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CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I - 23480831

COQUILLA v. COMELEC  Petitioner filed a motion for reconsideration, but his motion was denied by the
385 SCRA 607 COMELEC en banc on January 30, 2002. Hence this petition.

Nature: Petition for certiorari to set aside the resolution, dated July 19, 2001, of the Second Issues:
Division of the COMELEC, ordering the cancellation of the certificate of candidacy of 1. WON the 30-day period for appealing the resolution of the COMELEC was
petitioner Teodulo M. Coquilla for the position of mayor of Oras, Eastern Samar in the May suspended by the filing of a motion for reconsideration by petitioner.
14, 2001 elections and the order, dated January 30, 2002, of the COMELEC en banc denying  Private respondent contention: petition should be dismissed cause his motion for
petitioner’s motion for reconsideration.Special Civil Action in the SC. Certiorari reconsideration was denied for being pro forma and did not suspend the running of the
30-day period for filing this petition, pursuant to Rule 19, §4 of the COMELEC Rules of
Facts: Procedure, so and since the resolution was received on July 28, 2001 and the petition in
 February 17, 1938 – Coquilla was born of Filipino parents in Oras, Eastern Samar. He this case was filed on February 11, 2002, the same should be considered as having been
grew up and resided there until 1965, when he joined the US Navy. He was subsequently filed late and should be dismissed.
naturalized as a U.S. citizen.  Petitioner’s MFR and petition for certiorari were filed within the prescribed periods. 5-
 1970-1973, petitioner thrice visited the Philippines while on leave from the U.S. Navy. day period for filing MFR under Rule 19, §2 should be counted from receipt of decision,
Otherwise, even after his retirement from the U.S. Navy in 1985, he remained in the U.S. resolution, order, or ruling of COMELEC. In this case, petitioner received a copy of
 October 15, 1998, petitioner came to the Philippines and took out a residence certificate, COMELEC’s Second Division July 19, ‘01 resolution on July 28, 2001. 5 days later, on
although he continued making several trips to the U.S. the last of which took place on Aug. 2, ‘01, he filed his MFR. On Feb. 6, ‘02, he received a copy of the order, dated Jan.
July 6, 2000 and lasted until August 5, 2000. 30, ‘02, of the COMELEC en banc denying his MFR. 5 days later, on Feb 11, 02, he
 Subsequently, petitioner applied for repatriation under R.A. No. 81715 to the Special filed this petition for certiorari.
Committee on Naturalization which was approved Nov. 7, 2000  Contention that petitioner’s MFR did not suspend the running of the period for filing this
 Nov. 10, 2000 – oath-taking as Filipino citizen; issued Certificate of Repatriation No. petition because the motion was pro forma and, thus, petition should’ve been filed on or
000737 and Bureau of Immigration Identification Certificate No. 115123 three days after before Aug 27, 01 is not correct. It was actually filed, however, only on February 11,
 November 21, 2000 - applied for registration as a voter of Butnga, Oras, Eastern Samar. 2002. The MFR was not pro forma and its filing did suspend the period for filing the
Approved by Election Registration Board on January 12, 2001. petition for certiorari in this case. The mere reiteration in a motion for reconsideration of
 February 27, 2001 – filed certificate of candidacy stating therein that he had been a the issues raised by the parties and passed upon by the court does not make a motion pro
resident of Oras, Eastern Samar for "two (2) years." forma; otherwise, the movant’s remedy would not be a reconsideration of the decision
 March 5, 2001, Neil M. Alvarez—respondent, incumbent mayor of Oras and reelectionist but a new trial or some other remedy.
—sought cancellation of petitioner’s certificate of candidacy on the ground that the latter  In the cases where MFR was held to be pro forma, the motion was so held because
had made a material misrepresentation in his certificate of candidacy by stating that he (1) it was a second motion for reconsideration, or
had been a resident of Oras for two years when in truth he had resided therein for only (2) it did not comply with the rule that the motion must specify the findings and
about six months since November 10, 2000, when he took his oath as a citizen of the conclusions alleged to be contrary to law or not supported by the evidence,or
Philippines. (3) it failed to substantiate the alleged errors, or
 COMELEC unable to render judgment on the case before the elections on May 14, 2001 (4) it merely alleged that the decision in question was contrary to law, or
where petitioner won over private respondent’s by 379 votes. (5) the adverse party was not given notice thereof.
 May 17, 2001 - petitioner proclaimed mayor of Oras by the Municipal Board of
Canvassers and subsequently took his oath of office.
 Petitioner’s MFR suffers from none of these defects, and COMELEC erred in ruling that
petitioner’s MFR was pro forma because the allegations raised therein are a mere
 July 19, 2001, the Second Division of the COMELEC granted private respondent’s "rehash" of his earlier pleadings or did not raise "new matters." Hence, the filing of the
petition and ordered the cancellation of petitioner’s certificate of candidacy on the basis motion suspended the running of the 30-day period to file the petition in this case, which,
the respondent’s frequent or regular trips to the Philippines and stay in Oras, Eastern as earlier shown, was done within the reglementary period provided by law.
Samar after his retirement from the U.S. Navy in 1985 cannot be added to his actual
residence thereat after November 10, 2000 until May 14, 2001 to cure his deficiency in 1. WON COMELEC retained jurisdiction to decide this case notwithstanding the
days, months, and year to allow or render him eligible to run for an elective office in the proclamation of petitioner.
Philippines. The 1-yr residency requirement of Sec 39(a) of the Local Government Code  R.A. No. 6646, Sec 6 & 7: Candidates who are disqualified by final judgment before the
of 1991 in relation to Secs 65 and 68 of the Omnibus Election Code contemplates of the election shall not be voted for and the votes cast for them shall not be counted. But those
actual residence of a Filipino citizen in the constituency where he seeks to be elected. against whom no final judgment of disqualification had been rendered may be voted for

PASCUAL, SOLIDON, SOLIVAS, VELASQUEZ


CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I - 23480831
and proclaimed, unless, on motion of the complainant, the COMELEC suspends their Certificate in that year and by "constantly declaring" to his townmates of his intention to
proclamation because the grounds for their disqualification or cancellation of their seek repatriation and run for mayor in the May 14, 2001 elections.
certificates of candidacy are strong. Meanwhile, the proceedings for disqualification of  The status of being an alien and a non-resident can be waived either separately, when
candidates or for the cancellation or denial of certificates of candidacy, which have been one acquires the status of a resident alien before acquiring Philippine citizenship, or at
begun before the elections, should continue even after such elections and proclamation of the same time when one acquires Philippine citizenship. As an alien, an individual may
the winners. obtain an immigrant visa under §13 of the Philippine Immigration Act of 1948 and an
 In Abella v. COMELEC and Salcedo II v. COMELEC – the SC, in the first case, Immigrant Certificate of Residence (ICR) and thus waive his status as a non-resident.
affirmed and, in the second, reversed the decisions of the COMELEC rendered after the  On the other hand, he may acquire Philippine citizenship by naturalization under C.A.
proclamation of candidates, not on the ground that the latter had been divested of No. 473, as amended, or, if he is a former Philippine national, he may reacquire
jurisdiction upon the candidates’ proclamation but on the merits. Philippine citizenship by repatriation or by an act of Congress, in which case he waives
not only his status as an alien but also his status as a non-resident alien.
1. WON petitioner had been a resident of Oras, Eastern Samar at least one (1) year  In the case at bar, the only evidence of petitioner’s status when he entered the country on
before the elections held on May 14, 2001 as he represented in his certificate of Oct and Dec ’98, Oct ‘99, and June ‘00 is the statement "Philippine Immigration [–]
candidacy. Balikbayan" in his 1998-2008 U.S. passport. As for his entry on Aug 5, ‘00, the stamp
 No. bore the added inscription "good for one year stay." Under §2 of R.A. No. 6768 (An Act
 First, §39(a) of the Local Government Code (R.A No. 7160) provides: An elective local Instituting a Balikbayan Program), the term balikbayan includes a former Filipino citizen
official must be a citizen of the Philippines; a registered voter in the barangay, who had been naturalized in a foreign country and comes or returns to the Philippines
municipality, city, or province or, in the case of a member of the sangguniang and, if so, he is entitled, among others, to a "visa-free entry to the Philippines for a
panlalawigan, sangguniang panlungsod, or sangguniang bayan, the district where he period of one (1) year" (§3(c)). It would appear then that when petitioner entered the
intends to be elected; a resident therein for at least 1 year immediately preceding the day country on the dates in question, he did so as a visa-free balikbayan visitor whose stay as
of the election; and able to read and write Filipino or any other local language or dialect. such was valid for 1-yr only. Hence, petitioner can only be held to have waived his status
 “Residence" is to be understood as referring to "domicile" or legal residence—the place as an alien and as a non-resident only on Nov 10, ‘00 upon taking his oath as a citizen of
where a party actually or constructively has his permanent home, where he, no matter the Philippines under R.A. No. 8171. He lacked the requisite residency to qualify him for
where he may be found at any given time, eventually intends to return and remain the mayorship of Oras
(animus manendi).  Petitioner cannot invoke the ruling in the cases Frivaldo v. Commission on Elections and
 A domicile of origin is acquired by every person at birth. It is usually the place where the Bengson as residency was not an issue in these.
child’s parents reside and continues until the same is abandoned by acquisition of new  Third, petitioner’s contends that his registration as a voter of Butnga, Oras, Eastern
domicile (domicile of choice). Samar in January 2001 is conclusive of his residency as a candidate because §117 of the
 In the case at bar, petitioner lost his domicile of origin in Oras by becoming a U.S. Omnibus Election Code requires that a voter must have resided in the Philippines for at
citizen after enlisting in the U.S. Navy in 1965. From then on and until Nov. 10, ‘00, least one year and in the city or municipality wherein he proposes to vote for at least six
when he reacquired Philippine citizenship, petitioner was an alien without any right to months immediately preceding the election. But, registration as a voter does not bar the
reside in the Philippines save as our immigration laws may have allowed him to stay as a filing of a subsequent case questioning a candidate’s lack of residency (Nuval v. Guray).
visitor or as a resident alien.  Fourth, petitioner was not denied due process because the COMELEC failed to act on his
 If immigration to the United States by virtue of a "greencard," which entitles one to motion to be allowed to present evidence. Under §5(d), in relation to §7, of R.A. No.
reside permanently in that country, constitutes abandonment of domicile in the 6646 (Electoral Reforms Law of 1987), proceedings for denial or cancellation of a
Philippines (Caasi v. CA), much more does naturalization in a foreign country result in certificate of candidacy are summary in nature. The holding of a formal hearing is thus
an abandonment of domicile in the Philippines, as was the case with the petitioner. not de rigeur. In any event, petitioner cannot claim denial of the right to be heard since
 Petitioner was repatriated not under R.A. No. 2630, which applies to the repatriation of he filed a Verified Answer, a Memorandum and a Manifestation, all dated March 19,
those who lost their Philippine citizenship by accepting commission in the Armed Forces 2001, before the COMELEC in which he submitted documents relied by him in this
of the US, but under R.A. No. 8171, which provides for the repatriation of, among petition, which, contrary to petitioner’s claim, are complete and intact in the records.
others, natural-born Filipinos who lost their citizenship on account of political or
economic necessity. In any event, the fact is that, by having been naturalized abroad, he 1. WON COMELEC was justified in ordering the cancellation of his certificate of
lost his Philippine citizenship and with it his residence in the Philippines and had not candidacy since the statement in petitioner’s certificate of candidacy that he had
reacquired it until November 10, 00 been a resident of Oras, Eastern Samar for "two years" at the time he filed such
 Second, petitioner did not reestablished residence in this country in 1998 when he came certificate is not true.
back to prepare for the mayoralty elections of Oras by securing a Community Tax

PASCUAL, SOLIDON, SOLIVAS, VELASQUEZ


CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I - 23480831
 Yes. Petitioner made a false representation of a material fact in his certificate of
candidacy, thus rendering such certificate liable to cancellation.
 Sec 78 of the Omnibus Election Code provides that a verified petition seeking to deny
due course or to cancel a certificate of candidacy may be filed by any person exclusively
on the ground that any material representation contained therein as required under
Section 74 hereof is false.
 In the case at bar, what is involved is a false statement concerning a candidate’s
qualification for an office for which he filed the certificate of candidacy. This is a
misrepresentation of a material fact justifying the cancellation of petitioner’s certificate
of candidacy. The cancellation of petitioner’s certificate of candidacy in this case is thus
fully justified.

Judgment: WHEREFORE, the petition is DISMISSED and the resolution of the Second
Division of the Commission on Elections, dated July 19, 2001, and the order, dated January
30, 2002 of the Commission on Elections en banc are AFFIRMED.

PASCUAL, SOLIDON, SOLIVAS, VELASQUEZ