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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

ENGR. JOHN LESTER L. MORILLO BS CHE / ADAMSON UNIVERSITY

SIMPLE STRESS
Simple stress is the force per unit area.

P A
Where: P = force A = cross-sectional area = stress

SIMPLE STRESS
Shearing stress ( or Tangential stress ) is a stress caused by forces acting along or parallel to the area resisting the forces. Bearing stress is one which is caused by forces acting perpendicular to the area resisting the forces. Normal stresses, like tensile stress and compressive stress are examples of bearing stress.

SIMPLE STRAIN
Simple strain is the ration of deformation or elongation to the original length.

L
Where: = strain

= elongation L = original length

HOOKEs LAW
Hookes Law states that within elastic limit the stress is proportional to strain, thus:

P A

where: E = modulus of elasticity of the material

or Youngs modulus,

STRESS - STRAIN DIAGRAM

Elastic limit refers to the stress beyond which the material will not return to its original when the load is removed. The permanent deformation caused by excessive stress is called permanent set.

Yield point refers to the point where is an appreciable elongation or yielding of the material even without any corresponding increase in load.
Ultimate stress (or ultimate strength) refers to the highest ordinate in the stress-strain diagram. Rapture strength is sometimes known as the stress at failure.

Working stress is the actual stress of the material when loaded. Allowable stress is the maximum safe stress which the material can carry. Factor of safety is the ratio of the ultimate stress to allowable stress. Shearing strain is the angular change between two perpendicular faces of a differential element. Modulus of rigidity (G) refers to the modulus of elasticity in shear.

STRESSES IN THIN WALLED CYLINDERS AND SPHERES


FOR CYLINDERS:

A. Tangential Stress:
t

pD 2t

B. Longitudinal Stress: pD l 4t

FOR SPHERES pD t 4t

STRESSES IN THIN WALLED CYLINDERS AND SPHERES


Where: p = pressure D = inside diameter. t = thickness Another term for tangential stress is circumferential stress, or hoop stress or girth stress.

Note that the longitudunal stress is one-half the value of the tangential stress.

TORSION
Torsion refers to the twisting of solid or hollow circular shafts.

A. Shearing stress where: T = torque applied Tp = radial distance from the center of cross-section J J = polar moment of inertia of the cross-section
B. Maximum shearing stress:

Max.

Tr J

where: r = radius of the cross-section

TORSION
C. Maximum shearing stress of: 1. Solid shaft 16T Max. d3

where: d = diameter of the shaft


2. Hollow shaft

Max.

16TD D4 d 4

where: d = inner diameter of the shaft

D = outer diameter of the shaft

TORSION
D. Angular deformation, :

TL JG
where: T = torque applied L = length J = polar moment of inertia of cross-section G = modulus of rigidity

E. Transmitted power, P

2 fT

where: P = power T = torque f = frequency or speed in revolutions per second

HELICAL SPRINGS
A. Maximum shearing stress:

16 PR d 1 d3 4R

16 PR 4m 1 or d 3 4m 4

0.615 m

B. Spring deformation:

64 PR 3 n Gd 4

HELICAL SPRINGS
Where: P = axial load R = mean radius of helical spring

d = diameter of rod/wire of spring m = ratio of the mean diameter of the spring to the mean diameter of the spring rod or wire

2R d

D d

n = number of turns

G = modulus of rigidity

THERMAL STRESS
Thermal stress is the stress on the material caused by the internal forces due to change in temperature. The temperature deformation may be calculated using

L( T )

Flanged Bolt Coupling


P 1 G1 A1 R1
T
Where: P = load A = cross sectional area of the bolt R = bolt radius
n i

P2 G2 A2 R2

P3 ... G3 A3 R3

Pi Ri ni

n = number of bolts T = Torque capacity of the flanged bolt coupling G = modulus of rigidity