Ancient India's Contribution to Astronomy In India I found a race of mortals living upon the Earth, but not adhering

to it. Inhabiting cities, but not being fixed to them, possessing everything but possessed by nothing. — Apollonius Tyanaeus, Greek thinker and traveller, 1st Century AD Astronomy is one area which has fascinated all mankind from the beginnings of history. In India the first references to astronomy are to be found in the Rig Veda which is dated around 2000 B.C. Vedic Aryans in fact deified the Sun, Stars and Comets. Astronomy was then interwoven with astrology and since ancient times Indians have involved the planets (called Grahas) with the determination of human fortunes. The planets Shani, i.e. Saturn, and Mangal i.e. Mars, were considered inauspicious. In the working out of horoscopes (called Janmakundali), the position of the Navagrahas, nine planets plus Rahu and Ketu (mythical demons, evil forces) was considered. The Janmakundali was a complex mixture of science and dogma. But the concept was born out of astronomical observations and perception based on astronomical phenomenon. In ancient times personalities like Aryabhatta and Varahamihira were associated with Indian astronomy. It would be surprising for us to know today that this science had advanced to such an extent in ancient India that ancient Indian astronomers had recognized that stars are same as the sun, that the sun is the centre of the universe (solar system) and that the circumference of the earth is 5000 Yojanas. One Yojan being 7.2 km, the ancient Indian estimates came close to the actual figure. The Calculation of Eclipses and the Earth's Circumference In Indian languages, the science of Astronomy is today called Khagola-shastra. The word Khagola perhaps is derived from the famous astronomical observatory at the University of Nalanda which was called Khagola. It was at Khagola that the famous 5th century Indian astronomer Aryabhatta studied and extended the subject. Aryabhatta is said to have been born in 476 A.D. at a town called Ashmaka in today's Indian state of Kerala. When he was still a young boy he had been sent to the University of Nalanda to study astronomy. He made significant contributions to the field of astronomy. He also propounded the Heliocentric theory of gravitation, thus predating Copernicus by almost one thousand years. Aryabhatta's Magnum Opus, the Aryabhattiya was translated into Latin in the 13th century. Through this translation, European mathematicians got to know methods for calculating the areas of triangles, volumes of spheres as well as square and cube root. Aryabhatta's ideas about eclipses and the sun being the source of moonlight may not have caused much of an impression on European astronomers as by then they had come to know of these facts through the observations of Copernicus and Galileo. But considering that Aryabhatta discovered these facts 1500 years ago, and 1000 years before Copernicus and Galileo, makes him a pioneer in this area too. Aryabhatta's methods of astronomical calculations expounded in his Aryabhatta-

Another Indian astronomer. This apart. It was also recognised that this force is a attracing force. as also determining the positions which heavenly bodies occupy. Suryaha. Describing the night sky as full of suns. Aryabhatta was the first one to have propounded this theory in the 5th century. A yojan is around 7.2 km. Suryaha. was recognised. About a hundred years before Brahmagupta. Thus the concept of the existence of some tractive force that governs the falling of objects to the earth and their remaining stationary after having once fallen. Though it should be admitted that with their unaided observations with crude instruments. ''to be attracted by the Master". In other words. Among the Aryans the sun was deified. though the nearest one. Thus the fact that the character of this force was of attraction was also recognised. just as it is in the nature of water to flow”.000 km as the earth's circumference comes quite close to the actual circumference known today. The sun (Surya) was one of the . the astronomers in ancient India were able to arrive at near perfect measurement of astronomical movements and predict eclipses. The term Guru-tva-akarshan can be interpreted to mean. it was recognised that the sun is also a star. This verse means that there are suns in all directions. it indicates that in ancient times Indian astronomers had arrived at the important discovery that the stars visible at night are similar to the Sun visible during daytime. Heliocentric Theory of Gravitation There is an old Sanskrit sloka (couplet) which is as follows: Sarva Dishanaam. Akarshan means to be attracted.siddhanta were reliable for practical purposes of fixing the Panchanga (Hindu calendar). Thus in ancient India. This apart. a thousand suns take its place. Varahamihira had claimed for the first time perhaps that there should be a force which might be keeping bodies stuck to the earth. many Indian astronomers had formulated ideas about gravity and gravitation. The Sanskrit term for gravity is Gurutvakarshan which is an amalgam of Guru-tva-akarshan. it seems that the function of attracting heavenly bodies was attributed to the sun. and also keeping heavenly bodies in their determined places. eclipses were also forecast and their true nature was perceived at least by the astronomers. The lack of a telescope hindered further advancement of ancient Indian astronomy. Brahmagupta estimated in the 7th century that the circumference of the earth was 5000 yojanas. Calculating on this basis we see that the estimate of 36. This understanding is demonstrated in another sloka which says that when one sun sinks below the horizon. Brahmagupta. The sun was recognised by all ancient people to be the source of light and warmth. Indian astronomers also propounded the theory that the earth was a sphere. in the 7th century had said about gravity that “Bodies fall towards the earth as it is in the nature of the earth to attract bodies. another astronomer. Suryaha.

Ebenezer Burgess) Thus we can see that what ancient Indian astronomers say comes close to the heliocentric theory of gravitation. made close approaches to the concept of Heliocentrism.) by Greek astronomers. He is also referred to as "The supreme source of light (Jyoti) upon the border of darkness . Thus the heliocentric idea could have existed in a rudimentary form in the days of the Rig Veda and was refined further by astronomers of a later age.he revolves. lndian Astronomers like Aryabhatta and Varahamihira who lived between 476 and 587 A..D. He was recognised as the source of light (Dinkara). Bhaskaracharya has also made references to it in his Magnum Opus SiddhantaShiromani. the creator of creatures". around 500 B. is that in Vedic literature the Sun is referred to as the 'centre of spheres' along with the term Guru-tva-akarshan which seemingly refers to the sun.chief deities in the Vedas. source of warmth (Bhaskara). While the male gender is applied to refer to the sun.D. (Quoted from the Surya-Siddhanta. etc.. The Surya-Siddhanta also says that "Bestowing upon him the scriptures (Vedas) as gifts and establishing him within the egg as grandfather of all worlds. THE APPEARANCE OF THE CONSTELLATIONS Despite the fact that the zodiac is not a material object. the following appellations have been given to the sun.e. to 1000 B. The last statement is suggestive of the sun being recognised as the centre of the universe (solar system). the earth (Prithivi.) is generally referred to as a female.C. Aryabhata has suggested it in his treatise Aryabhattiya. Bhoomi. But it has to be conceded that the heliocentric theory of gravitation was also developed in ancient times (i. the centre of creation and the centre of the spheres. "He is denominated the golden wombed (Hiranyagarbha). What supports the contention that it could have existed in India before the Greek astronomers developed it. an astronomical text dated around 400 A. he himself then revolves causing existence".C. The idea that the sun was looked upon as the power that attracts heavenly bodies is supported by the virile terms like Raghupati and Aditya used in referring to the sun. The Vedas are dated around 3000 B. the blessed. bringing beings into being. Many ancient Indian astron-omers have also referred to the concept of heliocentrism. as being the generator". In the Vedas he is also referred to as the source of all life. And it is always interesting to discover among the stars one‟s own . as the term Guru corresponds with the male gender. Translated by Rev. which was a thousand years later articulated by Copernicus and Galileo inviting severe reactions from the clergy in Rome. hence it could not have referred to the earth which was always referred to as a female. it is stiff related to a band around the sky.C. The literal meaning of the term Gurut-vakarshan also supports the recognition of the heliocentric theory. In the Surya-Siddhanta.

however.west after sunset is usually Venus.eighth centtlry B. does not always follow exactly the same path. but two months later he is much dimmer and not so obviously red. it is seen for a week or two in the west at dusk and then is lost in -the sunset glow. when very close to the Sun. and this means that she passes sometimes below and sometimes above the brightstars in the zodiac.particular sign. The zodiac is an idea in the mind of the human race. and not a material object. The most convenient marker for following the course of the zodiac is the Moon. and sometimes Jupiter. the Bull. these pronouns are less . so he too can only be seen at dusk and dawn. and perfectly straight. or else. she can be over 5 degrees north or south of the central line. but unlike Jupiter and Venus is not more bright than a first magnitudede star.) it was in Leo. The central line of the zodiac is called the Ecliptic. And just occasionally she passes clean over one of them. The Moon. as the picture shows. as on the night of 16th November 1959. vary in brightness from time to time. so the full Moon at the summer solstice marks the place where the Sun will be at the winter solstice. yet it is related to a band around the sky. with a few neighbouring stars to help identification. four diagrams are included here showing the actual constellations of the zodiac. Then it is in conjunction with the Stm and cannot be seen. so she is always either the evening star or the morning star. when she passed clean over and hid the star Aldebaran. where the Stm is on the longest day. 0. Mercury is almost always invisible.C. This line is exactly the same every year. Its most northerly point is the summer solstice. (Just for grammatical convenience the planets are sometimes spoken of as „he‟ and „she‟. but in AD. just like the full Moon. passes slowly across the sky from east to west. because his maximum distance from the Sun is only 28 degrees. Saturn first appears in the east one day before sunrise. The four diagrams included in this article depict the actual constellation of the zoaiac. according to the angle at which we see them. and the celestial equator. invisible altogether. taking just under 3651/4 days to complete the circle. she is right opposite the Sun. A sign of the zodiac looks quite different with a planet in it. and is the line along which the Sun passes. and when the earliest pyramid was built (King Zoser‟s step pyramid at Saqqarah. Planets. And since it is always interesting to discover among the stars one‟s own particular sign. and vice versa. Cancer (diagraml). except in clear climates with no street lighting. Mars in the south at midnight is very bright and red because he is opposite the Sun and therefore fully illuminated. it fell in Gemini. Like Jupiter and Mars. A brilliant planet in the west or south. in the twenty. and when full. rising roughly four minutes earlier every day until. and this falls at present in the constellations of the twins. after over a year. which is the great red eye of Taurus. like the Moon. and as the months go by. Saturn is white. at the spot marked on (Diagram 2). for the planet is usually brighter than any of its stars. and the celestial equator. Venus can never be more than 48 degrees from the Sun.

C. and it was expressly devised to consist of twelve equal divisions. The next most famous constellation is Orion. under the feet of Taurus and Gemini. To find a particular constellation. so it makes a useful reference point. but it stands a good way north of the zodiac and the only sign of the twelve which can be found from it is Leo. This can best be done at midnight in March. But because the stars are not distributed evenly in the sky some groups do look bigger than others.) The twelve constellations of the zodiac take their him to be visible after sunset in the east and at midnight in the south. the noticeable part of Aries consists of only three stars. for instance. Regulus (the Lion‟s Heart or the Little King) in 50 of Loe. Antares (the Scorpion‟s Heart) in 150 Scorpio. Aries for instance. they are mistaken. as a calendar. with no bright stars at all. or two hours earlier in the night for each month later in the year. holds this position in October. looks small and dim. The brightest stars in the zodiac are those from which it was originally measured. But a constellation cannot be seen at all when it holds the Sun. or for Taurus in May and June. while Pisces. This is one of the brightest areas of the sky. The best known of all constellations is the Wain. Sirius and Procyon to the left of him. and Spica (the Ear of Corn in the Virgin‟s hand) in 290 Virgo. but this happens at that time of year when the Sun is in the opposite sign. however. compared to some of the others. seventeenth and sixteenth in brightness. and hence unequal divisions between the constellations grew up later. for of the twenty brightest stars no less than seven are here Betelgeuse and Rigel in Orion. It lies across the equator and a little way south of the zodiac. the 30 degree divisions are marked by the signs 00 I. one must of course start from some bright and obvious group. 00 8 and so on. But these are not the same divisions as astronomers use. stretches quite a long way. so it is not surprising that two stars which are now classified in Leo (Epsilon and Mu) fell originally in Cancer. Taurus in November. no disadvantage in being born under a constellation which. in brightness. And just after the Sun has passed through it. each 30 degrees long. in sentences where more than one planet is mentioned. But the zodiac originated in the first millennium B.ambiguous than „it‟. indeed it is sometimes stated in books that some are bigger than others. On Diagrams 1-4. your constellation is only visible in the early morning. and Canella overhanging the others from the north. and that two or three which are now put in Pisces (especially Alpha and Eta) overlap into Aries. and this may mean waiting until a suitable time of year. Pollux in Gemini. of all the stars in the . or by passing through Arcturus. twentieth. These are respectively the fourteenth. off course. So if astrologers say that the constellations are unequal. Gemini in December and so on all the way round. which is what counts for purposes of being born under them. There is. The constellations vary. Aldebaran in Taurus. so it is useless to look for Aries in April and May. they were of equal length. In the original form. namely Aldebaran (the Bull‟s Eye) in 150 of Taurus. and also appear to vary in size. Plough or Big Dipper. Virgo.

the Ram. or Rijl. His sword. in Auriga) and Orion‟s head. which is the small triangle of stars between and above them. and Sirius rose just in time to announce the annual inundation of the Nile. over the head of Aries. which mark respectively its eye. Their names are Hamal (an Arabic word for sheep). The Hyades follow. and Bellatrix means „female warrior‟. Sharatain („the two marks‟). the brightest of all. the larger and redder. and Mesartim. containing the famous nebula.the left side. Yet the name is plainly not derived from the shape. of great importance in Babylon because it represented the Tablet on which the gods inscribed the fates of men. And in any case the Babylonian bull was smaller than ours. They form a V of five stars. but it has two obvious features. was not originally used. and their shape is better seen from the diagram than described. which is Arabic for „foot‟. because like the other brightest stars it lies outside the zodiac. E1 Nath and Al Hecka. It is most easily found either from Taurus to the left of it or. but our small constellation Triangulum. nor indeed anything else. which was brighter then. and the brighter of his two feet is called Rigel. and the Babylonian Plough. The only noticeable part of it is the three stars of the head. Taurus (Diagram 1) does not much resemble a bull. otherwise the earliest babylonian zodiac could not have contained eighteen signs instead of twelve. Aries rises at sunset at the end of October and reaches the south at midnight in the same period. drawn by an ox. Aries. the Pleiades and Hyades. so the effect is slightly foggy. is a very useful reference point. they extend quite a long way to the north. if Taurus has not yet risen. nor was Castor. three equal stars in a straight line. 8 degrees to the left. though there are dozens of others. for the ploughing season in Babylon was marked by the Moon being full in this constellation. Only the forepart of the Bull is shown on star atlases. The Pleiades is a large but tight cluster of little stars of which only six are clearly distinguishable to most people. Pollux. Of the two bright stars in the upper part of Orion. And Sirius. which comes fifteenth in some of which are double. The pleiades represented a tuft of hair on the shoulder which most bulls do not have. means „shoulder of the giant‟. from the great square of Pegasus on its other side. is not a conspicuous constellation (Diagram 4). was not the Wain. His belt. but then they did not at that date use the zodiac. indeed it was the fixed point of their whole calendar. . and lie between Capella (the fifth brightest star. There are two other fairly bright stars (though not of the first magnitude) on the tips of the horns. nostril and mouth. the hind part is omitted to leave room for Aries. and has been ever since Greek times.east. The ancient Egyptians used Sirius. was not used either. also called the Forecaster. hangs below it on . Doubtless this is because the triangle of the Hyades could be compared to the Bull‟s face with the horns rising up as far as E1 nath and Al hecka. and the upper one on the left is a large red one called Aldebaran. so they mark his shoulders and not his face. betelgeuze..

is Regulus (Latin for „Little king‟). the Lion (Diagram 2). Its principal feature is the two Asses eating out of the Manager. The feet extend southward towards Orion‟s shoulders. called the North and South Aselli. and its astronomical name is Praesepe or M44. especially in regions where there is much industrial smoke. but if this is his heart there is not much room for his paws to extend forwards without overlapping Cancer. but the Manger has also been called the Beehive. There are fewer stars in the hind quarters. Indeed they were probably of equal brightness so recently as the sixteenth Century. It is a large cluster of dim stars. are obliquely above and below it. The babylonians called it the Great Dog.Gemini. or perhaps rather the upper curve of his rump. Virgo lies on the equator. the Crab. and the brightest star in the feet is called Alhena. But Pollux now seems brighter. is a large and conspicuous constellation. but the shape of her stars does not really suggest anything in particular. was one of the original measuring-points of the whole zodiac. Cancer. The forepart is called the Sickle of Leo. also it is not far from the other obvious groups of Gemini and orion. The place of the autumn equinox is beside her head. is either the tip or the root of his tail (from the Arabic dhanab. and under it. is the smallest and most inconspicuous constellation in the zodiac. on a slightly lower are. it consisted originally of only two stars. and bears a vague resemblance to a couchant animal. and Castor is not quite classified as a firstmagnitude star. Leo is not difficult to identify because it has a definite shape and rises high in the sky. or Castor would not have been given the letter Alpha and Pollux Beta. in the position of the full stop. so it is probably not Babylonian in origin. the Ear of Corn. in fact only two of note. and Denebola. was known in the Middle Ages as the Lion‟s heart (Cor Leonis). but it lies towards the left-hand end of the constellation and about 11 degrees south of the euqtor. Zosma (Greek for „girdle‟) marks his waist. which is her brightest star. and the Asses. the Twins. Spica. with an extra star (Propus) sticking out at the upper right. so in northern latitudes it is often not very conspicuous. and was known to the ancient Egyptians as the Knife -a curved knife. but Egyptian. It can most easily be found from Arturus: the handle of the .hand comer. It has the shape of a reversed question mark. The constellation as a whole now forms an oblong. which was close to the Sun in the horoscopes of napoleon and Alexander the Great. meaning „tail‟). so she rises due east and sets due west. which were very bright and of equal magnitude. This star. Leo. is one of the very few constellations which owes its name to its shape. But there seems no reason to suppose that people born under Cancer are more asinine than others.

it only rises 12 degrees above the horizon at New York. an called Kaus on the diagram. The upper two are brighter and are called Akrab (Arabic for „scorpion‟) and Dschubba. is roughly diamond-shaped. It lies close in front of Scorpio. the Archer. and not making any particular pattern except the three of the Bow. at the foot of a constellation shaped like a large capital P. These are the Scorpion‟s head. and one comes to Spica -unless one hits the horizon first. The constellations north of Libra. but they are not very bright. Antares has a star fairly close on either side of it. Continue the same curve almost exactly the same distance beyond Arcturus. a big red star which is one of the original markers of the zodiac. or if one prefers the Arabic names Zuben-esh-shamali and Zuben-elgenubi respectively. and are called the North and South Scale. From Libra to Aquarius the zodiac lies south of the equator. so in Europe and North America the only months to look for it are May. The name is Greek for „rival of Mars‟. has quite a number of stars. Scorpio (Diagram 3) contains Antares. because it is near the Scorpion. But ahead of these (to the right) come three on a slightly larger curve set vertically. Libra. or Kiffa Borealis and Kiffa Australis. indeed the Greeks identified it with the Scorpion‟s claws. they spend less time above the horizon. none outstanding. Gamma (the left-hand one) is Zuben-el-hakrabi. and has therefore four principal stars. Sagittarius. or else Isidis and Graffias. The brighter two of its stars represent the two pans of the Scales. (Perhaps astrologers will now suggest that Scorpionians born in Scotland are milder than those of other countries!) Antares comes only 11 degrees higher. set on a slight curve and roughly horizontal. The southernmost of the Bow . Scorpio and Sagittarius are not very distinguished.Big Dipper is curved. with Al nas1 as the point of the Arrow. The Scorpion‟s tail has a certain resemblance to the real thing. which is the seventh brightest star. and if one prolongs this curve to nearly three times its own length one comes to Arcturus. so in the northern hemisphere the constellations do not rise so high and are more difficult to find. June and July. Blue since the sting now lies 37 degrees south of the equator. so the trio can be identified easily because Antares is large and red. so it is easiest to find these three from each other. the balance. 2 degrees at the latitude of London and in Scotland is never seen at all. it is a long hook extending to the soluh-east.

is a forked constellation. The right-hand one of these four is called Sadalmelik (the Lucky One of the King). „the goat‟. It is always above the horizon when the great processional cross of Cygnus is high in the sky. according to astrological tradition. The descending line of stars at its left represents the water flowing out of the urn. the Water-bearer (Diagram 4). and in the first part of the night will be high in the south any time between July and October. Deneb algedi marks the fishy tail. with a double one cocked a little way up at the right-hand end. This is the head. and its name is spelt Giedi or Algedi. but it is most easily recognized by the four like four notes of music in its centre. but oddly enough neither of these two stars was fortunate to have in one‟s horoscope. to the right of it. Capricorn. Aquarius. It is quite a pretty constellation but has no very bright stars and and must be drawn rather than described. and the time to see the Archer is in June and July. Sadalsuud. from the Arabic al jady. the brightest object in all the northern sky. can be found quite easily from Altair (the Eagle). lies between Capricorn and the unmistakeble Great Square of Pegasus. with Deneb marking the Swan‟s tail. containing no very bright stars. and if this line is prolonged down to the left it leads to the head of Capricorn. the Sea-goat. Capricorn itself consists of a straight horizontal line of stars.(Epsilon Sagittarii or kaus Australis) is not visible north of Edinburgh. and Vega. the Fishes. Altair is easy to recognize because it lies midway between two smaller stars on a diagonal line. but very easy to find because the southern fish lies just underneath the Square of Pegasus and the northern fish is just to the left of it. means „luckiest of the lucky‟. They are tied together by two strings which meet below the forefoot of the Ram. The right-hand one of these four notes of music in its centre. Altair is the only first-magnitude star for quite a long way in any direction. The best way to find it is to the right of Capricorn or to the left of Scorpio. the bluish star in the Lyre close by it. directions and tied with a single zigzag string which connects their mouths. but they cannot be seen thus in the sky because the northern fish is in a vertical position and the southern fish horizontal SOLAR SYSTEM FACTS ABOUT PLANETS . or eye. there was a certain‟ danger of having one‟s head cut off! Pisces. In pictures they are often drawn swimming in opposite.

There is no water on its surface as it boils all away. It is very hot and dry. It contains nitrogen 78 percent. Its surface is almost like our Moon. Venus rotation is thought to be backward.6 billion years ago. the largest is twice as high as Mt. Mars. The Solar System is very large. The Sun. Venus. It is 108 million kilometres from the Sun. is closest to the Sun. It has one moon which revolves around it. It takes 58. is 4 1/2 billion years old. and several thousand asteroids (very small planets) and a large number of comets (heavenly bodies with a shining tail) it its great field of gravity (force by which bodies are attracted towards it). It has a thin atmosphere which consist of carbon dioxide and traces of oxygen. shines by reflecting sunlight. at its farthest. Saturn. These bodies move in orbits (path in which moving around another) at such a speed that the Sun‟s pull of gravity is exactly balanced by the outward push of their motion.small pieces of rock of unknown origin which move rapidly through space with rattling noise. Mercury. Earth. being a star. It is surrounded by thick clouds of sulphuric acids and sulphur. It holds the nine planets and their moons. Every other body. It takes 243 earth-days to complete a rotation. Venus. Neptune and Pluto. 56 minutes and 4. Its boundary is believed to be the orbit of the planet Pluto which. It is 57.planets. Uranus.9 million kilometres from the Sun. move around the Sun. almost the same period of time as taken by the Earth. Mercury receives the largest amount of heat from it. Being nearest to the Sun. the third closest to the Sun.51 seconds or one year. Beyond Pluto is the interstellar space. is the only body in the Solar system which produces light and shines with it.. It revolves around the Sun every 687 earthdays. It has very large volcanoes of them.091 seconds to complete a rotation. is the brightest of all the planets. The Sun lies at the centre of the Solar System. Earth. the fourth closest to the Sun. 400 million kilometres from the Sun. One Mercury day (from sunrise to sunrise) is equivalent to 176 earth-days. Its sky is black. the hottest planet. is 228 million kilometres from the Sun. It revolves around the Sun every 88 earth. from the motion of the other planets. In has no atmosphere. asteroids etc. It revolves around the Sun every 365 days. Everest. Mars. oxygen 21 percent and other gases one percent. Jupiter. the second closest to the Sun. Its . is 7. It takes 23 hours. The Solar System also includes meteors and mateorites. It is reddish in colour. It is about 150 million kilometres from the Sun. Its surface is covered by 70 percent water and 30 percent land. It rotates once every 24 hours and 37 minutes. probably formed 4. It revolves around the Sun every 225 earth-days.The Solar System. The nine planets of the Solar System are Mercury.5 earth-days to complete a rotation. It is surrounded by atmosphere. 5 hours and 48 minutes and 45.days.

any talk of totalitarianism is a baseless misconception. It revolves around the Sun every 165 earthyears. It rotates once every 18 hours and 26 minutes. the seventh planet from the Sun. Its rotation is the fastest. It has 8 known moons (satellites). Saturn‟s largest Moon. Its atmosphere has hydrogen and helium. It rotates once every 101 hours 14 minutes. methane and nitrogen. It is 5 billion 913 million kilometres from the Sun. The Objects of the State: The object of the State is to look after the welfare of its citizens. the ninth planet from the Sun. It has two moons (satellites) called Phobos and Deimos. the sixth planet from the Sun. A man exists for himself and himself alone. It seems to be a huge ball of gas. is the smallest and coldest planet of the Solar System. and to any other causes are. It has only 1 known moon (satellite). Uranus. It has 15 known moons (satellites). to the cause of humanity. It has 16 known moons (satellites). as a whole. It revolves around the Sun every 248. consists of methane gas. Its atmosphere has hydrogen. It possesses seven rings that make it unique in the Solar System. It is believed that Uranus is a frozen world. State: State is an organisation of a group of individuals for helping each other in the goal of individual evolution. It is not enough if the State confines itself merely to restrict the use of force and allow every man to do whatever he likes. Its atmosphere . It is 4 billion 497 million kilometres from the Sun. It is about 1 billion 427 million kilometres from the Sun . voluntarily or involuntarily directed towards his own ends either material or spiritual. his country. the fifth closest to the Sun. helium. It has a thin ring around it consisting of fine dust particles. is 2 billion 8666 million 1 kilometres from the Sun. So. It revolves around the Sun every 12 earth-years. This is an archaic and suicidal notion because . Its atmosphere consists of about 84 percent hydrogen and 15 percent helium. is the largest planet of our Solar System.clouds are pink. Titan. is the second largest planet of our Solar System. It rotates once every 17 hours. It is 778 million kilometres from the Sun. Saturn. 50 minutes and 30 seconds. Jupiter. and in that endeavour they realise the evolution of the State also. So. It rotates once every 6 earth-days. We exist as individuals so long as we live in this earthly body. Neptune. blue and white in colour. It rotates once every 9 hours. It has 11 rings which surround it.It revolves around the Sun every 1291/2 earth.54 earth-years. is the fourth largest planet.years. All his services for near and dear. Pluto. It has 23 known moons (satellites). the eighth planet from the Sun. It revolves around the Sun every 84 years. a man is essentially selfish and it is this natural quality that propels him towards evolution. It has to provide proper scope for them to evolve without being hampered by others. is about as big as planet Mercury.

but now. These are the fields where unqualified and absolute equality prevails. It is a „topsi turvi‟ procedure. and so. Allowing and in most cases almost tempting the man to commit a crime and then trying (In this feature. equality means an invitation for the crooked imposters to unleash their . So. It is the mother of aggression. The area between the commission of an offence and detection is very vast and every undetected criminal is a positive source of danger to an honest citizen. but not when the case is vice versa. brute force and guile. injustice. So also is the dictum that every man is free to do what he likes provided he does not interfere with the equal rights of others. These two notions encouraged aggression and unbridled exploitation. To say they are equal is to pull one down and push other up. Under its garb two dangerous theories are advocated. So also the notion of free competition is dangerous. The aggressor and the crooked succeed at the cost of the milder and the honest innocent. we would give Neeti Sutras in the modern context) PORSHARDHAH & POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY To catch him with meagre possiblities is an approach from the wrong end. Is it not foolish to keep your doors open and then complain when the theft is committed.. It is common to all and in this respect he is equal to any other and all put together. In those days when there was plenty. It is another name for exploitation. All men are on various rungs of evolution and so unequal.1.1. Equals are to be treated equally. Everybody is free to do whatever he likes. the theory of equality and equal opportunity is a trap for the innocent and naive people. the milder were able to survive selecting for themselves the more streneous and less paying fields. There is no equality in other respects. which succeed in preference to honesty and wisdom. Thus. 3. This means that there can not be any partiality in evaluation. 2. All have equal opportunities to compete with each other. 2. To say equality consists in affording equal opportunity to all is a dangerous statement with calculated mischief embedded in it. Equality: This theory is beset with many basic misconceptions 1. It is unnatural. It pampers their vanity with dubious slogans and dupes them to meak submission of losing battles of unequal competition. It is partiality and opposed to the fundamental right to evolve. and judgement. their chances of survival are meagre as even those fields are occupied by the aggressors. There may be good guidelines when the populations were small and when the resources are vast. Those theories are based on misconceived notions of equality. especially where the chances of catching a criminal are meagre. 2. creator of waste and promoter of guile. Every body has fundamental and inalienable right to evolve. Crime begets a crime and begins rolling as a vicious circle till the whole atmosphere smells foul.

as a father to his children. Man does not live merely to eat. Evolution consists in delivering the world from the clutches of vile and guile and transforming it into a heaven of honest living with mutual co-operation. . It is the restriction of the worst order possible.mischief against the honest and the wise. All facist States are guilty of this tyranny. So State is an instrument to help its constituents to reach the goal of evolution. All these mistaken notions of equality and liberty make our living an unbearable drudgery inspite of industrial development and scientific advancement. It amounts to assuming the absolute control of the mental advancement of its citizens and limiting the freedom of thought. Controlling all aspects of human life to provide the basic necessities of life is also equally wrong and condemnable. So also vile and guile. Why should State try to control all violence? Because violence interferes with the proper development of desirable qualities which constitute evolution. Is it not a violation of the equality theory? The answer consists in raising a counter question. This is the attitude of the present day socialistic States. One may ask. why should State go to the extent of giving extra protection to the honest and the innocent. rendering every man his due and controlling all sorts of aggression and exploitation. It is also wrong to state that State guides and directs the evolution of its citizens. He eats to live and lives and carves out an evolution of his own.