6.J Science o' Speech >rom "he %ahabharata. "hose changes. /*e owe a lot to the Indians. (rass and bron. and mathematical techniques. !l-8hwari. learned 3anskrit and wrote a book explaining the 5indu system of numeration. speech ought always to be free from the nine erbal faults and the nine faults of #udgment. 3anti Par a. Cue to their intense spiritual life. "he (ritish used this numerical system and credited the !rabs .

I ha e heard from holy men like you that he who knows the 3elf crosses o er sorrow. I know. "he four Vedas. 3urgery. (ut this Infinite one must desire to understand. ii. #a. "axila was the #unction where people of different origins mingled with each other and exchanged knowledge of their countries.111 students at a time. 7o computersQ 6ounting would be clumsy and cumbersomeQ "he earliest recorded date. the science of numbers.ila )niversity "akshashila. !ccounts. In the present day world.. archery. .conomics. with all these I am only a knower of words. &0' %athematics. >or the Indian subcontinent "axila stood as a light house of higher knowledge and pride of India. the science of the stars.'. the Rero is lucidly explained and was rendered into !rabic books around 991 6. I know the Veda of the Vedas & i. 7ot only Indians but also students from as far as (abylonia. hunting.. &@' +eography. "he students were admitted after graduating from their own countries. the science of time. the -a#ur-Veda. the existence of a uni ersity of "axilaLs grandeur really makes India stand apart way ahead of the . "he minimum entrance age was :F and there were :1. M"hat which is Infinite O that. !rchery. &B' !stronomy. help me to cross o er to the other side of sorrow. Philosophy. "he age of entering the uni ersity was sixteen. 3ir. Cocumentation. commerce. warfare and other indigenous forms of learning. indeed. It is said that a certain teacher had :1: students and all of them were princesQ "he ni ersity at "axila was well ersed in teaching the sub#ects using the best of practical knowledge acquired by the teachers. In the religious scriptures also. "he branches of studies most sought after in around India ranged from law. &F' .M(ut. It became a cultural heritage as time passed. A?-AF :. &:A' !rchery and !ncient and %odern 3ciences. and clearly explained in PingalaLs 3utra of the And century. 3ir. "he uni ersity also used to conduct researches on arious sub#ects. 3o prominent was the place where 6hanakya recei ed his education that it goes to show the making of the genius. Mathematics -ero . !rabia and 6hina came to study. Politics. &?' !yur eda. not a knower of the 3elf.N M6ome and tell me what you know. =i ak and Vishnu 3harma. "here is no happiness in anything that is finite. &:' 3cience. "he ery requirements of admission filtered out the outlawed and people with lesser credentials. Cance. "he uni ersity was famous as /"axila/ uni ersity. elephant-lore and :@ arts were taught at the uni ersity of "axila. !t a time when the Cark !ges were looming large.urope in the @th century. 3ir. is happiness. "he Infinite alone is happiness.ed branches of learning. !spiring students opted for electi e sub#ects going for in depth studies in speciali.M3ir. Vedas. Co. &9' !strology. India &0@0-0@F 6. the science of logic. "axila is mentioned as the place where the king of snakes. I know the <ig-Veda. %usic.N A. &:1' 3urgical science. "he uni ersity offered courses spanning a period of more than eight years. "he teachers were highly knowledgeable who used to teach sons of kings. the science of portents.anguage. In (rahma-Phuta-3iddhanta of (rahmagupta &9th century 6. I am in sorrow. "he uni ersity accommodated more than :1.#he Most Po/er'ul #ool India in ented the Rero. the concept of Rero is referred to as 3hunya in the early 3anskrit texts of the Dth century (6. Panini. &later corrupted as "axila'. &A' Philosophy. "axila is situated in Pakistan at a place called <awalpindi. 5owe er. the 3ama-Veda and !thar an the fourthE and also the ItihasaPurana as the fifth. Vasuki selected "axila for the dissemination of knowledge on earth. Mand then I will teach you what is beyond that. the science of the elemental science. there existed a giant Pni ersity at "akshashila. +reece. the science of weapons. "he panel of %asters included renowned names like 8autilya. whate er you ha e learned here is only a name. named after the city where it was situated.N D.N Amazing Science (Part *) #he "uins o' +alanda )niversity !round A911 years ago.(rom #he Chhandogya )panishad KVIII.N he replied.. an inscription of Rero on 3ankheda 6opper Plate was found in +u#arat..N ?. 4 .one of the topmost centers of education at that time in India became 6hanakyaLs breeding ground of acquiring knowledge in the practical and theoretical aspect. "he art of disco ering hidden treasures. )ccult. 5ere it would be essential to mention briefly the range of sub#ects taught in the uni ersity of "axila. the rules for the propitiation of the Pitris &ancestors'.7arada approached 3anatkumara and said: M3ir. &::' !gricultural sciences. !fter graduating from the uni ersity.'. "he king and rich people of the region used to donate la ishly for the de elopment of the uni ersity. >rom these it was carried to . teach me. !stronomy. 3yria. &D' +rammar of arious languages.uropean countries who struggled with ignorance and total information blackout. the science of snake-charming and the fine arts O all these. without which there would be no binary system. as early as 911 (6."o him he then said: MVerily. located in the northwest region of India. %edicine. the science of the gods. *arfare. ethics and politics. the science of scriptural studies.011 students. >uturology. etc. +rammar. medicine.xperienced masters taught a wide range of sub#ects. F@ different streams of knowledge were on the syllabus.ed as the best scholars in the subcontinent. the students are recogni. grammar'.

which were introduced to . #he Value o' P1 in 1ndia "he ratio of the circumference and the diameter of a circle are known as Pi. ekam T: dashakam T:1 shatam T:11 &:1 to the power of :1' sahasram T:111 &:1 power of ?' dashasahasram T:1111 &:1 power of D' lakshaha T:11111 &:1 power of 0' dashalakshaha T:111111 &:1 power of F' kotihi T:1111111 &:1 power of 9' ayutam T:111111111 &:1 power of B' niyutam T &:1 power of ::' kankaram T &:1 power of :?' i aram T &:1 power of :0' paraardhaha T &:1 power of :9' ni ahaaha T &:1 power of :B' utsangaha T &:1 power of A:' bahulam T &:1 power of A?' naagbaalaha T &:1 power of A0' titilambam T &:1 power of A9' ya asthaana pragnaptihi T &:1 power of AB' hetuheelam T &:1 power of ?:' karahuhu T &:1 power of ??' het indreeyam T &:1 power of ?0' samaapta lambhaha T &:1 power of ?9' gananaagatihi' T &:1 power of ?B' nira adyam T &:1 power of D:' mudraabaalam T &:1 power of D?' sar abaalam T &:1 power of D0' ishamagnagatihi T &:1 power of D9' sar agnaha T &:1 power of DB' ibhutangamaa T &:1 power of 0:' tallaakshanam T &:1 power of 0?' &In !nuyogdwaar 3utra written in :11 (6. *hile. .a profound and important idea which escaped the genius of !rchimedes and !pollonius. !nd the word "rigonometry is similar to S"rikonamitiL meaning measuring triangular forms. 6. !ryabhatta in DBB./ -.' describes ama. one numeral is raised as high as :1 to the power of :D1'. "he old 3anskrit text (audhayana 3hulba 3utra of the Fth century (6. which gi es its alue as ?. Pythagorean #heorem or %audhayana #heorem2 "he so-called Pythagoras "heorem O the square of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle equals the sum of the square of the two sides O was worked out earlier in India by (audhayana in (audhayana 3ulba 3utra. the Cecimal system flourished in India /It was India that ga e us the ingenious method of expressing all numbers by means of ten symbols &Cecimal 3ystem'2. two of the greatest men produced by antiquity.:DA@09:. worked the alue of Pi to the fourth decimal place as ?. !rab mathematician %ohammed Ibna %usa says that /"his alue has been gi en by the 5indus &Indians'/.. as early as :11 (6.0eometry In ention of +eometry "he word +eometry seems to ha e emerged from the Indian word S+yaamitiL which means measuring the ./ I7ote: +reek writers attributed the theorem of . mentions this ratio as approximately equal to ?. in @A0 6. while the concept of +eometry in India emerged in :111 (6.uclid to PythagorasJ Mathematics "he Cecimal :11(6. Astronomy Indian astronomers ha e been mapping the skies for ?011 years. 5e describes: /"he area produced by the diagonal of a rectangle is equal to the sum of the area produced by it on two sides. "he treatise of 3urya 3iddhanta &Dth century 6. Indian %athematicians had exact names for figures upto :1 to the power of 0?.urope :A11 years later in the :Fth century by (riggs.uclid is credited with the in ention of +eometry in ?11 (6. 5 .:D:F.arth &land'. 6enturies details of "rigonometry.a Place <aising :1 to the Power of 0? "he highest prefix used for raising :1 to a power in todayLs maths is SCL for :1 to a power of ?1 &from +reek Ceca'. from the practice of making fire altars in square and rectangular shapes.

Measurement o' #ime In 3urya 3iddhanta.111@0 days. therefore. !ryabhatta in 0th century &D11-011 6. It was not until the late :9th century in :F@9.A0BF days.arth in :0D?. he notes: /)b#ects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. ears and lips with incredible results. *7333#8 o' a Second to 7 *6 %illion 4ears India has gi en the idea of the smallest and the largest measure of time. #he 5a/ o' 0ravity & 1633 4ears %e'ore +e/ton "he . the moon and the sun are held in orbit due to this attraction/. needles. %odern plastic surgery acknowledges his contributions by calling this method of rhinoplasty as the Indian method. 16. (etween (haskaracharyaLs ancient measurement :011 years ago and the modern measurement the difference is only 1. %<3 Plunket 3hushruta worked with :A0 kinds of surgical instruments. (haskaracharya T ?F0. constellations. he clearly states that our earth is round.?A1.?A billion years Plastic Surgery 1n 1ndia 6933 4ears :ld 3hushruta. 8rati 8rati T ?D. (haskaracharya calculates the time taken for the earth to orbit the sun to B decimal places. /#ust as a person tra elling in a boat feels that the trees on the bank are mo ing. people on earth feel that the sun is mo ing/.ekhyam T scarification Vedhyam T puncturing 6 . lancets. In his compendium 3hushruta 3amhita he minutely classifies surgery into @ types: !haryam T extracting solid bodies (hedyam T excision 6hhedyam T incision !eshyam T probing . In his 3urya 3iddhanta. goatLs guts and antLs heads. mostly concei ed from #aws of animals and birds to obtain the necessary grips.1333 4ears %e'ore Copernicus 6opernicus published his theory of the re olution of the . the moon and the earth. :A11 years later. fine thread.111th of a second : "ruti T ?11th of a second A "ruti T : . #ypes :' Surgical 1nstruments /"he 5indus &Indians' were so ad anced in surgery that their instruments could cut a hair longitudinally/. the of +ra ity was known to the ancient Indian astronomer (haskaracharya. practised his skill as early as F11 ( of +ra ity. %odern accepted measurement T ?F0. only 1. it rotates on its axis.0 +adhi T : 5ora &: hour' AD 5ora T : Ci as &: day' 9 Ci as T : saptaah &: week' D 3aptaah T : %aas &: month' A %aas T : <utu &: season' F <utu T : Varsh &: year' :11 Varsh T : 3hataabda &: century' :1 3hataabda T : sahasraabda D?A 3ahasraabda T : -ug &8aliyug' A -ug T : Cwaaparyug ? -ug T : "retaayug D -ug T : 8rutayug :1 -ug T : %ahaayug &D. fibres of bark. *33 $i''erent :perations 3hushruta describes the details of more than ?11 operations and DA surgical processes.u T : 8shana ?1 8shana T : Vipal F1 Vipal T : Pal F1 Pal T : +hadi &AD minutes' A.111AU.111 years' :111 %ahaayug T : 8alpa : 8alpa T D. 5e used cheek skin to perform plastic surgery to restore or reshape the nose.' stated that the . ! thousand years before him.u A . rectal speculums. catheters.arth re ol es around the sun.. that 3ir Isaac 7ewton redisco ered the . In his treatise !ryabhatteeam. orbits the sun and is suspended in space and explains that lunar and solar eclipses occur by the interplay of the sun. known as the father of surgery. the earth. which included scalpels.A0@90FD@D days. 5e also defined arious methods of stitching: the use of horseLs hair.

/ *ill Curant &!merican 5istorian. ! special branch of surgery was de oted to rhinoplasty or operations for impro ing deformed ears. *. :B1:-:B9F' Surgery /"he surgery of the ancient Indian physicians was bold and skilful. 5e then placed medicated cotton pads to heal the operation. he !uilt virtually the /hole structure o' the Sans=rit language. is explained as ordered rules operating on underlying structures in a manner similar to modern theory. 5iterature /In the great books of India. gi en the period in which he worked. he is one of the most inno ati e people in the whole de elopment of knowledge.Philip <awson &(ritish )rientalist' Atomic Physics /!fter the con ersations about Indian philosophy. . such gifts as grammar and logic. and morphology. Fth and 9th century (6 and there is also no agreement among historians about the extent of the work which he undertook. In many ways Panini$s constructions are similar to the way that a mathematical function is defined today. It consists of eight chapters. and has found solutions. In this work Panini distinguishes between the language of sacred texts and the usual language of communication. 1 thin= that the grammar merits asserting that it is one o' the greatest monuments o' human intelligence . a town near to !ttock on the Indus ri er in present day Pakistan. is of wonderful structure. now Pakistan Cied: about DF1 (6 in India Panini was born in 3halatula. which . skilfully sliced off skin from the cheek and sutured the nose. 5eisenberg &+erman Physicist. philosophy and fables. noses and forming new ones. but large. %ax %uller &+erman 3cholar. an . 3anskrit was the classical literary language of the Indian 5indus and Panini is considered the founder of the language and literature. >or rhinoplasty. "he construction of sentences. 3hushruta first measured the damaged nose. 0th. consistent. 1ndia<s Contri!utions Ac=no/ledged Contri!utions /It is true that e en across the 5imalayan barrier India has sent to the west. 3tarting with about :911 basic elements like nouns.xperts gi e dates in the Dth. owels. It is interesting to note that the word /3anskrit/ means /complete/ or /perfect/ and it was thought of as the di ine language. :@@0-:B@:' 5anguage /"he 3anskrit language. serene. caesarean surgery and cranial surgery. *e will say a little more below about how historians ha e gone about trying to pinpoint the date when Panini li ed. compound nouns etc. /hose general >shape> hardly changed 'or the ne. > <obertson (orn: about 0A1 (6 in 3halatula &near !ttock'. phonology. some of the ideas of Wuantum Physics that had seemed so cra. more perfect than the +reek. or language of the gods. :@A?-:B11 "eligion /"here can no longer be any real doubt that both Islam and 6hristianity owe the foundations of both their mystical and their scientific achie ements to Indian initiati es/. the oice of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the questions that exercises us/.t t/o thousand years An indirect conseBuence o' Panini>s e''orts to increase the linguistic 'acility o' Sans=rit soon !ecame apparent in the character o' scienti'ic and mathematical literature 7 .y suddenly made much more sense/. and abo e all numerals and the decimal system. =oseph writes in IAJ:Sans=rit>s potential 'or scienti'ic use /as greatly enhanced as a result o' the thorough systemisation o' its grammar !y Panini :n the !asis o' ?ust under 7333 sutras @rules e. 3ir *illiam =ones &(ritish )rientalist.An evaluation of Panini's contribution by Cardona Amazing Science (Part 7)(y = = )$6onnor and . . "he dates gi en for Panini are pure guesses. Panini gi es formal production rules and definitions to describe 3anskrit grammar.atin and more exquisitely refined than either/. nothing small or unworthy. whate er be its antiquity. has most deeply pondered on the greatest problems of life. each subdi ided into quarter chapters.mpire spoke to us. *hat is in little doubt is that. ! treatise called Astadhyayi (or Asta=a ) is Panini$s ma#or work. hypnotism and chess.pressed as aphorismsA. erbs. Panini>s grammar has !een evaluated 'rom various points o' vie/ A'ter all these di''erent evaluations. I should point out to India/.Visraa yam T e acuating fluids 3i yam T suturing "he ancient Indians were also the first to perform amputation. :9DF-:9BD' Philosophy VIf I were asked under what sky the human mind has most fully de eloped some of its choicest gifts. more copious than the .uropean surgeons ha e now borrowed/. consonants he put them into classes. Panini was a 3anskrit grammarian who ga e a comprehensi e and scientific theory of phonetics.

"here are a number of pieces of e idence to support Indra#i$s theory that the (rahmi numerals de eloped from letters or syllables.6. "his grammar is acknowledged to be one of the greatest intellectual achie ements of all time. he became the most renowned of the grammarians. if any. but Panini$s notation is equi alent in its power to that of (!68P3 and has many similar "he (ackus 7ormal >orm was disco ered independently by =ohn (!68P3 in :B0B. "here are references by others to Panini. "his in us illustrate with two actual examples from the !stadhyayi which ha e been the sub#ect of much study. rather an indication of the difficulty of the topic. or earlier' pro ides D. now some argue that these must be (uddhist nuns and therefore the work must ha e been written after (uddha.html /Panini. *ould it be possible to find e idence which would mean that the text had to ha e been written after the conquests of !lexander the +reat4 "here is a little e idence of +reek influence. >ollowing in the steps of the (rahmi alphabet makers.mcs.:F@ rules. "o gi e an example of what we mean: if we were to pick up a text which contained as an example /I take the train to work e ery day/ we would know that it had to ha e been written after railways became common. "hen he put the finishing touches to the theory by suggesting that Panini in the eighth century (6 &earlier than most historians place Panini' was the first to come up with the idea of using letters of the alphabet to represent numbers. > <obertson 3chool of %athematics and 3tatistics Pni ersity of 3t !ndrews. others attribute to authors after Panini. li ed in India some time between the 9th and the Dth centuries (. 5is work on 3anskrit. !gain the e idence is inconclusi disco ery of Panini$s 3anskrit grammar. had /stood on the shoulders of giants/. 5owe er it would appear that the Panini to whom most refer is a poet and although some argue that these are the same person. therefore. "he usual way to date such texts would be to examine which authors are referred to and which authors refer to the work. the symbols for :. in many ways. "his is an area where there are many theories but few. 1 thin= that the grammar merits asserting that it is one o' the greatest monuments o' human intelligence !rticle by: = = )$6onnor and . en if one accepts the link between the numerals and the letters.urope in the :Bth century was due largely to the . . !t the beginning of this article we mentioned that certain concepts had been attributed to Panini by certain historians which others dispute. famous grammarian of the 3anskrit language. !gain this is inconclusi e e idence. ! nice argument but there is a counter argument which says that there were =aina nuns before the time of (uddha and Panini$s reference could equally well be to them. but there was +reek influence on this north east part of the Indian subcontinent before the time of !lexander. 76 A@:9? Panini$s grammar &Fth century (6. others attribute to authors before Panini./ =!!<3 !lphabet %useum(ox AD@*axhaw. "here has been no lack of work on this topic so the fact that there are theories which span se eral hundreds of years is not the result of lack of effort. and ultimately the de elopment of modern number systems in India. to quote one example. In particular he suggests that algebraic reasoning. *hat other internal e idence is there to use4 *ell of course Panini uses many phrases to illustrate his grammar and these ha e been examined meticulously to see if anything is contained there to indicate a date. )ne such theory was put forward by ( Indra#i in :@9F. the complexity of nature and. "he first is an attempt to see whether there is e idence of +reek influence. "here are other works which are closely associated with the !stadhyayi which some historians attribute to Panini. making Panini the originator of this idea would seem to ha e no more behind it than knowing that Panini was one of the most inno ati e geniuses that world has known so it is not unreasonable to belie e that he might ha e made this step and describing language. making linguistics a science. with its D. A and ? clearly don$t come from letters but from one. the Indian way of representing numbers by words. 3cotland http:GGwww-history. most historians agree that the linguist and the poet are two different people. !nother angle is to examine a reference Panini makes to nuns. 5owe er it is not totally con incing since. )ne can use this technique and see who Panini mentions. hard facts. 7othing conclusi e has been identified. 5e claimed that the (rahmi numerals de eloped out of using letters or syllables as numerals.ukGhistoryG%athematiciansGPanini. . two and three lines respecti ely. "here are ten scholars mentioned by Panini and we must assume from the context that these ten ha e all contributed to the study of 3anskrit grammar. of course. like 7ewton.111 rules that describe the 3anskrit of his day completely. are linked Panini should be thought of as the forerunner of the modern formal language theory used to specify computer languages. "he modern science of linguistics is the basis for producing alphabets for languages yet unwritten today. It is remarkable to think that concepts which are fundamental to today$s theoretical computer science should ha e their origin with an Indian genius around A011 years ago. "he great ariety of language us end with an e aluation of Panini$s contribution by 6ardona in I:J:Panini>s grammar has !een evaluated 'rom various points o' vie/ A'ter all these di''erent evaluations. . success in describing 8 . is outstanding for its highly systematic methods of analy.=oseph goes on to make a con incing argument for the algebraic nature of Indian mathematics arising as a consequence of the structure of the 3anskrit language. "he birth of linguistic science in *estern . indicates that Panini was not a solitary genius but. *e also promised to return to a discussion of Panini$s dates. 7ow Panini must ha e li ed later than these ten but this is absolutely no help in pro iding dates since we ha e absolutely no knowledge of when any of these ten li ed.

according to <. bron. besides weapon making and other military uses. they had de eloped an elaborate terminology for different metals. http:GGhistory. "he protecti e film took form within three years after erection of the pillar and has been growing e er so slowly since then. a 3anskrit work of the c. phonology. agriculture medicinal-industrial commercial importance and application of flora and fauna. 7o pri ate enterprise for 8autilyaQ )ne is ama. including mining. >rom this perspecti e it anticipates the logical framework of modern computers. and morphology.csusb. P. "hough primarily it is treatise on statecraft.math. It is remarkable that Panini set out to describe the entire grammar in terms of a finite number of rules. Panini should be thought of as the forerunner of the modern formal language theory used to specify computer languages.. a compound of iron. compound nouns etc. 3anskrit was the classical literary language of the Indian 5indus. plants. bell-metal &tala' was an alloy of copper with arsenic. #he Corrosion "esistant 1ron Pillar o' $elhi "he pillarXo er se en metres high and weighing more than six tonnesXwas erected by 8umara +upta of +upta dynasty that ruled northern India in !C ?A1-0D1. (alasubramaniam of the II". "he 8autiliya !rthasastra.inGinfocellG!rchi eGdirno :GironYpillar.ed at the breadth of 8autilya$s knowledge. who reduced iron ore into steel in one step by mixing it with charcoal. but tin-copper alloy was known as trapu.thnobiological Information contained in the !rthasastra. :B@@. 3cholars ha e shown that the grammar of Panini represents a uni ersal grammatical and computing system. >.html The Iron Pillar that oes !ot "ust #he Cautiliya Arthasastra Minerals and Metals and Dthno!iological 1n'ormation in Cautilya>s Arthasastra It is surprising that e en in the I %illennium (6.e &kamsa'.xperts at the Indian Institute of "echnology ha e resol ed the mystery behind the :. "he present monograph of Information and instructions about arious other aspects of social life. !fter :. animals. and the uses of plants and animals in biological and chemical warfare. "he iron pillar at Celhi has attracted the attention of archaeologists and corrosion technologists as it has withstood corrosion for the last :F11 years. (ut the book contains information and instructions about arious other aspects of social life. "he pillarXo er se en metres high and weighing more than six tonnesXwas erected by 8umara +upta of +upta dynasty that ruled northern India in !C ?A1-0D1.10 per cent in today$s iron. )ne may speak of a Panini machine as a model for the most powerful computing system.F11-year-old iron pillar in Celhi. (alasubramaniam said the /kinetic scheme/ that his group de eloped for predicting growth of the protecti e film may be useful for modeling long-term corrosion beha iour of containers for nuclear storage applications "he Celhi iron pillar is testimony to the high le el of skill achie ed by ancient Indian iron smiths in the extraction and processing of iron. ! bewildering ariety of #ewellery was also classified and gi en distincti e names. it gi es detailed descriptions and instructions on geology. animal husbandry including eterinary suggestions. "he (ackus 7ormal >orm was disco ered independently by =ohn (ackus in :B0B. Panini gi es formal production rules and definitions to describe 3anskrit grammar. animal husbandry including eterinary suggestions. minerals and alloys. Panini was a 3anskrit grammarian who ga e a comprehensi e and scientific theory of phonetics.a language is as impressi e as a complete theory of physics.F11 years. on the other hand. 3ensarma is an excellent treatise in lucid . 9 . Pni ersals. which has ne er corroded despite the capital$s harsh %etallurgists at 8anpur II" ha e disco ered that a thin layer of /misawite/.thnobiological Information contained in the !rthasastra.nglish on the . Dth century (. (rass &arakuta' was known. 6hicago: Pni ersity of 6hicago Press. It deals with forests. "he construction of sentences. "he high phosphorous content is a result of the unique iron-making process practiced by ancient Indians. agriculture.. http:GGwww. the film has grown #ust one-twentieth of a millimeter thick. oxygen and hydrogen.6. In a report published in the #ournal 6urrent 3cience (alasubramanian says. animals. In a treatise called !stadhyayi Panini distinguishes between the language of sacred texts and the usual language of communication. 3ource: 3taal. use limestone in place of charcoal yielding molten slag and pig iron that is later con erted into steel. has protected the cast iron pillar from rust. and the uses of plants and animals in biological and chemical warfare. 3tating that the pillar is /a li ing testimony to the skill of metallurgists of ancient India/. besides weapon making and other military uses. so also steel & rattu'.html Minerals and Metals in Cautilya>s Arthasastra It is interesting to note that 8autilya prescribes that the state should carry out most of the businesses. is explained as ordered rules operating on underlying structures in a manner similar to modern theory. including man$s relationship with animals and plants. including man$s relationship with animals and plants. plants. but Panini$s notation is equi alent in its power to that of (ackus and has many similar properties. In the modern process most phosphorous is carried away by the slag. . %odern blast furnaces. It deals with forests. agriculture medicinal-industrial commercial importance and application of flora and fauna. the protecti e film was formed catalytically by the presence of high amounts of phosphorous in the ironXas much as one per cent against less than 1. is more known for its contents on politics and statecraft.eduG%athematiciansGPanini.

in rocks. tawny &chalcopyrite left exposed to air tarnishes'. the $3uperintendent of +old. "he authors further mention that at the end was mentioned kacamani. "he next section deals with the gem minerals and is treated more extensi ely than others.xcellent pearl gems had to be big. "hough the authors wish to show the importance of mines and metals in the society. and possessed of sound. etc. !fter describing the abo e metallic ores or dhatus of specific metals. 8astsa &green iron sulphate' and sasyaka. "he metallic ores had to be sent to the respecti e %etal *orks for producing $twel e kinds of metals and commodities$. 8autilya himself did not treat the matter so and focused to show its importance for the state alone as the book !rthasastra is on statecraft and not on society. but also of the alloying elements such as copper and iron and of gems which had to be set in the gold and sil er wares. milk coloured gem or lasuna and bukta pulaka &with chatoyancy or change in lustre' which could be cat$s eye. steel4 "he !rthasastra mentions specific uses of arious metals of which gold and sil er recei e maximum attention. hard and of a light color$.e on both sides'. salt and ores deri ed from the earth. bell-metal &tala' was an alloy of copper with arsenic. conchshells. "he technique of maniraga or imparting colour to produce artificial gems was specifically mentioned. Ceep red spinel or spinel ruby identified with saugandhika. the rest small and uniform in si. ! bewildering ariety of #ewellery was also classified and gi en distincti e names. ratna ali & ariegated with gold and gems'. sil er. gems. "he !rthasastra also mentions se eral subsidiary types of gems named after their color.ead ores were stated to be grayish black. black in the centre and red at the fringe &magnetiteE and hematite on the fringe4'. Its encyclopedic in its co erage and indicates that all these sciences were quite de eloped and systemati. Ciamond & a#ra' was disco ered in India in the pre-6hristian era. %any other classes of gems could ha e red color. with one pearl in the centre. metrology etc. "he !rthasastra described certain types of generic names of minerals red saugandhika. diamonds.animal husbandry. sil er and s eta tara or white sil er which contained 10 . "here were specific terms for different types of #ewellery: 3irsaka &for the head. Perhaps. "he bluish green ariety of beryl is known as aquamarine or bhadra. bitumen. etc. "he !rthasastra did not pro ide the names of the constituent minerals beyond referring to them as dhatu of iron &"iksnadhatu'. without a flat surface. Various ornamental alloys could be prepared by mixing ariable proportions of iron and copper with gold. 3imilarly. and smooth and perforated at the proper place. or in liquid form. smooth.ed as materials coming under the pur iew of mines. . camphor. It is not certain whether aikrntaka metal was nickel or magnetite based iron.urite'. blue indranila and colorless sphatika. but tincopper alloy was known as trapu. apa artaka &with gold. It recogni. etc.ed in India e en A011 years ago.ed in the !rthasastra as $clear. or of the colour of the sindu ara flower &hematite'. like kakamecaka &this is the color of galena'. pale red or red &nati e copper'. the amorphous gems or artificial gems imitated by coloring glass. lead. the sil er ore described in the !rthasastra seems to be a complex sulphide ore containing sil er &colour of a conch-shell'. lustre or place of origin. "hese minerals were used as coloring agents and later as mordants in dyeing ores in the earth. indracchanda &necklace of :11@ pearls'. white-red #yotirasaka. 5ere we are told that %anidhatu or the gem minerals were characteri. "he !rthasastra describes the sources and the qualities of good grade gold and sil er ores. lohitaksa. materials producing alkali. suktichurnaka powdered oyster. the !rthasastra writes: In that case aikrntaka metal must be iron itself which used to be produced by the 3outh Indians starting from the magnetite ore. imalaka &pyrite4'. mordants. gems and pearls at inter als'. charcoal. hea y. lustrous. they had de eloped an elaborate terminology for different metals. minerals and alloys. salts. greasy. Iron ore was known to be greasy stone of pale red colour. 5e was supposed to establish industrial outfits and employ sau arnikas or goldsmiths. )f great commercial importance were metallic ores from which useful metals were extracted. (rass &arakuta' was known. metals. green &color of malachite'. yet what they point to is their importance for the state and the powers that the state exercised o er them. blue copper sulphate. ! gold-bearing ore is also described. &could be agate and carnelian'. "he chapter begins with the importance of $mines and metals$ in the society and here we are told that one of the most crucial statements in the !rthasastra is that gold. manahsil & red arsenic sulphide'. are defined. rocks and liquids were recogni. pearls. or calcite gangue minerals' and smelling like raw flesh &odour of sulphur'. Pigments were in use such as an#an . and was mentioned in the !rthasastra as uptpala arnah &like blue lotus'.e &kamsa'. and so on. 5a ing re iewed the literary e idence the authors maintain that the !rthasastra is the earliest Indian text dealing with the mineralogical characteristics of metallic ores and other mineral-aggregate rocks. a aghataka &a big pearl in the center with pearls gradually decreasing in si. so also steel & rattu'. hea iness and often-strong smell and taste. corals. actually belongs to a different &spinel' family of minerals. Vimalaka shining pyrite. dark blue with yellowish tint &a. white. *e are told that the !rthasastra also mentions the uses of se eral non-gem mineral and materials such as pigments. husk. *e wonder if it is not due to the fact that the gem minerals reflected the richness of Indian kings. ksira aka.& antimony sulphide'. &yellow arsenic sulphide' and hinguluka &mercuric sulphide'. *as it the beginning of the famous *oot. cold. a ariety of chrysoberyl. copper.e'. 6opper ores were stated to be $hea y. round. lustrous. . bron. ahicchatraka from !hicchatra. It is surprising that e en in the I %illennium (6. yellow like pigeon bile. haritala. marked with white lines &quart. well ersed in the knowledge of not only gold and sil er. +old smelting was known as su arnapaka. sasyaka blue copper sulphate. green aidurya. "he duties of su arna-adhyaksah. with excessi e color. mana aka &A1 pearl string'. abrasi es.

1.e. aikrntaka.local administrators were required to con ert rectangular plots or triangular plots to squares of equi alent si. It is likely that 11 . but could be ad#usted upwards or downwards based on a ariety of factors. "ax assessments were based on fixed proportions of annual or seasonal crop incomes. +old. ! bron. "he system of land grants and agricultural tax assessments required accurate measurement of culti ated areas. and 011 ha e been identified.urope and. Rinc in India must ha e started around D11 (6 in "axila.uropeans were trapped in the relati ely simplistic and concrete geometrical mathematics de eloped by the +reeks.:. as steel.A. squares.. copper was known as lohayasa or red metal. fractions. tiksna mentioned as iron. In ancient (abylon. and the corresponding metal-wares.gypt. "his meant that an understanding of geometry and arithmetic was irtually essential for re enue administrators. Pages 'rom the history o' the 1ndian su!&continentE Science and Mathematics in 1ndia In all early ci ili. 1. !lthough today. easily and inconsequentially swept under the rug of . half masaka. a sexagesimal &base F1' system was in use. ratta &steel'. "he role played by India in the de elopment is no mere footnote. lead. and the metal was used as an alloying component.alue system of enumeration de eloped in India that they were able to free their minds from the concrete and de elop more abstract systems of thought. cubes and roots are enumerated in the 7arad Vishnu Purana attributed to Ved Vyas &pre-:111 (6'. A1. as ha e scales with decimal di isions. "wo parts of sil er and one part of copper constituted triputaka.indi idual farmers in a illage often had their holdings broken up in se eral parcels to ensure fairness. In order to ensure that all culti ators had equi alent amounts of irrigated and non-irrigated lands and tracts of equi alent fertility . problems of mensuration came up that required solutions. ermilion. had its ore or dhatu. records of mathematical acti ity are mostly to be found in Vedic texts associated with ritual acti ities. "he existence of a gradated system of accurately marked weights points to the de elopment of trade and commerce in 5arappan society. subtraction.urope take o er thousand years to attain the le el of abstract mathematics achie ed by Indians such as !aryabhatta4 "he answer appears to be that .?F9 inches points to the degree of precision demanded in those times. 01. )n the top of it. ! particularly notable characteristic of 5arappan weights and measures is their remarkable accuracy. sil er and some coloring matter. red lead on the ob#ect and then heating. and half kakani. It was not until they had. 5owe er.ations based their numbers on a ten-base system. not all ancient ci ili. the study of arithmetic and geometry was also impelled by secular considerations.xamples of geometric knowledge &rekha-ganit' are to be found in the 3ul a-3utras of (audhayana &@11 (6' and !pasthmaba &F11 (6' which describe techniques for the construction of ritual altars in use during the Vedic era. as in many other early agricultural ci ili. and for homes to be constructed according to specified guidelines..ations. *eights corresponding to ratios of 1.10. and to deny India one of it$s greatest contributions to world ci ili. #he $ecimal System in 8arappa In India a decimal system was already in place during the 5arappan period. +old plating &t astrkarma' could be done on sil er or copper. !n alloy of equal parts of sil er and iron was known as ellaka.0.e rod marked in units of 1. %athematics was thus brought into the ser ice of both the secular and the ritual domains. one might ask. to some extent early mathematical de elopments in India mirrored the de elopments in . 3ince plots could not all be of the same shape . !s land was redistributed or consolidated. "hus. recei ed. . though later different numbers came to be assigned specific numeral names and symbols &as in India' or were designated by alphabetic letters &such as in <ome'. 7umbers in ery early societies were typically represented by groups of lines. "he masaka. tala &bell-metal' and loha &iron or simply metal'. the first expression of mathematical understanding appears in the form of counting and so on. one-quarter hardening alloy and the rest copper. i. assimilated and accepted the place. multiplication. 3uch scales were particularly important in ensuring proper implementation of town planning rules that required roads of fixed widths to run at right angles to each other. "o do so is to distort history. Vaikrntaka has been referred to some times with rata.. A11. Iron prepared from 3outh Indian magnetite or aikrantakadhatu was wrongly belie ed to be a different metal. copper coins &progressi ely lower weights' had the same composition. the world. 6opper used to be alloyed with arsenic to produce tala or bell metal and with trapu or tin to produce bron. copper or sil er ob#ects were coated with a gold-leaf &acitakapatra' on one side or with a twin-leaf fixed with lac etc. arakuta or brass. Rawar mines in <a#asthan also gi e similar e 0. A. which is identified by many scholars including 8angle. later. quarter masaka known as the kakani. "he !rthasastra also describes a system of coinage based on sil er and copper.e'. 1. did .. "he !rthasastra specifies that the Cirector of %etals &lohadhyakasa' should establish factories for metals &other than gold and sil er' i. "his de elopment thus triggered the scientific and information technology re olutions which swept . Pages 'rom the history o' the 1ndian su!&continentE Science and Mathematics in 1ndia 8istory o' Mathematics in 1ndia 1ndic Mathematics & 1ndia and the Scienti'ic "evolution *hy. for drains to be constructed of precise measurements. :11. :. . tin.urocentric bias. sil er or gems were embedded &pinka' in solid or hollow articles by pasting a thick pulp of gold. In the Vedic era. :1. kamsa &bron. (abylon and 6hina . we take our decimal system for granted. as indicated by an analysis of 5arappan weights and measures.ead. copper. !rithmetic operations &+anit' such as addition.ations. sil er or gem particles and the cementing agents such as lac. ia the !rabs.ation. Mathematical Activity in the Vedic Period In the Vedic period.

proofs for such results must ha e been pro ided. or else were transmitted orally through the +urukul system. "oday. Panini$s constructions can also be seen as comparable to modern definitions of a mathematical function.ations of obser ed examples. %odern-day commentators are di ided on how some of the results were generated. "he operations are repeated to produce new sets. Philosophy and Mathematics Philosophical doctrines also had a profound influence on the de elopment of mathematical concepts and formulations. and by raising to finite or infinite powers. the study of +anit i. In other works the relation of the number of combinations to the coefficients occurring in the binomial expansion is noted. it probably helped in grappling with indeterminate equations and finding numerical approximations to irrational numbers. (audhayana$s 3utra displays an understanding of basic geometric shapes and techniques of con erting one geometric shape &such as a rectangle' to another of equi alent &or multiple. !sankheya &uncountable' and !nant &infinite'. in "he crest of the peacock argues that the algebraic nature of Indian mathematics arises as a consequence of the structure of the 3anskrit language. %odern methods of multiplication and addition probably emerged from the techniques described in the 3ul a3utras. Ingerman in his paper titled Panini-(ackus form finds Panini$s notation to be equi alent in its power to that of (ackus . =ain texts from the Fth 6 (6 such as the 3urya Pragyapti describe ellipses. 5is 3utra also contains geometric solutions of a linear equation in a single unknown. ! similar obser ation pertaining to oblongs is also noted. "rik !ached. phonology and morphology.ed fi e different types of infinities: infinite in one direction. .ike the Ppanishadic world iew. =ain mathematicians recogni. "hus Panini$s work pro ided an example of a scientific notational model that could ha e propelled later mathematicians to use abstract notations in characteri. %aha iracharya further emphasi. ./ &%any centuries later. )thers belie e that once the scientific method came to be formali.e. !n early statement of what is commonly known as the Pythagoras theorem is to be found in (audhayana$s 3utra: "he chord which is stretched across the diagonal of a square produces an area of double the si.' Panini and (ormal Scienti'ic +otation ! particularly important de elopment in the history of Indian science that was to ha e a profound impact on all mathematical treatises that followed was the pioneering work by Panini &Fth 6 (6' in the field of 3anskrit grammar and linguistics. by squaring and extracting square algebraic equations and presenting algebraic theorems and results in a scientific format. 7umbers were deemed to be of three types: 3ankheya &countable'.ed in the 7yaya-3utras . "he Vedang =yotish &:111 (6' includes the statement: /=ust as the feathers of a peacock and the #ewel-stone of a snake are placed at the highest point of the body &at the forehead'. =ain mathematician from %ysore. (uddhist literature also demonstrates an awareness of indeterminate and infinite numbers. parts of speech such as nouns and erbs were placed in classes. space and time were considered limitless in =ain cosmology. or as generali. di iding a segment into se en equal parts. In 3atkhandagama arious sets are operated upon by logarithmic functions to base two. similarly. Panini pro ided formal production rules and definitions describing 3anskrit grammar in his treatise called !sthadhyayi. (asic elements such as owels and consonants.ed the importance of mathematics: /*hate er ob#ect exists in this mo ing and non-mo ing world. 12 . + + =oseph. and only the final results were tabulated in the texts. and 6hatur !ached are used to denote log base A.6 was familiar with the Ppanishads and learnt his basic geometry from the 3ul a 3utras. "he !nuyoga Cwara 3utra demonstrates an understanding of the law of indeces and uses it to de elop the notion of logarithms. 3ince =ain epistemology allowed for a degree of indeterminacy in describing reality. "erms like !rdh !ached . (esides expounding a comprehensi e and scientific theory of phonetics. Permutations and combinations are listed in the (hag ati 3utras &?rd 6 (6' and 3athananga 3utra &And 6 (6'. "his led to a deep interest in ery large numbers and definitions of infinite numbers. cannot be understood without the base of +anit &i. Pythagoras . !pasthamba$s sutra &an expansion of (audhayana$s with se eral original contributions' pro ides a alue for the square root of A that is accurate to the fifth decimal place. !pasthamba also looked at the problems of squaring a circle.these texts tapped geometric knowledge that may ha e been acquired much earlier. but these ha e either been lost or destroyed. log base ? and log base D respecti ely. the position of +anit is the highest amongst all branches of the Vedas and the 3hastras. mathematics'/.e. "he construction of compound words and sentences was elaborated through ordered rules operating on underlying structures in a manner similar to formal language theory. =ain set theory probably arose in parallel with the 3yad ada system of =ain epistemology in which reality was described in terms of pairs of truth conditions and state changes. in two directions. and a solution to the general linear rules of thumb. *hile some of the formulations are entor of the (ackus 7ormal >orm used to describe the syntax of modern computer languages. 3ome belie e that these results came about through hit and trial . Infinite numbers were created through recursi e formulae.e mathematics was gi en considerable importance in the Vedic period. In any case. or fractional' area &such as a square'.xamples of quadratic equations also appear. as in the !nuyoga Cwara 3utra. in area. infinite e erywhere and perpetually infinite. others are accurate and re eal a certain degree of practical ingenuity as well as some theoretical understanding of basic geometric principles. possibly in the 5arappan period. (uddhist mathematics was classified either as +arna &3imple %athematics' or 3ankhyan &5igher %athematics'.the +reek mathematician and philosopher who li ed in the Fth 6 (.

Virtually e ery Indian state produced great mathematicians who wrote commentaries on the works of other mathematicians &who may ha e li ed and worked in a different part of India many centuries earlier'.ero &bindu' as an empty place holder in the place.ero. algebraic definitions of the . 8usumpura. Indian numerals de eloped into their modern form. Fth 6. the circumferance of the earth &FA@?A miles' and the length of the solar year &within about :? minutes of the modern calculation' were remarkably close approximations. and the inno ati e abstractions of the 3yada ada and (uddhist schools of learning. Panini$s studies in linguistic theory and formal language and the powerful role of symbolism and representational abstraction in art and architecture may ha e also pro ided an impetus. and it was the Indian notational system that reached the *estern world through the !rabs and has now been accepted as uni ersal.particularly knowledge of the tides and the stars was of great import to trading communities who crossed oceans or deserts at night. !ndhra ' recogni. almost e erything was in place to fa or such a de elopment. who in turn recei ed training at uni ersities such as at 8usumpura &(ihar' or P##ain &6entral India' or at smaller local colleges or +urukuls. 3e eral factors contributed to this de elopment whose significance is perhaps best stated by >rench mathematician. 13 . (ut in spite of such setbacks. (haskar I continued where !ryabhatta left off. (etween the 9th 6 and the ::th 6.!ryabhatta &born in D9F !C. !lthough scholars are di ided about how early the symbol for . these studies required still more ad anced mathematics and (haskar I expanded on the trigonometric equations pro ided by !ryabhatta. 8nowledge of astronomy . #he 1ndian +umeral System !lthough the 6hinese were also using a decimal based counting system. religion and astrology also played a role in creating an interest in astronomy and a negati e fallout of this irrational influence was the re#ection of scientific theories that were far ahead of their time. !lthough (haskar I &born 3aurashtra. 1n'luence o' #rade and Commerce. this in ention was no accident. In making such calculations. and in 6hina the pictorial script posed as a hindrance. 3anskrit ser ed as the common medium of scientific communication. and follower of the !smaka school of science. "he science of astronomy was also spurred by the need to ha e accurate calendars and a better understanding of climate and rainfall patterns for timely sowing and choice of crops. *hile the .ero is already implied in !ryabhatta' tangible e idence for the use of the . . emptiness or the oid may ha e facilitated in the introduction of the concept of . the 6hinese lacked a formal notational system that had the abstraction and elegance of the Indian notational system./ (rilliant as it was. 1mportance o' Astronomy "he growth of trade and commerce. !mongst his most important contributions was his formula for calculating the sine function which was BBU accurate. )ne of the greatest scientists of the +upta period . !gain.i. (ut in India. and philosophical and cosmological constructs encouraged a creati e and expansi e approach to number theory.e. (rahmagupta$s description of negati e numbers as debts and positi e numbers as fortunes points to a link between trade and mathematical study. "he idea seems so simple nowadays that its significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated.alue numeral system appears much earlier. !ryabhatta had a profound influence on the astronomers and mathematicians who followed him.ero and it$s relationship to mathematical functions appear in the mathematical treatises of (rahmagupta in the 9th 6 !C. and discussed in further detail topics such as the longitudes of the planetsE con#unctions of the planets with each other and with bright starsE risings and settings of the planetsE and the lunar crescent. "here was already a long and established history in the use of decimal numbers. particularly lending and borrowing demanded an understanding of both simple and compound interest which probably stimulated the interest in arithmetic and geometric series.aplace: /"he ingenious method of expressing e ery possible number using a set of ten symbols &each symbol ha ing a place alue and an absolute alue' emerged in India. and like !ryabhatta correctly assessed pi to be an irrational number. the cumbersome roman numeral system posed as a ma#or obstacle. &Ifrah arguing that the use of . 5e correctly posited the axial rotation of the earth.ed his genius and the tremendous alue of his scientific contributions. In the *estern world. "his is borne out by numerous references in the =ataka tales and se eral other folk-tales. and along with the symbols denoting arious mathematical functions &such as plus. !t the same time. minus.Philosophical formulations concerning 3hunya . 5is calculations on pi. and inferred correctly that the orbits of the planets were ellipses. as might ha e the rationalist doctrines and the exacting epistemology of the 7yaya 3utras. particularly on those from the !smaka school. square root etc' e entually became the foundation stones of modern mathematical notation. including problems in algebra &bee#-ganit' and trigonometry &trikonmiti'.amabad. "his also led to the exchange of texts on astronomy and mathematics amongst scholars and the transmission of knowledge from one part of India to another. some later astronomers continued to belie e in a static earth and re#ected his rational explanations of the eclipses. %athematics played a ital role in !ryabhatta$s re olutionary understanding of the solar system. It$s simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst useful in entions. (ihar' pro ided a systematic treatment of the position of the planets in space. "he young person who wished to embark on a commercial enture was ine itably required to first gain some grounding in astronomy.ero begins to proliferate towards the end of the +upta period. 5e also correctly deduced that the moon and the planets shined by reflected sunlight and pro ided a alid explanation for the solar and lunar eclipses re#ecting the superstitions and mythical belief systems surrounding the phenomenon. 7i.ero came to be used in numeric notation in India. 5e also did pioneering work on indeterminate equations and considered for the first time quadrilaterals with all the four sides unequal and none of the opposite sides parallel. !ryabhatta had to sol e se eral mathematical problems that had not been addressed before. "his led to a proliferation of teachers of astronomy.

Solutions to Practical Pro!lems Ce elopments also took place in applied mathematics such as in creation of trigonometric tables and measurement units. simple interest. Persia'. !l-8hwari.urope through a cycle of translations. purchase and sale. !ryabhatta$s equations were elaborated on by %an#ula &:1th 6' and (haskaracharya &:Ath 6' who deri ed the differential of the sine function.e.ila ati and (i#aganita and the 3iddhanta 3hiromani. including progressions with fractional numbers or terms. an ::th 6 3panish scholar and court historian was amongst the most enthusiastic in his praise of Indian ci ili. In the second part of this treatise.east 6ommon %ultiple &. (aghdad'. first isibilities of the planets. especially in 3pain. 5e also discussed astronomical instruments and spherical trigonometry. an astronomical text. P##ain' who compiled pre iously written texts on astronomy and made important additions to !ryabhatta$s trigonometric formulas. 5is 6hakrawaat method of sol ing indeterminate solutions preceded . e entually. and specially remarked on Indian achie ements in the sciences and in mathematics.ater mathematicians used their intuiti e understanding of integration in deri ing the areas of cur ed surfaces and the olumes enclosed by them. !l-8indi &Bth 6. and formulas for the sum of certain finite series are pro ided. (rahmagupta did important work in enumerating the basic principles of algebra. 8hi a'. or near instantaneous motion of the moon. 3yrian. Camascus. !l-(eruni &::th 6. )f particular interest are his trigonometric equations: sin&a Z b' T sin a cos b Z cos a sin bE sin&a . thought and insightN. and filling of cisterns.!nother important astronomerGmathematician was Varahamira &Fth 6. In the late Bth 6. born 8hi a. )f course. and Ibn-!l-3affar &::th 6. planetary mean motion. !bbasid scholar !l-+aheth wrote: / India is the source of knowledge. Ibn-3ina &! icenna'. tra elling from the !rab world to 3pain and 3icily.uropean solutions by se eral centuries.uler and . Ibn al-3amh &+ranada. and e entually penetrating all of . 5is work on solutions to quadratic indeterminate equations anticipated the work of . the seasons. ::th 6.cos a sin bE #he Spread o' 1ndian Mathematics "he study of mathematics appears to slow down after the onslaught of the Islamic in asions and the con ersion of colleges and uni ersities to madrasahs. wages. 6ordoba' were amongst the many who based their own scientific texts on translations of Indian treatises. !l-7asawi &8hurasan. Indian algebra and trigonometry reached . !rabic and Persian translations of +reek and . tatkalika gati to designate the infinitesimal. In the Bth 6. !l-Pqlidisi &:1th 6. 5e also deri ed formulae to calculate the area of an ellipse and a quadrilateral inscribed within a circle &something that had also been looked at by (rahmagupta' "he solution of indeterminate equations also drew considerable interest in the Bth century. (ut this was also the time when Indian mathematical texts were increasingly being translated into !rabic and Persian. and se eral mathematicians contributed approximations and solutions to different types of indeterminate equations. whose 8aranatilaka was translated by !l-(eruni into !rabic' and 3ripati of %aharashtra are amongst the prominent mathematicians of the century.e that certain types of quadratic equations could ha e two solutions. . 3aid !l-!ndalusi. %athematical in estigation continued into the :1th 6.6%' of gi en numbers. "he leading light of :Ath 6 Indian mathematics was (haskaracharya who came from a long-line of mathematicians and was head of the astronomical obser atory at P##ain. he also listed the algebraic properties of negati e numbers.ation. and in his 3iddhanta 3hiromani he postulated that the earth had a gra itational force. 5e left se eral important mathematical texts including the . Dmergence o' Calculus In the course of de eloping a precise mapping of the lunar eclipse. +reek and some 6hinese texts. ::th 6. Vi#ayanandi &of (enares. author of 8itab fi al-hisab al-hindi'. there are se eral chapters relating to the study of the sphere and it$s properties and applications to geography. In addition to listing the algebraic properties of . 3ome of these examples in ol ed fairly complicated solutions and his Patiganita is considered an ad anced mathematical work. !l-%aoudi &B0F !C' who tra elled in *estern India also wrote about the greatness of Indian science. !t the same time. 5e was the first to recogni. In the 9th century. and broached the fields of infinitesimal calculation and integration. 5is works on permutations and combinations complemented what had been pre iously achie ed by =ain mathematicians and pro ided a method of calculation of n6r that closely resembles the much more recent Pascal$s "riangle. !lthough !rab scholars relied on a ariety of sources including (abylonian. mixtures. !ryabhatta was obliged to introduce the concept of infinitesimals . <ecords of the Indian origin of many proofs. !l-<a. but the enormous contributions of Indian mathematics was generously acknowledged by se eral important !rabic and Persian scholars. author of "he book of 6hapters in Indian !rithmetic'.ero.b' T sin a cos b . 3ections of the book were also de oted to arithmetic and geometric progressions. concepts and formulations were obscured in the later centuries. (asra'. and express it in the form of a basic differential equation. the lunar crescent etc.urope. barter.mi &Bth 6. %aha iracharya & %ysore' wrote +anit 3aar 3angraha where he described the currently used method of calculating the . 3ridhara &probably (engal' pro ided mathematical formulae for a ariety of practical problems in ol ing ratios. -ati rsabha$s work "iloyapannatti &Fth 6' gi es arious units for measuring distances and time and also describes the system of infinite time measures.i &"eheran'. 3cholars such as Ibn "ariq and !l->a. Indian mathematical texts played a particularly important role. eccentric epicyclical model of the planets. died !fghanistan'. !l-Wayarawani &Bth 6.gyptian scientific texts became more readily a ailable in India #he Cerala School 14 . Applied Mathematics.i. rates of tra el.agrange. %aghreb.ari &@th 6. 3pain'.

Important disco eries by the 8erala mathematicians included the 7ewton-+auss interpolation formula. the relationship between geometry and architectural decoration was de eloped to it$s greatest heights by 6entral !sian. and mathematics that anticipated work by later .with these nine and with the sign 1 which in !rabic is sifr. %adha a &:Dth 6.ation' India also pro ided ital elements of the scientific foundation without which humanity could not ha e entered this modern age of science and high technology. 8ochi is only 91km from "hrissur &"richur' which was then the largest repository of astronomical documents. 8erala' pro ided detailed proofs of the theorems and deri ations of the rules contained in the works of %adha a and 7ilkantha. and a series notation for pi. a significant body of mathematical works were produced in the Indian subcontinent. go back to the earliest epoch of the /*estern/ scientific tradition.ations. "o do so is to distort history. "urkish..uropean mathematicians till at least two centuries later.uropeans. 6a alieri and *allis spent time'. and it is not inconcei able that =esuit monks may ha e also taken copies to Pisa &where +alileo. 7ilkantha &:0th 6. the formula for the sum of an infinite series. but in a tendency toward undermining or eliding the real contributions made by non-*estern ci ili./ Cr +ray goes on to list some of the most important de elopments in the history of mathematics that took place in India. when . easily and inconsequentially swept under the rug of .urope' is no mere footnote. %aha ira. <a#agopal. "he debt owed by the *est to other ci ili. #ransmission o' the 1ndian +umeral System : .e that the 8erala school had anticipated by almost ?11 years many . that of modern classical analysis. author of 6handasutra explored the relationship between combinatorics and musical theory anticipating %ersenne &:0@@-:FD@' author of a classic on musical theory. <angachari and =oseph considered his contributions instrumental in taking mathematics to the next stage.ation. 5istorians of mathematics. Persian. using both algebraic and geometric methods in de eloping his results. 6hitrabhanu &:Fth the contributions of luminaries such as !ryabhatta.urocentric bias. -et. any desired number can be written. 8erala' ga e integer solutions to twenty-one types of systems of two algebraic equations. (rahmagupta. a bias which most often manifests not in explicit racism. gopurams and corbelled temple ceilings'. 8ochi' made important mathematical disco eries that would not be identified by . idence for the transmission of the Indian 7umeral 3ystem to the *est is pro ided by =oseph &6rest of the Peacock':[ Wuotes 3e erus 3ebokht &FFA' in a 3yriac text describing the /subtle disco eries/ of Indian astronomers as being /more ingenious than those of the +reeks and the (abylonians/ and /their aluable methods of computation which surpass description/ and then goes on to mention the use of nine numerals. and to India in particular. the age of the classical +reeks.ations.uropean de elopments in the field. !rab and Indian architects in a ariety of monuments commissioned by the Islamic rulers.two . It is also notable that =yesthade a$s -uktibhasa which contained commentaries on 7ilkantha$s "antrasamgraha included elaborations on planetary theory later adopted by "ycho (rahe. and continued up until the dawn of the modern era. *hish and 5yne . and an important school of mathematics blossomed in 8erala. )f course. 7o other branch of science is complete without mathematics.urope was awakening from its dark ages. summari. "irur. +otesE #athematics and #usic$ Pingala &?rd 6 !C'. and to deny India one of its greatest contributions to world ci ili. [ Wuotes from . 7ot only did India pro ide the financial capital for the industrial re olution &see the essay on coloni. Mathematics and ArchitectureE Interest in arithmetic and geometric series may ha e also been stimulated by &and influenced' Indian architectural designs .iber abaci &(ook of the !bacus' by >ibonacci &::91-:A01': "he nine Indian numerals are . acted as an agent for the transmission of mathematical ideas'. (haskara and %aadha a. 6harles *hish &:@?0. published in the "ransactions of the <oyal !siatic 3ociety of +reat (ritain and Ireland' was one of the first *esterners to recogni. the renaissance.urope by =esuit priests such as %atteo <icci who spent two years in 8ochi &6ochin' after being ordained in +oa in :0@1.uropean mathematicians obtained their copies of works by the 8erala mathematicians from "hrissur. (ut as this essay amply demonstrates.ed by a certain ethnocentric bias. 1ndic Mathematics and the Scienti'ic "evolution /"he study of mathematics in the *est has long been characteri. 5e concludes by asserting that /the role played by India in the de elopment &of the scientific re olution in ./ Ce elopment of Philosophical "hought and 3cientific %ethod in !ncient india Philosophical Ce elopment from Ppanishadic "heism to 3cientific <ealism 5istory of the Physical 3ciences in India Indic #athematics India and the %cientific "evolution 15 .. &>ibonaci learnt about Indian numerals from his !rab teachers in 7orth !frica' 1n'luence o' the Cerala School: =oseph &6rest of the Peacock' suggests that Indian mathematical manuscripts may ha e been brought to .&as in temple shikaras. or Padau &where =ames +regory studied' or Paris &where %ersenne who was in touch with >ermat and Pascal. (enaras sur i ed as a center for mathematical study.!lthough it appears that original work in mathematics ceased in much of 7orthern India after the Islamic conquests. 8erala' extended and elaborated upon the results of %adha a while =yesthade a &:Fth 6. few modern compendiums on the history of mathematics ha e paid adequate attention to the often pioneering and re olutionary contributions of Indian mathematicians. "he science of mathematics played a pi otal role not only in the industrial re olution but in the scientific de elopments that ha e occurred since. 5is series expansion of the cos and sine functions anticipated 7ewton by almost three centuries.

in that they were often misattributed as .uropean mathematics is a product of historiographical bias &conscious or otherwise' in the selection and interpretation of facts./ &:B9@:?A?' It is now generally understood that the so-called /Pythagorean theorem/ was understood in ancient India. the age of the classical +reeks. who transmitted to . but has distorted the history of *estern mathematics as well. and to India in particular. which were actually introduced to .uropean mathematical traditions.ations are ignored. the theory that the +reeks were the source of +eometric algebra is untenable. !nd while the contributions of the +reeks to mathematics was quite significant. as =oseph argued. results in ignoring. 8nowledge of mathematics. where :1. 5owe er.ations. de aluing or distorting contributions arising outside . as 3abetai Pnguru has argued. and mathematics was thus one of the topics co ered in the brahmanas.urope was awakening from its dark ages. "his knowledge was further elaborated in the kalpa sutras. "his system of enumeration was not de eloped by the +reeks. e en distorted. "he debt owed by the *est to other ci ili. written centuries later. far exceeding their +reek contemporaries. and when their contributions were so great as to resist such treatment.alue system of enumeration. while the hypothesis that India was ha e been a source for +reek geometry./ argued that /the standard treatment of the history of non-.ed by a certain ethnocentric bias. the well-known theorem which was attributed to Pythagoras who li ed around 011 (6. whose largest unit of enumeration was the myriad &:1.ations were often ignored.uclid. but e en the place. to the +reeks.uclid$s +eometry. go back to the earliest epoch of the /*estern/ scientific tradition.ations. without which ad anced mathematical calculation is impossible. which. despite the fact that this numeral system is commonly called the !rabic numerals in . )n the other hand. 3e eral of these treat the topic of altar construction.uropean.uclid and the +reek mathematicians by at least a millennium. who lacking a system of enumeration were unable to de elop abstract mathematical 16 . "his tendency has not only led to the de aluation of non-*estern mathematical traditions. but an inadequate history as well. or. +reek.urocentrism in %athematics. shows that the thesis that +reece was the origin of geometric algebra was incorrect. that both seem to ha e de eloped geometry out of the practical problems in ol ing their construction of elaborate sacrificial altars. as a consequence. was necessary for the precise construction of the complex Vedic altars. but in a tendency toward undermining or eliding the real contributions made by non-*estern ci ili. +eorge +he arughese =oseph. there is the problem of accounting for the de elopment of mathematics purely within the *estern cultural framework.ero to represent numbers ranging from the most minuscule decimal to the most inconcei ably large power of ten. "his has led. the contributions of non-. and continued up until the dawn of the modern era. contributions./ &:B@9::D' Cue to the legacy of colonialism.urope o er a millennium later by the !rabs.. the tendency of some math historians to #ump from the +reeks to renaissance . despite the fact that the +reeks lacked not only mathematic notation. which is by no means a purely . &3ubbarayappa :B91:DB' . a text dated to circa F11 (6. in an important article entitled />oundations of . one of the Vedic texts predating . In so far as the contributions from non-*estern ci ili. considered inferior or irrele ant to *estern mathematical traditions. 6 Vedic Altars and the FPythagorean theoremF ! perfect example of this sort of misattribution in ol es the so-called Pythagorean theorem. the exploitation of which was ideologically #ustified through a doctrine of racial superiority. <ather. /for geometric algebra existed in India before the classical period in +reece.111' or in 6hina. transmitted ia the Persians who traded both with the +reeks and the Indians. the base ten system of calculation which uses nine numerals and . they were typically de alued. 7or was it de eloped by the !rabs.e. a bias which most often manifests not in explicit racism. i. 3uch ethnocentric re isionist history resulted in the attribution of more ad anced algebraic concepts. toward a tendency to read more ad anced mathematical concepts into the relati ely simplistic geometrical formulations of +reek mathematicians such as . &:B9@:?A?'. &3ee 3eidenberg :BFA and :B@?' * -ero and the Place Value System >ar more important to the de elopment of modern mathematics than either +reek or Indian geometry was the de elopment of the place alue system of enumeration. Cespite the scarcity of e idence backing this attribution. "he -a#ur eda 3amhitaa. "his awakening was in part made possible by the redisco ery of mathematics and other sciences and technologies through the medium of the !rabs. this system was in ented in India. "he oldest and most complete of these is the pre iously mentioned 3hul a 3utra of (audhaayana. where it e idently was of quite ancient origin.urope. !s this text was composed about a century before Pythagoras. in fact. it is not often questioned. the renaissance. and geometry in particular. and was in fact pro ed in (audhayana$s 3hul a 3utra.111 was also the largest unit of enumeration until recent times. in his :B9@ article.urope results not only in an ethnocentric history. looks increasingly plausible. when . perhaps due to the mantra-like frequency with which it is repeated. it is quite possible that both the +reeks and the Indians de eloped geometry.uropean de elopment..ater (uddhist and =ain authors extended this list as high as the fifty-third power.urope both their own lost heritage as well as the ad anced mathematical traditions formulated in India. 3eidenberg has argued.1 Math and Dthnocentrism "he study of mathematics in the *est has long been characteri. one which fails to take into account the full history of the de elopment of modern mathematics. which ga e more detailed instructions concerning Vedic ritual. lists names for each of the units of ten up to :1 to the twelfth power &paraardha'. where this system was first introduced by the !rabs in the thirteenth century. but which was first pro en in +reek sources in .uropean ci ili. 3eidenberg.

algebra. 91. trigonometry. "he mathematical part of the !ryabhatiya co ers arithmetic. or the +reeks and 6hinese &whose limit was ten thousand' and e en to our own system &where the names thousand. D1. who li ed roughly fourteen hundred years later. !aryabhat.urope until roughly one thousand years later. the 3anskrit numeral system contained the ery key to the disco ery of the place. A0. "hat is exactly what is required in order to gain a precise idea of the place. &Pingree :B@::09' In addition. se eral aspects of which make it a ery logical language. he thus went beyond geometry and contributed to the de elopment of trigonometry. &A111:DAB' !s Ifrah has shown at length. one only had to place the name indicating the order of units between the name of the order of units immediately immediately below it and the one immediately abo e it.e.ata. Ifrah has commented that (y gi ing each power of ten an indi idual name. who li ed circa the first century (6. @1. .. yarbuda'. when the . it should be of no surprise that it became extremely well known in India. the numeral .alue system.ero and the place. It reached . million etc. represented by figures such as al-8hwari.concepts.eibni. Probably the most celebrated Indian mathematicians belonging to this period was !aryabhat.. which has been definitely dated to %onday A0 !ugust D0@ 6.nglish.. &3ee 8ak p. . "o put it plainly. . "he oldest known text to use . pro iding distinct names where . i.urope in the twelfth century when !delard of (ath translated al-8hwari. Instead of naming the numbers in groups of three. plane trigonometry and spherical trigonometry. ?1. ?.. de eloped a system of binary enumeration con ertible to decimal numerals.alue numeral system de eloped in India &A111:?BB-D1B'. :11.alue system.. when he was only A? years old.uropean mathematical traditions. whence it influenced the de elopment of both !rabic and . lak3a. 01. >irst we look at the system for representing numbers which !ryabhata in ented and used in the !ryabhatiya. &Ifrah A111:D:9-: B' "his concept.a wrote his !aryabhatiya. &3ubbarayappa :B91:DB' (ut the . hundred thousand. reached the same conclusion. who was born in D9F 6. :F' "his awareness led to the astonishing suggestion that it is the . ?. It also contains continued fractions. !aryabhat. In other words.uropeans translated Indian influenced !rab mathematical texts. &3ee Van 7ooten' India is also the locus of another closely related an equally important mathematical disco ery. "he Indian numeral system and its place alue. and this system is embedded in the 3anskrit language. the Indians. D. 5e argued for the diurnal rotation of the earth. a text co ering both astronomy and mathematics. India achie ed its own scientific renaissance of sorts during its classical era. the rule being presented in a natural way and thus appearing self-explanatory. A.a. as the topics he co ered include geometry. "he higher numbers are denoted by these consonants followed by a owel to obtain :11. In DBB.. #udging by the large numbers of commentaries written upon it. where each power of ten is gi en a distinct name. 5e also de eloped methods of sol ing quadratic and indeterminate equations using fractions. 5e made this suggestion approximately one thousand years before 6opernicus. decimal system of enumeration came to the attention of the !rabs in the se enth or eighth century. quadratic equations. million. 7or did this system exhaust Indian ingenuityE as an 7ooten has shown./ &Ifrah A111:D:B' +i en the astounding range of ad anced mathematical concepts and techniques co ered in this fifth century text. sahasra' named as in .uropean <enaissance.mi. described in his 6handah. 5is system is quite similar to that of . ten million. but also ten thousand.:D:F. F1. hundred and thousand &da. . combined by the place.alue system. there is little doubt that our place.urope beginning in the thirteenth century. It was studied by the !rabs in the eighth century following their conquest of 3ind.. and ser ed as the basis for the well known ad ancement in !rab mathematics.alue system of enumeration. continue to act as auxillary bases'.a$s mathematics was far ranging..a.. . Pingala.a /in ented a unique method of recording numbers which required perfect understanding of .uropeans were at first resistant to this system. etc. expressed them taking the powers of ten and the names of the first nine units indi idually.ero.aastra. but their e entual adoption of this system led to the scientific re olution that began to sweep .uminaries of 6lassical Indian %athematics Arya!hata "he world did not ha e to wait for the . hundred million &ayuta.atin. which no doubt was of great use for his astronomical calculations. "he place alue system of enumeration is in fact built into the 3anskrit language. *ith regard to mathematics.uropeans to awake from their long intellectual slumber to see the de elopment of ad anced mathematical techniques. the text is notable for its for its awareness of the relati ity of motion. and translated into !rabic. . sums of power series and a table of sines. e idently independently. being attached to the far less logical roman numeral system. beginning roughly one thousand years before the .mi$s works into .nglish makes use of auxillary bases such as thousand. B1. *ith regard to the former.oka ibhaaga. "hus the 3anskrit system is ob iously superior to that of the !rabs &for whom the thousand was the limit'.arth that rotates the 3un. ! us examine some of these in a little more detail. four or eight orders of units. 5e calculated pi to four decimal places. as an alternate theory to the rotation of the fixed stars and sun around the earth &Pingree :B@:::@'. koti. and so forth up to the fifty-third power. became the basis for a classical era renaissance in Indian mathematics. rather than the cruder method of calculating chords de ised by the +reeks. In de eloping a way to calculate the sine of cur es. algebra. 7ot only are the units ten. a de elopment which did not occur in .ero is a =ain text entitled the .. well suited to scientific and mathematical reasoning. the 3anskrit system ga e no special importance to any number. one of !aryabhat. It consists of gi ing numerical alues to the ?? consonants of the Indian alphabet to represent :. :1111.a$s greatest contributions was the calculation of sine tables. from a ery early date. to express a gi en number. In fact the system allows numbers up to :1:@ to be represented with an alphabetical 17 .

:FAA in practice. but the formulas for the olumes of a sphere and of a pyramid are claimed to be wrong by most historians.tremely li=ely that Arya!hata =ne/ the sign 'or zero and the numerals o' the place value system #his supposition is !ased on the 'ollo/ing t/o 'actsE 'irst. incredibly he belie es that the orbits of the planets are ellipses. "his work is the first we are aware of which examines integer solutions to equations of the form by T ax Z c and by T ax . "here are reasons to belie e that !ryabhata de ised a particular method for finding this alue. Ifrah in I?J argues that !ryabhata was also familiar with numeral symbols and the place. (haskara who wrote a commentary on the !ryabhatiya about :11 years later wrote of !ryabhata:!ryabhata is the master who. 5e belie es that the %oon and planets shine by reflected sunlight. 7ow we ha e looked at the mathematics contained in the !ryabhatiya but this is an astronomy text so we should say a little regarding the astronomy which it contains. it is perhaps e en more surprising that !ryabhata does not use his accurate alue for p but prefers to use :1 T ?. nothing is as straightforward as it appears and .lfering &see for example I:?J' argues that this is not an error but rather the result of an incorrect translation. 5e also introduced the ersine & ersin T : . !ryabhata gi es a systematic treatment of the position of the planets in space. 5e ga e FA@?A miles as the circumference of the earth. )ther rules gi en by !ryabhata include that for summing the first n integers. "his relates to erses F.c. after reaching the furthest shores and plumbing the inmost depths of the sea of ultimate knowledge of mathematics. and se eral later Indian mathematicians and e en the !rabs adopted it. but excelled all his predecessors in e aluating p. the result is approximately the circumference of a circle of diameter twenty thousand. "hus the credit of disco ering this exact alue of p may be ascribed to the celebrated mathematician. !ryabhata does not explain how he found this accurate alue but.sin nx in terms of sin nx and sin &n-:'x. !ryabhata uses the kuttaka method to sol e problems of this type. "he word kuttaka means /to pul erise/ and the method consisted of breaking the problem down into new problems where the coefficients became smaller and smaller with each step. *ithout some supporting e idence that these technical terms ha e been used with these different meanings in other places it would still appear that !ryabhata did indeed gi e the incorrect formulas for these olumes. 9. In order to do this he used a formula for sin&nZ:'x . It is shown with sufficient grounds that !ryabhata himself used it.arth. 5e ga e a table of sines calculating the approximate alues at inter als of B1 GAD T ? D0$. the squares of these integers and also their cubes. in his translation . the invention o' his alpha!etical counting system /ould have !een impossi!le /ithout zero or the place&value systemG secondly.alue system. "his gi es p T FA@?AGA1111 T ?. >or example +anitanand in I:0J describes as /mathematical lapses/ the fact that !ryabhata gi es the incorrect formula V T !hGA for the olume of a pyramid with height h and triangular base of area !. 5is alue for the length of the year at ?F0 days F hours :A minutes ?1 seconds is an o erestimate since the true alue is less than ?F0 days F hours. for example. 5e writes in I?J:it is e. > <obertson 18 . !ryabhata gi es formulas for the areas of a triangle and of a circle which are correct. "he method here is essentially the use of the . !ryabhata I. 5owe er.arthG3un orbit as essentially their periods of rotation around the 3un. *e now look at the trigonometry contained in !ryabhata$s treatise. as is often the case. 5e correctly explains the causes of eclipses of the 3un and the %oon. "he problem arose from studying the problem in astronomy of determining the periods of the planets. he carries out calculations on sBuare and cu!ic roots /hich are impossi!le i' the num!ers in Buestion are not /ritten according to the place&value system and zero 7ext we look briefly at some algebra contained in the !ryabhatiya. 5e also appears to gi e an incorrect expression for the olume of a sphere. 5owe er. 5e wrote in the !ryabhatiya the following:!dd four to one hundred. b. 5owe er. (y this rule the relation of the circumference to diameter is gi en. in IBJ (ruins shows that this result cannot be obtained from the doubling of the number of sides. c are integers.notation.:D:F which is a surprisingly accurate alue.lfering produces a translation which yields the correct answer for both the olume of a pyramid and for a sphere. !ryabhata ga e an accurate approximation for p. which is an excellent approximation.uclidean algorithm to find the highest common factor of a and b but is also related to continued fractions. !hmad I0J considers this alue as an approximation to half the perimeter of a regular polygon of A0F sides inscribed in the unit circle. kinematics and spherics. and :1 of the second section of the !ryabhatiya and in I:?J . 5e had the Indian background.lfering translates two technical terms in a different way to the meaning which they usually ha e. In fact p T ?.cosine' into trigonometry. !nother interesting paper discussing this accurate alue of p by !ryabhata is IAAJ where =ha writes:!ryabhata I$s alue of p is a ery close approximation to the modern alue and the most accurate among those of the ancients. handed o er the three sciences to the learned world. !rticle by: = = )$6onnor and . If obtaining a alue this accurate is surprising. no doubt. "his is a quite remarkable iew of the nature of the solar system which later commentators could not bring themsel es to follow and most changed the text to sa e !ryabhata from what they thought were stupid errorsQ !ryabhata gi es the radius of the planetary orbits in terms of the radius of the .:D:0BAF0 correct to @ places. multiply by eight and then add sixty-two thousand. !ryabhata disco ered this alue independently and also realised that p is an irrational number. where a. 5e belie ed that the apparent rotation of the hea ens was due to the axial rotation of the . "he Indian belief up to that time was that eclipses were caused by a demon called <ahu. "he con#ecture that !ryabhata$s alue of p is of +reek origin is critically examined and is found to be without foundation.

urope and. square-roots. irrational numbers. "o do so is to distort history. including those in ol ing multiple unknowns.urope. assimilated and accepted the place. &Pingree :B@:. did . which became the standard algebra textbook in 3anskrit. "he classical Indian mathematical renaissance was an important precursor to the .ero. "his text was translated into !rabic in the eighth century.urope was based upon the disco ery of !rab mathematical texts. :DDD-:0D0'. Primarily an astronomer. he composed a four-part text entitled the 3iddhanta Riromani. &Pingree :B@::DB1' "his is by no means a complete list of influential Indian mathematicians or Indian contributions to mathematics.urocentric bias. but rather a sur ey of the highlights of what is.%rahmagupta (orn in 0B@ 6. unbiased standard.t. &Pingree :B@::F1' %haas=ara (haaskara was one of the many outstanding mathematicians hailing from 3outh India. written in FA@ 6.akaara' method of sol ing indeterminate equations with continued fractions. while in renaissance . FD' In short. and to ignore this fact is to fail to grasp the history of latter. de eloping the world$s first consistent system of trigonometry. (rahmagupta founded an influential school of mathematics which ri aled !aryabhat. as well as the so-called /Pell$s equation & argaprakr. as >rits 3taal has suggested in his important &:BB0' article.urope$s take o er thousand years to attain the le el of abstract mathematics achie ed by Indians such as !aryabhatta4 "he answer appears to be that . It treats at length the /pul eri. p. as well as problems relating to the casting of shadows. *hy. cosine and arctangent of the circle. 5e also wrote on the solution to numerous kinds of linear and quadratic equations. who wrote on a wide range of mathematical topics. later. &3ee 8ak &kut. 5is best known work is the (rahmasphuta 3iddhanta. who li ed in 3angamagraama in 8erala. in 8arnataka. "he role played by India in the de elopment is no mere footnote. the uni ersity scholars. these groups included certain brahmins as well as the (uddhist and =ain monks. 5e also wrote on plane and solid geometry. in <a#astan in *estern India. #udged by any fair. and thus the opportunity to dedicate themsel es to intellectual pursuits. easily and inconsequentially swept under the rug of . one might ask. important both for its own internal elegance as well as its influence on the history of . he made history in mathematics with his writings on trigonometry. "hese include the mathematics of . profound similarities between the social contexts of classical India and renaissance . (orn in :::D 6. "he best known member of this school %aadha a &c. important re olutions in scientific thought occurred in complex. It was not until they had. squares. cube-roots. and to deny India one of it$s greatest contributions to world ci ili. In both cases.. cubes.uropean renaissance. It contains descriptions of ad anced mathematical techniques in ol ing both positi e and negati e integers as well as . /"he 3anskrit of 3cience/. hierarchical societies in which certain elite groups were granted freedom from manual labor. recei ed. deri ing its inspiration from a ariety of cultural roots. 5e calculated the sine. "his de elopment thus triggered the scientific and information technology re olutions which swept . and equations in ol ing the product of different unknowns. an illustrious tradition.uropean mathematical traditions.urope they included both the monks as well as their secular deri ati es. "here are in fact. although it would be better to term this a redisco ery.a$s. which were in turn highly influenced by these Indian traditions. and the series extending beyond these. and became ery influential in !rab mathematics.ita.ation. his memory. since much of the <enaissance ad ances of mathematics in . In the case of classical India. the world.urope.ero. Included in this compilation is the (ii#agan. he wrote a highly sophisticated mathematical text that proceeded by se eral centuries the de elopment of such techniques in .uropeans were trapped in the relati ely simplistic and concrete geometrical mathematics de eloped by the +reeks. Maadhava "he 8erala region of 3outh India was home to a ery important school of mathematics. a history which was truly multicultural. ia the !rabs. in which he de eloped a solution for a certain type of second order indeterminate equation. 19 . :F' Mahavira %ahaa iira was a =ain mathematician who li ed in the ninth century.alue system of enumeration de eloped in India that they were able to free their minds from the concrete and de elop more abstract systems of thought.ti' dealing with indeterminate equations of the second degree. &3ee 5ayashi :BB9:9@D-9@F' 5e also correctly calculated the alue of p to ele en decimal places.

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