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Proposal to the recommendations of the regional forum on the role of the professional structures of agricultural, food security and

sustainable production systems, which was held in the city of Nabeul in Tunisia on 3.4 February 20 4

Prof. !"# !$%!"&!'(!N !"# !gri. )conomics

President Arab Union for Sustainable Development & Environment (AUSDE)

______________________________________________ ______ First* the role of ci+il society and the pri+ate sector related to agriculture*
The world has seen , especially in the last two decades of the last century, the growing interest in ci+il society and increase the number of ci+il society organi,ations , and there are many reasons that led to this increase, including* the inability of the state alone to fill the needs of the community and the spread of the democratic system , globali,ation and the collapse of the political systems of totalitarianism and the emergence of political and economic transformations , ha+e become globali,ation imposes itself on e+eryone. #t seemed sector, ci+il society organi,ations, play an acti+e role in society and especially in the field of de+elopment. The study of economic and social contribution to the pri+ate sector studies concern. #t is obser+ed that most of the ci+il society organi,ations in general and agriculture in particular, suffer from some chronic problems, which are as follows* wea-nesses and deficiencies of indi+iduals belonging to such organi,ations in achie+ing an effecti+e role , due to the inability of these indi+iduals to deal with official organi,ations and the pri+ate sector and e+en with other ci+il society organi,ations .

2 the e.istence of deficiencies and se+ere wea-ness in financial resources. 3 sees some indi+iduals belonging to tac- ci+il society organi,ations , that their incomes in those organi,ations is the only way the ideological front , and to achie+e some personal gain , without ha+ing an acti+e role in the re+itali,ation and de+elopment of those ci+ic organi,ations . 4 uncle interesting local go+ernment institutions and the pri+ate sector, the role of these ci+ic organi,ations , because they are carried out some of the policies and plans that opposes clearly and certainly the role of ci+il society organi,ations. The go+ernmental institutions and the pri+ate sector to ta-e from those organi,ations a tool to achie+e some of the goals of its own policy. The relationship between the role of ci+il society organi,ations wor-ing in rural areas and impro+e the /uality of life of rural people is a positi+e relationship and therefore the acceleration of progress, and reduce po+erty and the gap between rural and urban areas and reduce the gap underde+elopment which has become the most prominent features of rural society in de+eloping countries , and acti+ation of popular participation , as it should be that go+ernments adopt alternati+e policies that will ensure that the ci+il rights and economic, social and cultural rights of citi,ens support the rights of citi,ens, economic, social and cultural de+elopment to reduce po+erty and to ensure social security and the pro+ision of ser+ices , social welfare, health and education and to ensure the right to security of land tenure and ade/uate housing . The emphasis on the role of ci+il society need to adopt de+elopment programs focused on rural areas.

0 That the 1nited Nations organi,ations and local go+ernment institutions and the pri+ate sector play an acti+e role through acti+ating the role of ci+il society organi,ations more efficient , by emphasi,ing that in all the discussions and deliberations of formal and informal .


That the focus of 1nited Nations organi,ations to further training and acti+ation of indi+iduals belonging to ci+il society organi,ations to ma-e them more effecti+e, as well as the de+elopment of the art of negotiation for these indi+iduals through their dealings with an organi,ation, international institutions, the official and the local pri+ate sector, so that they can attract the attention, and encouragement to deal with ci+il society organi,ations ci+il. #n order to deepen the partnership with international organi,ations on the basis of mutual respect and transparency, and not inconsistent with the independence of the ci+il organi,ations renewed roles adopted.

30 'as to be the establishment of a special fund to finance ci+il society organi,ations, pro+ided that the financing of this fund local and international organi,ations and the pri+ate sector, in addition to some donors to ser+e ci+il society. 40 )mphasis on pri+ate sector participation and scientific research institutions and uni+ersities in partnership with the ci+il society organi,ations in order to de+elop the local community towards sustainability.

20 To achie+e a /uantum leap in the wor- of ci+il society organi,ations , to support anti0po+erty pro3ects , to encourage them to coordinate and wor- with other parties concerned with issues of po+erty , and the distribution of roles among themsel+es , and ta-e ad+antage of the potential and e.pertise of each other. !nd emphasi,e the importance of strategic planning for pro3ects geared to combat po+erty, and by focusing on one ma3or goal. 40 !pproaching destruction of one of the de+elopmental issues and deal with them in an integrated way, through the achie+ement of the o+erall ad+ancement of the families in poor communities is limited. 50 $uild the capacity of ci+il society organi,ations in the pro3ects , in a line parallel to the implementation of specific pro3ects , and thus attach to each of the associations rehabilitation and capacity building on one side, and the implementation of pro3ects rely on teamwor- from the other side. 60 $uilding bridges between research centers and uni+ersities and by ci+il society organi,ations, on the other hand, with an

emphasis on the importance of including the sub3ect of uni+ersity courses for ci+il wor-. 70 %e+elopment methodologies and studies ci+il society sector to become more effecti+e in the detection of obstacles ci+il action, and propose practical ways to address them.

8econd, food security policies*

F!9 is considered one of the most international and local organi,ations acti+e, which has an effecti+e role and acti+ist, and in the acti+ation of certain policies, food security, through studies, research and food security pro3ects in the world. :here ; Food security e.ists when all people at all times to access , both physical and economic ade/uate food , safe and nutritious food to meet dietary needs and food preferences <ate has an acti+e and healthy life .; #mplicit in this definition is the recognition that food security is a multi 0dimensional , and there ha+e been many formulations of what the components of food security, for e.ample , identified =F8 four -ey dimensions or ; pillars; * is to ensure the a+ailability of , if not the production of sufficient /uantities of materials food and ensures access to all the families and all indi+iduals within those households ha+e enough resources to get the proper foods >through the production , purchase, free ? . !nd ensure a nutritious diet. 1se when the human body is able to absorb and metaboli,e food. %iet nutritious and safe, biological and social en+ironment ade/uate, and appropriate health care to a+oid diseases help to ma-e ade/uate food. #s to ensure stability is maintained when the three pillars of the other with the passage of time. #t has been noted by many e.perts on the need for a column on en+ironmental sustainability , where patterns of production and consumption of food does not deplete natural resources or the ability of the agricultural system to pro+ide enough food and supports many of the countries in the (iddle )ast and North !frica to support the financial year, prices of basic consumer goods , which support was introduced at an earlier stage bac- until :orld :ar ## , but he s-ipped se+eral attempts to fi. it , and since then has ta-en attributes benefits Permanent . The targeted programs are rare. The range of financial support for food prices from a low of 0.04@ in "ebanon and .3 @ in )gypt, (orocco, and e+en 2. @ per cent in 8yria . $ut

the burdens of global support what is spent on supporting energy prices much higher for some countries* 0@ in Aemen 0.7 @ in )gypt, and about 2 @ in (orocco. $y increasing financial support for food prices, and the imposition of price controls, and the reduction of e.ports, lowering import tariffs* for e.ample , has been in (orocco lowering tariffs on wheat to about ,ero , and has also been paying financial support for importers , while allowing )gypt preferential import wheat from different countries . #n some countries, such as "ebanon and )gypt, has increased wages and salaries to help consumers o+ercome the effects of rising prices. The /uestion now is* %oes the rise in food prices to create some opportunities in the long termB (ost of the poor are rural, and can rise in food prices when its continuation for years to help increase the income of the poor in rural areas and mobili,e the economy. The supply of food emoti+e issue, so countries in the region feel a real concern about food security. The rise in prices could help accelerate the increase of producti+ity and increase local agricultural production. 'owe+er, the issue of water is scarce in some areas, which re/uires go+ernments to ta-e action to help increase the efficiency of water use as well. This means an increase crop yields by the unit of water. !n increase in domestic production to help protect countries from the +agaries and fluctuations in commodity mar-ets. $ut countries in the region also will need to continue to rely on imports and on global mar-ets in order to ensure the supply of food. They should strengthen their capacity to use* futures mar-ets, options, futures, and other modern tools in order to help meet the needs of food and hedge against the ris- of the supply side. Co+ernments of de+eloping countries better to encourage small0 scale agriculture in the new global en+ironment, and what form of special and differential treatment may be re/uired to allow them to do soB ;#n many cases, the reforms ha+e been achie+ed; successful ;is not in isolation, but as a result of the implementation of policies associated with them. #n drawing lessons from the reforms that are seen benefiting groups of food insecurity , or which say the least , and you do not ha+e disad+antaged them , so it is important to identify complementary policies that facilitated the process of adaptation to more producti+e acti+ities , and any counter+ailing policies that act to mitigate losses transitional groups is safe and has only faced a clearer understanding of the effects that are often obscured from

trade reform on food security is therefore +ital if the dri+ers of further reform to lead to changes for the benefit of disad+antaged and +ulnerable groups in poor countries . #t is ac-nowledged that reforms in sectors other than agriculture, it could ha+e implications far more important both in terms of po+erty reduction, through changes in income le+els, and food security. #t must focus on the agricultural sector and the impact that could be trade reform in its ability to contribute to the impro+ement of food security in the conte.t of broader structural changes that result from the reforms. This focus 3ustified by e.plaining the multiple ways in which agriculture, which they can identify and promote national food security of households. :hile any trade agreement that alters the balance between trade liberali,ation and the protection of the particular good or ser+ice in the economy, can affect the le+els of food security, reform of the rele+ant agriculture is particularly important for the following reasons* > ? !griculture is one of the central contributors to food security in most de+eloping countriesD both through its direct contribution to the a+ailability of food, and indirectly as the main engine of economic de+elopment and thus impro+e access to food. >2? !griculture is one of the sectors most hea+ily distorted in many countries, and it has, as a result, has recei+ed considerable attention in recent rounds of trade negotiations .

&ecommendation *
0 Need to be food security policies more dynamic and not static, the increasing global +ariables such as climate change, and changes in dietary patterns, and human beha+iors rapidly, in addition to changes in the compositions crop, which re/uires change, food security commodities. 20 Phase that they -ey issues in food security policies and sustainable de+elopment policies. 30 To be in+ol+ed in ci+il society organi,ations and media awareness programs on food security issues in the +arious communities, in coordination with international institutions and local go+ernment and the pri+ate sector.

40 !ttention to some other hubs in addition to the main of food security, such as * !. =oordination and integration with the institutions dealing with food security policies, whether domestic or international, and the in+ol+ement of ci+il society organi,ations. $. )mphasi,ed that there should be an infrastructure in order to maintain a sustainable food security. =. )mphasis on tightening the control and inspection of mar-ets by all means possible. %. The in+ol+ement of community members in the de+elopment of alternati+es to the goods of food security in line with the changing desires of indi+iduals. ). =ontrols critical to the operations of the +arious monopolies, and the reduction of high food prices, both in the case of goods imported or locally produced food. F. Ci+ing ci+il society organi,ations and a strong role in the control of certain mar-ets food security. C. 8ei,e opportunities to achie+e sustainable food security. '. )mphasi,e transparency in the implementation of +arious food securities. #. The fight against corruption in all images in the application of food security policies, in order to reduce the effects of po+erty, hunger and disease. 20=ritical re+iew of what is -nown from e.isting literature and other resources in order to facilitate better targeted research and analysis of de+elopments in trade and food security at the national le+el. 40To pro+ide a conceptual framewor- for understanding how trade liberali,ation and economic reforms rele+ant could affect the national food security at household le+el.

50 Pro+ide a practical framewor- for e+aluating the results of pre+ious policies, and to predict the outcome of future initiati+es, at both the national and the food security of households. 60Pre+ent unhealthy foods , or rationali,ation of consumption , or imposition ta. them , or pro+ide cash support for more nutritious foods , put laws regulating the wor- of the manufacturers, awareness to indi+iduals about these foods . 70 !ddress the problem of food waste , which is now one of the problems most pre+alent in the community , the depletion of natural resources scarce , and en+ironmental costs and the serious economic and social , and there are many effecti+e ways to reduce food waste , which can result in cost sa+ings and en+ironmental benefits in order to create sustainable food system .

Third, production systems, green and sustainable*

8till a lot of community organi,ations, they do not ha+e a strong -nowledge of sustainability. #n simpler terms, is the production of food and fiber , or other plant products using farming techni/ues that protect the en+ironment , public health and human societies , and animal welfare . This type of agriculture enables us to produce food healthy without compromising the ability of future generations ; to follow suit . , !nd the ma3or benefits of sustainable agriculture * the preser+ation of the en+ironment , the protection of public health , support communities +ibrant , sustainable food in the future , the possibility of agricultural and animal production industry. #n spite of the growing international interest in the green economy , and negotiations between the (ember 8tates on this concept in the period leading up to &io E20 and challenge. This is partly due to the lac- of an internationally agreed definition global green economy , and the emergence of terms and concepts are interrelated but different in recent years > such as green growth and de+elopment of low0carbon , sustainable economy , and the economy steady0state , etc.? , the lac- of clarity about what measures include policy green economy , and how they integrate with the priorities and ob3ecti+es related to economic growth and po+erty eradication , as

well as a lac- of e.perience in the design and implementation of national and re+iew of the costs and benefits of green economy policies . The philosophy of organic food production -eeps on certain principles* biodi+ersity, ecological balance, sustainability and natural fertili,ation of plants, and natural pest management, and soil health. 8ince the farms +ary in product and practice, and there is also a wide +ariety in how these principles can be applied. 'owe+er, the production of organic food must meet certain characteristics* F %o grown product which is used in the practice of balance with the natural en+ironment, using methods and materials that reduce the negati+e impact on the en+ironment. =ommitted to organic farms to replicate the ecology of the natural en+ironment through the preser+ation of biodi+ersity and promote healthy soil and growing conditions. F !re produced on land which had been free of chemical pesticides and to.ic pollutants -nown and pro3ected , and fertili,ers for at least three years prior to certification , and synthetic fertili,ers and pesticides are not used in production . F !re planted on a rotational basis within the farm system. =rops are rotated from field to field, instead of planting the same crop in the same place year after year. Planted co+er crops such as clo+er to add nutrients to the soil and pre+ent weeds. F 9rganic meat, poultry and egg products come from farms that use organic feed, no hormones added management to promote growth act naturally.

0 (ust emphasi,e the de+elopment of the concept of sustainability ha+e ci+il society organi,ations, through training and +arious seminars. 20 (erging practice in the design and implementation of national strategies for the green economy by both de+eloped and de+eloping countries in most regions , including !frica, "atin !merica , !sia Pacific and )urope countries. This emerging practice can help to pro+ide some important ideas and clarity much needed on the types of policy measures the green

economy, its scope with regard to the +arious sectors and national priorities, and institutional barriers, ris-s and costs of implementation. 30 Farms sustainable support local economies through the pro+ision of 3ob opportunities for members of the community and buy supplies from local businesses. !lso re/uire more wor-ers sustainable farms and create more 3obs, while you also do a better 3ob of feeding people on smaller pieces of land from industrial plantations. 40 %espite the fact that agricultural subsidies defecti+e part, but the +ital system of go+ernment support for farmers present. :here agriculture is that unli-e most other businesses, because it is costing the farm on an annual basis to borrow money to co+er operating costs, with the hope that their crop generates profits co+ers borrowing costs high for most farmers. This is because of the weather, and the spread of pests, financial speculation, and agriculture is also highly +olatile business.


FarmersG mar-ets and food cooperati+es, and community supported agriculture programs continue to grow in popularity, ma-ing the local cuisine in a sustainable manner that produces more a+ailable. These programs offer consumers a chance to put their dollars directly into the poc-ets of farmers, cutting out middlemen and cooperation and strengthening regional food system.

40 #ncrease sustainable food production from consumers concerned, to ta-e responsible choices. $y purchasing sustainable foods from local farms or groceries shops, leads to support the farmers who raise food responsibly and acti+ely encourage the growth of a more sustainable diet. #nstead of gi+ing money to the industrial sector, agriculture, and gi+e it to sustainable farms. !nd buy food directly in farmersG mar-ets.

Fourth, rural women*

Through many different studies and research shows that rural women are less li-ely than urban women, due to lac- of education

and lac- of potential for them to opportunities such as urban women. !lthough rural women ha+e an acti+e role prominent and acti+e in rural areas, ma-ing it more acti+e than urban women, especially in de+eloping and poor countries.

0 To emphasi,e the growing rural women, through glances role, and it is not less effecti+e for urban women. 20 !ttention and focus on the -ey issues faced by the rural women, such as women 0headed households, and womenGs health, education, and acti+ate the role of de+elopment in rural areas, and the emphasis on the role of positi+e and effecti+e in the de+elopment of society, and it is a tool of local food security and self. 30 )mphasis on further studies which aim to detect the acti+ity of women in the organi,ations of ci+il society rural pri+ate, and in the ci+il society organi,ations in general, is part of the struggle and the struggle of women to participate in the de+elopment of their communities, and for the defense of the rights of the other side. 40 &ole in the formulation of the social mo+ements of women in many countries, where it was parallel channels to influence the policy0ma-ing process and decision0ma-ing.

Prof. !"# !$%!"&!'(!N !"# !gri. )conomics

President Arab Union for Sustainable Development & Environment (AUSDE) Arab Republi of Eg!pt "obile# $%$$&'(&)&* +el# ,-$..-%,* /a0# ,-$..-%, E1mail# ail_aa,,2!mail. om