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Vision 2030

Indian Institute of Spices Research

Post bag No. 1701, Marikunnu P.O., Calicut-673 012, Kerala, India.

Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut

Published by Director Indian Institute of Spices Research, P. B. No. 1701, Marikunnu (PO), Calicut 673 012, Kerala. Tel no.: 0495 2730294, 2731410 Fax: 0495 2731187 Gram: RESEARCH CALICUT E-mail: Website:

June 2011

Compiled and edited by Dr. V. A. Parthasarathy Dr. M. Anandaraj Dr. V. Srinivasan Dr. R. Dinesh Dr. K. Nirmal Babu

Printed at Printers Castle, Kochi - 682 016


Vision 2030

S.No. Page No.

Foreword .................................................................................................. v Preface ................................................................................................ vii

Preamble ........................................................................................... 1 Spices Scenario ................................................................................. 3 About IISR ...................................................................................... 10 Vision 2030 .................................................................................... 13 Harnessing Science .......................................................................... 14 Strategy and Framework .................................................................. 16 Epilogue .......................................................................................... 18 Annexure 1 ...................................................................................... 19


Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut


Vision 2030

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MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, KRISHI BHAVAN, NEW DELHI 110 114 Tel.: 23382629, 23386711 Fax: 91-11-23384773 E-mail:

The diverse challenges and constraints as growing population, increasing food, feed and fodder needs, natural source degradation, climate change, new parasites, slow growth in farm income and new global trade regulations demand a paradigm shift in formulating and implementing the agricultural research programmes. The emerging scenario necessitates the institutions of ICAR to have perspective vision which could be translated through proactive, novel and innovative research approach based on cutting edge science. In this endeavour, all of the institutions of ICAR, have revised and prepared respective Vision-2030 documents highlighting the issues and strategies relevant for the next twenty years. India has been traditionally recognized as a land of spices. The Western Ghats region is believed to be the centre of origin of many spices particularly, black pepper, cardamom and other zingiberaceous spices. There is now stiff international competition from other spice producing countries such as Vietnam (for black pepper), Guatemala (for cardamom) and China (for ginger) etc. that have emerged as strong contenders in spices production and export. The Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut is a premier institute under ICAR for spices research. The results of research conducted over the last 30 years have been crystallized to develop the future programmes. Vision 2030 focuses on this main point of increasing production of low cost and secondary agriculture to make the spice production lucrative. The Institute through technological intervention aims to increase productivity, quality, exports and income of farmers engaged in cultivation of spices. It is expected that the analytical approach and forward looking concepts presented in the Vision 2030 document will prove useful for the researchers, policymakers, and stakeholders to address the future challenges for growth and development of the agricultural sector and ensure food and income security with a human touch.

(S. Ayyappan) Dated the 9th June, 2011 New Delhi

Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut


Vision 2030

Pr eface Preface
he Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR) initially started as a Regional Station of Central Plantation Crops Research Institute in 1975, has grown into a full-fledged institute of international importance. The institute during its existence for over three decades has developed an array of varieties and suitable technologies for the spice farmers of India. The IISR also is the headquarters for the All India Coordinated Research Project on Spices being operated in 34 centers all over the country. I have great pleasure in presenting the Vision 2030 of this Institute. Lot of water has flown under the bridge since we presented the Vision 2025. Science is developing fast. IISR bagged the Sardar Patel Award for the Best ICAR Institute in 2010. The institute is concentrating on black pepper, ginger, turmeric, cardamom and tree spices such as nutmeg, cinnamon, garcinia and cassia. The Vision document is prepared with the objective of developing a road map for obtaining high productivity of quality spices. We contemplate to see IISR as the torch bearer for spice growers around the world and as the world's top class research institute which ICAR will boast of in the years to come. The consumption of spices is growing in the country with increase in purchasing power. It is envisaged that everyone in India would be consuming one spice or the other with a high per capita consumption. It is estimated that we may have a population of about 1.27 billion people during 2025 and approximately the per capita consumption of black pepper, cardamom, turmeric, ginger and nutmeg is expected to be about 84 g, 99 g, 702 g, 646 g and 2.5 g respectively. Our mission is to produce spices without increasing the area under the crop. The objective is also to have a 10% increase in spice export. If this is the case, the productivity in black pepper must increase from the present level of 260 kg to 445 kg ha-1. Similarly cardamom, turmeric, ginger and nutmeg should yield 0.2, 6.4 t, 8.5 t, 1.0 t ha-1 respectively. The document also carries the schematic presentation of our proposed plan of action. I would like to place on record my grateful appreciation to all my colleagues presently working at IISR and those who have retired from this institute after meritorious service. Everyone in IISR has contributed tremendously for preparation of this document. I would like to thank my fellow editors Drs. M. Anandaraj, V. Srinivasan, R. Dinesh and K. Nirmal Babu for bringing out this document. The endless editing, corrections and suggestions we received from Dr. S Ayyappan, the Director General, ICAR and Secretary (DARE), Dr. HP Singh, Deputy Director General (Hort.) is placed on record with gratitude. The untiring support we received from Dr. Umesh Srivastava, the ADG (Hort.II) for the successful preparation of this document is gratefully acknowledged.



Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut


Vision 2030

Pr eamble Preamble
ndia has been known from prehistoric times as the land of spices. This led to the landing of the Portuguese navigator, Vasco da Gama at Calicut in 1498. Until the 1970s, India had a virtual dominance in the international spices trade. India still continues to be the largest producer, consumer, and exporter of spices in the world. During the crop year 2009-10 the country produced about 4015.9 thousand tons from 2463.7 thousand hectares of area under spices. About 10-12% of this is exported annually. Indian spices flavour foods in over 130 countries and their intrinsic values make them distinctly superior in terms of taste, colour and fragrance. The USA, Canada, Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain and Israel are the main markets for Indian spices. North America (USA and Canada) and Western Europe are the most important regions having the import demand for many of the spices. Mexico continues to be the major importer of cinnamon and cassia while Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait and Israel are the major markets for green cardamom, black pepper, ginger and turmeric. Tellicherry Garbled Extra Bold (TGEB) pepper, Alleppey Green Extra Bold (AGEB) cardamom, Cochin Ginger (low fibre content), Alleppey Finger turmeric (AFT) etc. have established deep roots in the cookery of many countries. We have near monopoly in seed spices and spice oils and oleoresins. Indian spices have obtained geographical indicators such as Malabar pepper, Alleppey Green Cardamom, Coorg Green Cardamom and Naga chilli. Our growth in spices export is remarkable though not spectacular considering the historical importance of India as a land of spices. The demand for organic products is steadily increasing in the western markets at 20-25% every year and that of organic spices is about 2%. The medicinal value of spices is getting attention. Value added spices like encapsulated spices; oils and oleoresin are assuming significance in view of convenience. With the reported use of spices oils and oleoresins in soft drinks, food and medicines demand for Indian spice oils and oleoresins is bound to shoot up. India possesses many innate advantages over other spice producing countries - its large genetic base, varied soil and climatic conditions, and skilled human power. However, in many of the spice crops productivity is low in India. Yield in black pepper (260 kg ha-1), small cardamom (174 kg ha-1), ginger (3583 kg ha-1) and turmeric (4382 kg ha-1) are low compared to Malaysia (2925 kg ha-1 in black pepper) and Guatemala (250 kg ha-1 in small cardamom). Poor soil fertility, use of low level of inputs like manures, fertilizers and crop protection chemicals, high labour cost and crop loss due to diseases, lack of resistant varieties and post harvest losses are the major reasons for low productivity. The biggest handicaps that Indian spices face in the international market are the high cost of the product and high level of microbials including mycotoxin and toxic chemicals in the finished product. India will need to make concerted efforts to produce clean spices at competitive prices. India can withstand competition only by increasing productivity and reducing cost of cultivation leading to low cost per unit of production. Considerable efforts will have to be made to improve the present post harvest processing and storage systems and in educating the farmers and traders in handling/processing the produce hygienically. Higher productivity, clean spices through improved post harvest techniques and reasonable threshold price affordable to food industry are the keys to future spice trade and promotion of spices in consumer packs, ethnic foods or ethnic medicine 1

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would boost up production. The future trading is going to be tough in view of stringent regulations imposed by ASTA, FDA, USDA, EPA and American Customs. Prioritization is important, but all the strategies are interlinked to achieve the goal of resilient development. Locating resistance source and evolving high yielding and disease resistant lines through selection, mutation, polyploidy breeding and biotechnological methods are among the important programmes for spices improvement. Multi location testing of varieties for adaptation and quality, evaluation of lines suited to organic production, scaling up the production of nucleus planting material of elite lines are the need based programmes for development of spices. Studies may be oriented towards identification of varieties which can adapt to climate change and also management strategies to mitigate the ill effects of climate change. The recent advances in technologies such as satellite imagery, use of GPS and mapping techniques using GIS have greatly improved the understanding of land use planning. Spices like ginger, turmeric and most of the tree spices like nutmeg, cinnamon, cassia and garcinia can be exploited for intensive agriculture under mixed farming systems along with other horticultural crops. As the international trade barriers are steadily coming down, India will have to develop very competitive edge in all respects, if it has to retain and increase its present position in the international trade of spices. The Vision 2030 contemplates realization of the above objectives envisaged by the Planning Commission of India. Thrusts have also been given on conservation of genetic resources, research in frontier areas of science, secondary agriculture, bio risk management, mechanization, eco-spices etc. to realize the set goals.

Vision 2030

Spices Scenario
pices are high value and low volume commodities of commerce in the world market. All over the world, the fast growing food industry depends largely on spices as taste and flavour makers. Health conscious consumers in developed countries prefer natural colours and flavours of plant origin to cheap synthetic ones. Thus, spices are the basic building blocks of flavor in food applications. The estimated growth rate for spices demand in the world is around 3.19%, which is just above the population growth rate. India has been a traditional producer, consumer and exporter of spices. There are about 109 spices listed by International Organization for Standardization and India grows about 60 of these spices. Almost all the States in the country produce one or other spices. During the crop year 2009-10 the country produced about 4015.9 thousand tons from 2463.7 thousand hectares of area under spices (Table 1). Of the total production, nearly 12% was exported. Share of export in total production varied from a mere 0.6% in tamarind to about 72% in nutmeg and mace. During 2010-11, export in terms of value was at an all time high of US $ 1.5 billion. World trade in spices has shown a consistently upward trend over the past 25 years. According to UNCTAD, world spice trade amounted to US 300.6 million $ during 1970-75 and rose to US 2449.191 million $ in 2002. The Indian spice export was 2.25 lakh tonnes valued at `1213 crores during 1996-97. But presently, the spices export has crossed the billion US $ mark during 2007-08 with 4.44 lakh tonnes valued at ` 4435 crores from 3.73 lakh tonnes valued at ` 3576 crores during 2006-07. The spices export has continued its growth and during 2010-11 recorded 5.25 lakh tonnes worth ` 6840.71 crores, an all time high both in terms of volume and value of spices export from India. Apparently, the export has shown an increase of 23% in value and 4.5% in quantity compared to 2009-10.

Table 1. India: Production and productivity of certain spices Production (2009-10) Crop
Black Pepper Ginger Turmeric Cardamom Clove Nutmeg Tamarind Cinnamon Tejpat

Area (000 ha)

195.92 107.54 180.96 90.20 2.60 15.50 57.99 1.00 3.24

Production (000 MT)

51.02 385.33 792.98 15.72 1.16 8.00 185.46 1.67 7.08

Productivity (kg ha-1)

260 3583 4382 174 448 516 3198 1667 2189

Source: DASD & Spices Board, Govt. of India. Among the export of different spices, maximum share was from chilli (40%) followed by cumin (11%), turmeric (11%), coriander (6%) and black pepper (5%) during 2009-10. However, in terms of 3

Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut

value, mint products and spice oil & oleoresins contributed 44% of the total export earnings. Chilli, cumin and black pepper contributed 20%, 10% and 8%, respectively to the total export earnings. During 2010-11, the export of ginger, tamarind and value added products like spice oils, oleoresins and curry powders increased both in volume and value. However, in case of pepper, large cardamom, turmeric, nutmeg and mace the export increase was in terms of value (up to 22%) only. India's share in World Trade was 2.8 lakh tonnes valued at `172.5 crores making it a major player in spices trade. On a global scale, the annual growth rate in spices consumption is estimated at around 10%. At this rate, the world trade by 2020 will be around 24.2 lakh tonnes. Among spices, the major ones, which contribute to export are black pepper, cardamom, chillies, ginger, turmeric, coriander, cumin, celery, fennel, fenugreek, garlic, curry powder, spice oils and oleoresins. During the past few years, large cardamom, turmeric, seed spices and curry powder have registered substantial increase in export earnings (Table 2).

Table 2. Estimated export of certain spices and products from India (Quantity in MT, Value in ` Lakhs) Crop
Black Pepper Cardamom (small) Ginger Turmeric Nutmeg & mace Vanilla Curry powder Mint products Spice oleoresins & oils Source: DASD &

200506 Qty
17363 863 9411 46405 1530 72 9340 14544 6074

200910 Qty
19750 1975 5500 50750 3275 200 14300 19000 6750

% change in 200910 Qty.

13.7 128.9 -41.6 9.4 114.1 177.8 53.1 30.6 11.1

15094 2682 4295 15286 3117 1226 7838 81320 50557

31392 16570 4675 38123 9186 2251 18918 118972 70875

108 517.8 8.8 149.4 194.7 83.5 141.4 46.3 40.2

Spices Board, Govt. of India.

Area, Production and Productivity

The country is producing around 4.01 million tonnes of spices from 2.46 million hectares of land. During the last three decades the production has become nearly three times due to area expansion and higher productivity. Value of spices exports from the country has experienced a 5fold increase during the same period. Changes in the area, production and productivity during the past three decades for the major spices are dealt in detail below:

Trends in growth Black Pepper

There is an increasing production trend in the past decade with increased productivity. While area augmentation has grown at the rate of 0.85%, production has grown at the rate of 2.38% during the period from 1987-88 to 1997-98. This implies that either the extended area was more productive or farmers were giving better care to their existing plantation to increase yield. Area under pepper has crossed 2.33 lakh ha during the crop year 2003-04 and during 2009-10 the area is 1.96 lakh ha with a production of 51 thousand tonnes and productivity of 260 kg ha-1. Pepper productivity in India is one of the lowest in the world. The average productivity of pepper vine-1 is highest in Karnataka (ca. 1 kg) and lowest in Kerala (ca. 0.6 kg). The estimated yield vine-1 in tea estates is, however, markedly higher (ca. 3.3 kg). Since there is a vast difference between the recorded yield and present level of national productivity, there is enough potential to increase productivity by filling the yield 4

Vision 2030
gaps. The reason for low production per unit area in India is due mainly to the system of cultivation, compared to mono cropping followed in Vietnam, Brazil etc with a population ranging from 1100 to 2000 vines ha-1. In India it is grown in mixed or homestead conditions with the population of vines being significantly lower (ca. 200-250 ha-1). As per the recent official statistics available on area and production of spices, the country has achieved 3.85% and 8.51% growth rate respectively. Indian pepper fetches premium price because of its high intrinsic qualities over that of other competing countries. In 2009-10, India exported about 19,750 t valued at ` 313.9 crores, with a reduction in volume and value over 2007-08. USA is the major importer of pepper in the world market with an average of about 60,000 t per annum and in 2008-09 USA imported 10,050 t of pepper accounting for 40% of our total pepper export. Other major buyers are UK (1475 t), Italy (1290 t), Canada (1265 t) and Germany (1200 t).

The estimated growth index for the time series data on area, production and productivity of cardamom for the period from 1970-71 to 2000-01 indicated that there was a significant decline in production during 1972-73, 1976-77, 1982-84, 1987-88 and 1996-97. Between 1978- 87 an increasing trend was observed and during the period 1989-90 to till date, a declining trend was observed. During 1990s, India's production had been showing a consistently increasing trend from 4250 tonnes in 1992-93 to 7900 tonnes in 1995-96, but declined to 6625 tonnes during the subsequent crop year with a lower rate of decline. This may be due to improvement in productivity, using improved varieties and better production technologies. The increasing trend in production from the crop year 1997-98 is being maintained till date with 13,650 t in 2007-08 and 15,720 in 2009-10 from 90,200 ha. The favourable climatic conditions coupled with improved technology including irrigation and planned developmental programs are the major factors responsible for increased production. Remunerative price also played a catalytic role in production. The recorded yield level of 34.65 kg ha-1 during 1970-71 has not shown much improvement till the end of 1980 except for occasional fluctuations towards higher side (up to 48 kg ha-1 during 197980). However, the productivity level has improved in 1990s and reached 186 kg ha-1 during 20052006. India exported 1975 t of cardamom valued at `165.7 crores in 2009-10 recording an increase of 163% in volume and 250% in value as compared to 2008-09. Saudi Arabia is the major importer with 1117 t (56%). Other major buyers are UAE (15%), Kuwait and Egypt.

Area under ginger has shown an increasing trend over the years from 1970-71 to 1999-2000, with occasional fluctuations attributing to ups and downs in price. Indian production has been showing a steady increasing trend from 29.59 thousand tonnes in 1970-71 to 385 thousand tonnes during 2009-10. An increase of nearly 13 folds in production is due to the combined improvement in both area and productivity. While Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and other NE states together accounted for more than 52% of total production with 26% of area, the region comprising Kerala, Karnataka, Orissa and Tamil Nadu accounted for the rest of the production with 72% area during 2007-08. An analysis of the time series data during the period 1970-71 to 1997-98 indicated that yield level of ginger in the country has increased over the years from 1371 kg ha-1 during 197071 to 3583 kg ha-1 during 2009-10. The increase in production during the period was largely due to increase in area. However, the productivity level has improved from 1980-81 and reached an average of 3188 kg ha-1 during 1990-91 to 1998-99. In order to get the long-term trends in area, production and productivity in major producing states in the country, semi logarithmic growth equations indicated that the overall trend in area under ginger registered an average annual growth of 4.3% from 1990-91 to 1998-99. Growth in production was at the rate of 6.11% during the same period indicating a slight improvement in productivity, which was around 1.82% for the period. 5

Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut

India exported 5500 t of ginger valued at ` 46.75 crores in 2009-10 recording a reduction of 18% in volume but 67% increase in value as compared to 2007-08. Maximum export of ginger is in the dry and powder forms and fresh ginger export which accounts for about 2230 t mainly from the NE states to Bangladesh. Among others UK is the major importer with 490 t along with Saudi Arabia (433 t). Other major buyers are Spain, USA and Morocco.

The turmeric producing states have shown fluctuations in their production level due to changes in the rate of productivity and area of cultivation. The market price has also played an important role in annual production. As in any other agricultural commodities, production in one year is strongly influenced by the price that prevailed in previous year. The decadal analysis of production of turmeric has shown an increasing trend in two of the five major producing states viz., Andhra Pradesh (10.7) and Tamil Nadu (16.34), while it is comparatively less in Orissa (0.48) and West Bengal (0.8) and negative in Karnataka (-3.76). India produced 792.9 thousand tonnes from an area of 180.9 thousand ha with the productivity of 4.38 t ha-1 during 2009-10. The increase in production is mainly because of either increase in area or productivity or both. Andhra Pradesh occupies first position both in terms of average area and production of turmeric, but in terms of productivity, Andhra Pradesh occupies the third position among the turmeric producing states. India exported a record high 50750 t of turmeric valued ` 381.2 crores in 2009-10 with an increase of 3% in volume and 140% in value as compared to 2007-08. India is the major supplier of turmeric in the world market with competition from Vietnam, Indonesia and Myanmar. UAE is the major importer with 6719 t of our total export. Other major buyers are Iran (4255 t), Bangladesh (4118 t), Malaysia (3950 t), UK (3340 t) and Japan (3150 t).

Tree Spices
Tree spices constitute a group of diverse crops where the product of commerce is predominantly used as spice. Clove, nutmeg, cinnamon, comboge, kokum, tamarind etc are the predominant tree spices cultivated in India. The production of clove in India during 2009-10 was 1160 t from an area of 2600 ha. Nutmeg is cultivated in an area of 15,500 ha with the production of 8000 t. About 3275 t of nutmeg and mace was exported to other countries with an earning of ` 91.8 crores and the major importers are UAE, Vietnam, Singapore and USA. Cinnamon is commercially cultivated in Kerala, Karnataka and Andaman & Nicobar Islands with production of 1670 t from an area of 1000 ha.

Diversification of uses
Indian spices occupy a special niche in the World spice market. Even though we were dominating in the export of whole spices by early seventies we started exporting value added products such as oleoresins and concentrates. Now India is a leading exporter of curry powders, oils, oleoresins, encapsulated flavors, paprika colors, curcumin etc. As value added products hold a premium price over whole spice, it improves average earning as well as it creates more employment opportunities. Indian spices should have its own brand name and identity based on GI. Hence, we need to be more quality conscious. Today there is greater scientifically validated knowledge on spices phytochemistry, therapeutic effects of their bioactive principles and mechanism of action. Health benefits include carminative action, hypolipidemic effect, antidiabetic property, antilithogenic property, antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory property, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic potential. Of these, the hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant properties have far reaching nutraceutical and therapeutic value. Most of the medicinal properties are attributed to the secondary metabolites - the essential oils and oleoresins - present in spices, a large number of which have been identified. Spices and 6

Vision 2030
herbs have tremendous importance in everyday life as ingredients in food, alcoholic beverages, medicine, perfumery, cosmetics, colouring and also as gardening plants. Spices are used in foods to impart flavour, pungency and colour. In Ayurveda, about 25 spices are used for various herbal preparations and the annual consumption by the Ayurvedic firms in Kerala alone is approximately 3.2 tonnes. Hence, spices are increasingly being noticed for their pharmacological activities and therefore their potential as a functional food has tremendous scope. The scientific validation of the medicinal properties of spices using state-of-the-art technology like drug modeling, molecular biology and nanotechnology, holds great promise to yield a number of druggable compounds and will provide greater avenues for medicinal uses of spices. Value added products including spice oils and oleoresins, mint products, curry powder/paste/ condiments, and spice powders contributed around 58% in value towards the total export earnings. During 2009-10, 14,300 t of curry powder blends valued at `189.2 crores has been exported to UK, Saudi, UAE and USA. Export of spice oils and oleoresins has recorded an all time high of 6750 t valued at ` 708.7 crores in 2009-10. Major spice oils exported are pepper oil, nutmeg oil, mustard seed oil, clove oil, celery seed oil and ginger oil and in case of oleoresins, paprika oleoresin followed by capsicum, pepper, garcinia and turmeric oleoresins are exported. USA is the major importer of spice extracts followed by Germany, UK, South Korea and China. Mint products account for 21% of the total spice export mainly to USA, China, Singapore, Germany, UK, Netherlands and Brazil. India exports its spices to more than 120 countries in the world. But, few countries dominate the importers list for Indian spices by virtue of the quantity imported. From the region-wise export data for various periods, it can be seen that the Asian zone is fast emerging as the major destination for Indian spices with 66% in quantity and 48% in value followed by American zone and European Union countries (Table 3).

Table 3. Direction of Indian spice exports (%)

Regions 1990-91 Quantity America European Union Asia Africa 13.2 13.2 51.8 1.7 Value 19.2 17.6 29.9 0.8 2000-01 Quantity 21.0 12.6 56.8 6.0 Value 31.3 19.5 42.0 2.9 2008-09 Quantity 12.0 10.0 66.0 8.0 Value 23.0 17.0 48.0 5.0

The total import of spices in India during 2008-09 is about 83545 t valued at `765.4 crores. The import value has increased by 19% as compared to previous years. The major spices imported are pepper, poppy seed, clove, cardamom, ginger fresh and cassia. Out of the total import of pepper (10750 t), more than 60% is light (immature) pepper for oleoresin industry extraction and re-export. Fresh ginger is imported mainly from Nepal (30% of import volume) for domestic consumption. Poppy seed, cassia, clove and star anise are also imported to meet the domestic consumption as the production of theses spices are less in India. Over the years, India's share in world spices market has not appreciated much and its monopoly as a supplier of spices is threatened by countries like China, Brazil, Vietnam, Pakistan, Egypt, Turkey and other African and Caribbean countries. India also faces shortage of exportable

Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut

surplus because of increasing domestic demand. Sharp fluctuations in the quantum and value of exports and in the unit value realization have characterized the spices trade in recent years.

Competing countries in production and export of major spices Spice

Black pepper

Competing country
Indonesia, Brazil, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, China (P.R), Madagascar, Mexico

Cardamom (small) Guatemala, El Salvador, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua, New Guinea, Sri Lanka Ginger Turmeric Clove Nutmeg and Mace Cassia Cinnamon China (P.R), Thailand, Japan, Bangladesh, South Korea, Malaysia, Fiji, Philippians, Jamaica, Nigeria, Sierra Leone China (P.R), Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, Peru, Jamaica, Spain Brazil, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Papua, New Guinea, Sri Lanka Grenada, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Sri Lanka China, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Vietnam, Sri Lanka Madagascar, Papua, New Guinea, Seychelles

Effect of climate change on productivity of spices

Climatic conditions of India, especially Western Ghats of southern India and northeastern states are suitable for cultivation of many of the major spices. Spices like black pepper, ginger and turmeric tolerates partially shaded, tropical or subtropical climate with a well distributed annual mean rainfall of 1500-3000 mm and the temperature range of 28-35C for better growth and development. Prevalence of congenial climate for multiplication and spread of rot and wilt pathogens resulting in severe economic loss in heavy rainfall areas is the major concern. For ginger, light intensity of 1290 micro moles m-2s-1 was optimum for single leaf photosynthesis while 1950 moles m-2s-1 was optimum for the canopy. Ginger grown under 30C with 105 kilolux light intensity yielded only around of that grown under 28.30C with 33.1 kilolux light intensity. This suggests that climate change in terms of increase in temperature and associated increase in light intensity may reduce the yield of some spices like ginger, in southern states. The recent advances in technologies such as satellite imagery, use of GPS and mapping techniques using GIS have greatly improved the understanding of land use planning. NE hill regions possess a climate that is congenial for the expansion of spice growing areas. Orissa, West Bengal, Mizoram and Kerala are found to be very suitable while Gujarat, Rajasthan, UP and MP are marginal or unsuitable for ginger cultivation through GIS simulations. With the scenario of increasing global temperature (1.5-2C) the predictions showed that ginger area may shrink to half the present and most suitable states like Orissa and West Bengal may become marginally suitable for its cultivation. Ginger growing areas of Himachal Pradesh and North Eastern parts of the country may be benefited by increased temperature and CO2 but these beneficial effects could be offset by increased floods and frost. Studies may be oriented towards varietal responses to climate change, identification of varieties which can adapt to climate change and also management strategies to mitigate the ill effects of climate change. On the whole, the productivity level in India is believed to be low compared to other countries (Table 4). However, the collection of data is far from being scientific. Many competing countries are in the spices trade with the opening of international market. For example in black pepper, the national average yield is only around 238 kg ha-1, while in Malaysia it is 2925 kg ha-1. In cardamom, India's average is 167 kg ha-1 while in Guatemala it is 200 kg ha-1. A major effort is needed to bridge 8

Vision 2030
this gap in productivity. In India, even the gap between national average and the realizable yield is very wide. In pepper, it is around 2445 kg ha-1, in cardamom 1625 kg ha-1. Bridging this gap is sufficient to increase the country's production many fold.

Table 4. Potential for productivity increase at the national level (kg ha-1) Crop
Pepper Cardamom Ginger Turmeric Coriander Cumin

National Farmer
260 174 3477 3912 591 578

2000 1625 5500 6200 -

Research station
2445 450 8250 10700 1900 2000

2925 (Malaysia) 250 (Guatemala) 515 (Morocco) -

Forecasted production level (Table 5) highlights the target to be achieved for major spice crops. These estimates were made taking into account the present level of production, export, import, per capita consumption, expected level of increase in export and population growth etc. There is an urgent need to take stock of the present level of production and export and prospects of increasing the production with available technologies to meet the future demand. Under the above said background the targeted production need to be achieved without increasing the area under the crops potentially utilizing the scientific, technological and traditional strengths for sustainable production. India can withstand competition only by increasing productivity and reducing cost of cultivation leading to low cost per unit of production.

Table 5: Estimated production target for spices in India (Qty. in tons)

Area Total demand by 2030 101160 16277 1073983 1150003 14186 Extra to be produced over the present 49411 5145 336956 311273 6230 Productivity to meet the total demand by 2030 (kg ha-1) 445 225 8549 6450 1070

Black pepper Cardamom (S) Ginger Turmeric Nutmeg

The forecasted spices production of 2.35 thousand tons of major spices alone during 2030 is expected to be achieved with an annual compound growth rate (ACGR) of less than three percent. The growth of spices production will lead to a significant growth in on-farm employment opportunities as spices are labour intensive crops. Further, there is substantial scope for value addition in spices. India need to make concerted efforts for producing clean spices at competitive prices. Less than 2% of spices produced in the country undergo value addition. Considerable efforts will have to go to improve the present post harvest processing and storage systems and in educating the farmers and traders in handling/ processing the produce hygienically. The envisaged increase in share of value added products in the export basket of spices indicates that processing facilities needs strengthening both on farm and outside. 9

Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut

About IISR
A major step in initiation of sustained research on spices was the launching of All India Coordinated Spices and Cashew Improvement Project (AICSCIP) at Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) at Kasaragod, Kerala, during 1971 by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). Later the ICAR felt the need for intensifying research on spices and established a Regional Station of CPCRI at Calicut, Kerala during 1975, exclusively for conducting research on spices. The Regional Station was upgraded as National Research Centre for Spices (NRCS) in 1986 by merging with the Cardamom Research Centre of CPCRI at Appangala, Karnataka. The NRCS was further elevated to the present Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR) during 1995.

The laboratories and administrative offices of the institute are located at Chelavoor (50 m above MSL), 11 km from Calicut, Calicut District, Kerala on the Calicut-Kollegal road (NH 212), in an area of 14.3 ha. The research farm is located 51 km northeast of Calicut at Peruvannamuzhi (50 m above MSL) on the Peruvannamuzhi-Poozhithode road in Calicut district, in an area of 94.08 ha. Cardamom Research Centre, Appangala (920 m above MSL) is located at Appangala, Kodagu district, Karnataka on the Madikeri-Baghamandala road, 8 km from Madikeri, in an area of 17.4 ha. Large scale improvement is also being made in the development of infrastructure facilities at Research centre, Appangala and Research Farm, Peruvannamuzhi. The budget allocation to the institute has also been increased considerably keeping in view of its development needs (Fig. 1).

Infrastructure Laboratory
The laboratory and administrative offices are located in an area of 14.3 ha of which buildings occupies an area of 1070 sq.m. Modern facilities for both applied and basic research, with specialized facilities for molecular biology, biotechnology, biocontrol, post harvest technology are available. The institute hosts various other facilities such as ATIC, Bioinformatics center, ARIS and NIC for spices. The institute functions as the head quarters of the AICRP on Spices (which coordinates the research on spice crops being conducted in 34 centers across the country), Outreach research project on PHYTOFURA (with 19 centres all over the country) and Indian Society for Spices. The institute is recognized as the centre for post graduate studies by University of Calicut, Calicut; Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore; Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar; Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur; Kannur University, Kannur and Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri.

The library of the institute functions as a national centre for information storage, retrieval and dissemination for spices and related areas. At present, it has a collection of 4188 books, 3451 bound volumes, 2298 reprints, 898 technical reports, 167 CDs, 124 theses and 139 project reports. The library is subscribing to 36 foreign journals and 84 Indian journals. The library is a part of CeRA, the e-journal consortium of ICAR, and catering to the requests from different CeRA members. It sub-


Vision 2030

scribes the agricultural database CAB abstracts online. SpicE-library - the library website provides various library resources and services with links to the new databases and digital resources like DSpice - a digital repository of annual reports, research highlights, Spices news etc of Institute. The library provides bibliographic services (published in Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops) and database services apart from publishing electronic version of 'Agri Tit Bits' at quarterly intervals. Internet facility is provided in the library for literature search, web search, checking e-mails etc. The library also offers hands on training on information retrieval and documentation to the participants of various training programmes organized by the institute.

The Bioinformatics Centre at Indian Institute of Spices research (IISR) is a 'Distributed Information Sub-Centre' (DISC) established in the year 2000 under the Biotechnology Information System Network (BITSnet) of DBT, Government of India. The Centre provides an environment for collaborative interdisciplinary research in Bioinformatics. It aims to bridge the gap between the wet-lab and in silico analysis by actively promoting collaborative projects between agricultural scientists and Bioinformaticians. The centre has launched several databases under the series 'Spice Genes' and also several software's for the benefit of the agricultural researchers. Currently the centre is focusing its interest on chem-informatics aspects of spice compounds. It also develops websites and customized portals.

Research farms at Peruvannamuzhi (94.08 ha) and Appangala (17.4 ha) are developed and more than 40% of the forest area is cleared and covered with the field experiments under different projects. 11

Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut

The main administrative building and laboratories, farm office and a guesthouse and a large number of green houses/experimental sheds are constructed at Calicut. At Appangala also, the existing laboratories have been expanded. At Peruvannamuzhi, two new buildings were added to accommodate the office of the KVK and animal cum plant health care centre. Five residential buildings and a canteen have been constructed.

Plan period VII Plan VIII Plan IX Plan X Plan XI Plan KVK (XI plan) Scientific 39 41 43 43 43 -Technical 28 30 36 36 31 12 Administrative 18 18 19 19 24 2 Auxiliary 5 7 ----Supporting 62 62 61 61 59 2


Vision 2030

Vision 2030

Enhancing productivity of spices for meeting growing domestic demand and to be the global leader in spices export


Utilize the scientific, technological and traditional strengths for sustainable spice production


To conserve genetic resources of spices, develop high yielding and high quality varieties and sustainable production and protection systems using traditional and non-traditional techniques and novel biotechnological approaches. To develop post harvest technologies of spices with emphasis on product development and product diversification for domestic and export purposes. To act as a centre for training in research methodology, technology upgradation and monitor the adoption of new and existing technologies on spices.

The main focuses on researchable areas to accomplish the vision are,

Conservation of genetic resources, bar-coding and crop improvement Increasing productivity of spices Quality planting material production and supply Productivity enhancement technologies and systems through better input management Bio risk management New market oriented technologies for secondary agriculture and value addition Effective transfer of technologies to the target groups.


Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut

Har nessin g Science Harnessin nessing

t the Indian Institute of Spices Research we continuously strive to harness the power of intellec tual minds and challenge conventional thinking by pushing the boundaries of science to increase spices productivity, enhance input use efficiency, and reduce post harvest losses with an eye on reducing the cost of production. We also try to discover effective solutions to emerging problems through conventional techniques and modern sciences thereby producing spices that will improve the quality of life. This would mean interpreting and analyzing with intellectual minds and challenge conventional thinking by pushing the boundaries of both conventional and modern sciences. The major focus is on conservation of spice genetic resources, bar-coding and crop improvement. The IISR possesses a vast collection of spices germplasm, PGPR and biocontrol agents. To address future needs, research will facilitate sustainable use of available genetic resources through characterization, genetic enhancement, functional genomics, proteomics, phenomics, gene mining, and molecular breeding through tools like marker-aided selection and gene stacking and customized genetic engineering. Conservation of natural resources is another area of our concern. Without doubt, spices cultivation is overly dependent on natural resources. Rainfed spice cultivation offers immense potential if natural resources, especially soil and water, are scientifically and efficiently managed. Techniques relying on conservation agriculture, zero tillage, precision agriculture and micro-irrigation needs to be perfected and efficient farming systems, integrated crop management, integrated nutrient management, integrated pest management, and integrated water management would be perfected further for wider adaptability. Importantly, precision agriculture would enhance production efficiency. For this purpose improved long-range weather prediction technology would be required to take advantage of precision operations for crops and resource applications. This may also contribute to the better understanding of global warming and climate change. Frontier sciences like nano-technology, information and communication technology and remote sensing and also techniques like Geographic Information System promise a lot. These techniques would be integrated in the on-going and future research programs for improving research efficiency, better targeting of technologies and also identifying spice production and marketing environments. To meet the demand of high value spice products, our major focus would be to develop improved genotypes (varieties and hybrids) and management practices for raising productivity of these commodities in different agro-eco-regions, consumer-preferred quality traits and food safety would be given high priority. Enhancing shelf - life and improving demand-driven commodity traits (colour, size, and aroma) of spice through different post-harvest approaches would be prioritized. Since markets for value-added and processed spices are consistently increasing, low-cost improved technologies would be developed to improve market efficiency and to remain competitive. Also, issues related to sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures would be appropriately addressed. Bio-risk in spices cultivation is assuming menacing proportions due to climate change and emerging insect-pests and diseases. To overcome this problem, efforts would be made to develop effective and integrated risk-and-disaster management production systems. Early warning systems, drought indicators and prediction of movement of bio-risk agents etc. would be developed for taking 14

Vision 2030

decisions at the local, regional and national levels. Under the intellectual property rights regime, the thrust would be to develop effective and need-based programs to accelerate innovations and link farmers with different stakeholders to harness growing opportunities. Developing technologies would require effective delivery systems to the stake holders. Hence, participatory information and communication technology would be evolved by showcasing research products and technologies for effectively linking research accomplishments with the stakeholders. We are also committed to nurturing individuals who can contribute to our mission. Through our HRD program, we share knowledge and build relationships with qualified students from biotechnology, microbiology, biochemistry and other agricultural sciences.


Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut

Strate gy and Frame work Strategy Framew

Genetic enhancement

Crop wise catalogues of all germplasm collections using IPGRI descriptors. Ex situ conservatories as well as in situ repositories of the collected germplasm of black pepper, ginger, turmeric and cardamom will be strengthened. The germplasm will be characterized using the latest molecular tools like barcoding so as to identify duplicates and establish core collections. The germplasm will be screened for genes conferring resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and the lines with desirable genes will be utilized in the improvement. Convergent improvement of black pepper for pyramiding multiple resistance genes (Pollu beetle, Phytophthora and nematodes). The germplasm accessions will be evaluated for their performance under purely organic type of cultivation and the promising lines will be released as organic variety. Crop idiotypes (black pepper) suited for uniform ripening and varieties of ginger suited to specific end products such as candy, shreds, wine as well as turmeric rich in one or the other curcuminoids will be evolved. Cardamom hybrid lines with bold capsules and rich in 1, 8 cineole and -terpinyl acetate will be developed. Novel nutmeg genotypes with altered mace colour and uniform seed size will assume priority. Locating sources of resistance for biotic and abiotic stresses using conventional and biotechnological tools and developing varieties with high yield, quality and specific traits The varietal evaluation of newly developed genotypes to suit specific agro ecological and soil conditions.

Synergies of frontier science Biotechnology, Nanotechnology, GIS, Bioinformatics

Molecular profiling including genome sequencing of important cultivars, varieties and hybrids. Marker aided selection for the desired traits, allele mining and identifying genes controlling superior quality traits, pest and disease resistance Molecular mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions in black pepper and ginger. Genome sequencing of important spices, P. capsici and comparative transcriptomics/ genomics for identification of species-specific markers. GIS based spice resource maps for specific agro- ecological situations and land use planning vis--vis climate change. Characterization of soil microbial community structure (metagenomics) and effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on soil microorganisms. Capacity building in genome annotation.


Vision 2030
Managing natural resources

Cost effective nutrient budgeting through integrated nutrition management (INM) for targeted production and organic farming strategies. Development and popularization of cost effective agricultural practices (INM/IPM) for increasing the productivity. Abiotic stress - Quantification of water use efficiency and water requirement in spices. Carbon sequestration potential in spice based cropping systems and nutrient management practices.

Secondary agriculture

Increasing demand for spices and its value added products. Value addition through micro-encapsulation and extrusion techniques. Identification of bioactive components from spice crops as nutraceuticals. Bioprospecting using bioinformatics tools. Discovering new drug molecules.

Management of inputs and energy

Development of implements/tools for harvesting and processing for value added spice products. Developing efficient system for management of nutrient and water to get optimum production from unit of water and nutrient used. Mechanization of spices production and post harvest processing.

Bio-risk management

Surveillance, identification and characterization of new invasive pests and pathogens. Pest risk analysis. Development of rapid and reliable diagnostics against pests and pathogens including invasive species. Management of new invasive pests and pathogens.


Commercialization of the techniques/ technologies. Genetic finger printing of germplasm and its registration. Registration of released varieties. Patenting technologies related to spices. Documentation of ITKs.

Transfer of Technology (TOT)

Constraint analysis and impact assessment of new technologies. Production of nucleus planting materials and distribution. Large scale demonstration of proven technologies through KVK's as FLDs. Establishing technology incubation centre. Participatory seed production of major spices.


Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut

Epilo gue Epilogue

s a pioneer in spice crops research and development, the IISR is committed to enhancing pro ductivity of quality spices for improving livelihood opportunities of farmers, and for ensuring sustainable farming and agricultural growth. Though the pace in spice production has slowed down, a revolution in spices production technologies is imminent. While there is a great deal of pathbreaking efforts to be made, stale technologies that may not hold much promise need to be slashed. This would transform the existing fatigue in spices production into a vibrant and competitive profit making sector. Apparently, there is a need for bold initiatives that would often cross state boundaries and bring together unprecedented success. Such efforts would need to overcome the ways the current system drives farmers into abandoning spice cultivation. Our research efforts will be able to unleash such crucial initiatives.


Vision 2030

Anne xur e-I Annexur xure

Strategic Framework Goal
Genetic resource enhancement, its evaluation and valuation for effective use to meet the challenges of biotic and abiotic stresses to sustain the impact of climate change besides yield quality and nutritional value.

Making character specific collections of exotic germplasm, locating resistance source and evolving high yielding and disease resistant lines through selection, mutation, polyploidy breeding and biotechnological methods for spices improvement.

Performance Measure

Specific collections of exotic germplasm to assemble vegetable gingers from China, Australia, Jamaica; sweet nutmegs from Grenada, Moluccas and cloves from Moluccas; wild pipers from Brazil etc. Crop-wise catalogues of all germplasm collections using IPGRI descriptors Identification of genes and their alleles contributing towards resistance to biotic/ abiotic stress factors and quality characteristics. Improvement of black pepper to develop varieties with multiple resistance for biotic stresses (Pollu beetle, Phytophthora and nematodes) and quality. Locating sources of resistance for biotic and abiotic stresses using conventional and biotechnological tools and developing varieties with high yield, quality and specific traits The varietal evaluation of newly developed genotypes to suit specific agro ecological and soil conditions. Development of highly adaptive and stable genotypes to mitigate climate change and water stress


Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut

Development of molecular maps and tagging genes for important traits in Black pepper. Development of bar codes for germplasm Whole genome sequencing and annotation of black pepper, cardamom, ginger and turmeric Production of nucleus planting materials and distribution Participatory seed production of major spices. Developing technologies suitable for protected cultivation of disease free nucleus planting materials. Development of micro- mini rhizome technology for production of disease free planting materials of tuberous crops like ginger and turmeric through a combination of micro propagation hydroponics and aeroponics Cost effective nutrient budgeting through integrated nutrition management (INM) for targeted production and organic farming strategies Development and popularization of cost effective agricultural practices (INM/IPM) for increasing the productivity Abiotic stress - Quantification of water use efficiency and water requirement in spices Carbon sequestration potential in spice based cropping systems and nutrient management practices

Increasing productivity of spices through quality planting material production and protected cultivation

Targeting the production levels by propagating and distributing quality planting materials of improved varieties for effective spread

Developing efficient system for management of nutrient and water to get maximum production and developing model for plant architectural engineering

Generation of eco-region specific technologies based on maximum productivity of available natural resources, soil fertility and water.


Vision 2030

Development of profitable cropping system models with tree/ spices components Modifying plant architecture in black pepper and tree spices for higher productivity

Biotic stress management to reduce production losses by developing diagnostics, forecasting models, biocontrol systems and effective management strategies.

Identification of new and effective bio-molecules for management of biotic stresses coupled with development of innovative diagnostic techniques for rapid, accurate and cost effective detection of high impact pests and diseases

Molecular mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions in black pepper and ginger Genome sequencing of important spices, P. capsici and comparative genomics for identification of species specific markers. Characterization of rhizosphere microbial community structure and effect of engineered nanoparticles on microorganisms in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere. Surveillance, identification and characterization of new invasive pests and pathogens, pest risk analysis Development of rapid and reliable diagnostics against pests and pathogens including invasive species. Management of new invasive pests and pathogens Use of root stocks to mitigate biotic and abiotic stress and alter canopy architecture. Development of value added spice based products of ginger, black pepper and cardamom through extrusion techniques in combination with cereals / tuber crops / pulses /millets Microencapsulation of spice powders viz; black pepper, ginger, turmeric and other spices.

Development of Secondary agriculture and value addition and strengthening areas such as biosensor, bioprospection and nanotechnology etc.

Development of post-harvest technologies to improve product quality and value addition, mechanization, chemo profiling and identification of new flavour / bio active principles.


Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut

Chemo informatics studies to identify and formulate potential druggable compounds from spices Nanoencapsulation of powders and bioactive components viz; curcumin in turmeric, piperine in black pepper, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol in cinnamon for culinary/ nutraceutical/ biopesticidal purpose. Development of mechanical harvesters for black pepper, nutmeg and field crops like ginger and turmeric. Fabrication of machinery for preparation of white pepper and mechanical ginger peeler. Utilizing solar energy for spice processing, viz; drying/ blanching/ curing. Patenting technologies related to spices. Large scale demonstration of proven technologies through KVK's and technology dissemination using advanced tools Constraint analysis and impact assessment of new technologies Commercialization of the techniques/ technologies and patenting Establishing technology incubation centre Documentation of ITKs.

Effective TOT to the target groups

Participatory approach for effective transfer of technologies to empower stakeholders, analyzing feedback for further refinement


Vision 2030

Repository World Spices Germplasm

Field gene bank at IISR and AICRP centers

Cryo & DNA bank

Development of DNA library, data bases and catalogues

Registering of unique genotypes

Bar-coding of promising accessions

Characterization IPGRI descriptor / Molecular

Collection of exotic germplasm

GIS for exploring and conserving the diversity

Figure 1: Conservation of genetic resources


Referral centre for Phenomics

Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut

Developing biotic and abiotic stress resistant & high quality lines

Gene pyramiding

Developing divergent mapping populations for gene tagging

Identification of gene sequences and functional analysis using RNA silencing

Molecular basis for hostpathogen interaction

Comparative gene expression and Protein profiling

Convergent breeding of promising germplasm

Cloning resistant and defense genes from resistant sources

Identifying resistant & quality lines

Biotechnological (MAS) approaches

Figure 2: Improved varieties with resistance to biotic/abiotic stresses


Developing genes constructs for resistance

Vision 2030

Targeted yield of spices with high quality

Budgeting nutrients for precision farming

Soil health management using beneficial microbes

Characterization of soil rhizosphere, carbon stock and soil health

Developing INM and HPT for different cropping systems Identifying low input responsive genotypes with higher physiological efficiency

Figure 3: Resource budgeting and cropping system management


Organic farming techniques

Production of disease free planting material of improved varieties

Resource maps for agro-ecological situations

Water budgeting - Micro irrigation & Fertigation

Large scale production through accredited certified nurseries

Up scaling of micro rhizome production under controlled conditions

Developing diagnostics

Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut

Increasing productivity of spices

Developing IPM / IDM for different cropping systems

Pest, disease forecasting models

Pest risk analysis Characterization for host-pathogen interaction

Surveillance of newly emerging pests diseases

Figure 4: Bio-Risk Management


Identifying resistant accessions

Identification of new bio-control agents and bio-molecules (Colloboration with NBAII)

Developing diagnostics

Vision 2030

Centre of excellence in Post harvest technology

Commercialization & Licensing

Potential compounds formulations & products isolation

Products diversification and scaling up of technologies Pharmacological Chemo informatics and databases

Developing tools implements for harvesting, post harvest processing and packaging under GMP

Identification of bio active principles

Figure 5: Secondary Agriculture



Isolation of genes and promoters

Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut

Increasing adoption of technologies

Developing GIS based tools for decision making

Empowering women in spices cultivation, processing and value addition

Technology dissemination through Extension aids & Video conferencing

Ex-Post assessment of technologies

Figure 6: Technology transfer and Impact assessment


Village knowledge centers

Providing market intelligence

Technology Incubation Centre

Technology refinement