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Contaminant - Anything in the water deleterious to a particular end use regardless of its origin whether it occurs in the watershed

source or in a water supply

Pollutant- Anything in the water deleterious to a particular end use that is of anthropogenic origin o Subset of contaminant

Water pollution: chemical, biological, or physical change in water quality that has negative effects on living organisms.

Types of pollution o Pollutions of streams and lakes o Ocean pollution o Groundwater pollution o Drinking water quality o Waste water treatment o Water legislation

Sources of pollution: o Point-factories, sewage treatment plants, mines, oil wells, etc. o Nonpoint- acid deposition, substances picked up in runoff, seepage into groundwater

Disease-causing Agents pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents organic waste: manure Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals acids, toxic metals Inorganic Plant Nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus Organic Chemical oil, pesticides, detergents

Sediment or Suspended Material erosion, soil Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes radon uranium Heat electric and nuclear power plants Genetic Pollution Waterborne Bacteria-Disease symptoms usually are explosive emissions from either end of the digestive tract

Guinea Worms-People are infected by drinking water that contain the larvae in a tiny freshwater crustacean called Cyclops, year later, larvae mature into 3 feet worms that emerge through skin blisters

Groundwater pollution o Groundwater pollution Greater threat to humans that much more visible surface water pollution Groundwater renewed slowly 25% usable groundwater contaminated in U.S Difficult to clean up contaminated groundwater

o Prevention Reduce sources that feed into the aquifer Monitor aquifers near landfills Require leak detection system Ban or strictly regulate disposal of wastes

Effects of Sediment Loadingo Destruction of spawning beds o Adsorption and transport of other pollutants

o Reduced light penetration, aquatic vegetation o Greater nutrients loadings, oxygen demand o Interference with navigation, flood control, recreation, industry Pollution of Streams and Lakeso water pollution laws of 1970s greatly increased number and quality of wastewater treatment plants in U.S o large fish kills and contamination of drinking water still occur, especially in developing countries o Lakes, reservoirs and ponds more vulnerable to contamination than streams because of less mixing and aeration. Effects of Oil Spills o Volatile Organic Compounds immediately kill many of the aquatic organisms (especially plankton and larvae) and contaminate fish o Floating oil coats birds and ocean mammal o Heavy oil sinks to ocean bottom and washes into estuaries o Oil slicks on beaches harm intertidal life DDT was a widely used pesticide that became concentrated in ocean fish