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, Calgary, Alberta, Canada September 29-October 3, 2008, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
IPC2008-64161 IPC2008-64 161
CUT POINT OPTIMIZATION OF DIESEL OIL - GASOLINE INTERFACES
Sergio D. Gavín Repsol YPF La Plata, Argentina
ABSTRACT This paper presents the technical solution developed by Repsol YPF in one of its pipeline systems to reduce contaminated product generation as a result of the interfaces that are generated between diesel oil and gasolines during transport. INTRODUCTION The refined white product pipeline where this new tool will be applied has its origin pump station in the city of Villa Mercedes, one intermediate delivery station in the city of Junín, and its terminal station in La Matanza, a total of 663 km (12 ¾ inch diameter) with nineteen mainline block valves and the elevation profile shown below (Figure 1).
necessary for this system to be continuously pumping. It is in operation 75 % of the time, and during this period its flow rate is below the system´s maximum capacity. On average, its flow rate is 130 m3/h, being able to deliver fully in Junín, deliver one part in Junín and let the other flow to La Matanza, or pump from Junín to La Matanza. There exist three options for pumping the product from the origin pump station located in Villa Mercedes, namely: 1) by gravity 2) taking advantage of excess pressures and deriving from another system belonging to Repsol YPF, for which Villa Mercedes works as an intermediate delivery and repumping plant 3) from a tank with turbopumps. Normal operating pressure is 8 kg/cm2 (785 kPa) in Villa Mercedes, 20 kg/cm2 (1960 kPa) in Junín and 12 kg/cm2 (1175 kPa) in La Matanza (manometric values). For this pipeline the use of small batches of about 50 m3 of JP-1 jet fuel (“corks”, “buffers”) between diesel oil and gasolines in order to minimize contamination of both products was not successful due to the many stops and starts of this system, which cause important compressions and decompressions (e.g. Figure 2), and the negative slope that its elevation profile shows, resulting in interfaces of greater size without reducing the diffusion between both products (interfaces).
500 400 meters 300 200 100 0 0 38 75 112 149 186 224 261 299 336 373 410 446 482 519 556 594 629
-Figure 1This system transports 90,000 m3 of refined white products (diesel oil and gasolines) per month. Due to the pipeline’s low transportation volume and to Repsol YPF’s configuration of its pipeline network, it is not
Copyright © 2008 by ASME
this measure helps to reduce the volume of contaminated product but not to eliminate it. Also. that is to say. We refer to diesel-gasoline interfaces as having ‘two cuts. interfaces between different types of gasolines are referred to as ‘one cut’ (Figure 4) since one part of the interface goes to the previous product tank and the other to the subsequent product tank in the batching sequence. Density Junínn 10 5 0 kilometers Pressuere curve (Q=130 m3/h) Pressuere curve (Q=0 m3/h) Cut -Figure 2The most significant cause of interfase increase is when the system stops and the interface remains at the greater slope. while the two central lines show the portion of interface that is sent to the contaminated product tank. by sending it to refinery in order to be reprocessed. The most urgent one should be to increase the size of the batches in order to reduce the number of interfaces. thus for the same transported volume. there are two changes of tank. it is necessary to take further measures to reduce the interface portion that is segregated to a contaminated product tank. that is to say. and consequently. or else.600 45 Villa Mercedes 500 400 meters 300 200 100 0 0 23 46 69 92 115 138 161 184 207 230 253 276 299 322 345 368 391 414 40 30 25 20 15 Pressuere (kg/cm2) 35 The outer lines indicate the start and finish of the interface. This value was constant and did not vary. For these reasons the pipeline operates by sending the initial and final parts of the interface to a product tank in specification and its central portion to a contaminated one. thus reducing the volume of contaminated product to be recovered in the Refinery The used methodology calculates the composition of both products in the interface within the distribution manifold in Volu me -Figure 3- 2 Copyright © 2008 by ASME . there is only one change of tank. but neither of them is segregated to a contaminated product tank. the number of batches and the quantity of interfaces will be lower. the small size of the batches does not make it possible to absorb the interface on the product tanks in specification. mainly due to the fact that they moved backward or forward as a consequence of the refined white product pipeline´s particular elevation and the constant starts and stops of the pipeline.’ (Figure 3) since their central part is segregated to a contaminated product tank to be subsequently recovered through proportioning in excess-quality products. Density -Figure 4Before applied the new methodology presented in this paper some measures intended to reduce the amount of volume of diesel-gasoline interfaces may be taken. and it is even worse when diesel oil is above gasoline. However. Tank changes always occurred at the same value. Volu me Separating scrapers (“pigs”) did not show good results either. tank changes were performed upon reaching a pre-defined density value as measured by the plant`s internal densitometer. On the other hand. NEW METHODOLOGY 1st cut 2nd cut In the past. The developed improvement consisted of optimizing the first and the second interface cut points with a view to maximizing the volume of mixture that can be absorbed by the tanks in specification.
In this manner. viscosity. without leaving any of them in out-of-specification condition (RON. In order to detect the beginning of the interface. etc). The interface composition calculation is visualized in real time on this PC so that the operator makes the change of tank when the cut point value is reached. The Test Laboratory is responsible for this task. the following aspects are taken into account: the quality/volume of the product in the receiving tank. from the laboratory test certificate for that batch issued upon its entrance to the pipeline. the calculation of interfaces determines the percentage and volume of each of the products entering the tank at every instant of time. This value remains fixed once the interface begins and is no longer recalculated. or the density value observed on the plant’s out station densitometer. which must be performed before the interface arrives at the plant. mass flow meter. Facilities diagram samples. etc. such as those of the Petrofine Manual or other oil companies are used to do this. MON.Dens B) % of B: 100% . up to the moment when the interface begins. Upon verifying that density is 1 kg/m3 higher (or lower) than the ‘reference value’ in five consecutive ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Density: (Dens n+1 + Dens n)/2 Flow rate: (Q n+1 + Qn)/2 Time interval: Hr n+1 – Hr n Interval volume: average Flow rate x Time interval % of A: (average Dens . n+1. The percentages could be calculated using different process variables such as density. whether there is interface in the pipeline entering the tank. and the quality/volume of the product to be received. it is possible to perform calculations for %A and %B with a representative value of the density of the product entering the plant. its composition. The value Dens A utilized in the calculations is the average density of A in the last ten minutes (300 samples). sulphur content. or automatically. the programme continuously senses the density value on line at intervals of 2 seconds. See Annex C. See Annex B Operative screen See Annex C Tuning screen Interface analysis Assuming an interface between two consecutive products A and B. Once these values have been defined. etc). Once the programme has been started. The cut point is determined by the maximum volume of diesel that the gasoline tank can admit and vice versa. densitometers. one interval with the following characteristics is obtained every two data samples: Density … n-1. they are communicated to the Operations Area so that cuts are performed following the Laboratory`s technical recommendations. This last case 3 Copyright © 2008 by ASME . cetane. the programme is activated (the reference value is the average density during the last minute). B´s density value (Dens B) should be entered manually by the Operator in iFIX depending on the density value that the product is expected to have. n. making it possible to quantify the volume of diesel oil and gasoline present in the mixture that enters each tank. The wellknown mixing indexes. sonic velocity. In order to define that volume. by reading the data from the Batch-Tracking of SCADA. but density follows lineal mixing models so it becomes easier to do the calculations. flash point.Dens B) / (Dens A .real time. absorbance. The reason for using said logic as well as a reference value is to prevent the programme from starting accidentally due to very small peaks in the density of the product that do not correspond to the beginning of the interface.% of A Vol of A: Interval volume x % of A Vol of B: Interval volume x % of B average average Dens A and Dens B values refer to the values of pure A and B products respectively. This value can be obtained from the information submitted by intermediate pumping stations. n2+2… Volu me See Annex A -Figure 5On line software ü The software program is set up on the plant operative PC where software iFIX runs and collects data from the PLC which receives field instrumentation data (volume flow meter.
At this point the software starts to count again from zero the accumulated volumes of A and B sent to the new tank. the function of calculating volumetric shrinkage due to the mixture of both products in the interface was added to the software. The programme also provides data about the volume and composition of the interface that remains in the tank´s admission line. This information is useful in order to know both the quality and the quantity of the product that will be swept into the tank in the next reception and. This tool makes it possible to simulate the tank change points and associate them with density values. When the result of simulating the cut points shows that both points cross each other. in order to be able to take the tank change density simulated by means of data obtained from the out station densitometer as a valid reference. the amount of time available to make the simulation is 45 minutes. if the volume is 100 m3 and the flow rate is 130 m3/h. i. Further uses Once the interface has finished. quantity of samples. displaying on screen the first cut values accumulated up to that moment. b) An analysis tool (resembling the online analysis tool) which utilizes historical data from the plant’s out station densitometer can be used. There exist two alternatives to make the second change of tank: a) Use typical density values according to experience. On the contrary. Laboratory calculates the value using 46°C). etc.5 kg/m3 in 60 samples (during 2 minutes). In a `two-cut´ interface. For example. number of times that one condition must be verified. has been reached.e. the software verifies that the difference between the ‘reference value’ density and the instantaneous value is less than 0. consequently. on the flow computer (Sybertrol. Otherwise. The amount of time available to perform these calculations will depend on the pipeline flow rate and volume existing between the out station and internal densitometers. In this manner. according to the point where the batch was ended. Consequently. An Excel file which imports historical data from SCADA and automatically performs interface calculations is used. Chapter 12 -Calculation of 4 Copyright © 2008 by ASME . That is to say.. Said report shows the volume of a product transferred to another.is valid only when the interface volume is lower than the pipeline volume existing between the location of the out station densitometer and the internal one. The first point is not essential because the online calculation makes it possible to make the decision. or automatically. Omni. Considerations The logic for detecting the beginning and the end of interfaces through the use of reference values. These volumes. the values of maximum concentration of B in A and vice versa provided by the laboratory allow for a safety margin to prevent any tank from being out of specification (e. if flash ponit specification is 45°C. depending on the established set point value) when the value of maximum amount of B in A. As the mixture is being received. Data importation takes just one second since the GE Proficy Historian data management system application ‘Historian Excel Add-In’ is used. It is extremely important to record ‘transfers’ in the accounting system in order to keep a strict control of the Custody Transfer at product level. and the following one was begun. the first change of tank is carried out (manually by the operator. at the beginning of the reception of the interface within the plant there would not be a stabilized value (density of pure B product) on the out station densitometer. one can know accurately the amount of product A and that of product B sent to each container / vessel during operation. In addition. On the other hand. the volume of B that was counted as A and vice versa. economic variables will be considered and the cut will be performed at a point that maximizes the volume of the product with the highest economic value. In these cases. are empirical adjustments that must be made for each particular pipeline (in the same manner as the tuning of a PID control loop). as defined by the laboratory. the volumes of A and B accumulate and appear on the terminal´s operation screen. in accordance with “API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards. then that interface will be a ‘one-cut’ interface. etc). a report is printed. the second cut point is before the first cut point. it should be taken into account by the Laboratory at the moment of determining the maximum volumes of A and B allowed in each tank. which are called ‘transfers’. represent the degraded volume of each product. the density value obtained for the second cut point is indeed important because this is the value at which the tank change shall occur when the interface is being received. In order to detect the final point of the interface.g. it is very important that both the plant´s out station densitometer and the internal densitometer are well calibrated and that there are no differences between their readings when the same product is passing through them.
Section 3 -Volumetric Shrinkage Resulting From Blending Light Hydrocarbons With Crude Oils-”. Said value is calculated using historical data from the plant’s out station densitometer and guarantees that no more than 1.Petroleum Quantities. the total volume sent to the contaminated product tank being 93.500 liters of diesel oil will be sent to the gasoline tank (Table 2). In order to make mixing calculations.000 liters of gasoline in diesel oil. namely a) and b) a) The following table (Table 1) shows the way in which the cuts would have been performed according to the normal/historical cut density values: 830 kg/m3 and 745 kg/m3 5 Copyright © 2008 by ASME . Quality of the gasoline to be received from the refined white product pipeline.000 liters of gasoline. -Table 1It can be observed that 389 litres of gasoline were sent to diesel. when arriving at 753 kg/m3. In this case. Quality of the diesel oil contained in the tank. with these items it was determined that the diesel oil tank could admit 5. and the second. or lack of existence. For a hypothetical case.494 litres. being 753 kg/m3 the optimum cut density value. the following items should be taken into account: ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Quality of the gasoline contained in the tank. Existence. Stock in the diesel oil tank. It is very important to clarify that these values will be different every time. Two different ways of performing the cuts are shown below. in order to keep better control of measuring losses in the Custody Transfer process. of interface and its composition in each tank’s admission line. b) Optimizing cut points by means of the on line method. Gasoline volume to be received in the diesel oil tank Diesel oil volume to be received in the gasoline tank. Quality of the diesel oil to be received from the refined white product pipeline. while the gasoline tank could admit 1. the first tank change is carried out upon reaching the amount of 5.500 liters of diesel oil. Example An example of an interface in which diesel oil is pushed by gasoline is shown below. instead of 745 kg/m3 as in case a). while 270 litres of diesel were sent to gasoline. Stock in the gasoline tank.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Special thanks to the Instrumentation and Automatic Control team from the Terminal and Pipeline Department of Repsol YPF (Adrián Zoppi. Section 1-Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Systems Reduce contaminated product recovery operations through subsequent injection in excess-quality tanks Reduce the transport of contaminated product to the Refinery or pumping to another terminal tank where it is more possible to recover it due to the fact that their tanks are over quality specification. Gustavo Diogo and Germán Markowski) that worked in the programming of the change detection logic and its implementation in each plant’s iFix systems. a total of 52 % less of product to be recovered.3-Metering. Reduce operations related to reprocessing at the Refinery ü ü 6 Copyright © 2008 by ASME . obtaining an economic benefit mainly due to the savings in operating costs related to its recovery.477 liters in case b). fixed capital and product degradation. Marcelo Bertrand. Continuous Density Measurement API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 5.494 liters in case a) to 44. We also want to thank Maximiliano Gonella. Marcelo Leissa.Section 3 Volumetric Shrinkage Resulting From Blending Light Hydrocarbons With Crude OilsAPI Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 14. Economic benefit The use of this work methodology entails numerous economic benefits that translate into several types of savings: operating.ü Reduce the product’s fixed stock with its associated financial cost Reduce contaminated product generation ü CONCLUSIONS Adopting this work methodology makes it possible to minimize contaminated product generation.6. REFERENCES -Table 2Method comparison By comparing both tables it can be observed that the interface volume that was segregated to the contaminated product tank was reduced from 93.1-Metering Assemblies. Chapter 12 -Calculation of Petroleum Quantities. This methodology helps to: ü API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards. for his participation. Section 3-Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Turbine Meters API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 6. Metrology Coordinator.
ANNEX A FACILITIES DIAGRAM iFIX Operative PC iHistorian Administrative PC PLC SCADA Server 7 Copyright © 2008 by ASME .
(1) Maximum volumen of B that can admit A (2) Maximum volumen of A that can admit B (3) A and B volumen that was sent to the contaminated product tank (4) Reference density of A product (pure) (5) Reference density of B product (pure) (6) Transfer 1. It is registred to a better control of Custody Transfer (8) Volumetric shrinkage resulting from blending A+B (9) A and B on line percentage 8 Copyright © 2008 by ASME . It is registred to a better control of Custody Transfer (7) Transfer 2. It is the contaminated product composition. Net value of the transfer that were made within A and B (B to A and A to B).ANNEX B OPERATIVE SCREEN (4) (1) (5) (3) (2) (9) (7) (8) (6) Annex B shows an example of diesel oil – gasoline interface.
ANNEX C TUNING SCREEN 9 Copyright © 2008 by ASME .
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