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Three strata of subject matter or meaning
Panofsky made important contributions to the study of iconography, including his interpretation of Jan van Eyck's Arnolfini Portrait (1434, pictured).
but as the product of a historical environment. For example. Mark such an important saint to the patron of this work?‖ Essentially. Working in this stratum. a Western viewer would understand that the painting of 13 men around a table would represent the Last Supper. it is the art historian asking "what does it all mean?" For Panofsky. and search for. Similarly. as no previous historian had. "it was this insistence on. this stratum consists of perception of the work’s pure form. Mark. If we stopped at this first stratum. a representation of a haloed man with a lion could be interpreted as a depiction ofSt.In Studies in Iconology Panofsky details his idea of three levels of art-historical understanding: Primary or natural subject matter: The most basic level of understanding. It looks at art not as an isolated incident. it was important to consider all three strata as one examines Renaissance art. this last stratum is a synthesis. meaning—especially in places where no one suspected there was any—that led Panofsky to understand art." . such a picture could only be perceived as a painting of 13 men seated at a table. devoid of any added cultural knowledge. and cultural history into the understanding of a work. Take. Irving Lavin says. as an intellectual endeavor on a par with the traditional liberal arts. the art historian can ask questions like ―why did the artist choose to represent The Last Supper in this way?‖ or ―Why was St. a painting of the Last Supper. Tertiary or intrinsic meaning or content (iconology): This level takes into account personal. This first level is the most basic understanding of a work. technical. for example. Secondary or conventional subject matter (iconography): This stratum goes a step further and brings to the equation cultural and iconographic knowledge.
panel pictures of Christ or a Saint. Obviously.gril. 1986. due to the influence of Erwin Panofsky (1892 . Iconology: Image. At this stage you should read the generally accepted definition of iconography in Paul Duro & Michael Greenhalgh's Essential Art History. a period. at this level a Renaissance image of a man struck in the eye with an arrow from a crossbow might be apprehended beyond its horrific expressional value as representational of. W.qualified by one personality and condensed into one work. It is apprehended by ascertaining those underlying principles which reveal the basic attitude of a nation. Panofsky understood iconology to be more than a search for symptoms. Factual and expressional apprehension will vary greatly.univ-tlse2.Mitchell. Pioneering art historians of this century such as Aby Warburg (1866 . just as viewer with experience of battle might react very differently to those without such experience. Its original meaning as a study of icons. concepts or conventional meaning.1968). T.fr/Proimago/LogiCoursimage/panofsky. Art historians today accept the term iconography as referring to the description and classification of images. Afterall. However. The second dealt with the domain of iconography. is still retained in some contemporary religious contexts. This might suggest they are synonyms and they are commonly used as such in describing the study of art images. The third.30) This privileging of individual personality may no longer read like a red cape to a bull in the postMarxist world of art history but it remains problematic.http://w3. Panofsky explained such divisions as factual and expressional. iconography can be a confusing term.1929). if only for its distinct scent of popular psychology. although we can readily understand the expressions of pain and anguish on the faces of wounded soldiers. Importantly. Importantly. Greek Orthodox for example. of Chicago Press. Text. an expert on ancient weaponry will identify a great variety of motifs. but Panofsky attempted to explain a distinction between the terms iconography and iconology. [I have intentionally overlooked here a recent attempt by William Mitchell to reinvent the term iconology .] Erwin Panofsky's explanation of Iconography and Iconology. Such recognition would be made possible because of a knowledge of Renaissance treatises on perspective and similar or related images. Fritz Saxl (1890 . or an allegory for. for example. The first was simple identification through familiarity. through comprehensive iconographical knowledge to a final underlying principle or conclusion. Furthermore. depending on experience. (iconology is not listed separately) and in Robert Belton's Words on Art. but an exhaustive interpretation from technical knowledge of art production. That is: the linking of artistic motifs with themes. the intrinsic meaning or content of the work was apprehended.htm In a dictionary definition you will find iconography described as the study of traditional images or symbols and iconology with a similar definition as the study of icons or artistic symbolism.1948) and Ernst Gombrich used the term iconology in the broad sense of an interpretative study of images with the implication that such a study included an iconographic collation of sources.. a class. the symbolic . there is often a distinction made between the two terms with iconology referring specifically to the interpretation of images. It is worth quoting Panofsky directly here as he explains this intrinsic meaning. a religious or philosophical persuasion . Aby Warburg was the first to describe "the science of art history" as iconology. in 1912. For Panofsky the study of art objects and images could be systematized into three levels. most contentious level of interpretation was iconological. (p. At this deepest level. we can only identify and name weapons such as crossbows with which we are familiar. For example. from about the seventeenth century iconography was used in a secular context as a noun to describe a collection of portraits. Looking at a painting of an historical battle scene. Ideology. the power of linear perspective. Univ. J.
II Secondary or conventional Iconographical subject matter. while the third. 1996 pp. III Intrinsic meaning or Iconological content.1971). analysis stories andallegories. (for every intuitive approach will be conditioned by the interpreter's psychology and "Weltanschauung" p. conditioned by personal psychology and "Weltanschauung" This separation of levels was only intended as an explanation of a process which he understood would be fully integrated and ultimately shot through with intuition or specifically "synthetic intuition" as he termed it. T&H. (B) expressional . Even the first stage of factual or natural apprehension has been made to seem a naive concept. 41 (originally published in 1939 in Studies in Iconology) ACT OF INTERPRETAT ION Preiconographical description (and pseudo-formal analysis) CORRECTIVE PRINCIPLE OF INTERPRETATION (Hist. was beyond the sphere of conscious volition. the literal thematic. The first two levels of meaning.pp. Nevertheless." [See: Rudolf Wittkower Allegory and the Migration of Symbols. Synthetic intuition (familiarity with the essential tendencies of the human mind). radically differ from the conscious intention of the artist. In a recent critique of Panofsky's methodology. 1974 . Stephen Bann quotes Jonathan Crary's theories on the changing role of the observer to dismiss Panofsky's idea of an "innocent eye". 40. under varying historical conditions specific themes or concepts were expressed by objects and events). Iconological interpretation was not related to study of intentionality (or what the artist intended to express). The essay Interpretation of Visual Symbols extends Panofsky's three levels of interpretation to four: "literal representational. Nelson and Richard Shiff eds. Critical Terms for Art History. constituting the world of images.interpretation of perspective as an arrow in the eye by Renaissance artists almost demands a conclusion about the attitudes to science in that age. Meaning in the Visual Arts. of Tradition) History of style (insight into the manner in which. were phenomenal. History of cultural symptoms or "symbols" in general (insight into the manner in which. He claimed "symbolical" values might. you might read a short essay by Rudolf Wittkower (1901 . Panofsky summarised the three levels in a chart. A test which Crary's theories have yet to pass. History of types (insight into the manner in which. [See: Stephen Bann Meaning/Interpretation (Chapter Seven) in Robert S. shown below. intrinsic meaning. Such an interpretation of the "symbolical" values of the Renaissance would make a perfect example of an iconological study as Panofsky conceived of the term. 1977 Chapter 14 pp.174 - . 87-100] -copy in Short Loans in Huxley Library. University of Newcastle. essential tendencies of the human mind were expressed by specific themes OBJECT OF INTERPRETATION I Primary or natural subject matter .(A) factual. constituting the interpretation world of "symbolical" values. Knowledge of literary sources (familiarity with specific themesand conc epts). under varying historical conditions.constituting the world of artistic motifs EQUIPMENT FOR INTERPRETATION Practical experience (familiarity with objects and events). The pre-iconographic description and iconographical levels are important correctives or controls since every interpretation will be subjective and to more or less degrees irrational. although he fails to acknowledge the inevitable fragility of any theory when tested against time. multiple and expressive meaning. the natural and iconographical. Iconography and Iconology -Synoptical table from Panofsky. under varying historical conditions. in fact. iconographic knowledge was the core of Panofsky's method and probably the only feature left untarnished by modern scholars. a friend of Panofsky and enthusiastic follower of his iconological approach.38). For the sake of balance.objects and event s were expressed by forms).
195 . Not so much to keep the integrity of the original.. who worked with Panofsky in their formative years as art historians. In all versions of the story. but to fully indicate the level of scholarship involved in the process. the Virtues evaporate to the heavens and only Hope is caught by the lid and remains. [See: "The Vast Disorder of Objects: Photography and the Demise of Formalist Aesthetics". when Pandora.205] For an intelligent brief summary of Panofsky's general art historical methodology. or sometimes her husband Epimetheus.org/panofskye.24] As Stephen Bann acknowledged. Only in Italy. 1991 pp. 17 and 18.dictionaryofarthistorians. opens the box or vessel to release upon humanity all forms of Vice. University of Newcastle. In a collection of essays published as a Centennial Commemoration of Erwin Panofsky. which describes a single image.187] .Meaning in the Visual Arts: Views from the Outside . does the phrase "vaso di Pandora" exist today as it is now taken for granted that Pandora opened a small box. After reading this extract you may wish to read more on the myth of Pandora by visiting the the Perseus site. 1961) and therefore makes reference to material from earlier chapters. in the essay quoted above. was the publication by Erasmus of Rotterdam of Adagiorum chiliades tres (1508) "one of the world's most popular and influential books" [ p15]. Also relevant. not a box.181 . Before. (Zone Books) New York. the sustaining power of Panofsky's writing was based on his skill and diligence in digging out the iconographic and literary sources that would unearth the meaning of a picture. Erasmus replaced the pithos with a pyxis or small container in his now accepted version of the story. There is a reference to "the Erasmian pyxis" that relates to their chapter two in which they explain the"Origin of the Box" since in the original classical version of the Pandora story she opened a pithos or large vessel or storage vase. The origin of the box version. Wendy Steiner makes the telling observation that in the contemporary world of photographic images it is virtually impossible to remove an image from its particular social context. Figures 1. After reading this extract from Pandora's Box. 1995 pp. This is best illustrated by reading an extract from Dora and Erwin Panofsky's study of the mythical symbol of Pandora's Box in which they analyze a drawing by Rosso Fiorentino. (Phaidon Press) London. [see: Erwin Panofsky. Speculative fantasies about the meaning of a painting might seem more poetic or interesting than a reasoned analysis based on iconographic and literary sources but such is not the case. The file will take a little time to load as it opens with the image under discussion. Ross Woodrow and The University of Newcastle --All Rights Reserved http://www.copy in Short Loans in Huxley Library.htm . you start I will put the extract in context since it is written as the opening to chapter nd five of their book Pandora's Box (2 ed. 1995 pp. in Irving Lavin ed. Copyright � 1999. if you have a particular interest in the development of art historical methodology. This is a skill that every student must develop and it is built on the acquisition of a comprehensive knowledge of the history of pictorial representation. 2 and 3 were numbered respectively in the original as 16. we will look at an extract by Fritz Saxl. I have included the original footnotes.183. Perspective as Symbolic Form. Put another way: our interpretation of the photograph is so intertwined with its "expressional" (to use Panofsky's term) relationships that we can never abandon our emotional attachment to penetrate below the first level of analysis. is Christopher Wood's introduction to his translation of Panofsky's 1927 essay on Perspective as Symbolic Form. although I have changed the figure numbering. see: Eric Fernie Art History and its Methods: a critical anthology .7 . Princeton. it was shown.
witty. built around Cassirer's neo-Kantian theories of "symbolic forms. centered around Warburg's Institute (see Warburg entry).Panofsky. William Hecksher. In 1924. Instead. the Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Warburg and teaching at New York University. 1968 Place died: Princeton. Panofsky. receiving his Abitur in 1910 at the Joachimsthalsche Gymnasium. known as "Pan" Date born: March 30. a dazzling blend of personal theoretics and wide-ranging knowledge of Renaissance art and thought. who was filling in for Georg Loeschcke). Panofsky was the son of Arnold Panofsky (d. an analysis of the Arnolfini portrait by Jan van Eyck. acerbic. He married Dorothea "Dora" Mosse (1885-1965). The decade of the 1920s was one of brilliant writing. The Nazis' assumption of power in Germany forced Jews out of academic positions. in 1916. he attended the seminars of the medievalist Adolph Goldschmidt in Berlin. philology and art history in Jura.” (1925) demonstrate Panofsky's theoretical heritage to Cassirer and Aloïs Riegl. the manuscript only rediscovered in 2012. his book Idea was published. Panofsky returned to Germany in the summer of 1933 to supervise oral examinations and dissertations for his remaining students before permanently emigrated to the United States in 1934. His topic. developed an immediate student following. In 1920 his habilitation was accepted in Hamburg on the topic of Michelangelo. 1892 Place Born: Hanover. Panofsky was at once enamored and wrote his dissertation under Vöge in 1914. Wilhelm Vöge.” (1920) and “Über das Verhaltnis der Kunstgeschichte zur Kunsttheorie. Panofsky paid a visit to the United States representing Warburg's think tank. In Hamburg. His first graduate student was Edgar Wind. a slightly older student. Dürer's artistic theory (Dürers Kunsttheorie: vornehmlich in ihrem Verhaltnis zur Kunsttheorie der Italiener) was published the following year in Berlin as Die Theoretische Kunstlehre Albrecht Dürers. conceited genius" according to one student. He developed an intimate intellectual circle with Fritz Saxl with whom he published a 1923 monograph on Dürer's Melencholia I. Because of horse-riding accident. He published his most famous article. His habilitation in hand. Germany Date died: March 14." In the academic year 1931-1932. He spent the years 1910-1914 studying philosophy. a "young. In 1927 he published Perspektive als symbolische Form. New Jersey Warburg Institute and Institute for Advanced Study art historian. and the philosopher and art theorist Ernst Cassier. wealthy Jews whose fortune came from Silesian mining. He was raised in Berlin. a discussion of the ideas of the intellect vis-àvis the imitations of the world of perception. took Panofsky to hear a lecture by the founder of the art history department. His overt intelligence won him the first full professor of art history at Hamburg (ordentlicher Professor) in 1926. Panofsky was called to chair the art history department of the newly established University of Hamburg in 1920. and in Munich. major exponent of iconography to American scholars. Panofsky formed part of a group of cultural intellectuals. 1914) and Caecilie Solling (Panofsky). Kurt Badt. Berlin (where he heard lectures of the art historian Margarete Bieber. he was exempt from military service during World War I. While taking courses at Freiburg Universität. “Der Begriff des Kunstwollens. Aby Warburg. Erwin. in the Burlington Magazine . also an art historian from a wealthy family. Two early papers.
Ursula Hoff. His 1943 book on Albrecht Dürer. His lectures there resulted in the 1964 book Tomb Sculpture. Mostly Iconographic in 1969. Primarily a scholar of medieval and northern Renaissance art. By the time he had settled in Princeton. Robert A. and Walter W. Panofsky's move from Hamburg to the United States coincided with a methodological transformation. 93). but not as faculty. died in 1965 and the 73-year-old Panofsky married the 36-year-old art historian Gerda Soergel [Sörgel] (b. Panofsky's posthumous literary output continued for twenty years. W. In 1939 Panofsky published Studies in Iconology: Humanist Themes in the Art of the Renaissance." his methodology was diverse and is difficult to summarize. His wife.1929) the following year. These included Heckscher in 1936." (Moxey. Among the book's many revelations was the discovery that the famous Arnolfini double portrait by Jan van Eyck was a wedding document. Horn. In 2012. He presented Gottesman lectures at Uppsala University which appeared in 1960 as the book Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art. Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism appeared in 1951. thought to have been lost was discoverd at the Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte in files of the founding director. a book about Parisian architectural relationships with the principles of a scholastic summa. Louis Grodecki in 1951. in addition to Heckscher and Wind. NJ. argued for the distinction between iconology and iconography. Princeton. he is most frequently . Rensselaer Lee. he experimented with various approaches to his subject. He retired from the Institute emeritus in 1963 and was succeeded by Millard Meiss. Panofsky’s many students. It was a detailed iconographical study demonstrating how works of visual realism could incorporate elaborate Christian symbolism convincingly. Early Netherlandish Painting. H. among other essays. In Panofsky's early career. Panofsky's work at the Institute for Advanced Study attracted other art historians to study with him. His 1947-1948 Charles Eliot Norton lectures at Harvard appeared as the 2volume monograph on northern Renaissance art.-Denis. a private research center near Princeton University created so that Jewish scholars (primarily) could work near the University. The lectures posed the (now) generally accepted notion that smaller "renaissances" (re-births) of the classical happened periodically in medieval art and literature before the major one in Italy. Ingeborg Fraenckel Auerbach. Wolfgang Panofsky (1919-2007). Janson. Abbot Suger on the Abbey Church of St. his habilitation. Ludwig H. combined many of his published ideas on the artist together with a sharp intuitive eye to Dürer’s prints. p. His collected essays appeared in 1995. Panofsky became the first permanent professor of the School of Historical Studies of the newly founded Institute for Advanced Study. His papers are housed at the Archives of American Art. Edgar Breitenbach. Gerda Panofsky-Soergel continued to update his Abbot Suger book. Washington. was a Manhattan-Project physicist and Nobel-Prize winner. DC. Two years later he suffered a series of heart attacks and died. A son. Heydenreich Though Panofsky is considered the "ur-iconologist. in 1946. Koch. After a year teacing at New York University. book which. chair of the Department of Art and Archaeology at Princeton University from 1956. Jan van Gelder. in 1953. Dora. 1953. and Léon "Bob" Delaissé in 1959.the same year. he had arrived at the "conviction that the methodological problems with which he had once grappled had been successfully resolved. The six Wrightsman lectures he delivered at the Metropolitan Museum of Art were issued as Problems in Titian. included Hugo Buchthal. Lotte Brand Philip Foerster. Panofsky was immediately appointed Samuel Morse Professor of Fine Arts at New York University. Panofsky next issued a primary-source document and commentary on the Abbot Suger and the founding of the Gothic style. convinced Panofsky to begin teaching regularly at the University as well.
2nd ed. what Germain Bazin characterized as “the work of art as a ‘symptom’” (Bazin 217). Eugene. New York: Holt. Chicago: American Library Association. matching the subject-matter of works of art to a symbolic syntax of meaning drawn from literature and other art works. 142. 18. 501." Art Journal 28 no. However. 637 (April 1956): 110-116. Research Guide to the History of Western Art. 66-7." in. ed. "Panofsky's 'Early Netherlandish Painting'-I. see:] [review of Panofsky book] Pächt. p. 540. March 21. Another acknowledged debt was to Riegl. 1985." The Burlington Magazine 98. Panofsky himself had mixed feelings about the success of his method (Cassidy). pp. Paris: Albin Michel. Berlin: Gebrüder Mann. . Rinehart and Winston. 216-225. Heckscher. 1982. The Critical Historians of Art. Panofsky was a broad thinker (in the tradition of Cassirer) whose work evolved over a period of time. 61-2. His use of iconology as the principle tool of art analysis brought him critics. Erwin. NY: Cornell University Press. His work broadened into a theory of iconology. 70 cited. no.associated with the concept of iconography. 55-6. no. pp. 51 n. pp. pp. de Vasari à nos jours. Tagebücher und Briefe. pointed out in a celebrated book review in 1956 using the case of the van Eyck Arnolfini and his Wife painting. p. A Commerative Gathering for Erwin Panofsky at the Institute of Fine Arts. 73. LS Home Country: Germany/ United States Sources: [the literature on Panofsky is legion. 4. New York University in Association with the Institute for Advanced Study. Heinrich. 104. van Gelder criticized Panofsky’s iconology as putting too much emphasis on the symbolic content of the work of art. 493. Podro. the Vienna art historian. New Haven: Yale University Press. Panofsky and the Foundations of Art History. English. [regarding Panofsky's years with Vöge:] Panofsky. Germain. In 1946. Bazin. Wölfflin. He contended that theories of proportion were generally too elaborate to be applied uniformly to actual works of art. Michael. The conceptual framework of any period. neglecting its formal aspects and the work as a unity of form and content. 1986. W. the Austrian art historian who espoused the notion of Kunstwollen. Otto. Ithaca. 62 n." Tribute to Lotte Brand Philip: Art Historian and Detective. is always subservient to the underlying the style of the art. 1968. 1864-1945: Autobiographie. 1958. William. A scholar who rejoiced in learning and his own mastery. W. Eugene. Histoire de l'histoire de l'art. Michael Ann. Panofsky’s notion of perspective as a metaphor in Renaissance art occupied his thinking for an extended period (and resulted in at least one full book). Ernest.. Kunstgeschichte als Institution: Studien zur Geschichte einer Diziplin. he wrote. 9. Heckscher. mentioned. Panofsky's iconology did not preclude a sensitivity for formal considerations or style. "Wilhelm Vöge: A Biographical Memoir. Princeton University 28 (1969): 8. Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts. Dilly. pp. 178-208. ix-xxxii. he wrote at times to his medievalist colleagues in Latin (Hourihan). Panofsky's conclusions on this double portrait were essentially overturned in 1998 by Lorne Campbell. William S. Kleinbauer. Hassold. Heinrich. New York: Abaris Books. Otto Pächt. 1971. 100-101. that iconology would elucidate this important work very little. 1982. Basel: Schwabe & Co. In particular. 1979. Bildhauer des Mittelalters: Gesammelte Studien von Wilhelm Vöge. Kleinbauer. 2. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. "Vorwort. Record of the Art Museum. 1984. "Reminiscences of Lotte Brand Philip. Holly. 1984. pp. 1 (Fall 1968): 27-37. Joseph Ganter. Heinrich Wölfflin. 13-19. Sources of Information in the Humanities. Indeed.
p. 1939. 1943." Kenyon Review 6 (1944): 201-36. Erwin Panofsky: Korrespondenz 1910 bis 1968. Leipzig and Berlin: B. William." Burlington Magazine 64 (1934): 117-27. G. 1946. published. and Saxl. 90-102. Erwin. Brenden. Insights and Interpretations: Studies in Celebration of the Eighty-fifth Anniversary of the Index of Christian Art. 484-497. ed. p. Cassady.-Denis and its Art Treasures." in Hourihan. NY: Cornell University Press. 2001. Metzler Kunsthistoriker Lexikon: zweihundert Porträts deutschsprachiger Autoren aus vier Jahrhunderten. 32. 1925/25: 258-330. 1927. 1999. "Perspective. The Iconography of Correggio's Camera di San Paolo. 23-24 March 1990. Wormald. Perspective as Symbolic Form." Vorträge der Bibliothek Warburg. Keith. 2 vols." Times (London) April 2. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Princeton. New York: Continuum. 1988. 5 vols. besonders in ihrem Verhältnis zu denen Raffaels. Studies in Iconology: Humanistic Themes in the Art of the Renaissance. Cambridge. Leipzig: B. 1989. [dissertation:] Dürers Kunsttheorie: vornehmlich in ihrem Verhaltnis zur Kunsttheorie der Italiener. De Gruyter. Latrobe. Albrecht Dürer. "Prof Erwin Panofsky." Metropolitan Museum Studies 4 (1932-33): 228-80." College Art Journal 1 (1942): 69. Teubner. 1914. . Landauer. published separately. Early Netherlandish Painting: Its Origins and Character. vol. Moxey. Die Perspektive als symbolische Form. pp. Die deutsche Plastik des elften bis dreizehnten Jahrhunderts. "Renaissance and Renascences. Hercules am Scheidewege und andere antike Bildstoffe in der neueren Kunst. Ulrike. vol. Panofsky. [habilitation:] Die Gestaltungsprincipien Michelangelos. "Classical Mythology in Medieval Art. English. Fritz. "Der Begriff der Kunstwollens. Colum. Dies. pp. Dieter. Princeton University. NJ: Princeton University Press. Carl. G. New York: Zone Books. Art and History. 1993. Wolff. ed. Iconography and the Index of Christian Art. Teubner. 10." Chapter IV of The Practice of Persuasion: Paradox and Power in Art History. Ithica. "A Memoir of Erwin Panofsky. 2001. 280. Cassierer. MA: MIT Press. Dieter. Bibliography: [correspondence:] Wuttke. Abbot Suger on the Abbey Church of St. "Die Perspektive als symbolische Form. lxi-lxv. Leipzig and Berlin: B. Teubner. 1924. pp. "Einleitung: Erwin Panofskys Leben und Werke (1892 bis 1968). G. Princeton. 1953. 294-99. Versatile Art Historian and Princeton Institute Scholar. NJ: Index of Christian Art. 1 Wiesband: Harrassowitz. [abstract of a paper delivered] "Traffic Accidents in the Relation between Texts and Pictures. Biographisches Handbuch deutschsprachiger Kunsthistoriker im Exil: Leben und Werk der unter dem Nationalsozialismus verfolgten und vertriebenen Wissenschaftler. 1924. and Saxl. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 2 vols. 2. Colum. 1951. 1968. Wuttke.. "They Stand on His Shoulders: Morey. Heckscher. Teubner.und typengeschichtliche Untersuchungen. New Haven: Yale University Press. Munich: Saur. Wendland." Erwin Panofsky Korrespondez. eine kommentierte Auswahl in fünf Bänden. pp. Fritz. 2002. Munich: K. 2000. [obituaries:] "Erwin Panofsky.German Essays on Art History. Idea: Ein Beitrag zur Begriffsgeschichte der alteren Kunsttheorie Leipzig/Berlin: B. Garden City. 1920. 1930 [his first iconographical study]. Dürer's "Melancholia I": Eine quellen. 1991. 1995. Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism. NJ: Index of Christian Art/Princeton University Press. Francis. Stuttgart: Metzler. "Jan van Eyck's Arnolfini Portrait. p. Gert Schiff. 2 vols. and Warburg: Symbol. Iconography at the Crossroads: Papers from the Colloquium Sponsored by the Index of Christian Art. "Erwin Panofsky and the Renascence of the Renaissance. Hamburg. ed. 1968. Three Essays on Style. 2014." Renaissance Quarterly 47 (Summer 1994): 255-281. Meaning in the Visual Arts. Freiburg. PA: Archabbey Press. Historian of art. pp. G. Princeton University. MA: Harvard University Press. 1999. Princeton. 1955. New York: Oxford University Press. NY: Doubleday. Cambridge. Panofsky and the Philosophy of History. 1923." New York Times March 16. ed. ix-xxxi. 11." in Panofsky." Zeitschrift für Ästhetik und allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft 14 (1920): 321-29. Hourihan.
2 vols. New York: New York University Press.edu/people/panofsky/work . Saturn and Melancholy: Studies in the History of Natural Philosophy. "The Ideological Antecedents of the Rolls-Royce Radiator. 1969. Subject's name: Erwin Panofsky Our Organization: Mission & history | Contact us | Terms & Conditions of Use | © Dictionary of Art Historians ." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 107 (1963): 273-88. Tomb Sculpture: Four Lectures on Its Changing Aspects from Ancient Egypt to Bernini. Janson. 1960.London. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. Fritz. Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art.ias.All Rights Reserved. 1964. Problems in Titian. London: Nelson. Edited for publication by Raymond Klibansky. Edited by Horst W. 1964. and Saxl. https://www. 1961. Mostly Iconographic. New York: Abrams. Religion and Art.
and many other subjects. First. both in the visual arts and beyond.Erwin Panofsky's Work Although his interests were wideranging. 1943) is. or its iconology. and Perseus Books/Westview Press. "You have to write when written to. 1955ff. 1972ff. the primary (or natural) subject matter. and search for. meaning – especially in places where no one suspected there was any – that led Panofsky to understand art. was the pure form of a work. he drove from his home on Battle Road to his office at the Institute each morning to answer his business mail and dictate to his secretary whatever manuscript he was currently working on." he would always say. Panofsky also focused on the secular iconography of the Renaissance.. early Dutch and Flemish book illumination. In the afternoons at home." The book was taken from Panofsky's 1947-48 Charles Eliot Norton lectures at Harvard.). according to Keith P. 1939ff. reading." A man known for his remarkable memory.. "a work that effectively transformed scholarly thinking about this period and place of artistic production. thinking. In his later years. Panofsky devoted much of his career to the study of the German Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528). and was a detailed iconographical study demonstrating how the realism in fifteenth century Northern paintings could be called Christian symbolism in disguise.). Moxey Working on "Ovide moralisé" in verse in Stockholm Photo courtesy of Gerda Panofsky in The Practice of Persuasion: Politics and Paradox in Art History. ". the result of a lifetime of looking.it was this insistence on. Panofsky was diligent about answering all of his correspondence. German sculpture and painting of the eleventh through fifteenth centuries. as an intellectual endeavor on a par with the traditional liberal arts.F. and making connections. as no previous historian had. minus the Handlist. The work has been republished many times. he would reply by hand to any personal correspondence. there was the intrinsic meaning of the work. In Studies in Iconology: Humanistic Themes in the Art of the Renaissance (Oxford University Press. . 1953) was. One of his most enduring books was Meaning in the Visual Arts: Papers in and on Art History (Doubleday. the iconography. His doctoral dissertation dealt with Dürers Kunsttheorie (Berlin. Panofsky explained his concept of three levels of understanding in art. under the title The Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer. 1915). and his monumental twovolume monographAlbrecht Dürer (Princeton University Press. a collection of his most significant articles and essays on a variety of subjects. then came the secondary or conventional subject matter. finally. Panofsky's two-volume Early Netherlandish Painting (Harvard University Press. according to Victor Cassidy of artnet magazine. According to Irving Lavin.
a specialist in Renaissance and Baroque art. created in 1842 by Friedrich Wilhelm IV to honor prominent artists and scientists. the German government presented him with the Orden Pour le Mérite für Wissenschaften und Künste. Copyright ©2014 Institute for Advanced Study. "It is good to recall. and. that in an earlier crisis two American institutions were sufficiently perceptive. one of a number of commemorative gatherings was Photo courtesy of Gerda Panofsky held at the NYU Institute of Fine Arts. sufficiently bold (because America is not entirely cosmopolitan) to bring this man to us and to offer him a life appropriate to his gifts. in 2002 with the appointment of Kirk Varnedoe." The author of dozens of books in both German and English. with Yve-Alain Bois. a new era in our discipline in the United States was initiated by a scholar. Former Institute Professor (1958-75) Millard Meiss was among them. outlawed in Germany because of his Jewish family tradition. Einstein Drive. and. most recently. comical coincidence. and in 1967. New Jersey 08540 USA (609) 734-8000 | Contact Us Erwin Panofsky's Legacy . His wife Gerda accompanied him to the presentation ceremonies in Munich.Erwin Panofsky Following his death in 1968. In 1962. especially in our present troubled time. and Panofsky spoke in German on German soil for the first time since he had emigrated. The art historical tradition begun at the Institute with Panofsky was continued with the faculty appointment in 1958 of Meiss. I must add. and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a number of other national and international academies and societies. Panofsky was a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy. Princeton. in 1973 with the appointment of Lavin. a specialist on Late Medieval manuscript painting in Burgundy. a specialist in twentieth-century European and American art. who joined the Faculty in 2005. a specialist in Modern art. with prominent scholars in the field of art history in attendance. he received the Haskins Medal of The Medieval Academy of America. "Through a mad." said Meiss that day.
and Francis Wormald. "It was not an artistic urge that gave rise to the discovery and gradual perfection of a new technique. especially that of Mozart. Hanns Swarzenski. He examined motion pictures in an entirely new way. Panofsky was fluent in Latin. who wrote the influential textbook History of Art. Among the significant figures who studied with Panofsky was H.. Honoré de Balzac. on whose compositions he was a connoisseur. and Italian. Others who worked with Panofsky held leading positions in the field. French. Chief Curator of the Freer Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution and Consultative Chairman of the Islamic Department of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. Many of them went on to occupy distinguished positions in the field.Photo from the Lotte Jacobi Archives Courtesy of the University of New Hampshire The founder of the modern academic subject of iconology. Of the cinema. as well as the poetry of Eduard Mörike and the nonsensical verses of Christian Morgenstern. Director of the Fogg Art Museum. Janson. countless numbers of whom studied with him. Panofsky instilled a love of diverse subjects in those who knew him. He knew many lines of Dante. He loved above all the novels of Jean Paul. Richard Ettinghausen. Director of the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm. and Theodor Fontane. and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe by heart. he said. For relaxation at bedtime. Director of the Los Angeles County Museum. W. he indulged in the detective stories of Georges Simenon (in French. Panofsky inspired generations of art historians. it was a technical invention that gave rise to the discovery and gradual perfection of a new art. Coolidge. Through his writings and teachings. Jr. Curator of Decorative Arts and Sculpture at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. Shakespeare. of course). Panofsky left a legacy both through his writings and through the work of those who learned from him. Carl Nordenfalk. Director of the Institute of Historical Research at the University of London. John P." Panofsky by Philip Pearlstein Institute for Advanced Study . including James Henry Breasted. His passions were music. and belletristic literature. familiar to most college students who have taken an introductory art history course. since besides his native German and English. Director of the Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte in Munich. Ludwig Heydenreich.
"The death at 75 of Erwin Panofsky . but also. rare among great men: he could listen." said art historian Henri Van De Waal. Russian. For the frontispiece. Einstein Drive. Princeton. conversely. Korean. The lecture was published as an essay. numerous books and articles by Panofsky have been translated into French. Working from a photograph that happened to show Panofsky in an appropriately Early Netherlandish pose. . It is probably to this quality that can be attributed the remarkable fact that after his death each of his friends thought he had known the real Panofsky. and many other areas beyond art history. Irving Lavin organized a symposium and publication. social history. Meaning in the Visual Arts: View from the Outside. Polish. Italian. Department of Art and Archaeology. a fellow student at the NYU Institute of Fine Arts. Greek. and Chinese. its Origins and Character in its final draft in a series of 15 lectures. to paint a portrait of their teacher. Portuguese. Lithuanian. Spanish. As of 2008. and probably Panofsky's most reprinted work. Two years later. but also that of probably the last humanist. and it was covered by the New York Herald Tribune for its "seemingly unprecedented and rather astonishing cultural legitimation of the cinema" as art. Romanian. Swedish. he persuaded painter Philip Pearlstein. Danish. Finnish. Slovenian. "He possessed an admirable quality. with requests continuing to come in from throughout the world. of which more than half were published posthumously. his known editions. reprints. Pearlstein and Lavin were present in the audience at New York University when Panofsky presented Early Netherlandish Painting. Czech. To commemorate the 100th anniversary of Panofsky's birth and celebrate the breadth of his influence. most of his later English writings appeared in German. New Jersey 08540 USA (609) 734-8000 | Contact Us ." Not only have almost all of Panofsky's pre-emigration works in German by now been translated into English. Hungarian." which originally appeared in the Princeton University. This was the earliest treatment of the subject by a serious scholar in art history. and foreign translations number well more than 300. marks not only the passing of one of the greatest art historians. . Bulgarian. Japanese. Hebrew.He had a prominent role in helping to gain support for the establishment of a film department at the Museum of Modern Art in 1934. In addition. Pearlstein produced the painting that now hangs in the Historical Studies/Social Science Library at the Institute. "Style and Medium in the Motion Pictures. Catalan. Copyright ©2014 Institute for Advanced Study. Panofsky's range of influence has been felt in the areas of film. Panofsky delivered a lecture on film at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Bulletin (1936).
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