Project Gutenberg's The Verbalist, by Thomas Embly Osmun, (AKA Alfred Ayres This e!

oo" is for the use of anyone any#here at no cost and #ith almost no restrictions #hatsoe$er% &ou may co'y it, gi$e it a#ay or re(use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg )icense included #ith this e!oo" or online at ###%gutenberg%org Title* The Verbalist A +anual ,e$oted to !rief ,iscussions of the -ight and the .rong /se of .ords and to 0ome Other +atters of 1nterest to Those .ho .ould 0'ea" and .rite #ith Pro'riety% Author* Thomas Embly Osmun, (AKA Alfred Ayres -elease ,ate* August 23, 4335 6E!oo" 744895: )anguage* English ;haracter set encoding* 10O(<<9=(> ??? 0TA-T O@ TA10 P-OBE;T G/TEC!E-G E!OOK TAE VE-!A)10T ???

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We remain shackled by timidity till we have learned to speak with propriety.—JOHNSON. As a man is known by his company, so a man's company may be known by his manner o e!pressin" himsel .—SW#$%.

N&W 'O()* +. A,,-&%ON AN+ .O/,AN',
0, 1, AN+ 2 3ON+ S%(&&%.


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Transcri !r"s N#$!
/inor typo"raphical errors have been corrected witho7t note. Archaic spellin"s have been retained as printed. All 6reek words have mo7se8hover transliterations, 9:;ό<:;=>, and appear as printed in the ori"inal p7blication.

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%he title8pa"e s7 iciently sets orth the end this little book is intended to serve. $or convenience' sake # have arran"ed in alphabetical order the s7bAects treated o , and or economy's sake # have kept in mind that Bhe that 7ses many words or the e!plainin" o any s7bAect doth, like the c7ttle8 ish, hide himsel in his own ink.B %he c7rio7s inC7irer who sets himsel to look or the learnin" in the book is advised that he will best ind it in s7ch works as 6eor"e ,. /arsh's B-ect7res on the &n"lish -an"7a"e,B $itDedward Hall's B(ecent &!empli ications o $alse ,hilolo"y,B and B/odern &n"lish,B (ichard 6rant White's BWords and %heir Eses,B &dward S. 6o7ld's B6ood &n"lish,B?," F@William /athews' BWords* their Ese and Ab7se,B +ean Al ord's B%he G7een's &n"lish,B 6eor"e Washin"ton /oon's B3ad &n"lish,B and B%he +ean's &n"lish,B 3lank's BH7l"arisms and Other &rrors o Speech,B Ale!ander 3ain's B&n"lish .omposition and (hetoric,B 3ain's BHi"her &n"lish 6rammar,B 3ain's B.omposition 6rammar,B G7ackenbos' B.omposition and (hetoric,B John Nichol's B&n"lish .omposition,B William .obbett's B&n"lish 6rammar,B ,eter 37llions' B&n"lish 6rammar,B 6oold 3rown's B6rammar o &n"lish 6rammars,B 6raham's B&n"lish Synonymes,B .rabb's B&n"lish Synonymes,B 3i"elow's BHandbook o ,7nct7ation,B and other kindred works. S7""estions and criticisms are solicited, with the view o pro itin" by them in 7t7re editions. # B%he HerbalistB receive as kindly a welcome as its companion vol7me, B%he OrthoIpist,B has received, # shall be content. A. A. N&W 'O(), October, 0440.

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&schew ine words as yo7 wo7ld ro7"e.—HA(&. .ant is properly a do7ble8distilled lieJ the second power o a lie.—.A(-'-&. # a "entleman be to st7dy any lan"7a"e, it o7"ht to be that o his own co7ntry.—-O.)&. #n lan"7a"e the 7nknown is "enerally taken or the ma"ni icent.—(#.HA(+ 6(AN% WH#%&. He who has a s7perlative or everythin", wants a meas7re or the "reat or small.—-AHA%&(. #nacc7rate writin" is "enerally the e!pression o inacc7rate thinkin".—(#.HA(+ 6(AN% WH#%&. %o acC7ire a ew ton"7es is the labor o a ew yearsJ b7t to be eloC7ent in one is the labor o a li e.—ANON'/OES. Words and tho7"hts are so inseparably connected that an artist in words is necessarily an artist in tho7"hts.8W#-SON $-A66.


#t is an invariable ma!im that words which add nothin" to the sense or to the clearness m7st diminish the orce o the e!pression.—.A/,3&--. ,ropriety o tho7"ht and propriety o diction are commonly o7nd to"ether. Obsc7rity o e!pression "enerally sprin"s rom con 7sion o ideas.—/A.AE-A'. He who writes badly thinks badly. .on 7sedness in words can proceed rom nothin" b7t con 7sedness in the tho7"hts which "ive rise to them.—.O33&%%.

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A%An. %he second orm o the inde inite article is 7sed or the sake o e7phony only. Herein everybody a"rees, b7t what everybody does not a"ree in is, that it is e7phonio7s to 7se an be ore a word be"innin" with an aspiratedh, when the accented syllable o the word is the second. $or mysel , so lon" as # contin7e to aspirate theh's in s7ch words as heroic, harangue, and historical, # shall contin7e to 7se a be ore themJ and when # adopt the .ockney mode o prono7ncin" s7ch words, then # shall 7se anbe ore them. %o my ear it is A7st as e7phonio7s to say, B# will crop o rom the top o his yo7n" twi"s a tender one, and will plant it 7pon an hi"h mo7ntain and eminent,B as it is to say an haran"7e, an heroic, or an historical. An is well eno7"h be ore the do7bt 7l 3ritish aspiration, b7t be ore the distinct American aspiration it is wholly o7t o place. %he reply will perhaps be, B37t these h's are silentJ the chan"e o accent rom the irst syllable to the second ne7traliDes their aspiration.B However tr7e this may be in &n"land, it is not at all tr7e in AmericaJ hence we Americans sho7ld 7se a and not an be ore s7ch h's 7ntil we decide to ape the .ockney mode o prono7ncin" them. &rrors are not 7n reC7ently made by omittin" to repeat the article in a sentence. #t sho7ld always be repeated?," 4@when a no7n or an adAective re errin" to a distinct thin" is introd7cedJ take, or e!ample, the sentence, BHe has a black and white horse.B # two horses are meant, it is clear that it sho7ld be, BHe has a black and a white horse.B See %H&. A i&i$'%Ca(aci$'. %he distinctions between these two words are not always observed by those who 7se them. BCapacity is the power o receivin" and retainin" knowled"e with acilityJ ability is the power o applyin" knowled"e to practical p7rposes. 3oth these ac7lties are reC7isite to orm a "reat character* capacity to conceive, and ability to e!ec7te desi"ns. .apacity is shown in C7ickness o apprehension. Ability s7pposes somethin" doneJ somethin" by which the mental power is e!ercised in e!ec7tin", or per ormin", what has been perceived by the capacity.B—6raham's B&n"lish Synonymes.B A #r$i)!. An o7tlandish 7se o this word may be occasionally met with, especially in the newspapers. BA lad was yesterday ca7"ht in the act o abortively appropriatin" a pair o shoes.B %hat is abortive that is 7ntimely, that has not been borne its 7ll time, that is immat7re. We o ten hear abortion 7sed in the sense o ail7re, b7t never by those that st7dy to e!press themselves in chaste &n"lish.


A #)!. %here is little a7thority or 7sin" this word as an adAective. #nstead o , Bthe above statement,B say, Btheforegoing statement.B Above is also 7sed very inele"antly or more thanJ as, Babove a mile,B Babove a tho7sandBJ also, or beyondJ as, Babove his stren"th.B Acci*!n$. See .ASEA-%'. Acc#r*. BHe ?the Secretary o the %reas7ry@ was shown thro7"h the b7ildin", and the in ormation he desired was accorded him.B—(eporters' &n"lish.?," K@
"The heroes prayed, and Pallas from the skiesAccords their vow."—Pope.

%he "oddess o wisdom, when she "ranted the prayers o her worshipers, may be said to have accordedJ not so, however, when the clerks o o7r S7b8%reas7ry answer the inC7iries o their chie . Acc+s!. See 3-A/& #% ON. Ac,+ain$anc!. See $(#&N+. A*. %his abbreviation or the word advertisement is very A7stly considered a "ross v7l"arism. #t is do7bt 7l whether it is permissible 7nder any circ7mstances. A*a($%Dra-a$i.!. #n speakin" and in writin" o sta"e matters, these words are o ten mis7sed. %o adapt a play is to modi y its constr7ction with the view o improvin" its orm or representation. ,lays translated rom one lan"7a"e into another are 7s7ally more or less adaptedJ i. e., altered to s7it the taste o the p7blic be ore which the translation is to be represented. %o dramatize is to chan"e the orm o a story rom the narrative to the dramaticJ i. e., to make a drama o7t o a story. #n the irst instance, the prod7ct o the playwri"ht's labor is called an adaptationJ in the second, a dramatization. A*/!c$i)!s. BHery o ten adAectives stand where adverbs mi"ht be e!pectedJ as, 'drink deep,' 'this looksstrange,' 'standin" erect.' BWe have also e!amples o one adAective C7ali yin" another adAectiveJ as, 'wide open,' 'red hot,' 'the pale bl7e sky.' Sometimes the correspondin" adverb is 7sed, b7t with a di erent meanin"J as, '# o7nd the way easy—easily'J 'it appears clear—clearly.' Altho7"h there is a propriety in the employment o the adAective in certain instances, yet s7ch orms as 'indifferent well,' 'extreme bad,' are "rammatical errors. 'He was interro"ated relative to that circ7mstance,'?," 0L@sho7ld be relatively, or in relation to. #t is not 7n7s7al to say, '# wo7ld have done it independent o that circ7mstance,' b7t independently is the proper constr7ction. B%he employment o adAectives or adverbs is acco7nted or by the ollowin" considerations* BM0.N #n the classical lan"7a"es the ne7ter adAective may be 7sed as an adverb, and the analo"y wo7ld appear to have been e!tended to &n"lish. BMO.N #n the oldest &n"lish the adverb was re"7larly ormed rom the adAective by addin" 'e,' as 'so t, so te,' and the droppin" o the 'e' le t the adverb in the adAective ormJ th7s, 'clæne,' adverb, became 'clean,' and appears in the phrase 'clean "one'J 'fæste, ast,' 'to stick fast.' 3y a alse analo"y, many adAectives that never ormed adverbs in -e were reely 7sed as adverbs in the a"e o &liDabeth* '%ho7 didst it excellent,' 'equal M or equallyN "ood,' 'excellentwell.' %his "ives precedent or s7ch errors as those mentioned above. BM1.N %here are cases where the s7bAect is C7ali ied rather than the verb, as with verbs o incomplete predication, 'bein",' 'seemin",' 'arrivin",' etc. #n 'the matter seems clear,' 'clear' is part o the predicate o 'matter.' '%hey arrivedsafe'* 'sa e' does not C7ali y 'arrived,' b7t "oes with it to complete the predicate. So, 'he sat silent,' 'he stood firm.' '#t comes beautiful' and 'it comes


beautifully' have di erent meanin"s. %his e!planation applies especially to the 7se o participles as adverbs, as in So7they's lines on -odoreJ the participial epithets applied there, altho7"h appearin" to modi y 'came,' are really additional predications abo7t 'the water,' in ele"antly shortened orm. '%he ch7rch stood gleaming thro7"h the trees'* '"leamin"' is a shortened predicate o 'ch7rch'J and the 7ll orm wo7ld be, 'the ch7rch stood and gleamed.' %he participle retains?," 00@its orce as s7ch, while actin" the part o a coPrdinatin" adAective, complement to 'stood'J 'stood "leamin"' is little more than '"leamed.' %he eelin" o adverbial orce in '"leamin"' arises rom the s7bordinate participial orm Aoined with a verb, 'stood,' that seems capable o predicatin" by itsel . ' assing stran"e' is elliptical* 'passin" Ms7rpassin"Nwhat is stran"e.'B—3ain. B%he comparative adAectives wiser, better, larger, etc., and the contrastin" adAectives different, other, etc., are o ten so placed as to render the constr7ction o the sentence awkwardJ as, '%hat is a m7ch better statement o the case thanyo7rs,' instead o , '%hat statement o the case is m7ch better than yo7rs'J ''o7rs is a larger plot o "ro7nd thanJohn's,' instead o , ''o7r plot o "ro7nd is larger thanJohn's'J '%his is a different co7rse o proceedin" fromwhat # e!pected,' instead o , '%his co7rse o proceedin" isdifferent from what # e!pected'J '# co7ld take no othermethod o silencin" him than the one # took,' instead o , '# co7ld take no method o silencin" him other than the one # took.'B—6o7ld's B6ood &n"lish,B p. QK. A*-inis$!r. B.arson died rom blows administeredby policeman Johnson.B—BNew 'ork %imes.B # policeman Johnson was as barbaro7s as is this 7se o the verb to administer, it is to be hoped that he was han"ed. 6overnments, oaths, medicine, a airs—s7ch as the a airs o the state —are administered, b7t not blows* they are dealt. A*#($. %his word is o ten 7sed instead o to decide upon, and o to ta!eJ th7s, B%he meas7res adopted ?by ,arliament@, as the res7lt o this inC7iry, will be prod7ctive o "ood.B 3etter, B%he meas7res decided upon,B etc. #nstead o , BWhat co7rse shall yo7 adopt to "et yo7r payRB say, BWhat co7rse shall yo7 ta!e,B etc. Adopt is properly 7sed in a sentence like this* B%he co7rse Mor meas7resN?," 0O@proposed by /r. 3lank was adopted by the committee.B %hat is, what was 3lank's was adopted by the committee—a correct 7se o the word, as to adopt, means, to ass7me as one's own. Adopt is sometimes so mis7sed that its meanin" is inverted. BWanted to adopt,B in the headin" o advertisements, not 7n reC7ently is intended to mean that the advertiser wishes to be relieved o the care o a child, not that he wishes to assume the care o one. A00ra)a$!. %his word is o ten 7sed when the speaker means to provoke, irritate, or an"er. %h7s, B#t aggravates?provokes@ me to be contin7ally o7nd a7lt withBJ BHe is easily aggravated ?irritated@.B %o aggravate means to make worse, to hei"hten. We there ore very properly speak o aggravating circ7mstances. %o say o a person that he isaggravated is as incorrect as to say that he is palliated. A0ric+&$+ris$. %his word is to be pre erred to agriculturalist. See .ONH&(SA%#ON#S%. A&i1!. %his word is o ten most b7n"lin"ly co7pled with both. %h7s, B%hese bonnets are both alike,B or, worse still, i possible, Bboth A7st alike.B %his reminds one o the story o Sam and Jem, who were very like each other, especially Sam. A&&. See EN#H&(SA-. A&& #)!r. B%he disease spread all over the co7ntry.B #t is more lo"ical and more emphatic to say, B%he disease spread over all the co7ntry.B

B?. to intimate delicately.7 A&&!0#r'. and planted it.B What /r. B%his means o comm7nication is employed by man alone. the words 7sed si"ni yin" somethin" beyond their literal meanin". Watts.B says. to mention. and her branches 7nto the river. %h7s. 6.B 37nyan's B. See 3&%W&&N. %h7s. and didst ca7se it to take deep root. %his word is o ten improperly 7sed or only.B Arb7thnot's BJohn 37ll. then. An amateur is one versed in. to name. a tyro. An elaborated metaphor is called an allegoryJ both are i"7rative representations. Allude is now very rarely 7sed in any other sense than that o to speak o . Why hast tho7 then broken down her hed"es. that a degree of excellence had been reached. B%he health o the &mpress o 6ermany is "reatly ameliorated. and the wild beast o the ield doth devo7r it. A&&#2. She sent o7t her bo7"hs 7nto the"rim's . which is a lon" way rom bein" its le"itimate si"ni ication. See also ON-'. any partic7lar p7rs7it. BAn amount of perfection has been reached which # was by no means prepared or. %he hills were covered with the shadow o it. or a lover and practicer o . %his word is reC7ently mis7sed in the West and So7th." 01@cast o7t the heathen. %here is m7ch con 7sion in the 7se o these two words. An amate7r may be an artist o "reat e!perience and e!traordinary skill. which is. seem to be o opinion that the &n"lish lan"7a"e is "enerally better written in &n"land than it is in America. A-!&i#ra$!.B etc. A-a$!+r%N#)ic!. $. A-#+n$ #3 P!r3!c$i#n. %he observant reader o periodical literat7re o ten notes orms o e!pression which are perhaps best characteriDed by the word bizarre. the Jews are represented 7nder the symbol o a vine* B%ho7 hast bro7"ht a vine o7t o &"ypt* tho7 hast?. G7ackenbos sho7ld have written. %hose who think so are co7nseled to e!amine the diction o some o the most noted &n"lish critics and essayists. do7btless. in the BNineteenth .ro"ress. in their prepossession or everythin" transatlantic. %hat is alone which is 7naccompaniedJ that is only o which there is no other. be"innin". and it illed the land. BHe allows that he has the inest horse in the co7ntry. in the ei"htieth ." 0F@+r. %here are not a ew who. can do it. and the bo7"hs thereo were like the "oodly cedars. BHirt7e alone makes 7s happy. i they will. O these C7eer loc7tions.B means that nothin" else can do it—that that.B Why not say improvedR A-#n0. where it is made to do service or assert or to be of opinion.B means that virt7e 7naided s7 ices to make 7s happyJ BHirt7e only makes 7s happy. as its mis7se has well8ni"h robbed it o its tr7e meanin". %his de"radation is do7btless a direct o7tcome o 7nt7tored desire to be ine and to 7se bi" words.ent7ry. with /atthew Arnold. $ables and parables are short alle"ories. to re er to witho7t mentionin" directly. Watts meant to say was. art. and that only Mnot aloneN. altho7"h they are entirely distinct rom each other in meanin". /r.B An alle"ory is sometimes so e!tended that it makes a vol7meJ as in the case o Swi t's B%ale o a %7b. %he treatment this word has received is to be specially re"retted. is a novice and not an amateur. amount of perfection is a very "ood e!ample. A&#n!. so that all they which pass by the way do pl7ck herR %he boar o7t o the wood doth waste it. who is new and 7nskilled in his art. or science. .salm. A pro essional actor. b7t not en"a"ed in it pro essionally.B A&&+*!. A novice is one who is new or ine!perienced in any art or b7siness—a be"inner. %ho7 preparedst room be ore it. B3y man onlyB.

Anticipate is derived rom two -atin words meanin" before and to ta!e. there ore." %he ollowin" is an e!cellent e!ample o personificationand antithesis combined* "Talent "onvin"es) 0eni$s .irth.B An$ici(a$!. i yo7 can. since /ilton. Ans2!r%R!(&'. there ore. and knowled"e is inertJ that ener"y which collects.ehind. sho7ld be. "! see a "hief who leads my "hosen sons. when properly 7sed. yet not d$ll)*tron&.ope's the heat is more re"7lar and . and to acc7m7late all that st7dy mi"ht prod7ce or chance mi"ht s7pply. we reply. B%he advocate replied to the char"es made a"ainst his client. vain)Tho$&h &rave. # believe.An*. means.ope enabled him to condense?. etc.e left .. A phrase that opposes contraries is called an antithesis. An answer is "iven to a C7estionJ a reply. etc. he has not better poems. combines.B #n s7ch sentences as these.B An$i$4!sis. answered all yo7r C7estions and replied to all yo7r ar"7ments. Ba lan"7a"e like the 6reek or the -atinB Mlan"7a"eN. statements. he ired. o .ope had only a little. are written."%P& '6( %he ollowin" are e!amples* "Tho$&h &entle.opeJ and even o +ryden it m7st be said that. $ew v7l"arisms are more common than the 7se o and or to. receivin" no answer. What his mind co7ld s7pply at call or "ather in one e!c7rsion was all that he so7"ht and all that he "ave. . to take be orehandJ to "o be ore so as to precl7de anotherJ to "et the start or ahead o J to enAoy.ontrasted fa$lts thro$&h all their manners rei&n)Tho$&h poor. mis7sed in s7ch sentences as.ome and see me be ore yo7 "oBJ B%ry and do what yo7 can or himBJ B6o and see?." ". yet triflin&) /ealo$s. as well as answers. either e!cited by some e!ternal occasion or e!torted by domestic necessityJ he composed witho7t consideration and p7blished witho7t correction. And is sometimes improperly 7sed instead o orJ th7s. When we are addressed. l$-$rio$s) tho$&h s$. witho$t ra&e) witho$t o+erflowin&. yet $ntr$e)#nd e+en in penan"e plannin& sins anew. and." #n the ollowin" e!tract rom Johnson's B-i e o . are hi"her. and p$ns. and animates—the s7periority m7st. we answerJ when we are acc7sed.B "eplies. %here is no s7ch thin" as a 6reek and -atin lan"7a"e. %he dilatory ca7tion o . # o +ryden's ire the blaDe is bri"hter. in e!pectationJ to oretaste. or s7 er. We answer letters. # the li"hts o +ryden." 02@yo7r brother.. m7st "ive place to . ampli ies.#ll armed with points. f$ll. the proper particle to 7se is clearly to and not and. BHer death is ho7rly anticipatedBJ B3y this means it is anticipated that the time rom &7rope will be lessened two days. +ryden's per ormances were always hasty. #t is not to be in erred that o this poetical vi"or .rabb is in error in sayin" that replies Bare 7sed in personal disco7rse only. i he has bri"hter para"raphs.Talent from so. B# have now. . possess.#nd re"on"iles the pinion to the earth)0eni$s $nsettles with desires the mind. to m7ltiply his ima"es. be allowed to +ryden. We very properly write. antitheses.$t e-"ites1That tasks the reason) this the so$l deli&hts. or acc7sations they may contain. #t is. BWho "oes thereRB he criedJ and.ope contin7es lon"er on the win".ope.ontented not till earth .B individ7al pec7liarities are contrasted by means o antitheses* BO "eni7s—that power which constit7tes a poetJ that C7ality witho7t which A7d"ment is cold. %hese two words sho7ld not be 7sed indiscriminately. and reply to any ar" 2$d&ment takes its . B#t is obvio7s that a lan"7a"e like the 6reek and -atinB Mlan"7a"eRN." 05@his sentiments. beca7se +ryden had moreJ or every other writer. with some hesitation. &!amples* B. to an assertion. -overs o bi" words have a ondness or makin" this verb do d7ty or expect.B A re#oinder is made to a reply.

We are d7ll or C7ick o apprehension. . how have ! fri&hted thee.ird4f 7$en"hless eye and tireless win&8" "9elp. +ryden o ten s7rpasses e!pectation. make assay8:ow. in parts o a disco7rse . in val7eJ th7s.ope with perpet7al deli"ht. 'anybody else's servant'J and some "rammarians de end this 7se o the possessive case. B# appreciate it. p. is called the apostrophe. See &GEAN#/#%' O$ /#N+ . A((r!cia$!.. and leveled by the roller. in his BWords* %heir Ese and Ab7se. or increase. 0440. to estimate #ustly—to set the true val7e on men or thin"s. this one has. -. and .#nd steep my senses in for&etf$lness6""*ail on. constit7tes what. may allow copio7sness . # any word in the lan"7a"e has ca7se to complain o ill8treatment. or prize. J7ly 10. and diversi ied by the varied e!7berance o ab7ndant ve"etationJ . or advanta"es o any sort whatsoever. An' #*' !&s!.B BApprehend.a. and the like.B—BNew 'ork %imes. An &n"lish writer says* B#n s7ch phrases as anybody else. +ryden is read with reC7ent astonishment. An5i!$' #3 Min*.B A((r!4!n*%C#-(r!4!n*.B?.ro essor /athews seems to have a special dislike or this colloC7ialism. notappreciate them hi"hly. %rench says* BWeapprehend many tr7ths which we do not comprehend. their worth. nobody's else.B meanin" that she is blind.. in order that the condensation o other parts may be the more highly essor /athews. %h7s.ope's is a velvet lawn.hildren apprehendm7ch that they do not comprehend. An'. and .3 constant. in any manner. %he ollowin" are some e!amples* "4 &entle sleep.. %7rnin" rom the person or persons to whom a disco7rse is addressed and appealin" to some person or thin" absent. anybody's else. BShe does not see any.B vol. See S&&/..7blic School %eachers are in ormed that anybody else's is correct. or her. an&els. permissible in conversation. else is o ten p7t in the possessive caseJ as. %ownsend?. and # think is "enerally acco7nted. #t is reco"niDed by the le!ico"raphers.That tho$ no more wilt wei&h my eyelids down.B says . %he &n"lish o ten 7se the irst o these two words where we 7se the second. bea7ty.e1#ll may yet . %his word is also very improperly made to do service or rise.B can not be correct. We say properly." 04@.B #t is better "rammar and more e7phonio7s to consider else as bein" an adAective. is 7npardonable.B S7nday. tho$ lone imperial . tho7"h incompatible with di"ni ied diction." 0K@bl7nders in the 7se o appreciate in his BArt o Speech. i. +ryden's pa"e is a nat7ral ield. %. by one who pro esses to write and speak the &n"lish ton"7e with p7rity. B. B-andappreciates rapidly in the West. th7s* B%he laws o harmony .B B#ts 7se. shaven by the scythe. even by the care 7l. Appreciatemeans.. 3oth e!press an e ort o the thinkin" ac7ltyJ b7t to apprehendis simply to take an idea into the mind—it is the mind's irst e ort—while to comprehend is fully to understand.5at$re+s soft n$rse. thin"s hi"hly. highly. A(#s$r#(4!. BShe is not any betterBJ b7t we can not properly say..e well8" A((!ar. %his word is sometimes made to do service orat all.B says .orn . somebody's else.:e soft as sinews of the new. or him. in rhetoric. an overestimate is no more appreciationthan is an 7nderestimateJ hence it ollows that s7ch e!pressions as.. BAn e!ceedin"ly v7l"ar phrase.B +r. ar"7in" that somebody else is a compo7nd no7n. 0FO. st$. and to orm the possessive by addin" the apostrophe and s to the word that else C7ali iesJ th7s. risin" into ineC7alities.. An'4#2.B %here are orms o antithesis in which the contrast is only o a secondary kind. We value.orn knees8 and heart with strin&s of steel.ope never alls below it.

?. and sometimes or liable. B#t is not at allstran"e. O late years this word has been appropriated by the members o so many cra ts. #t is m7ch 7sed. Bas ar as. Be!presses the weakest kind o belie . is d7e to the 7nhappy'J 'at least a tear is d7e to the 7nhappy'J 'a tear is d7e at least to the 7nhappy'J 'a tear is d7e to the 7nhappy at least'—all e!press di erent meanin"s." OL@B#t may be complete so ar as the speci ication is concernedB* correctly. the havin" ?o @ the least idea o the presence o a thin". See. yo7 will be apt to "et into tro7ble. '#t does not o ten happen that this can be done. a7ction. %hin"s are sold by. nowadays. not at. B'%he (omans 7nderstood liberty at least as well as we. architects. in the sense 7nder consideration. '#t o ten happens that this can not be done.B B%his is not as "ood as the lastB* read.ainters.B %o hear rom any one at length is to hear 7llyJ i. a person who writes poetry or prose—not a man who writes. Bat last. the (omans 7nderstood as well as we do. A$.'< . or my 7ncle is )in" o +enmark.B BAt length we heard rom him. often at least. and by "ood writers.B %he at all in sentences like these is s7per l7o7s.' O.' 'A tear. BNot as # knowB* read. BAt length we mana"ed to "et awayB* read. B%he scene is more bea7ti 7l at ni"ht than by dayB* say. Ascri !. BHe o ered me thesame conditions as he o ered yo7. li!ely is the proper word to 7se. also. 'man is always capable o la7"hin"'J 'man is capable o la7"hin" always. /r. has the orce o a relative applyin" to persons or to thin"s. Bby ni"ht. '%he (omans 7nderstood liberty as well as we 7nderstand liberty." O0@'%his can not. preceded by such or by same. and so on to satiety. 6o7ld.' %his m7st be interpreted to mean. O ten mis7sed or li!ely.E%&. BWhat is he apt to be doin"RB BWhere shall # be apt to ind himRB B# properly directed. yo7r tailor.' %o e!press this meanin" we mi"ht p7t it th7s* '%he (omans 7nderstoodat least liberty as well as we do'J 'liberty. #nstead o at best and at worst. %his adverbial phrase is o ten misplaced. A$ &!n0$4.B As. Arc$ics.B says* B oet means simply a person who writes poetryJ and author. A$ !s$. it will be apt to reach me.' M0. and sin"ers.'N So.'B—3ain.. As. B#t is not stran"e. Bnot so "ood. be done'J 'this can not be done often$ at least.B it is clear that his diction wo7ld have been m7ch less orcible. A+$4#r!ss. With re"ard to the 7se o this and certain other words o like ormation.B Here either li!ely or liable is the proper word.B #n s7ch sentences as these.B A($. yo7r barber. . they 7nderstood liberty. 'o7r cook. B# yo7 "o there. we sho7ld say at the best and at the worst. A$ &as$. he wo7ld come where # am. 'that whatever thin"s the (omans ailed to 7nderstand.B B%he same conditionsthatB wo7ld be eC7ally proper. See (E33&(S. A$ &!as$. are allartists.rabb. B# do not wish or any at allBJ B# saw no one at allBJ B# he had any desire at all to see me. rather than to be spoken o as artists. e.B A$ a&&. b7t a person who writes. 'et there are instances in which the phrase is certainly a very convenient one. in detail. %his phrase is o ten 7sed instead o at last. Bnot that # know.B Had Shakespeare written. in his B6ood &n"lish. at least. See #/.B?. -#)&. "enerally pre er bein" th7s called. accordin" to the tho7"ht the speaker wo7ld convey. Nothin" in either word indicates se!J and everybody knows that the . that it has well8ni"h been despoiled o its meanin".' %he intended meanin" is. at least. Ar$is$. See A% -&N6%H. and seems to be 7nobAectionable. sc7lptors. yo7r boot8 maker. actors.

B!!n $#. besides. enthuse. a tendency in present 7sa"e to make the ollowin" distinction between them* 0. reventative.?. why say a bad coldR We may talk abo7t slight colds and severecolds. %hese words have the same meanin"J care 7l speakers.. %hey are. treasureress. beca7se they are abricated on the alse ass7mption that their primaries indicatemen. #n the later 7nabrid"ed editions o Webster's dictionary we ind the ollowin" remarks concernin" the 7se o these two words* B%eside and besides. etc.B A)#ca$i#n. officeress. or out ofJ as.O//&N. philolo"ical abs7rdities." O1@whether 7sed as prepositions or adverbs. See HO..B etc.. o the evenin". to say nothin" o pedantic pretension to acc7racy.#S/. or a emale . %hat beside be 7sed only and always as a preposition. See also . in another respect—that they are very rarely 7sed. We not 7n reC7ently hear a s7per l7o7s totacked to a sentenceJ th7s. there are other considerations which belon" to this case. See also SO-&. Hence it is improper to talk abo7t the balance o the edition. B!&#n0in0s. e. are barbarisms. with the ori"inal meanin" by the side ofJ as. independently o the name o the writer.&. moreover.a7l. etc. in addition toJ as. Ba00a0!.secretaryess. wal!eress. o the men. tal!eress. Bar aris-. or /iss. liable to the char"e o a ectation and prettiness. have been considered synonymo7s rom an early period o o7r literat7re.B B!0in%C#--!nc!. #ndeed. B# be" leave to tell yo7. o the money.hristian name. See -E66A6&. Ba&anc!. No one wo7ld say. this is beside o7r present p7rpose* '. BWhere have yo7 been toRB B!0.. And they are s7per l7o7s. B#beg to acknowled"e the receipt o yo7r avor.B etc. #n s7ch cases we sho7ld say the rest or the remainder. and in this sense and in no other sho7ld it be 7sed. "enerally pre er to 7se the ormer. which had been divided between the wordsJ as. B# the ess is to be permitted. B!in0 +i&$.?. %here is. however. See #S 3&#N6 3E#-%. there is no reason or e!cl7din" it rom any no7n that indicates a personJ and the ne!t editions o o7r dictionaries may be made complete by the addition o writress. indeed they hardly can be 7sed.' %he adverbial sense to be wholly trans erred to the co"nate word." OO@ Ba* c#&*. there is rarely any "ood reason or "ivin" the pre erence to the latter.A%#ON. #t properly means the excess of one thing over another. authoressand poetess are s7per l7o7s. and have been reely interchan"ed by o7r best writers. also. Hence. O. however. manageress. remainder. B!si*!%B!si*!s.' And that it also take the adverbial sense o moreover. o the toasts. as /rs.donate. B# be" to tell yo7. We o ten see letters be"in with the words. %hey are. a word that is antiC7ated or improperly ormed. take the remainin" sense. tho7 art besidethysel . b7t not abo7t bad colds. i. B# beg leave to acknowled"e. etc. An old idiomatic e!pression now comin" into 7se a"ain. as a preposition. +e ined as an o ense a"ainst "ood 7sa"e. and so on to the end o the vocab7lary.'' 7nctions o both poets and a7thors are common to both se!es. %his word is very reC7ently and very erroneo7sly 7sed in the sense o rest. besides all thisJbesides the consideration here o ered* '%here was a amine in the land besides the irst amine. %hat besides. #nasm7ch as colds are never good.B .B instead o . beyond. besides. We sho7ld write. to sit beside a o7ntainJ or with the closely allied meanin" aside from. superintendentess. agriculturalist. by the 7se o an improper word.

'2 B!s$. while the co7ra"eo7s man is always ca7tio7s. in either conversation or in writin". in resistin" the attacks o the +anes. Brin0%F!$c4%Carr'. %his word is o ten mis7sed or amongJ th7s. B# am determined to have it.B B'o7 have among yo7 many a p7rchased slave. and con 7sion in the 7se o particles.. # am inclined to think that well8ed7cated Americans con orm more closely to "rammatical propriety than the correspondin" class in &n"land.B %etween is 7sed in re erence to two thin"s. and is ollowed by away or off.B %oth is likewise red7ndant in the ollowin" sentence* B#t per orms at the same time the o ices both o the nominative and obAective cases. indeed. nor do we habit7ally.B B&a-! i$ #n. altho7"h his action may s7bAect him to adverse criticism. #n the tenses o the verbs. %r7e moral courage is one o the rarest and most admirable o virt7es. B!$2!!n. Bamong men. We sometimes hear s7ch abs7rd sentences as. %he same thin" is. %raveryo ten de"enerates into temerity. A colloC7ial term incompatible with di"ni ied diction.B We 7se the words correctly th7s* B'etch. B6o to /rs. the &n"lish o America is not at all in erior to that o &n"landJ b7t we do not discriminate so precisely in the meanin" o words.B B#+n*. or go bring. e!press o7rselves so "race 7lly. irre"7larity. tho7"h some "ross depart7res rom idiomatic propriety.. which none b7t very i"norant persons wo7ld be "7ilty o in America. B. s7ch as different to or different from." OF@ B#$4. B%hey both resemble each other very m7chBJ B%hey areboth alikeBJ B%hey both met in the street. however m7ch in 7se it may be betweenmen. yo7 may fetch her this book also.B—B-ondon G7een. 'et one hears s7ch e!pressions as. observable in &n"land.B sho7ld be.B meanin" that he accuses or suspects his brother o havin" done it.oll7! with one so7l between them.astor and . little merit in bein" brave.?. as the &n"lish. %he careless o ten 7se these two words as tho7"h they were interchan"eable. BHe blames it on his brother. so7nds very obAectionable rom the lips o women. Here is a "ross v7l"arism which we sometimes hear rom persons o considerable c7lt7re.'s and bring her this b7ndleJ and here. %he indiscriminate 7se o these three words is very common. B# ambound to have it.. %hey 7se it in the sense o accuse or suspectJ th7s. b7t not to the same e!tent. Al red the 6reat. +. parties. %ravery is inborn. in point o naked syntactical acc7racy. is instinctiveJ courage is the prod7ct o reason. are common in &n"land. and th7s is opposed to bring and fetch. &oral courage is that irmness o principle which enables a man to do what he deems to be his d7ty. B#0+s. or personsJ among. he displayedcourage. calc7lation. displayed braveryJ in enterin" their camp as a spy. # think we may say that. or employ so classic a diction... B%he word fellow." O2@BWhen yo7 come home bring some lemonsBJ BCarry this book home with yo7. See A% 3&S%. B%he most important pec7liarity o American &n"lish is a la!ity.B Bri$is4 a0ains$ A-!rican En0&is4.B Sho7ld be. %he 7se o this word in the sense o determinedis not only inele"ant b7t inde ensible. and o7r licenses and inacc7racies are more reC7ently o a character . %o bring is to convey to or toward—a simple actJ to fetch means to go and brin"—a compo7nd actJ to carry o ten implies motion rom the speaker. or o bein" at a7lt or it. %here is m7ch merit in bein" co7ra"eo7s. /en who are simply brave are careless. #n "eneral. in re erence to a "reater n7mber. O7r taste in lan"7a"e is less astidio7s.. me an apple rom the cellarBJ?.B Bra)!r'%C#+ra0!.

. #n spite o the coldness o o7r winters. to a more so7thern type than that o &n"land. O this latter class o in l7ences. we can not sayJ b7t it is evident that material in l7ences o some sort are prod7cin" a chan"e in o7r bodily constit7tion. there is some reason to think that climate is a ectin" o7r artic7lation.on"ress "oes to Washin"ton adactyl or a trochee. 3esides the in l7ence o the habit o readin". We are said to drawl o7r words by protractin" the?. at least within the temperate Done. #talian. not to mention more important chan"es.B—6eor"e . we have contracted somethin" o the more distinct artic7lation that belon"s to a dry atmosphere and a clear sky. like the people o so7thern &7rope. Why or how e!ternal physical ca7ses. tho7"h etymolo"ically important. Americans incline to "ive to every syllable o a written word a distinct en7nciationJ and the pop7lar habit is to say dic-tion-ar-y. %hat the delicate or"ans o artic7lation sho7ld participate in s7ch tendencies is alto"ether nat7ralJ and the operation o the ca7ses which "ive rise to them is palpable even in o7r handwritin". # mi"ht e!empli y by citin" amiliar instancesJ b7t. lest that sho7ld seem invidio7s. 7pon the same principle. and th7s. 7pon the whole. will prono7nce more deliberately and clearly than a people so lar"e a proportion o whom are 7nable to read. with a secondary accent on the pen7ltimate. as compared with &n"lish. and we are ast acC7irin" a distinct national An"lo8American type. when we are only "ivin" a 7ll e!pression to letters which. and comes home an amphibrach or aniambus. a nation o readers. %7rkish. to throw the accent toward the end o the word. as climate and modes o li e. it may s7 ice to say that. i not 7ni orm with itsel .mil-it-ar-y. as a Swedish satirist says. somethin" disa"reeably sti in an an!io7s and a ected con ormity to the very letter o ortho"raphyJ and to those acc7stomed to a more h7rried 7tterance we may seem to drawl. as is so common in &n"land. in the physical in l7ences o a so7thern climate.articipatin". %his we observe very commonly in the comparative Northern and So7thern pron7nciation o proper names. %here is. to resistJ and partly owin" to a di erence o circ7mstances. #n so7thern latit7des. perhaps." OQ@vowels and "ivin" them a more diphthon"al so7nd than the &n"lish. %h7s. in the len"th or prosodical C7antity o the vowelsJ and both o the ca7ses # have mentioned conc7r to prod7ce this e ect. Witness?. which. then. many a Northern member o . $rom o7r 7niversal habit o readin". be stren"thened by any ca7se which prod7ces "reater slowness and 7llness o artic7lation. and 6erman. one hal o the word. And this view o the case is con irmed by the act that the inhabitants o the So7thern States incline. like the Americans. sp7tterin" o7t. brin" o7t all the syllables. and swallowin" the other. the &n"lish habit7ally sl7r over. like all nations that 7se that accent7ation.'3 indicative o want o re inement and ele"ant c7lt7re than those we hear in ed7cated society in &n"land. . an &n"lishman who reads will habit7ally 7tter his vowels more 7lly and distinctly than his co7ntryman who does notJ and." O5@the pron7nciation o Spanish. o7r lora shows that the climate o even o7r Northern States belon"s. is "enerally. Bri$is4 a0ains$ A-!rican Or$4#6('. . instead o sinkin" the third syllable. Now. there res7lts not only a "reater distinctness o artic7lation. /arsh. %he tendency to make the lon" vowels diphthon"al is noticed by orei"ners as a pec7liarity o the orthoIpy o o7r lan"7a"eJ and this tendency will. the 7niversality o readin" in America is the most obvio7s and important. and there ore di ic7lt. so 7nlike common &n"lish script as to be readily distin"7ished rom it. no do7bt. as in &n"land. B%he ca7ses o the di erences in pron7nciation ?between the &n"lish and the Americans@ are partly physical. artic7lation is "enerally m7ch more distinct than in the northern re"ions. i not impossible. o co7rse. nevertheless. b7t a stron" tendency to assimilate the spoken to the written lan"7a"e. +anish. %he most marked di erence is. sho7ld a ect pron7nciation.

to estimateJ and.B says . or e!ample. i that term is insisted 7pon." O4@connected with a le!ibility o or"an.B—6eor"e . purpose. than. b7t m7st. /arsh.B etc." OK@to inspire. Can$. B'. B# sho7ld not wonder butB* read.B etc.obbett. if..B Ca&i !r.hristians shall no lon"er ' eel to take' and '"rant to "ive'RB BHow m7ch # re"ret. %his word is mis7sed in vario7s ways.* s7ppress but. we can not say a thin" is calculated to do harm. B# do not do7bt but he will be hereB* read. and as?.' and the solecism o 'in o7r midst'J and who does not lon" or a verbal millenni7m when . %his word means to ascertain by comp7tation. and they m7st do so and so in a prayer 7l wayJ and so on.B +o7bt that. (f this is true. o7r drawlin". or at least some other word. says.J and. however prolon"ed. to reckon. B3rown's &ssays are o a m7ch hi"her caliber than Smith's. Ca&c+&a$!.B etc. li!ely or apt. BHe calculates to "et o to8morrow.B writes +r. choose some other orm o e!pression. B%hat. however. B# do not do7bt but that it is tr7eB* s7ppress but.B Ca(aci$'. B# have no do7bt butthat he will "oB* s7ppress but.'4 B%o the Aoint operation. B%here can be no do7bt butthat the b7r"lary is the work o pro essional cracksmen. speech is "iven 7s that we may make o7rselves 7nderstood.B—BNew 'ork Herald.Calculate is sometimes v7l"arly 7sed or intend. Bthat so many reli"io7s persons o the present day think it necessary to adopt a certain cant o manner and phraseolo"y ?and o tone o voice@ as a token to each other ?one another@T %hey improve this and that te!t. B%he irst two o the three sentences are well eno7"h calculated or 7sherin".. . and not but that. See #N+&S &S. o""y. See A%. BA care 7l canvass leaves no do7bt but that the nomination. and is not 7n reC7ently a ected by &n"lishmen o a better class. do7bt that. Cant is a kind o a ectationJ a ectation is an e ort to sail 7nder alse colorsJ an e ort to sail 7nder alse colors is a kind o alsehoodJ and alsehood is a term o -atin ori"in which we o ten 7se instead o the stron"er Sa!on term -'#N6T BWho is not amiliar. Br'an$"s Pr#4i i$!* W#r*s. whose "reat e!ample is so well calculated?.* read.. as.E(6A%O(#ES. o these two ca7ses—7niversal readin" and climatic in l7ences —we m7st ascribe o7r habit o dwellin" 7pon vowel and diphthon"al so7nds. %his word is sometimes 7sed very abs7rdlyJ as. then. it never means anythin" else when properly 7sed. or o drawlin". . BNo other reso7rce but this was allowed himB* read. 37t it is o ten noticed by orei"ners as both makin" 7s more readily 7nderstood by them when speakin" o7r own ton"7e. B%he mind no sooner entertains any proposition but it presently hastens. than.olerid"e. which enables 7s to acC7ire a better pron7nciation o other lan"7a"es than is 7s7al with &n"lishmen.B #t is plain that the proper word to 7se here isorder. William /atthews.. #n any case. B+$. i we are ambitio7s to have o7r &n"lish irreproachable. m7mblin" thickness o artic7lation which characteriDes the cockney. say some o the p7rists. See A3#-#%'. Bwith scores o pet phrases and cant terms which are repeated at this day apparently witho7t a tho7"ht o their meanin"R Who ever attended a missionary meetin" witho7t hearin" 'the /acedonian cry. is pre erable to the na7seo7s. in spite o the old ada"e.' and an acco7nt o some 'little interest' and ' ields white or the harvest'R Who is not weary o the din"8don" o 'o7r Uion.expectJ as. B%here is no reasonable do7bt butthat it is all it pro esses to beB* s7ppress but. to Her.B etc.

do . as (. p. than (. as.B says 3ain. b7t. and sense prevail when yo7 write to a blacksmith abo7t shoein" a horse as when yo7 write on the most important s7bAects. B'o7 are older than meB* say. my dear James. Cas!.B Carr'. $ar. and yo7 see the error at once. When yo7 write. # we drop them. the ear "ives 7s no assistance. and which is inserted between the line where the caret is placed and the line above it." 1L@a -atin word meanin" a head. Habit is power 7l in all casesJ b7t its power in this case is tr7ly wonder 7l. %his word is o ten 7sed or heading. b7t him. that they are more energetic than the other orm. We can not say. and we sho7ld have. the mistake is very apparentJ th7s. -et ("o. B-et's yo7 and ( "oB* say. (. let yo7 and me"o. See 3(#N6.B BOn the s7pposition. rom my dear James will be the ridic7lo7s. who ( saw. the contemptible a ectation o writin" in a slovenly or ille"ible hand.obbett writes o the caret to his son* B%he last thin" # shall mention 7nder this head is the caret ?V@. B'o7 are stron"er than himB* say. and them. B3etween yo7 and (B* say." 1O@think # saw to8dayR' '*ho. or. %his will make yo7r handwritin" and also yo7r meanin" plain. says* BWhen the relatives are placed in the sentence at a distance rom their antecedents or verbs or prepositions.'5 Ca($i#n. BWas it himRB say. it may be do7bted whether "rammarians have not e!ceeded their province in condemnin" them. who. and that they lead to no ambiguity. me. to who the office was given. S7pply the ellipsis. e. %his error is not easy to detect on acco7nt o the parenthetical words that ollow it. 11. B'o7 told John and (B* say. %hin"s sho7ld be called by their ri"ht names. 3e care 7l that neatness. i. Car!$. the o ice was "iven to. B# # was him. %he tr7e meanin" o caption is a seiD7re. ed. the ollowin" are errors* 'who do yo7 take me to beR' 'who sho7ld # meet the other dayR' 'who is it byR' 'who did yo7 "ive it toR' 'who toR' 'who orR' 37t. vol. B$or the bene it o those whom were his riends.B . # wo7ld have yo7. and me. -et's "o. o all the men in the world.' #n both these cases it sho7ld be whom. #t does not come rom?. and we sometimes meet with "ross errors o this kind in the writin"s o a7thors o rep7te.obbett. BJohn went o7t with James and (B* say. than he. and me. Bthat the interro"ativewho has whom or its obAective. BShe is as tall ashimB* say. in writin" o the prono7ns.. BHe "ave it to John and (B* say.they. BHe sat between him and (B* say. were he. B'o7 were a d7nce to do it. .omedies.B &n". considerin" that these e!pressionsoccur with the best writers and spea!ers. and me. We can't say. she. WhoR meRB say. '*ho. WhoR me a d7nce to do itR BWhere are yo7 "oin"R WhoR meRB say. B$or the bene it o thosewhom he tho7"ht were his riendsB* say.roperly. or that o si"nin" his name otherwise than in plain letters. Witness the ollowin"* BAnd everybody is to know him e!cept (. # hope. he. and me. . an arrest. and this sho7ld be called the blunder-mar!. BWas it herRB say. whom. th7s 7sed. "rammar. BHe e!pects to see yo7 and (B* say. 37t take careT '*hom. and me. /any persons o considerable c7lt7re contin7ally make mistakes in conversation in the 7se o the cases. )hin! be ore yo7 writeJ let it be yo7r c7stom to write correctly and in a plain hand. which is 7sed to point 7pward to a part which has been omitted. b7t rom a -atin word meanin"to seize. i. or the sake o n7mero7s services.." 10@master a "rie b7t he that hath itB* correctly. me "oin". and me. let 7s "o. scorn the 7se o the thin". # wo7ld do itB* say. as he. (. b7t him. it is condemned by care 7l writers. bear constantly in mind that some one is to read and to understand what yo7 write. BWas it themRB say. BNobody said so b7t heB* say. B# # was her.B—6eor"e /erideth in B%he %ra"ic . BHe is as "ood as meB* say. o all the men in the world. B*ho do yo7 meanRB say. do yo7?. B3etween yo7 and theyB* say. B&very one can?. were she. 3rin" the verb in the irst and the preposition in the second case closer to the relative. # wo7ld not "oB* say.

ro essor Ale!ander 3ain.' etc. '#n case o you being present'* herebeing wo7ld have to be constr7ed as a participle. especially with s7ch no7ns as do not readily take the possessive orm. in his BHi"her &n"lish 6rammar.B 37t moi. the answer to 'who is thereR' ismoi MmeNJ and c'est moi Mit is meN is the le"itimate phrase—neverc'est #e Mit is #N. &7phony with him is a matter o more importance than "rammatical correctness. no7n@ C7ali ied by the possessive your.' 37t. as they are called by some "rammarians—in initives in ing. was chosen to be sent as an ambassadorR' '*hom.B says +r. .B is B/oiT Ae s7is ici.. 3ain.' /aca7lay cens7res the ollowin" as a solecism* '#t was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad i"7re b7t as an a7thor. '%hey prevented his going orward. your.' %hackeray similarly adverts to the same deviation rom the r7le* 'B#s that himRB said the lady in questionable grammar.B Bhave laid down this r7le* '%he verb to be has the same case a ter as be ore it.' 'He had cond7cted the ball witho7t any complaint being 7r"ed a"ainst him. and o7"ht to have whoJ that is to say. '# # were him'J 'i # had been her. is me'J 'were it me.larissa Harlowe. you. as they are called by others—in the possessive caseR B'# am s7rprised at +ohn's Mor his.' 'it was her. When shall we p7t no7ns Mor prono7nsN precedin" verbal.' 'A petition was presented a"ainst the license being "ranted.' '%he boy died thro7"h his clothes being b7rned.'6 yo7 think.' 'We hear little o any connection being kept 7p between the two nations. who was chosen.?.' '# am s7rprised at +ohn Mor him. %he a7thority o "ood writers is stron" on the side o obAective orms. is very o ten in the nominative case.B we m7st do as the $rench do—consider meas bein" in the nominative case. my brother says.B B/ost "rammarians. '#n case o your being absent'* here being is an in initive ?verbal. etc." 11@%here is also the analo"y o the $rench lan"7a"eJ or while '# am here' is #e suis ici.N refusingto "o. )he possessive construction is$ in this case$ the primitive and regular constructionJ %H& O%H&( #S A /&(& -A.' %ut most examples of the construction without the possessive form are O3H#OES-' +E& %O /&(& S-OH&N-#N&SS.' %hese are nominative cases.. b7t 7ndesirable and 7nnecessary.'—. &oi is in the nominative case when 7sed in reply to BWho is thereRB and also in the phrase B. who had an office.B # we 7se s7ch phraseolo"y as B#t is me. or participial.' etc. etc. '%hey prevented him going orward'* better. and not B#t is me. and o er euphony as o7r reason or th7s 7sin" it.' 'He was dismissed witho7t any reason being assi"ned.B contin7es +r. 3ain.@ %he latter constr7ction is not so common with prono7ns as with no7ns.?0@ '%his shy creat7re.' more reC7ently than the prescribed orm. '# there is one character more base than another.. it wo7ld be ri"ht to say. Here are two o them* B/on avocat et moi sommes de cet avis. %he di ic7lty o adherin" to the possessive orm occ7rs when the s7bAect is not a person* '#t does not seem sa e to rely on the r7le o demand creatin" s7pply'* in strictness. '#t is not me?O@ yo7 are in love with.' ?#n the latter sentence refusing is a participle. notwithstandin" this. Bwe certainly hear in the act7al speech o all classes o society s7ch e!pressions as 'it was me. or the sake o his n7mero7s services.emand'screatin" s7pply. '.B %he $rench eC7ivalent o B#T # am here. 'a"ainst the license's being "ranted. 3escherelle "ives many e!amples o moi in the nominative.B which makes B#t is (B the correct translation o the phrase.N refusingto "o. had an o ice o honor bestowed 7pon him.' 'it was him." 1F@'%he men rowed vi"oro7sly or ear o the tide turninga"ainst 7s.B %he $renchman 7ses moi in the nominative case when #e wo7ld be inharmonio7s.'—Addison.'?.' %he possessive wo7ld be s7itable. no7ns. #'d show him the di erence. it is him who.B—. G7i ve7t aller avec l7iR /oi.' 37t or the awkwardness o e!tendin" the possessive to impersonal s7bAects. accordin" to all $rench "rammarians.S&.—Sydney Smith.'est moi. or participial.

' '%he daily instances o men'sdyin" aro7nd 7s.' Say rather. and a pinchbeck necklace dear at ten dollars. or a "ood character and a bad rep7tation. as a concrete termJ b7t it wo7ld be better to 7se it in its abstract sense only. What is low8priced. and always 7se its synonym accident. it is better to say low-priced. to say either cherubs and seraphs. 'O men dyin" aro7nd 7s.' %he leadin" word in sense o7"ht not to be made the adA7nct in constr7ction. the apprentice's cleanin" knives.B says +r. words. well8disposed. #n this co7ntry the word clever is most improperly 7sed in the sense o "ood8nat7red. it. as everybody knows. than to 7se the word cheap. is what is tho7"ht o one's characterJ conseC7ently. the terms cherubims and seraphims.B Here some other word—persons. betrays a want o care in the selection o words. A diamond necklace?. orm the alphabet by which yo7 may spell characters. As the words cherubim and seraphim are pl7ral. amon" all the p7DDlin" and disp7table points o "rammar. in my opinion$ the three possessives are all wrong* '%he kitchen. when one means low8priced. Character means the s7m o distin"7ishin" C7alities. especially in the newspapers. Sir . b7t his reputation—his good name. is o ten dear. perhaps." 1Q@mi"ht be cheap at ten tho7sand dollars. and in sentences like the one above to say distinguished persons. too. tho7"h o ten 7sed as s7ch.eter does not leave his character behind him. %his word properly means one who has certain political ri"htsJ when. BA n7mber o celebrities witnessed the irst representation. %hese two words are not synonyms. #t is properly 7sed in the sense in which we are wont most inele"antly to 7se the word smart. at a bar"ain. casuality. BWe are a7thoriDed. to say the least. there is. "ood8hearted. accordin" to the Oriental. #n &n"land the phrase Ba clever manB is the eC7ivalent o the $rench phrase. Cas+a&$'. C4!r+ i-. Hence. %he dictionaries de ine this adAective as meanin". C4!a(.B %he word is properly 7sed in the ollowin" sentences* B&very work o Archbishop . and is o wider application.B %his word is reC7ently 7sed.hilosophy o (hetoric. or has been sold. b7t rom theshopmaid's choppin" orce8meat. style.B Ci$i. to desi"nate persons who may be aliens. in order to make s7re o bein" 7nderstood. one may have a "ood rep7tation and a bad character.B—6oold 3rown. or to be had at a low priceJ b7t nowadays "ood 7sa"e makes it mean that a thin" may be had. and the #ourneyman's receivin" a practical lesson in?.ampbell. %his word is o ten heard with the incorrect addition o a syllable.'7 B%ho7"h the ordinary synta! o the possessive case is s7 iciently plain and easy.B—-avater. now be"ins to "ive dread 7l note o preparationJ not rom armorers accomplishin" the kni"hts." 12@the art o waitin" at table. %he ollowin" e!ample is mani estly inconsistent with itsel J and. Bboth by 7se and analo"y. nothin" more di ic7lt o decision than are some C7estions that occ7r respectin" the ri"ht mana"ement o this case. which is not reco"niDed by the le!ico"raphers. BActions. steps. %he ormer s7its better the amiliar. the latter the solemn. Some writers obAect to the word cas7alty. or e!ample—sho7ld be 7sed. "eputation means the estimation in which one is held. there ore. BSeveral citizens were inA7red by the e!plosion. . accordin" to the &n"lish idiom.B—B. bearin" a low price. %he Hebrew pl7ral o cherub. C4arac$!r%R!(+$a$i#n. b7t not character.!n. One's rep7tation. or cherubim and seraphim. . C!&! ri$'. as it o ten is. looks. and what is hi"h8priced is o ten cheap. C&!)!r. %he observations that have been made show that possessives be ore participles are seldom to be approved. it is 7sed. are C7ite improper.al7mny may inA7re reputation. Bun homme d'esprit. as e!pressin" the pl7ral. tho7"h it is a less colloC7ial term. then.

. b7t very mischievo7sBJ B3onaparte was certainly asclever a man as ever lived. Here are some e!amples o clima!* B6ive all dili"enceJ add to yo7r aith. why for&etThe nobler and the manlier one6" C#-(&!$!*. brotherly kindnessJ and to brotherly kindness. or e!ample. as in co-eval. the more e ective is made to ollow the less e ective in re"7lar "radation. Bo more or less importance. When only two obAects are compared. wealth.B C#nsi*!r. C#--!nc!. or "eni7sRB "4f two s$"h lessons. Any "reat depart7re rom the order o ascendin" stren"th?. %his word is o ten incorrectly 7sed orfinished.B BWhat is every year o a wise man's li e b7t a criticism on the pastT %hose whose li e is the shortest live lon" eno7"h to la7"h at one hal o itJ the boy despises the in ant. virt7eJ and to virt7e. is said to end with a climaxwhen.B Bcommenced actor. etc. Con is 7sed when the word be"ins with a consonant. %o 7se condignin the sense o severe is A7st as incorrect as it wo7ld be to 7se deserved or merited in the sense o severe. C#n*i0n. C#ns!. to revolve in the mindJ and yet it is made to do service or?. to meditate.B Bcommenced politician. Bcommenced merchant. B%hey were all persons o more or less consequenceB* read. %he 3ritons 7se or mis7se this word in a manner pec7liar to themselves. BHis endeavors shall not lackcondign praiseBJ i. patienceJ and to patience. e. how e!press and admirableT in action. the comparative and not the s7perlative de"ree sho7ld be 7sedJ th7s. in his BWords and %heir Eses. C#-(aris#n. his endeavors shall not lack properor their merited praise.. and the .B BWhat a piece o work is manT how noble in reasonT how in inite in ac7ltiesT in orm and movin". or any literary composition whatsoever. ." 1K@thin!. Bo nomoment. which is. %he b7ilder o a ho7se may finish it and yet leave it veryincomplete.B Bis perverted rom its tr7e meanin" by most o those who 7se it. %hat is complete which lacks nothin"J that isfinished which has had all done to it that was intended. A cla7se. B%his word. by an artistic arran"ement. B/ary is the older o the twoBJ BJohn is the?." 15@is called an anti-climax. co-incident.B says /r.+!nc!." 14@stronger o the twoBJ B3rown is the richer o the two. or more than two cent7ries. and the richest man in the cityBJ BWhich is the more desirable. %hey say. the sa"e both. C#n3ir-!* In)a&i*. s7itable. established. begin. deserved.B by irst8class writers.B Bbecome.are 7l speakers make small 7se o commence in any senseJ they pre er to 7se its Sa!on eC7ivalent. how like an an"elT in apprehension. veryclever. knowled"eJ and to knowled"e. BA villain condignly p7nishedB is a villain p7nished according to his deserts. %his phrase is a convenient mode o e!pressin" the idea it conveys.B B#t is a matter o no consequenceB* read.hristian all. health or wealthRB BWhich is the most desirable. merited. proper. 3&6#N.Co-partner is an e!ception to the r7le. to re lect. a para"raph. the man the boy. . charity.B Considermeans. "odlinessJ and to "odliness. also. as in con-temporary. temperanceJ and to temperance..B Bset 7p as. to deliberate. +r. health. a sentence.' Whately m7st be an obAect o interest to the admirers o clever reasonin"BJ B. #t is sa e to say that most o those who 7se this word do not know its meanin".obbett's letter . (ichard 6rant White. Hall tells 7s that commence has been employed in the sense o Bbe"in to be.B C&i-a5. See.B and so on. %his word is sometimes 7sed instead o importance or momentJ as. inasm7ch as confirmed means stren"thened. %he pre i! co sho7ld be 7sed only when the word to which it is Aoined be"ins with a vowel. how like a "odTB C#. con-#unction. b7t it is di ic7lt to de end.

Corporalis 7sed in re erence to the body. C#r(#r!a&%C#r(#ra&. tho7"h the s7bstit7tion o the word two or it wo7ld o ten materially improve the diction. /r. B%here is nothin" imperative on the part o those that assemble.stan"es "o$ld add*peed most spirit$al. As or sin. and is not modi ied either by co7ntry. at pleas7re. %h7s* B# consider his co7rse very 7nA7sti iableBJ B# have always considered it my d7ty. are not 7sed indiscriminately. Corporal p7nishmentJcorporeal or material orm or s7bstance."—=ilton.B C#n)#1!%C#n)!n!. +r. tho7"h re"arded as synonyms. as all are alike le"itimate ormations. $itDedward Hall says* BAs or conversationistand conversationalist. .hristianJ and what is sin 7l in the eyes o a .roperly. #n its primitive si"ni ication. or convened* one?. as the laws o states di er. not convenes.B etc. C#n$in+! #n. been so lon" 7sed to mean two o a kind considered to"ether. that in this sense it may be deemed permissible. Crime is the violation o the law o a stateJ hence.reath into the wind. %he meanin" is. it is very di ic7lt to de ine what it is.B B%he ever contin7edon or some ho7rs.J B# consider him as bein" the cleverest man o my acC7aintance. or e!ample."—*hakespeare. what is crime in one state may not be crime in another.B #n s7ch sentences.B and the like. %his word is sometimes 7sed or contemptuous. #t has. C#n)!rsa$i#nis$. is an act of authorityJ it is the call o one who has the a7thority to "ive the callJ it is heeded by those who eel themselves bo7nd to attend. Accordin" to . reli"ion. as what is sin 7l in the eyes o one man may not be sin 7l in the eyes o anotherJ what is?. %hese adAectives.B ." FL@assembles.'3 suppose. BWe contin7ed to travelon o7r way. it is or convention to decide which we are to pre er.arr.resident Arth7r convo!es. Convo!e. # have a contemptible opinion o yo7. %his word is to be pre erred toconversationalist. C#n$in+a&&'." F0@sin 7l in the eyes o a Jew may not be sin 7l in the eyes o a . BSir. or condition. however. See 3(AH&('. by invitation or reC7estJ one attends to the notice or not. on the other hand. and regard. ">hat seemed corporal =elted as . to the animal s7bstance in an e!tended sense—opposed to spirit7al.B C#n$!-($i &!. or animal rame. C#+(&!. the Senate.B B%hat does not s7rprise me. See .&(.-ice is a co7rse o wron"8doin".&%EA--'. (ichard 6rant White says that conversationalistand agriculturalist are inadmissible. as B. the tie that 7nites the se!es. At one time and another there has been some disc7ssion with re"ard to the correct 7se o these two words. the on "enerally serves no p7rpose.ontin7eon. or convene. then. b7t two that are 7nited by some bondJ s7ch as. An old story says that a man once said to +r. A traitor is adespicable character.B BHe contin7ed to read on. %he con 7sion that e!ists in the 7se o these words is d7e lar"ely to an imper ect 7nderstandin" o their respective meanin"s.B ret7rned the +octorJ Ball yo7r opinions are contemptible. agriculturist and agriculturalist. C#+ra0!. BWe contin7ed on o7r wayB is idiomatic &n"lish. .B What is worthless or weak iscontemptible. and nothin" bindin" on those assembled. +espicable is a word that e!presses a still more intense de"ree o the contemptible. On the other hand. this word does not mean simply two.rabb. or convenes. %he on in this phrase is "enerally s7per l7o7s. Cri-!%Vic!%Sin. in its proper senseJ corporeal. while a poltroon is only contemptible. however.hristian o one co7ntry may not be sin 7l in the . "That to corporeal s$. and is more e7phonio7s than the sentence wo7ld be witho7t the particle.

to conductJ as. Say. moneyed. and its tr7e meanin" is to behave. . or B(n spite of all o7r e orts. not crush out.B Not 7n reC7entlydeceiving is 7sed when the speaker means trying to deceive.B BA curious proceedin"B* better.B D!ar!s$. slippered. whiskered. B%he rebellion was inally crushed out. He behaves. BHe demeans himself in a "entlemanly manner. talented. Ba strange proceedin". in the eyes o most people.B +an"ero7s people are "enerally most dan"ero7s when they are most vi"oro7s. cotta"ed. D!ci-a$!.B B%ho7"h terribly tithedB wo7ld be eC7ally correct. an"7ished. to endeavor to?. the v7lt7re. #n the days o slavery. accordin" to the a7thorities.B 37t. cultured havin" b7t two syllables. # be" that yo7 will mend either yo7r morals or yo7r "rammar. 'o7 call me yo7r Bdearest /ariaBJ am # to 7nderstand that yo7 have other /arias'RB—/oon's B3ad &n"lish. D!n+*!. meanin" as it properly does to tithe. himsel in a "entlemanly manner. or conducts. a rebellion. B'o7 are deceiving me. %his word is o ten 7sed instead o strangeor remar!able.B O7t o whatR We may crush the li e o7t o a man. %his word. the word really means. beca7se there is no verb in 7se rom which to orm it. lettered. We have in 7se the s7bstantive culture. B%he v7lt7re. B(n despite of all o7r e orts to detain him. b7t it was. to disgrace..' %he lady replied* '/y dear John. Cr+s4!* #+$. it is likely to ind avor with those who employ short words when they convey their meanin" as well as lon" ones. or his head is always eatherless. while its synonym cultivated has o7r. %his word is said to be a prod7ct o 3oston—an e!cellent place or anybody or anythin" to come rom. condemnJ as. to carry. #t is a re le!ive verb. e. BHe is pretty sick." FO@bride th7s* '/y dearest /aria. is hardly permissible in the sense in which it is 7sed in s7ch sentences as. +en7din" a v7lt7re's head and neck o the eathers is like denuding an eel o its scales.B etc. BA "entleman once be"an a letter to his?. /any persons obAect to its 7se on the "ro7nd that there can be no s7ch participial adAective. rom irst to last. B+espite all o7r e orts. to humble. and crush. B+aniel kneeled 7pon his knees to deprecate the captivity o his people. cens7re. A thin" can not be denuded o what it does not have. we do not 7se it. Other adAectives o this kind are. D!-!an. Bhas some part o the head and sometimes o the neck denuded o eathers. Stran"ely eno7"h. Ba remar!able act." F1@avert by prayerJ to pray e!emption or deliverance romJ to be" o J to entreatJ to 7r"e a"ainst. is 7niversally deprecated.B i. %his word is o ten incorrectly preceded byin and ollowed by ofJ th7s. "i ted.B—Hewyt. to harbor a r7naway slave was a crime. BHe is sick. BA curious actB* better.hristian o another co7ntry. %his word is sometimes erroneo7sly 7sed in the sense o to debase.B D!c!i)in0. and so orth. or carries. he set o7tBJ which sho7ld be. C+&$+r!*. tho7"h the dictionaries reco"niDe the verb to culture. this word is o ten 7sed in the sense o disapprove. tho7"h terribly decimated by the enemy's artillery. b7t not in danger. however.B says 3rande. lilied.B Dan0!r#+s. b7t. orcrush a man to death. to take the tenth part.. rather. b7t not dangerous.B /ost birds mi"ht be denuded o the eathers on their headsJ not so. D!(r!ca$!. #t is when we do not s7spect deception that we are deceived.B etc. B%he re"iment held its position. neither a vice nor a sin. C+ri#+s. D!s(i$!. 3e this obAection valid or be it not. BHe deprecates the whole proceedin"BJ B'o7r co7rse.2< eyes o a .

co7rse o ethics. or to an improper 7se o words. %. .eople's . or that he is makin" an e ort to conceal poverty o tho7"ht 7nder lo tiness o e!pression.a"e 010. 5. whatever the type. 2. O e!cellent e!amples o bad diction there are very many in a little work by +r. What co7rseR (ace8co7rse. %ad dictionmay be d7e to errors in "rammar. . or"aniDer. B)he chair.iction. to be "ood. %he obAect writers 7s7ally have in view is to convey tho7"ht. Who has ever heard o stating a qualityR .2' D!$!r-in!*. . the ollowin" s7""estions are recommended. 6iven to whomR 0L. what p7rpose does the epithet practical serveR Q. BHiolations o simplicity.1 B%he a7thor. not seein" s7 icient reasonF or withholdin" what had been o m7ch practical bene it2 to himsel . proAector. K. %he phrase leading genius is badly chosen. .ufficient reasonBT %hen there were reasons why . and is applicable to a sin"le sentence or to a connected composition. they were not sufficient. %hese ten lines are a air specimen o the diction o the entire vol7me. principal. to a con 7sed disposition o words. F. %ownsend's pre ace are* B%he leadin" "eni7s0 o the .?.a"e 0F1. BOccasional instr7ctionsBT Hery va"7e. reC7ires to be only correct and clear. with a ?theR@ view o providin" or his co7rseOa te! essor o Sacred (hetoric in 3oston Eniversity. since what is ambi"7o7s is 7nintelli"ible. -. not to set their readers to "7essin".B And how came these laws and principles in e!istenceR Who made themR We are to in er. that . B%o render a given ambiguous or 7nintelli"ible sentence transparent. )he outgrowth of wo7ld be &n"lish. which mi"ht be done th7s* Hiolations o simplicity.7blishin" a s7bAectR?. B%he ollowin" laws and principles o essor %ownsend o7"ht to have kept these "ood thin"s all to himsel J only. B%his quality is 7lly stated and recommended. B." F2@ .olle"e at .B %he words in italics are 7nnecessary.Q B%he s7bAect8matter herein contained is an o7t"rowth rom5 occasional instr7ctions4 "ivenK while occ7pyin" the chair0L o Sacred ( essor %ownsend to withhold them. whatever the type. head.B 0." essor %ownsend made them. it wo7ld seem. and that the world wo7ld have had to "o witho7t the laws that "overn lan"7a"e and the principles on which lan"7a"e is ormed had it pleased . and well calc7lated to set the reader to "7essin" a"ain.B Here is an e!ample o a kind o sentence that can be mended in only one way—by rewritin". b7t he is a lon" way rom sayin" so. asked or the p7blication o the ollowin" laws and principles o speech. $o7nder.B etc. %ownsend speaks o mastering a sub#ect before publishing it. %his is a "eneral term.ractical bene itBT #s there any s7ch thin" as impractical bene itR Are not all bene its practicalR and. consented.ha7ta7C7a -ake.onsented to whatR #t is easy to see that the +octor means acceded to the request. i they are. O. Dic$i#n. or whatR?1@ 1. show either that the mind of the writer is tainted with a ectation. or else that an effort is ma!ing to conceal consciouspoverty o sentiment 7nder lo tiness o e!pression. Wsthetics.a"e 011. . See 3OEN+. %ownsend. 4. show either that the writer is tainted with a ectation. or president—some one o these terms wo7ld probably have been appropriate. the irst vol7me o which has lately come 7nder my notice.B %he de inite article made it necessary or the writer to speci y what partic7lar chair o Sacred (hetoric he meant. %he irst ten lines o +r. . %hen who has ever heard o recommending suggestionsR +r. B.

b7t with this increase happily balanced by the e!emption o their bonds and mort"a"es. B/owto acC7ire skillB is probably what is meant.B %he antecedent o the relative those bein" clergymen..!ill in the 7se o . A"ain* B/en o wealth. the sentence. B%he presented pict7re prod7ces instantly a de inite e ect..B . b7t he doesn't mean it." FQ@models o lon" sentences which are both clear and lo"ical. BJeremy %aylor is amon" the best?.R . says* B%he a7thor has elt that clergymen more than clergymen of other professions will st7dy this treatise. "eo"raphy and hates everythin" connected with the sea and land.apital has always the choice of a lar"e ield.B etc.B etc. b7t this increase in the ta!es on their real estate wo7ld be happily balanced by the e!emption rom ta!ation o their bonds. their plate and 7rnit7re. mort"a"es.B etc.B . B%he boy st7dies .22 On pa"e 0F2 +r. wo7ld ind their . to say the least. ..B Since the ore"oin" was written. it will be perceived.B etc. i we look at the sentence at all care 7lly.)o enrich wo7ld better the diction..B Jeremy %aylor is a clear and lo"ical lon" sentenceRT %r7e. B#n Jeremy %aylor we ind some o the best e!amples o lon" sentences which are at once clear and lo"ical.. in accordance with the idiom o the lan"7a"e.B Why this 7n7s7al disposition o wordsR Why not say. b7t idiom does not permit strenuous to be 7sed to C7ali y labor* hard labor and strenuous e ort. mansions .B %he tho7"ht here is so simple that we easily divine itJ b7t. A"ain* B%he val7e o land that has accr7ed rom labor is not .B Sho7ld be. the second vol7me o .." F5@Aven7e mansions and their s7mmer villas a little more b7rdened with ta!es..B A"ain* BSho7ld capital be withdrawn. B%he pict7re presented instantly prod7ces.. Bthe number of tenements wo7ld... #n the brie pre ace to this vol7me we ind this characteristic sentence* B%he a7thor has elt that clergymen more than those o other pro essions will st7dy this treatise.B etc. the sentence really says* B/en wo7ld ind their mansions more b7rdened. we ind that. and 7rnit7re.B A boo! of poor style is an awkward e!pression.. and conseC7ently weakenin" in their e ect..B Not only are the epithets in italics s7per l7o7s. o the mea"er pro it which strenuous labor had conC7ered rom the reluctant soil. On pa"e 052. be despoiled . %ownsend says* BA person can not read a sin"le book o poor style witho7t havin" his own style vitiated.a"e 0QL.B We do not intrust one another with opportunities. %ownsend heads a chapter th7s* BArt o acC7irin" . A"ain* B. %he ollowin" are some o them* B0arge capital always mana"es to make itself master o the sit7ationJ it is the small capitalist and the small landholder that wo7ld s7 er. there essor %ownsend's BArt o SpeechB has been p7blished.B %his reminds one o the man who tried to li t himsel over a ence by takin" hold o the seat o his breeches.B Sho7ld be..oetic Speech. the boy in C7estion has ew thin"s to hate. # ind several noteworthy e!amples o bad diction in an article in a recent n7mber o an A7stralian ma"aDine. o7r learned rhetorician says so..B Why theboyR As there are ew thin"s besides seals and t7rtles that are connected with the sea and land. tenements wo7ld soon prove ins7 icient.omment on s7ch BartB as .ro essor %ownsend's is not necessary.. B)he large capitalist 111 himself. wo7ld ind their $i th?. b7t wo7ld ind them with this increased b7rden happily balanced by the e!emption..a"e 0Q0. On pa"e O1O. He means. plate. A single badly-written boo! wo7ld have been 7nobAectionable. wo7ld be inclined to la7"h at the idea o intr7stin" the modern politician with s7ch "i"antic opport7nities or enrichin" his avorites.orrectly* B%he val7e o land that has resulted . a A7st obAect or con iscation. Sho7ld be. +r. more b7rdened with ta!es.B A"ain* B/en "enerally . A"ain* B%he small armer wo7ld . %he sentence sho7ld have been ramed somewhat in this wise* B/en . Bthe choice offered by a lar"e ield. tho7"h we s7pply the ellipses in the most charitable manner possible.

is not new. either rentals will increase correspondin"ly. we have a word o one syllable that e!presses... write some of the chan"esJ 1. i the tho7"ht be 7lly e!pressed. or s7ch a check would be p7t 7pon "rowth and enterprise that "reater inA7ry wo7ld. A"ain* B%he theory that land . to which every person has an inalienable ri"ht eC7al to every other person.B Accrue is properly 7sed more in the sense o spontaneous growth. write the reader will be able to getJ 00. to which one person has an inalienable ri"ht eC7al to that o another.B %his astonishin"ly slipshod bit o composition is rom the pen o the (ev. do somethin" like this* 0. #t has2 not. %he thin"s man receives rom Nat7re are gifts. is a boon o Nat7re.h7rch. chan"e illustrationsto examplesJ K. which does not admit o comparisonJ 05.B tho7"h here we have.. it will be only to the "lory o 6od. instead o remain. and more orcibly* B. 37t the blessin" will be only in the clearer presentation o the +ivine tr7th. s7bstit7te the indicative or the conditionalJ 04. s7bstit7te nearly orcompletely. instead o in. strike o7t indeedJ 5. end sentence with the word wor!J 0K.B %he words theory andboon are here mis7sed. essor o +ivinity in 'ale . the more vi"oro7s the diction. +r. it is probable that his diction wo7ld be very di erent rom what it isJ and.orinthians. BWe have th7s0 passed in reviewO the chan"es and improvements1which the revision containsF in the $irst &pistle to the ." FK@be tr7e0K with re"ard to all the New %estament books. is a gift o Nat7re.Q been possible to re er to5 them allJ b7t so many ill7strations4 have been "iven inK the several classes described that the reader will have0L a satis actory00 s7rvey o the whole s7bAect..23 rom labor is not #ustly .B 3y s7bstit7tin" the word man or person. %he ewer the syllables. indeed. or contains changes s7bstit7te some other orm o e!pressionJ 2. etc. not talk o the old translation. chan"e portions topartsJ 01. is not new. the revisers have done a "ood work or the . to which one man has as "ood a ri"ht as another. # this be05 tr7e.. he wo7ld.. write wasJ Q. instead o refer to. instead o the reader will have. a con 7sion o moodsJ the sentence be"ins in the indicative and ends in the conditional.B We have here. write ofJ 0L. %he words in italics are worse than s7per l7o7s. or s7ch a check will be p7t 7ponthe "rowth of each place and all the enterprises connected with it that "reater inA7ry wo7ld be done than i thin"s had been le t 7nto7ched. an obAect ofcon iscation. we think it will be "enerally admitted that in this &pistle the chan"es have improved the old01 translation. the lon" wordinalienable only enc7mbers the sentence. A theory is a system o s7ppositions... instead o has been. and. instead o a son" and no .. all that the lon"er word e!presses. not boons* the "i t o reason. As or the last sentence. chan"e satisfactory to tolerableJ 0O. strike o7t and improvementsJ F. %he sentence sho7ld be* B%he declaration Mor assertionN that land . introd7cethe a ter for.B Or. 7se beJ O0. #nalienability bein" orei"n to the disc7ssion." F4@would increase correspondin"ly. chan"e thus to nowJ O. in this connection. introd7ce also a ter beJ OL.04 # it?. the "i t o speech. either rentals?. the work which they have done will remainOL a blessin" to the readers o those books orO0 "enerations to come. to which every person has an inalienable ri"ht eC7al to that of any other person. write citeJ 4.olle"e deemed it worth while to "ive a little tho7"ht to manner as well as to matter. %imothy +wi"ht. as we have no new oneJ 0F. i he were to "ive a ew min7tes to the makin" o verbal corrections in the ore"oin" para"raph. %hey are s7ch as0F make the &n"lish version02 con orm more completely0Q to the 6reek ori"inal. there ore. in the sense o be. A"ain* B# the state attempts to con iscate this increase by means o ta!es.B Or. is not new. more simply still. is not new. (ewritten* B# the state should attempt to con iscate this increase by means o ta!es. # the learned . it reminds one o /endelssohn's BSon"s witho7t Words. it will be observed. strike o7t as s7per l7o7s the words are such asJ 02. chan"e version to textJ 0Q. more simply and C7ite as orcibly* B.B etc. Whatever may be said o other portions0O o the New %estament.

%he wei"ht o a7thority is on the side o always 7sin" from. think it worth while to "ive some attention to diction. #t is said to be more reC7ently heard in the So7th than in the North. As is o ten tr7e o essor +wi"ht were o those who. or e!ample. D#c1%W4ar3. the Arabs sent his woolen shirt to the soverei"n. We distinguish by means o the senses as well as o the 7nderstandin"J we discriminate by means o the 7nderstandin" only. Hall says o its 7se in the sense o as soon as* B37t. the revisers have done a "ood workJ and. Dis$in0+is4. at once. their nei"hbors in opinion. the tho7"ht conveyed in the para"raph 7nder consideration wo7ld. Dir!c$&'. the pla"7e. words and no son". from 3ishop -owth. tho7"h A may di er with .B etc. Disr!-!. say. the work which they have done will be a blessin" to the readers o these books or the "enerations to come. as soon as. we think it will be "enerally admitted that in this &pistle the chan"es have improved the translation. to the siDe o the i!ed stars. as to this matter." 2O@which thin"s are receivedJ hence.B Dir$.irectly he reached the city. b7t a s7 icient n7mber o e!amples o the several classes described have been "iven to enable the reader to "et a tolerable s7rvey o the whole s7bAect. %his is a word v7l"arly 7sed in the sense o forget. %he 3ritons have a way o 7sin" this word in the sense o when.. then. to discriminate between. and so on. cons7mption.B B+irectly he ?the saint@ was dead. Some say they di er with. B# di er.!r. rom + in opinion with re"ard. Disc#--#*!. O docks there are several kinds* a naval doc! is a place or the keepin" o naval stores.B etc. B#t is di ic7lt. timber. ?. and discriminate between two or more thin"s. a ter all. in common with the Addisons and /aca7lays and Newmans. and materials or ship8b7ildin"J a dry doc! is a place where vessels are drawn o7t o the water or repairsJ a wet doc! is a place where vessels are kept a loat at a certain level while they are loaded and 7nloadedJ a sectional doc! is a contrivance or raisin" vessels o7t o the water on a series o air8ti"ht bo!es. have been e!pressed somewhat in this wise* BWe have now passed in review some o the chan"es that.* sho7ld be. and means nothin" else. strai"htway. a man mi"ht . it may simply anticipate on the &n"lish o the 7t7re. Whatever may be said o the other parts o the New %estament. %hey make the &n"lish te!t con orm more nearly to the 6reek. he went to his brother's. #t was not possible to cite them all.B—B-ondon News.obbett. /an and br7te die of. and not with.B +r. which is immediately.orinthians. i it be also tr7e with re"ard to all the New %estament books." 20@%hey say.B—. and sometimes even or sand or "ravel. Di33!r. %his is C7ite orei"n to its tr7e meanin"." 2L@ # . We not 7n reC7ently hear o a dirt road when an 7npaved road is meant. #t is o ten improperly 7sed or earth or loam. We distinguishone thin" from another. %his word means ilth or anythin" that renders o7l and 7nclean. or rather no meanin". %his bein" tr7e. others that they di er from. B. %his word is rarely 7sedJ incommodeis acco7nted the better orm. Writers di er from one another in opinion with re"ard to the particle we sho7ld 7se with this verb. perhaps. pne7monia.?. B#t is di ic7lt. %he irst o these words is o ten improperly 7sed or the second.B Di! 2i$4. A doc!. evers. in some cases. in some cases. in the revision.24 words.ifferent to is heard sometimes instead o different from. is a place into?. old a"e. we have here simply a syntactical arran"ement o words si"ni yin"—nothin". to distinguish between. have been made in the $irst &pistle to the . %his verb is sometimes improperly 7sed or discriminate.

'How do yo7 doR' Here do re ers to the state.' %o feel satis ied is—when the satis action is to arise rom conviction prod7ced by act or reasonin"—a senseless e!pressionJ and to s7pply its place. A wharf is a sort o C7ay b7ilt by the side o the water. or per ormed. 'et. to employ it or this p7rpose is very common. BHe did not cry o7t as some have a"ainst itBJ i.. D#na$!. also. is looked 7pon by most champions o "ood &n"lish as bein" an abomination. as it mi"ht have done. A similar str7ct7re b7ilt at a ri"ht an"le with the shore is "enerally called a pier. in his O1d -ect7re. and. 3lair. or was wishin". s7pply the place o a neuter verb. and that doesn't is a contraction o does notJ and yetnearly everybody is "7ilty o 7sin" don't when he sho7ld 7se doesn't. %his same verb to end is sometimes an active verb* '# end my sentence'Jthen the verb to do may s7pply its placeJ as. not to go any further. or performed the act of feeling'T What incomprehensible wordsTB D#n"$. as in this case. or thr7st o7t..B D#n!. a ne7ter verb.B which sho7ld read. -incoln—an anecdote o /r. '+id not end as it very well mi"ht have ended. wished to haveceased to proceed. B%ake "reat care not to be too ree in yo7r 7se o the verb to do in any o its times or modes. Sometimes it is not material which orm is employedJ where. bestow. and is essentially passive or ne7ter. '# did not speak yesterday so well as # wished to have done. by the +octor. i not improperly. when it is. 'so well as # wished to do it'J that is to say. # do not feel so well satis ied as # sho7ld have done i the (i"ht Honorable 6entleman had e!plained the matter more 7lly. by to do. So. e. temporarily. No precise r7le has ever been "iven to "7ide 7s in o7r choice between these two orms o the possessive case. etc. beca7se in this case there is no action at all. # hear.' Now. And then we ask. %here ore. like o7r oppressed it. intr7ded.onate. the sentence sho7ld be. #t is a nice little handy word. +one whatR Not the act of ending.' %hat is to say.B says . grant.)o do is to act. 7sed th7s* BHe did not cry o7t as some have done a"ainst it. 37t the N7mber o the 'Spectator' was no actorJ it was e!pected to perform nothin"J it was. it is made 7se o very o ten when the writer is at a loss or what to p7t down.B says /r.25 all into a dock. says* '#t is somewhat 7n ort7nate that this N7mber o the BSpectatorB did not end. to spea!. and th7s he ell into bad "rammar.' %his wo7ld have been correctJ b7t the +octor wished to avoid the repetition." 21@parts. or executed. a portrait o 3rown—a portrait o 3rown's. . b7t co7ld no more all off a dock than he co7ld all o a hole. with the ormer bea7ti 7l period. o the seat into which it has. it is not neededJ and it sho7ld be 7nceremonio7sly bowed o7t. B)o do is the act of doing. which is de ined as meanin" to "ive. %his word.B B+one is reC7ently a very "reat o ender a"ainst "rammar.' %hat is to say. B. Bas some have cried outa"ainst it. '# have not ended my sentence so well as # mi"ht have done'J that is. &verybody knows that don't is a contraction o do not. We see at a "lance that these two phrases are very di erent in meanin".. Hessels lie at wharves andpiers.B?. Speaker. An anecdote o /r. done it. Bmay be dismissed with this remark* so lon" as its place is occ7pied by give. We see people write. what is meant by the writerR He means to say that he did not speak so well as he thenwished. not at doc!s.onation is also little 7sed by care 7l writers. BSo yo7 don't "oJ John doesn't either. +one whatR +one the act of feelingT '# do not feel so well satis ied as # sho7ld have done. '# did not speak yesterday so well as # wishedto do. present. is as senseless.. 6o7ld. in any o its?.. +r.obbett. done itJ that is. the act of ending. %his past participle is o ten very inele"antly. %he verb means to come to an end. -incoln's. '/r. to contrib7te. done. to do or to per orm the act of spea!ing. to cease." 2F@ D#+ &! G!ni$i)!. and there ore it never can. .

%hese two words. and yet be a person o little educationJ on the other hand.B Eac4 #$4!r. and yet know little o the contents o te!t8books.B B%his was owing to an indi erence to the pleas7res o li e. is said to be a "reat avorite with the r7ral members o the Arkansas le"islat7re. See A+A. 7nbred.B E*i$#ria&. instead o bein" improperly called adress. A man may have ever so m7ch book8knowled"e and still be a boorJ b7t a man can not be a person o "ood ed7cation and not be—so ar as manner is concerned—a "entleman. which is not probable.B BJohn ate s7pper with me. %his is one o the most mis7sed o words.!. ?.A(-O(. 6rammarians di er very widely with re"ard to the conA7"ation o this verbJ there is no do7bt." 22@ Ea$. B#t was owing to his e!ertions that the scheme s7cceeded. B# ate an apple. Dri)!. E33!c$+a$!.B BA certain respect isdue to men's preA7dices. sho7ld not be 7sed indiscriminately.B B# haveeaten dinner. then. See (#+&. 7nless he meant to intimate that the 6ermans had only two "reat a7thors.B which is as incorrect as it wo7ld be to talk abo7t Ba disa"reeable vapors. men o education. is a whole o which #nstr7ction and 3reedin" are the parts. %hat is duewhich o7"ht to be paid as a debtJ that is owing which is to be re erred to as a so7rce. Dr!ss%G#2n. that rom every point o view the pre erable orms or the preterite and past participle are respectively ate and eaten. a man may be a person o "ood ed7cation. #t is a common error with those who have no knowled"e o -atin to speak o Ba disa"reeable e l7via. %o re ined ears the other orms smack o v7l"arity. however. not to their co7ntry. e. Dra-a$i. %his word.B B#t was owing to yo7r ne"li"ence that the accident happened. %he 7se o this adAective as a s7bstantive is said to be an Americanism. 7nschooled in those thin"s which alone make men welcome in the society o the re ined. Not moral worth. nor wealth. 2ducation." 2Q@eventuate.. B%heir "reat a7thors address themselves. tho7"h close synonyms. Within the memory o many persons the o7ter "arment worn by women was properly called agown by everybody. E*+ca$i#n. 2ach other is properly applied to two onlyJ one another m7st be 7sed when the n7mber considered e!ceeds two. %he pl7ral o this word is effluvia. D+!%O2in0.B BAs soon as yo7 have eaten break ast we will set o7t..B B#t is due to the p7blic that # sho7ld tell all # know o the matter. e. nor all three combined.26 however. %he mistake 7s7ally made is in 7sin" due instead o owing. See . altho7"h s7pported by "ood a7thority. as it now is by nearly everybody. he or she has a s7 icient acC7aintance with books and with the 7sa"es o social interco7rse to acC7it himsel or hersel creditably in the society o c7ltivated people. and rely on o7r discrimination. to"ether with ratiocinate and?. E33&+)i+-. Abraham -incoln and &dwin $orrest knew comparatively little o what is "enerally learned in schoolsJ still they were men o c7lt7re.B—37ckle. it is material—and it "enerally is—we m7st consider the tho7"ht we wish to e!press. coarse. b7t to each other. 37ckle sho7ld have written one another and not each other. Dra2in07r##-.B . or with all three a man mi"ht be uneducated—i. can 7naided make a "entleman. %he man or the woman—even in this democratic co7ntry o o7rs—whodeserves the title o "entleman or lady is always a person o ed7cationJ i. nor learnin".%. A man may be well acC7ainted with the contents o te!t8books.

roctor says* B# yo7 say to an American. may mean two considered separatelyJ b7t in this sense each is the better word to essor . 3y s7pplyin" the ellipses we can o ten discover the errors in a sentence. B# am now writin" in the city o New 'orkJ this is the twenty8 i th day o A7"7st. Bneithero the o7r. witho7t tho7"hts correspondin".B—William .hristian era. 3either is the ne"ative?. i there are any.B Bneither this nor that.B We rarely hear the word alternate or any o its derivatives correctly prono7nced.B B)wo alternatives are presented to me. 37t. B6ive me eithero themB means. %he 7se o either in the sense o each.obbett. E0#$is$. B'o7 are at liberty to choose either alternative. '%his is a ine mornin". BOne o a class o philosophers who pro essed to be s7re o nothin" b7t their own e!istence. or the like. or wonderfully.B BA tribe o egotists or whom # have always had a mortal aversion. neither by norJ as. %his is a "reat error.27 E33#r$ 2i$4#+$ E33!c$. %he word is correctly 7sed th7s* B# am con ronted with a hard alternative* # m7st either deno7nce a riend or betray my tr7st. $or e!ample. one on each Mor eitherN side o the river. whether in speakin" or in writin". Stren"th m7st be o7nd in the thought.' he is likely to reply..B B# am "oin" to Wallack'sB means. 3i"8so7ndin" words. i 7lly written o7t. Enlike both. o ers the alternative o choosin" between the doin" o a speci ied act or o showin" ca7se why it is not done. 2ither is responded to by or.B which wo7ld be. b7t not?. or it will never be o7nd in the words. 6ive me the one or the other o two. With them everythin" is excessively. %his word means. 0440. orabundantly. or immensely. or e!ample. they have been or a very lon" time 7sed in relation to more than two by many "ood writersJ and.B B. E&!0an$. as. %he omission o a word or o words necessary to complete the "rammatical constr7ction. BNew 'ork. An alternative writ. . e." 25@o either.B Ei$4!r A&$!rna$i)!. %he word alternative means a choice o ered between two thin" essor.' or perhaps o tener by 7sin" simply the word elegant. tho7"h both either and neitherare strictly applicable to two only. or vastly. may be acco7nted little i any better than an a ectation.B not. BSome writers deal in e!pletives to a de"ree that tires the ear and o ends the 7nderstandin". which means two taken collectively. S7ch propositions. A7"7st O2. at my a7nt's house. any and none sho7ld be 7sed instead o either and neitherJ as. BHe has a arm on either side o the riverB wo7ld mean that he has two arms. b7t popinAay &n"lish.B not. %his is not a pleasin" 7se o the word.#3-&8$&&3-& . there ore. like each.B and the like. '#t is an elegant mornin". in datin" a letter to8day. leave o7t some o the words necessary to the full e!pression o o7r meanin". Beither o the threeBJ Bnone o the o7r.B 2itherand neither sho7ld not—strictly—be 7sed in relation to more than two obAects.everal alternatives presented themselves. the one or the othero two. BHe has a arm on both sides o the riverB wo7ld mean that his arm lies partly on the one side o the river and partly on the other. it seems probable that the c7stom will prevail. as it is o ten convenient so to 7se them. is called an ellipsis. When more than two thin"s are re erred to. we sho7ld write. E&*!r. are e ort witho7t e ect. strictly. and this month is in the one tho7sand ei"ht h7ndred and ei"hty8 irst year o the . %he notion o s7ch writers is that these words "ive strength to what they are sayin". B# am "oin" to Wallack's theatre. tho7"h biblical and de ensible.B %his is not American &n"lish.B B# shall spend the s7mmer at my a7nt'sBJ i.either. or surprisingly.B—(eid. See $O(. E&&i(sis. BOne who talks m7ch o himsel .B—BSpectator. .B Ei$4!r. Bany o the three. are not correct &n"lish. . We almost always." 24@necessary to make the meanin" clear. Beither this or that. or extremely. E0#is$. See O-+&(.

. and. the most reC7ent is a play 7pon?. %his is a word that is occasionally heard in conversation. #n the epigram the mind is ro7sed by a con lict or contradiction between the orm o the lan"7a"e and the meanin" really conveyed. Say.ater Xneas. e7lo"istic.?. the s7bAects bein" very vario7s—amatory. As no one has ever been known to en#oy bad health. BeC7almindednessBN aloneJ hence. and to his memory or his tropes. . the pater is an epithet. Anxiety of mind is a scarcely less red7ndant orm o e!pression. E.l7ral.+ir!. 2sqr1B He means no more nor less than when he writes &r1 MmasterN. health. BHerbosity is c7red by a lar"e vocab7laryBJ that is.. What its 7ltimate ate will be. #t ne!t came to mean a short poem containin" some sin"le tho7"ht pointedly e!pressed. Es.B—3ain. 7sed in this co7ntry. in Hir"il's . Some e!amples are* BWhen yo7 have nothin" to say. B%he word epigram si"ni ied ori"inally an inscription on a mon7ment.+ani-i$' #3 -in*. it is st7dio7sly sh7nned by those who are at all care 7l in the selection o their lan"7a"e. it is better to employ some other orm o e!pression than this. and has little more meanin" there than here. /any persons 7se this word who are in error with re"ard to its meanin"J they think that to Bapply epithetsB to a person is to vili y and ins7lt him. especially in modern times. A capricious mind is in the same cate"ory.B BSome people are too oolish to commit ollies. and e!presses no more than does equanimity Mliterally. or equally well. (ichard 6rant White says on the s7bAect o its 7se* B# have yet to discover what a man means when he addresses a letter to John +ash.B BWe can not see the wood or the treesBJ that is. E. he who commands a lar"e vocab7lary is able to select words that will "ive his meanin" tersely. that o the "rammarian. b7t all epithets are not ad#ectives." QL@ Erra$+-. O the vario7s devices or brevity and point employed in s7ch compositions.B BHe went to his ima"ination or his acts. and conseC7ently inele"ant.rabbJ Bth7s. %he writer has never seen it anywhere in the North b7t in the col7mns o the B3oston . say it. rather abs7rdly. however. As well.. etc. b7t not anad#ective. BAll ad#ectives are epithets. as any one will see who or a moment considers it.B 2pithet is the technical term o the rhetoricianJad#ective. #t simply belon"s to o7r stock o co7rteo7s epithets.2 En/#' a* H!a&$4. #t is m7ch.B E(i0ra-. of mind is s7per l7o7s. Not at all. .+a&&' as 2!&&. %his phrase is ta7tolo"ical. An esC7ire was ori"inally the shield8bearer o a kni"ht. convivial. or delicate. no one can tellJ or the present. An epithet is a word that e!presses a C7ality. #t is said to be most 7sed in the So7th. B3y indi"nities men come to di"nities. he is in feeble. A red7ndant orm o e!pression. /r." 2K@words. errata. %he 7se o 2sq1 is C7ite as prevalent in &n"land as in America. En$4+s!.on"re"ationalist.B E(i$4!$. h7moro7s. satirical. we can not "et a "eneral view beca7se we are so en"rossed with the details. in the opinion o some. o co7rse. or e!ample. and is sometimes met with in printJ b7t it has not as yet made its appearance in the dictionaries. e!presses C7ite as m7ch as equally as well.B says . "ood or badJ a term that e!presses an attrib7te. moral.

tho7"h di erin" widely in meanin". E5a00!ra$i#n. (n memoriam* in memory. (d est* that isJ abbreviated. (n statu quo ante bellum* in the same state as be ore the war. every charity. See . eccavi* # have sinned. %ona fide* in "ood aithJ in reality. to do d7ty or per ect. every praise." Q0@A posteriori* rom the e ect to the ca7se. -ide* see. E)!r&as$in0&'. 3e plus ultra* nothin" beyondJ the 7tmost point. -ersus* a"ainst. "esurgam* # shall rise a"ain. We also have s7ch diction as.ine qua non* an indispensable condition. or a i"7re which 7ses a"reeable phraseolo"y when the literal wo7ld be o ensive. rima facie* on the irst view or appearanceJ at irst si"ht. 2vidence is that which tends to convinceJtestimony is that which is intended to convince.-erbatim* word by word. 5uid nunc* what nowR 5uid pro quo* one thin" or anotherJ an eC7ivalent. he e!claimed.ui generis* o its own kind. which means simply each or all taken separately.ei* the voice o the people is the voice o 6od. or all possible. .every con idence. Omnes* all. are o ten 7sed indiscriminately by careless speakers.-ia* by the way o . ibid1 (dem* the same. 2rgo* there ore. there mi"ht be a "reat deal o testimony—a "reat deal o testifying—and very little evidenceJ and the evidence mi"ht be C7ite the reverse o thetestimony.e #ure* in ri"htJ in law. 2x parte* on one sideJ an ex partestatement is a statement on one side only." QO@time.23 E+(4!-is-. (n transitu* in passin". articeps criminis* an accomplice. %h7s we have s7ch e!pressions as every pains. A fortiori* with stron"er reason. Ceteris paribus* other circ7mstances bein" eC7al.%. &utatis mutandis* a ter makin" the necessary chan"es. Otium sine dignitate* ease witho7t di"nity. BAll of us have this in common.(OO$.e facto* in actJ in reality. or e!ample. 2cce homo* behold the man.?. E)!n$+a$!. -ale* are8well. %hese words.(n statu quo* in the ormer stateJ A7st as it was. 3ota bene* mark wellJ take partic7lar notice. %his adverb is mis7sed in the So7th in a manner that is very apt to e!cite the risibility o one to whom the pec7liar mis7se is new.eriatim* in order.B See &$$O(% W#%HOE% &$$&. don't theyTB E)!r'. 3olens volens* willin" or 7nwillin".ine die* witho7t speci yin" any partic7lar dayJ to an inde inite?.0abor omnia vincit* labor overcomes every di ic7lty. . 2xempli gratia* by way o e!ampleJ abbreviated. e1 g1. %his word. . -ice* in the place o . A priori* rom the ca7se to the e ect. BWell. A description which describes in ino ensive lan"7a"e that which is o itsel o ensive. -ox populi$ vox . %he writer recently visited the 7pper part o New 'ork with a distin"7ished So7thern poet and Ao7rnalist. (n extremis* at the point o death. . by slipshod speakers. #n a A7dicial investi"ation. 2t cetera* and the restJ and so on. B2very one has this in commonBJ meanin". (tem* also. 0ocus sigilli* the place o the seal. and so on. ro bono publico* or the p7blic "ood. -i et armis* by main orce. they do A7st everlastinglyshoot alon". E)i*!nc!%T!s$i-#n'.B E)!r'7*a' La$in. -ade mecum* "o with me.%EA%&. eeble writers and speakers deli"ht in superlatives. BWeak minds. -iva voce* orallyJ by word o mo7th. O tempora$ O mores4 O the times and the mannersT Otium cum dignitate* ease with di"nity. entire. (pse dixit* on his sole assertion. is o late years reC7ently made. is called a euphemism. . and ex1 gr1 2x officio* by virt7e o his o ice. (bidem* in the same placeJ abbreviated. 2xcerpta* e!tracts. . #t was the "entleman's irst ride over an elevated road. See &$$&. When we were airly 7nder way. er se* by itsel . &ultum in parvo* m7ch in little. "reat. . "ara avis* a rare birdJ a prodi"y. in admiration o the rate o speed at which the cars were movin". 5uondam* ormerly. Certiorari* to be made more certain. i1 e1 (mprimis* in the irst place. (ndex expurgatorius* a p7ri yin" inde!.

or to o er wo7ld be pre erable. b7t the law and the sentence. Sho7ld besweetly. and not one of them is properly a geyser.B we sho7ld say. then. B/any pronominal adverbs are correlatives o each other.B E5$!n*. BHot and cold sprin"s... have become well8ni"h recreations.. Some o o7r care 7l speakers. were a veritable C7otation. B#suppose. BArt o Speech. o sayin". i. or anybody. BNo one need apply unless. in a sentence like this. BWeexperienced "reat hardships.B sho7ld be. or e!ample. Fa&s! Gra--ar. #n the han"in" o a criminal. Sho7ld be one another. it is certainly better to say. B# proceeded to inC7ire i the 'e!tract' . and the have become sho7ld be became. #nstead. yo7 tho7"ht # wo7ld come to see yo7 yesterday.. BA minister. ii. never to what is past. Sho7ld be one another. %he have been sho7ld be were.. in c7ttin" one another'sthroats.—#bid. BWe suffered. to per ormJ?.B vol.. E5!c+$!. there ore. especially by lovers o bi" words.B p. was once preachin" be ore the inmates o a l7natic asyl7m.B vol.B—Harkness's BNew -atin 6rammar. We can not expect backward. B%hey showed me every co7rtesy. B# do not know whether the imp7tation were A7st or not.B—&merson. %hey say. the primary meanin" o which is to stretch o7t.. %his verb.B %he word have o7"ht to be bi" eno7"h. 0F1.B etc. B# expect.B %hese two sentences are so a7lty that the only way to mend them is to rewrite .yclopWdia." QF@be was in both cases. to e!ec7te a p7rpose. E5c!ssi)!&'. %hey say that laws and sentencesare e!ec7ted. F0F. %his verb always has re erence to what is to come.. and that their e!ec7tion only rarely res7lts in the death o the persons 7pon whom they are e!ec7ted. to carry into e ect.. BNo one need apply except he is thoro7"hly amiliar with the b7siness.B than B%hey extendedevery co7rtesy to me.B—&merson.. i the word s7its them better. 0F5. E5(!c$. Some e!amples o alse "rammar will show what every one is the better or knowin"* that in literat7re nothin" sho7ld be taken on tr7stJ that errors o "rammar even are o7nd where we sho7ld least e!pect them. b7t none of them are properly geysers. hot. to show. $or e!ample. noted or proli!ity o style.B See &H&('. B%here is no C7estion but these arts . p. however. boilin" sprin"s.B etc. %he criminal is hanged. to e!ec7te an order. BWe experience "reat di ic7lty in "ettin" him to take his medicine. %his word means to ollow o7t to the end. %hat class o persons who are never content with any orm o e!pression that alls short o the s7perlative.B 3etter. E5(!ri!nc!. to e!ec7te a criminal. p.. not the criminal who is e!ec7ted. reC7ently 7se excessively when exceedingly or even the little word very wo7ld serve their t7rn better." Q1@as. its e ect is v7l"ariDin". BHow sweet the moonli"ht sleepsTB—%ownsend.B etc. to accomplish.ondensed . #ntemperance in the 7se o lan"7a"e is as m7ch to be cens7red as intemperance in anythin" elseJ like intemperance in other thin"s. when they sho7ld content themselves with sayin" simply that the weather is very warm. will "reatly aid him. Sho7ld be that. 01L. it is. tho7"h once di ic7lt or them. that the weather is excessively hot.B—#bid.B—Appletons' B. p. to 7l ill. #n one o his ill7strations he painted a scene o a man condemned to be h7n". than to sink . BHow m7ch better or yo7 as seller and the nation as b7yer . maintain that the 7se o the word in this sense is inde ensible. the "enero7s con ession that their attainmentshave been reached thro7"h patient and laborio7s ind7stry. p. 00F. b7t reprieved 7nder the "allows.3< E5c!($. and C7iet sprin"s lie within a ew eet o each other.. BNearly all who have been distin"7ished in literat7re or oratory have made . And the dictionaries and almost 7niversal 7sa"e say that it also means to p7t to death in con ormity with a A7dicial sentenceJ as. in connections where to "ive. or. b7t not criminals. Sho7ld?.B Sho7ld be each other's. is 7sed. %hey have declared that speakin" and writin".

# think that the adverbial orm is pre erable. F!$c4. and to the mar!ed di erence o personal orce amon" men. one o /r.B /ended* BA minister. etc.?. %hese verbs. arrows. and the lan"7a"e becomes m7ch more orcible. %his centraliDation is d7e to the enormousreprod7ctive power o capital. Some philosopher has said that he who has hal a doDen riends in the co7rse o his li e may esteem himsel ort7nateJ and yet. All that /r. tho7"h near o kin. in sentences where it wo7ld be ollowed by secondly. o co7rse. %hey are rom a work that pro esses to teach the Bart o speech. F#rci &!73!! &!. # there were s7ch a thin" as a pl7rality or a series o completions. the act remains that the employment o it on any occasion is not the best 7sa"e. it would con iscate the earnin"s o ?o7r@ industrious tradesmen and artisans.B Firs$&'. we can not say. there wo7ld. See -&SS.3' them.B flew bein" the imper ect tense o to fly. and # like him first rateJ i # didn't. See 3(#N6. b7t remarks. be s7ch a thin" as the final completionJ b7t. A"ain* B#n co7ntries where immense ?lar"e@ estates e!ist. F!2!r.B F!-a&!. as every completion is inal. etc.B Now b7cks and b7lls are males as well as boys and men. %he imper ect tense o to flee is fledJ hence. once preached be ore the inmates o a l7natic asyl7m." QQ@in which the wo7ld8be orcible writer de eats his obAect by the over7se o e!pletives.B etc. %his is a BnovicyB kind o diction?. BHe flewthe city. or e!ample. and introd7ce the words inclosed in brackets.B F&!!%F&'. %he other words in italics only en eeble the sentence.B %o this.B %he irst great is misplacedJ the word utters is mis7sedJ the second great is ill8chosen.B B&ntrance or emales. and cows and sows are emales as well as "irls and women. —— utters ?says@ 7pon this point isforcible and A7st. to the immense advanta"e that costly and complicated machinery "ives to great?lar"e@ establishments. noted or his proli!ity. %here are people who obAect to this phrase. 3y way o ill7stration he painted a scene in which a man. are not interchan"eable. A"ain* B%he very irst e ect o the —— ta!ation plan wo7ld be destr7ctive to the interests o this great multitude ?class@J it wo7ld impoverish o7r innumerable armers. thirdly.ol7mbia' or 'blowin"' the thin" all ro7nd town like the bi" ool that he is. . $or e!ample. Fri!n*%Ac. and very. and yet it is well eno7"h when properly placed.B S7bstit7te large or immense. Firs$ ra$!. /oon's critics replies* BHowever desirable it may be to employ the word firstlyon certain occasions. Fina& C#-(&!$i#n. and it becomes simple and orcible. 'yo7 bet' #'d A7st "ive him 'hail . in s7ch a sentence as this* BHe's a ' irst class' ellow. B#mproperly 7sed or first. and take o7t vast.+ain$anc!." Q2@B&ntrance or males. 6eor"e Washin"ton /oon says in de ense o firstly* B# do not obAect to the occasional 7se o first as an adverbJ b7t. it would ?and@ paralyDe the hopes o struggling millions. o kites. many. $or e!ample. was reprieved 7nder the "allows.B BHe flew rom his enemies. &!amples* BAnd yet the greatcentraliDation o wealth is one o the ?"reat@ evils o the day. a breakin" 7p o these vast demesnes into many minor reeholds wo7ld no do7bt be a ?o @ very "reat advanta"e. %he terms male and female are not 7n reC7ently 7sed where "ood taste wo7ld s7""est some other word. we see over the doors o school8ho7ses.. to talk abo7t a final completion is as abs7rd as it wo7ld be to talk abo7t a final finality.B Webster insertsfirstly.B BHe flew at the approach o dan"er. BHe fled the city. as it is. to A7d"e rom many people's talk. who had beencondemned to be hanged.B What a waste o portly e!pletives is hereT With them the sentence is hi"h8 lown and weakJ take them o7t. which is properly 7sed to e!press the action o birds on the win".

B G!n$s. too. 'He is the man to do it. 7se the word acquaintance instead o friend. as 6ents. and bi" seal8rin"s on their little in"ersJ who 7se bad "rammar and interlard their conversation with bi" oaths. 3etter. is it to address them as .' 'there is no more to say. perhaps. G!n$&! s7ch as o7tlandish watch8chains hooked in the lowest?. $ew thin"s are in worse taste than to 7se the term gentleman. No man knows whether he has any riends or not 7ntil he has Btheir adoption triedBJ hence. O all v7l"arisms.' 'a city to ta!ere 7"e in." Q4@b7tton8hole o their vests. he who is desiro7s to call thin"s by their ri"ht names will. sonoro7s An"lo8Sa!on word—meanin" mali"nant. venomo7s.' 'a place to lie in. B# # were. when he is. A"ain.' are adAective "er7ndsJ they may be e!panded into cla7ses* 'a ho7se that the owner lets or will let'J 'the co7rse that we sho7ld steer by'J 'a thin" that sho7ld be done'J 'a city wherein one may take re 7"e'J 'the means whereby ill deeds may be?. Here is a "ood. #t is certainly less employed by "entlemen than by in erior persons. B6entlemen have A7st as m7ch c7riosity as ladies. B# # was a gentleman. as re"ards the term 'lady. i these ladies were ladies. . in short—7se the terms lady and gentleman comparatively little. # we say gents. #n b7siness correspondence Smith is addressed as.' are phrases where the verb is not in the common in initive. v7l"arly.arven7e. b7t in the orm o the gerund. B6entlemen have so m7ch more liberty than we ladies have. men o c7lt7re and re inement—"entlemen. or for doing it. %he men who 7se these terms most. went. or e!ample. especially yo7n" people. Since writin" the ore"oin".' When the to .' 'the co7rse to steerby. B'# have work to do. the most o ensive.' the other o 'a "entleman # know. this is. with some other "entlemen. the term '"entleman' has become almost v7l"ar. they wo7ld in each o these cases 7se the word man instead o gentleman.B says /rs. belon" to that class o men who cock their hats on one side o their heads." Q5@is a avorite and very obAectionable way many people. perhaps. and they are especially care 7l not to call themselves gentlemenwhen they can avoid it. and o ten wear them when and where "entlemen wo7ld remove themJ who pride themselves on their amiliarity with the latest slan"J who proclaim their independence by showin" the least possible consideration or othersJ who la7"h lon" and lo7d at their own witJ who wear a pro 7sion o cheap inery.irs. ch7rlish—that has allen into dis7se. Ga&s#-!. and woman instead o ladyJ 7rther. have o writin" themselves at the bottom o their letters. Now. 3raDilian diamonds in their shirt8bosoms.J he is care 7l to leave o7t the word other. %he one speaks o 'a man # know. # have met with the ollowin" para"raph in the -ondon p7blication. #n this way the obsc7re striplin" protests himsel the $(#&N+ o the irst man in the land. B#. BAll the 'ear (o7ndB* BSocially.' 'a thin" to be done.' 'A ho7se to let. B'o7r riendB?. Jenkins.32 one wo7ld s7ppose they had riends by the score.B says /iss Snooks. and that. and especially those who lose no opport7nity to proclaim themselves gentlemen.B says /rs. does not say.' #n the one case the "entleman is taken or "ranted. A "entleman. to desi"nate the se!. m7ch. a comparative stran"er and askin" a avor.' #t is C7ite in accordance with the 7sa"es o society to speak o yo7r acC7aintance the d7chess as 'a very nice person.B etc.' 'the means to do ill deeds." QK@done. while Smith Y 3rown are o ten addressed as 6entlemen—or. /iss Snooks wo7ld say. whether in the sin"7lar or pl7ral. as a r7le.eople who wo7ld say 'very nice lady' are not "enerally o a social class which has m7ch to do with d7chessesJ and i yo7 speak o one o these as a 'person.' yo7 will soon be made to eel yo7r mistake. why not say ladesR G!r+n*.B Well8bred men.' . in the other it seems to need speci ication.

BWe do not ollow r7le in spellin" other words. B#t is said also only to occ7r three times.B 1Q4.33 ceased in the twel th cent7ry to be a distinctive mark o the dative in initive or "er7nd.B etc.B FF. B# will say only. 0QQ. 6o7ld. B%ry the e!perimentBJ Btried the e!periment. 6o7ld wo7ld not have taken the +ean to task had he known &n"lish better. sho7ld be restricted to the vocab7lary o commerce. Why mostR?. Bcan be decided only when. B$o!es have got holesJ the birds o the air have got nests. G!$. &dward S. Arnold and /rs. %his term. Boccur only three times. which. in his review o +ean Al ord's BG7een's &n"lish. on pa"e 010 o his B6ood &n"lishB* BAnd now.'B—3ain.onstable. i not. B#nto another land thanBJ sho7ld be.B $ormerly the imper ect tense o this verb was gat.B K. like other terms 7sed in trade." 5L@shown. speak o their "owns as bein" made o ine or coarse sil!.B 0Q.ara"raph F.ossession is completely e!pressed byhave. B# will only say that it prod7ces.B etc. %he ollowin" are a ew o /r. is "rowin" obsolete. nevertheless. Binto a landother than. Bof two cla7ses.B etc. What is the 7se o inR 050.B Q0.B BWhat has he got thereRB BHave yo7got any newsRB B%hey have got a new ho7se. 05L. written. B# can only deal with the complaint in a "eneral wayBJ read.B etc.B etc.B etc. b7t never appears to have been made. . forwas introd7ced to make the writer's intention clear. B#t is most "enerally 7sed o that very sect. B# have got a book. striven. /r. ArnoldY .B etc.J read. .B (ead. b7t c7stomBJ sho7ld be.B 0FO. taken as a whole. B%he Aoinin" to"ether two cla7ses with a third. very properly speak o their wares as their goodsJ b7t /rs. where this orm o the participle is more e7phonio7s—as it o ten is—than gotR G##*s.J read. # this be tr7e. B%he distinction is observed in $rench. muslin.B etc. forgotten. # we say eaten. Bwe do not ollow rule$ but custom.?2@ %he errors are. 04. he has had 7ll leis7re or its revision. B#t is said that this can only be illed in th7sBJ read. Bto aspirate more rather than less. /essrs. 4Q. . cashmere. in spellin".—gotis entirely s7per l7o7s. #n sentences e!pressin" simple possession—as. BWhich can only be decided when those circ7mstances are knownBJ read.onstable sho7ld. B"ather to aspirate more than lessBJ sho7ld be. absol7tely incorrect. B%his do7blin" only ta!es place in a syllable.B #n several instances /r. there is no "ood reason or it. G#+&* a0ains$ A&3#r*. 1F2. B$o!es have holesJ the birds o the air have nestsBJ not. in common with the Washin"ton /arket h7ckster. He m7st be held responsible or every error in itJ beca7se. Bdeal with the complaint only. Hence the amiliar orm in 'what went ye o7t for to seeR' 'they came for to show him the temple. as to the style?F@ o the +ean's book. Bta!es place only.B remarks. or whatever the material may be.B etc. ma!e and made." 50@ 1QO.B etc.J read. some "rammarians say.B etc.B etc. as some writers contend.J read. Bcan be filled in only th7s.B etc. and the per ect participle was gotten. B(n so ar as they are idiomatic.J read. which is now obsolete. and # do7bt not do. n7mero7sJ and the shortest way to e!hibit them is?Q@ in tab7lar orm. 6o7ld's corrections in which he is clearly in the ri"ht* . why not say gotten. as has been?. Bappears never to have been made.

B# was. 'contains an error in "rammar. methodJ imper ect. 7nwarranted. '%his sentence is. BNo one will C7estion the propriety o sayin" grammatically correct. that there can be no "rammatical mistake. 'How. can we with propriety say. BWhen were yo7. accordin" to the r7les o "rammar. #nstead o BHad # .' 'NonsenseT' the hypercritic may sho7t. and s7bstit7te the phrase errors in grammar. Newman. or. to grow aint.O((&. to grow dark. be an error in "rammarR Why. then.' 'WhatT' the hypercritic may e!claim. BO the two e!pressions—a grammatical error. it incl7des a 6(A//A%#. and.B—.B—+r. which wo7ld save 7s a "reat amo7nt o tro7ble i it did not lack the insi"ni icant C7ality o bein" tr7e. #ndeed.' it has been asked. Gr#2. 'can an error be "rammaticalR' How." 5O@error in grammar—the ormer is pre erable. . Gra*+a$!*.orson. Ha* 4a)!.A.' the corrected person wo7ld reply. that there can be no bad "rammar. it need scarcely be added that.B—So7they. 37t it is do7bt 7l whether what is lar"e can properly be said to grow?. See (E33&(S. Hence most writers nowadays say. B%hey who ridic7le the phrase grammatical errors. make an e"re"io7s mistake. Nothin" co7ld be more incorrect than the brin"in" to"ether o these two a7!iliary verbs in this mannerJ and yet we occasionally ind it in writers o rep7te. 6rammatical errors si"ni ies &((O(S W#%H (&-A%#ON %O %H& (E-&S O$ 6(A//A(. b7t hypercriticism m7st be met with its own weapons. G+-s.% W#%H (&-A%#ON %O %H& (E-&S O$ 6(A//A(. Sho7ld some one say." 51@small.B—BH7l"arisms and Other &rrors o Speech. 'et the e!pression is the acknowled"ment o thin"s grammatically (3correct. St7dents do not graduateJ they are "rad7ated. has the sanction o ab7ndant a7thority. it may be replied. 6rammatically incorrectsi"ni ies #N. 'incorrectT and accordin" to the r7les o "rammarT' '%his sentence.B Gra$+i$#+s. what is the same thin". hewas. %here are those who obAect to the 7se o this word in the sense o 7n o7nded. BA gratuitous ass7mption. has grammatical incorrectness. 7ntr7e. no one can make a mistake. B%he correctness o the e!pressiongrammatical errors has been disp7ted. B37t it is needless to dwell on the improbability o a hypothesis which has been shown to be alto"ether gratuitous. b7t principles are imm7tableT' BA ter this. it may be asked with some show o there. one m7st relinC7ish the belie in the possibility o tersely e!pressin" the idea o an o ense a"ainst "rammatical r7les. however. and an?. 7nreasonable. re erable to o7r ideas o time.34 G#2n. as to the system by which it is representedJ b7t s7rely we can speak o error in that which is error's criterionT All this is hypercritical.&((O(. become wo7ld seem to be the better word. BA gratuitous invention. %his verb ori"inally meant to increase in siDe. a sentence is grammatically incorrect.B—+e G7incey. grammatically incorrectR 'et we can do so. it wo7ld be di ic7lt to e!press the idea even by circ7mloc7tion. incorrect. '"rammar is a scienceJ yo7 may be wron" in its interpretation. or was he. or they were "rad7atedBJ and ask. relation. #n this sense. -ikewise the phrasegrammatical correctness implies the e!istence o grammatical(3correctness.B—6odwin. b7t has normally come to be also 7sed to e!press a chan"e rom one state or condition to anotherJ as. B%he gratuitous theory. "rammar is a science o7nded in o7r nat7re. do7btless. See +(&SS. #ts 7se in this sense. BWeak and gratuitous conAect7res. conseC7ently. etc. # . then. "rad7atedRB Gra--a$ica& Err#rs. "rammatically. # one's A7d"ment can accept neither. togrow weak or stron". no bad &n"lishJ a very pleasant concl7sion.

/ealthful is "enerally 7sed in the sense o cond7cive to health. %his e!pression and had better are m7ch 7sed. p.omposition 6rammar. See . employment. Ha* ra$4!r.B BHad we have been there. See HE(('. 'Who lives hereR' %he process is to look. as is possible.B and that the proper word is helpmeet. a healthy climate.B We see at a "lance that one here is s7per l7o7s. and relatives dri t so ar rom their moorin"s as to lose themselves. ?S7ch styleT@ %o speak th7s is treason in the realms and 7nder the laws o lan"7a"e. are all the better or not bein" o that e!a""erated description sometimes met within the newspapers.B %he bl7nderin" inanity o this kind o writin" is eC7aled only by its b7mptio7s .B then neither helpmate nor helpmeet has any raison d'7tre. %.B BHad yo7 have seen it.A.%#ON. B# had rather not do it. BOnions are ahealthy ve"etable.B B'o7 would better "o home. yet we hear people. sit7ation. %his is a v7l"arism o the worst description. the words in 6enesis essor 3ain has to say on this s7bAect in his B. H!a*in0. who wo7ld be hi"hly indi"nant i any one sho7ld intimate that they were not ladies and "entlemen. Bis had do and had goRB # we transpose the words th7s.B BHad yo7 seen it. Hol. hung. #t is m7ch ind7l"ed in by very yo7n" men. say.B Ha* #+04$. p. is healthyJ the ood he eats. then close the eyes. ii. p. We speak o healthys7rro7ndin"s. advice. e!amples. o the past participle o the verb to hang is most 7sedJ b7t. %ownsend's BArt o Speech. is always 7sed by care 7l writers and speakers. 04.B A ittin" reply wo7ld be. Hi043a&+$in. moralityJ as. i he is in "ood health. are inde ensible. meet ?s7itable@ or him.B Ought says all that had ought says.B BHad we been there. )nock at the door o anythin" met which interests. %he irst o these two words is o ten improperly 7sed or the secondJ as. b7t. i. the re"7lar orm. B'o7 had do better MtoN "o home. # think he better had.B it is asked.B A"ain.7ltivate i"7re8makin" habit7des.B we hear. B#t mi"ht have been e!pressed in one hal the space. virt7e. $or what . Has$!. Han0!*%H+n0.B &!amples o this 7se o had can be o7nd in the writin"s o o7r best a7thors. when the word denotes s7spension by the neck or the p7rpose o ?. &!amples o this kind o writin" are ab7ndant in . and ask. is wholesome.B see SE3JEN. H!&(-a$!.ro essor -. %his is a style o writin" o ten called the reshman style. B'es.35 known it. 052* B. the healthful spirit o the comm7nity—meanin" that the spirit that prevails in the comm7nity is cond7cive to virt7e and "ood morals. i it is not deleterio7s. B# wouldrather not do it. Ha&3. as we ind these words 7sed in 6en. B# will make him a help. healthful e!ercise. as e!amples. then look within. 010* BHery o ten adverbs. it is asserted. prepositions. and by a class o older men who instinctively try to make 7p in clatter or what they lack in matter. H!a&$4'%W4#&!s#-!. B# will make him a help meet or him. We hear them in s7ch sentences as. BHe had o7"ht to "o. A healthy o! makes wholesome ood. %he irre"7lar orm. BHad # have known it." 5F@destroyin" li e. and o wholesome ood." 52@the statement that there is no e!c7se or s7ch in lated and de ective style. # . %his is done by askin" the spirit7al import o every physical obAect seenJ also by ormin" the habit o constantly metaphoriDin". what tense.B BNow.B which. hanged. b7t wouldJ th7s.B A"ain. 012* B&very law o speech en orces?. in the opinion o many.B B'o7 had better "o home. %he dictionaries s7""est that this word is a corr7ption o help and meet. that the proper word to 7se in connection with rather and better is not had.%#H& /OO+. or make attachments where they do not belon".B A man.B it becomes at once apparent.

and o7r 7ll ho7rs led into eternity be ore the citiDens o many parts o the town o7nd o7t there was a reshet here at all.B—. in the employment o an inappropriate word. Where a short word will do. in the estimation o all men who are C7ali ied to A7d"e. BNever write abo7t any matter that yo7 do not well 7nderstand. &le"ance o lan"7a"e may not be in the power o all o 7sJ b7t simplicity and strai"ht orwardness are. to visit in /r. and the irst chapter o his 'History' three times.' And not lon" since a worthy?. inC7ire what is the substance. %ownsend C7otes this wholesome admonition rom . intimated his intention o visitin" some o his people as ollows* '# intend. 6ibbon wrote his '/emoirs' si! times. # s7bmit the ollowin"* B%he spirit o departed day had Aoined comm7nion with the myriad "hosts o cent7ries. o what yo7 have said. /7ch consideration is needed to compress the details o any s7bAect into small compass. 'o7 will most likely ind that the amount is very smallJ b7t at any rate. yo7 lose in rep7tation or ability. and will on this occasion take the opport7nity o embracingall the servants in the district. $alsehood may be a very thick cr7st. it is astonishin" what slips are made.36 "randiloC7ence. &ssences are . speak no coarser than 7s7alJ i with yo7r s7periors. and strike o7t every word." 5Q@yo7r "7ard a"ainst tal!ing a great deal and saying little. not a residenceJ a place a place.' writes* '%wo "reat sins—one o omissionand one o commission—have been committed by the states o &7rope in modern times. On p. there was not one who en#oyeda li e o peace or a nat7ral death. BOne o the "reatest o all a7lts in writin" and in speakin" is this* the 7sin" o many words to say little. not a well-!nown oblong instrument of manual husbandryJ let home be home. B6o critically over what yo7 have written. Never 7se a lon" word where a short one will do. d7rin" this week.B Hin$s. in the co7rse o time. A very ew e!aminations o the sort will so ri"hten yo7 that yo7 will be or ever a ter 7pon?. %o attain a clear and pithy style.all a spade a spade. even by "ood writers. Write m7ch as yo7 wo7ld speakJ speak as yo7 think.B— Swinton. in his 'History o &7rope. B3e simple. even in this alse world. and cla7se which it is o7nd will leave the sentence neither less clear nor less orcible than it is witho7t them. %hey or"et that brevity is no si"n o tho7"htlessness. 'o7 lose in clearnessJ yo7 lose in honest e!pression o yo7r meanin"J and. be honest in yo7r speakin" and writin". BWith all watch 7lness. it may be necessary to c7t down. 3e"inners are always slow to pr7ne or cast away any tho7"ht or e!pression which may have cost labor. tr7th will ind a place to break thro7"h. who shall call the bellman in C7estion as he cries. /——'s district. when yo7 "et it.B—+ean Al ord. within the r7les o pr7dence. %he only tr7e way to shine. say what yo7 are. yo7 will then be able to e!amine it and to tell what it is worth. # with yo7r in eriors. and tho7"hts instantly become words. yo7 always lose by 7sin" a lon" one.obbett. is to be modest and 7nass7min". yo7 will never want tho7"hts. 3e what yo7 sayJ and. to rearran"e. how m7ch more eloC7ent they wo7ld beTB As an e!ample o reportorial hi"h al7tin. '-ost. #n 6ibbon's '(ise and $all. %ake a lon" speech o some talkin" -ord and p7t down 7pon paper what the amo7nt o it is. or amount.' the ollowin" instance occ7rs* 'O nineteen tyrants who started 7p a ter the rei"n o 6allien7s. and to rewrite whole passa"es o an essay. be 7na ected. . at the close o the services. no iner. not a localityJ and so o the rest. # yo7 clearly 7nderstand all abo7t yo7r matter. a silver8handled silk lady's parasol'R B%he proper arran"ement o words into sentences and para"raphs "ives clearness and stren"th. b7t. phrase. #n order to "7ard yo7rsel a"ainst this a7lt.' Alison.olerid"e* B# men wo7ld only say what they have to say in plain terms. 015 +r.' When worthies s7ch as these o end." 55@Scotch minister.

. than weak sol7tions.. there ore. We may." 5K@+octor be"ins with a i"7re o lon"it7dinal space and ends with a i"7re o time. 37t when a i"7re is begun it sho7ld be carried on thro7"ho7t. H+n0. %he i"7re. the st7dent will do well to banish or the present all tho7"ht o ornament or ele"ance. and there ore more val7able. H+rr'. Hividness and stren"th are the prod7ct o an easy command o those small trenchant Sa!on monosyllables which abo7nd in the &n"lish lan"7a"e. %he how in this sentence also sho7ld be that. (epetition is a ar?. the o7ndation o all e!cellence o style.obbett comments on this sentence in this wise* B+r. however. %o tell a man how far he is to "o into the Western co7ntries o America. e!pressive o lon"it7dinal space. Johnson. Watts is speakin" here o writin". that A7d"ment will dictate how much to write on it and not how far to proceed in it. theolo"ical sense. Or. BA yo7n" writer is a raid to be simpleJ he has no aith in bea7ty 7nadorned. # have dwelt th7s on this distinction or the p7rpose o p7ttin" yo7 on the watch and "7ardin" yo7 a"ainst con o7ndin" i"7res. %he best ornament is always that which comes 7nso7"ht. -et him not beat abo7t the b7sh. #n his estimation.B BAnd it is "ood A7d"ment alone can dictate how farto proceed in it and when to stop. means the doctrine that denies the "odhead o Jes7s .B—6eor"e Washin"ton /oon. B%he a7dience enth7siastically endorsed the humanitarianism o his eloC7ent disco7rse. and reC7ire to be reminded that it is always better to 7se the ri"ht word over a"ain than to replace it by a wron" one—and a word which is liable to be mis7nderstood is a wron" one. B# have heard how in #taly one is beset on all sides by be""arsB* read.B H+-ani$arianis-.' Apparent elaborateness is always distaste 7l and weak. there ore. H#n#ra &!. both in this co7ntry and in &n"land. an adverb. is very proper and m7ch better than the literal words. say. #n s7ch a case. till yo7 7nderstand more abo7t them. most 7sed in a h7mane. introd7ces a rhetorical figureJ or the plain meanin" is. however. . -et him remember that what is written is meant to be readJ that time is shortJ and that—other thin"s bein" eC7al—the ewer words the better. See HAN6&+. %ho7"h widely di erent in meanin". and simplicity is b7t another name or that which is weak and 7nmeanin". is one who believes this doctrine. Bheard that. %he less yo7 7se them the better.B BAs a r7le. and avers that he was possessed o a h7man nat7re onlyJ a humanitarian. See (&H&(&N+.B—B-eis7re Ho7r. b7t "o strai"ht to the point. #t sho7ld have been. hence he crowds his sentences with s7perlatives. 'o7n" writers are o ten 7nd7ly a raid o repeatin" the same word. which is not the case hereJ or the?. /urry implies not only haste. where to stop. in its ori"inal. nowadays. how long to proceed in it and when to stop.B . A rank repetition o a word has even sometimes a kind o charm—as bearin" the stamp o truth. and others laid asleep with so t notes o lattery. l7rryJ while .liny wrote to one o his riends.hrist.. '# have not time to write yo7 a short letter. both the verb and the no7n hurry are contin7ally 7sed or haste andhasten. and when he is to stop. philanthropic senseJ th7s. %he word and its derivatives are. is a very di erent thin" rom tellin" him how far he is to "o and where he is to stop.B—Hall.B—Hatton. %his word.B—+r. in the theolo"ical sense./ow means the manner in which.37 more di ic7lt to prepare. t7r"idity passes or eloC7ence.B B# have heardhow some critics have been paci ied with claret and a s7pper. there ore # have written yo7 a lon" one. H#2. and to aim only at e!pressin" himsel plainly and clearly. B# have heard how he went abo7t it to circ7mvent yo7. b7t haste with con 7sion. like how far." 54@less serio7s a7lt than obsc7rity.

"— 0oldsmith. or ill constr7cted. as it is never wise to proceed witho7t oretho7"ht and method. that hell0rew darker at their frown. #t is o ten wise to hasten in the a airs o li eJ b7t. an ea"er desire to make pro"ress.lin& Ti.B says . I--#*!s$. are o ten 7sed witho7t proper discrimination bein" made in their respective meanin"s. As or ice8cream. de ined as an error in 7sin" words in a sense di erent rom their reco"niDed si"ni ication. and not ice8water. iced cream and not ice8cream. literally.eneath his . B# do7bt whether this will ever reach yo7." "*o frowned the mi&hty "om. -an"7a"e that si"ni ies. B(ndecency. is said to be hyperbolical. "!mmodest words admit of no defense. cream made rom ice by meltin". as dress.3 haste implies only rapidity o action. A thin" is ill ormed. I3.B "The sky shr$nk $pward with $n$s$al dread.B—3lair." B# saw their chie tall as a rock o iceJ his spear the blasted irJ his shield the risin" moonJ he sat on the shore like a clo7d o mist on a hill. %he orm o the adverb. is not incompatible with deliberation and di"nity. as well as o the adAective and the no7n..B %he .er div+d . or ill done. #t is indelicate or any one to obtr7de himsel 7pon another's retirement.immodesty is a positive and entire breach o the moral law. H'(!r #&!.B—BAppletons' Jo7rnal. words. b7t more than indelicacy. properly.B I&&. B%he n7mbers ?o bl7nders@ that have been imputed to him are endless. b7t are never in a hurryJ and we tell others to ma!e haste."—@arl of Aos"ommon.(ndecency is less than immodesty. better or worse than it really is.rabb. B# do7bt if this will ever reach yo7B* say.B B%hey were swi ter than ea"lesJ they were stron"er than lions. Bmay be a partial. to hastenin& ills a prey. indecentand indelicate. then. %his adAective and its synonyms. What is called ice8cream is cream icedJ hence.>here wealth a""$m$lates and men de"ay. may be o ten inhaste. %he ma"ni yin" o thin"s beyond their?. and not to hurry up. and looksJ the latter in cond7ct and disposition.atants. more than the e!act tr7th.ed. I-(r#(ri!$'. or ill p7t to"ether. it is never wise to hurry. i.?or want of de"en"y is want of sense.B Ic!7cr!a-%Ic!72a$!r. (ndecency andimmodesty are opposed to morality* the ormer in e!ternals." 40@ "Ill fares the land. and. Hyperbole is e!a""eration.?. by which a thin" is represented "reater or less. as ice8cream wo7ld be the prod7ct o roDen cream. %he prod7ct o melted ice is ice8 water. there is no s7ch thin". is ill. 7nlike hurry. Non8painstakin" writers not 7n reC7ently 7seimpute instead o ascribe. Sensible people.#nd trem. As a rhetorical term. e. #t is indecent or women to e!pose their persons as do some whom we can not call immodest.). Some e!amples are the ollowin"* B(ivers o blood and hills o slain. See S#. I-(+$!. more than is really intended to be represented. whether it be cold or warmJ b7t water made cold with ice is iced water." 4L@nat7ral limits is called hyperbole. BO7r common orms o compliment are almost all o them e!trava"ant hyperboles.B #t is indecent or a man to marry a"ain very soon a ter the death o his wi e. or ill made. I&&'. #t will astonish not a ew to learn that there is no s7ch word as illy.

ost. QQL.B p.' and all similar e!pressions relatin" to a de inite timeNJ poetessJ portion M or 'part'NJ posted M or 'in ormed'NJ pro"ress M or 'advance'NJ reliable M or 'tr7stworthy'NJ rendition M or 'per ormance'NJ rep7diate M or 'reAect' or 'disown'NJ retire Mas an active verbNJ (ev. to do service or beginJ b7t the sooner these rhetorical hi"h8 liers stop inaugurating and content themselves with simply beginning the thin"s they are called 7pon to do in the ordinary ro7tine o daily li e.B etc. and o7"ht to be condemned and avoided as a mere "rammatical crotchet.B—6eor"e . and in which the in is s7per l7o7s. in so ar as the want co7ld be shown. %his word. BA want o proper opport7nity wo7ld s7 ice. /rs. or in or with respect to. and all passives o this ormJ AeopardiDeJ A7bilant M or 'reAoicin"'NJ A7venile M or 'boy'NJ lady M or 'wi e'NJ last M or 'latest'NJ len"thy M or 'lon"'NJ leniency M or 'lenity'NJ loa erJ loan or loaned M or 'lend' or 'lent'NJ locatedJ maAority Mrelatin" to places or circ7mstances. An e!ample o this is the recent 7se o the adverbial phrases in respect of. B-ect7res on the &n"lish -an"7a"e. M or 'the (ev.resident. o7"ht to be resisted even in tri les. %his innovation is witho7t any syntactical "ro7nd. /arsh. they nevertheless ind no avor with those who st7dy propriety in the 7se o lan"7a"e.B In r!s(!c$ #3. especially where it leads to the con 7sion o distinct ideas. is made. in regard of. in so ar as o7r knowled"e alls short. William . B%he deliberate introd7ction o incorrect orms. /rs. %he phrases in our midst and in their midst are "enerally s7pposed to be o recent introd7ctionJ and. See #//O+&S%. tho7"h they have been 7sed by some respectable writers. BJes7s came and stood?. the sooner they will cease to set a very bad e!ample. 6eneral. In s# 3ar as. or para"raph'NJ is bein" done. or re"ard to. In*!c!n$.B so7"ht to prevent the writers or that paper rom 7sin" Bover and above M or 'more than'NJ artiste M or 'artist'NJ aspirantJ a7thoressJ beat M or 'de eat'NJ ba""in" M or 'capt7rin"'NJ balance M or 'remainder'NJ banC7et M or 'dinner' or 's7pper'NJ bo"7sJ casket?." 4O@in the midst. 6overnor. while he was editor o the BNew 'ork &venin" .33 7se o impute in this connection is by no means inde ensibleJ still it wo7ld have been better to 7seascribe.B B%here was a h7t in the midst o the orest. or 'most'NJ /rs. %o the phrasein the midst no one obAects.. whether by the coina"e o new or the revival o obsolete and ine!pressive syntactical combinations. In*!5 !5(+r0a$#ri+s. Ina+0+ra$!.J "rad7ate M or 'is "rad7ated'NJ "ents M or '"entlemen'NJ 'Hon.B BWe are to act 7p to the e!tent o o7r knowled"eJ b7t.7llen 3ryant. which means to install in o ice with certain ceremonies. who was a care 7l st7dent o &n"lish. In #+r -i*s$.'J Ho7se M or 'Ho7se o (epresentatives'NJ h7mb7"J ina7"7rate M or 'be"in'NJ in o7r midstJ item M or 'particle. in the sense o settin" o7tJ state M or 'say'NJ tabooJ talent M or 'talents' or 'ability'NJ talentedJ tapisJ the deceasedJ war M or 'disp7te' or 'disa"reement'N. and all similar titlesJ m7t7al M or 'common'NJ o icial M or 'o icer'NJ ovationJ on yesterdayJ over his si"nat7reJ pants M or 'pantaloons'NJ parties M or 'persons'NJ partially M or 'partly'NJ past two weeks M or 'last two weeks." 41@M or 'co in'NJ claimed M or 'asserted'NJ collidedJ commence M or 'be"in'NJ competeJ cortZ"e M or 'procession'NJ cotemporary M or 'contemporary'NJ co7ple M or 'two'NJ darky M or 'ne"ro'NJ day be ore yesterday M or 'the day be ore yesterday'NJ dZb7tJ decrease Mas a verbNJ democracy Mapplied to a political partyNJ develop M or 'e!pose'NJ devo7rin" element M or ' ire'NJ donateJ employZJ enacted M or 'acted'NJ indorse M or 'approve'NJ en ro7teJ esC. by many lovers o bi" words. A phrase o ten met with.'NJ r[le M or 'part'NJ ro7"hsJ rowdiesJ seceshJ sensation M or 'noteworthy event'NJ standpoint M or 'point o view'NJ start. e!tract. .B .

" 42@ In*i)i*+a&.B is what the sentence sho7ld be. 37t all the above obAections apply to it likewise.' BS7ch orms as '# may see.' etc. eC7al to rent.%#H& /OO+. and ma!ing this ta!. casket." 4Q@ . talented.otential' is "iven. # will call o7t. can be 7r"ed or disco7ra"in" the 7se o several words in the listJ the words aspirant. as we ind with the s7bA7nctive. many persons—especially those who like to be "randiloC7ent—7se. 37t this can not properly be maintained. #t is opposed to the whole. compete. B%he individual # saw was not over ortyBJ B%here were several individuals on board that # had never seen be ore. and term it the emphatic mood. banC7et. #t is plain that the ri"ht word to 7se here isapproved. as well as many others.B etc. that which can not be divided. applaud.?. %he one orm is said to be in the indicative mood. %his word is o ten most improperly 7sed or personJ as. Ini$ia$!. BAbility bein" in "eneral the power of doing. /oreover. #n this si"ni ication it is on the list o prohibited words in some o o7r newspaper o ices.B—3ain.' 'o7"ht. b7t we sho7ld not say an innumerable number o times. %here is sometimes a sli"ht variation made in &n"lish. or conA7nctive mood.' have sometimes been considered as a variety o mood.' %he only di erence in the two last instances is the 7se o the si"n o the in initive 'to.. an obli"atory mood—'# m7st "o. or e!ample. and deceased.' '# can see. it is "enerally better to 7se the verb in the in initive than in the participial orm. B%he ollowin" r7les areindorsed by nearly all writers 7pon this s7bAect. we mi"ht proceed to constit7te other moods on the same analo"y. to e!press 7nity. B'# see the si"nal.' beca7se the a irmation is sub#oined to another a irmation* '(f ( see the signal.' or '# o7"ht to "o'J a mood o resol7tion—'# will "o. Say. In*#rs!. We may say innumerable times. or numberless times. to do.' 'm7st. . A repetitional e!pression to be avoided. start.!r. which.. When we can choose. %his is a pretentio7s word. when homely &n"lish wo7ld serve their t7rn m7ch better. approve. B%he p7blic will heartily indorse the sentiments 7ttered by the co7rt.' is 7nconditionalJ 'if # see the si"nal. tho7"h in the main it mi"ht sa ely be 7sed as?.B B%he p7blic will heartily approve the sentiments expressedby the co7rt.B etc.' And 7rther. In*ica$i)! an* S+ /+nc$i)!. conditional. Say. See SE3JEN.J b7t that is not an essential di erence. Some "rammarians consider the orm '# do "o' a separate mood. the mood that simply states or indicates the actionJ the other orm is in the impart. etymolo"ically.' 'can. in speakin" o thin"s as well as o persons. decrease. to substituteand to ma!e. Inn+-!ra &! N+.are 7l writers "enerally disco7ntenance the 7se o indorse in the sense o sanction. yo7 shall "o'J a mood o "rati ication—'# am deli"hted to "o'J o deprecation—'# am "rieved to "o.B Say.B— +r.B—New 'ork B&venin" %ele"ram. or that which is divisible into parts.' is the same act e!pressed in the orm o a condition. to which the name '. %here is no trace o any in lection correspondin" to this meanin".. pro"ress.' which does not occ7r a ter 'may. with its derivatives. to the proposal of substitutinga ta! 7pon land val7es . and is 7sed. however. No valid reason.?. or e!ample. as.4< %his inde! is o ered here as a c7riosity rather than as a "7ide.. %he mood is called 's7bA7nctive. as near ?nearly@ as may be. B# desire to reply . to show that an a irmation is made as a condition. s7ch a mood wo7ld have itsel to be s7bdivided into indicative and s7bA7nctive orms* '# may "o." 4F@s7ch. %ownsend.B (ndividual means. B%his C7ality is o prime importance when the chie obAect is the imparting of knowled"e.' 'i # may "o. In3ini$i)! M##*.

A tolerable idea o the state o the disc7ssion re"ardin" the propriety o 7sin" the loc7tion is being built.' or e!ample. Ir#n'. #rony is a kind o delicate sarcasm or satire—raillery. witho7t attemptin" to prove. # re er to s7ch e!pressions as '%he ho7se is bein" b7ilt'J '%he letter is bein" written'J '%he mine is bein" worked'J '%he news is bein" tele"raphed. as is pretended.' etc. tho7"h they have been 7sed in all time past by the best writers. were it otherwise 7ne!ceptionableJ b7t its recent ori"in shows that it is not.' etc. An attempt has been made by some "rammarians. is not a compo7nd o is being and built. and to A7sti y and de end a cl7msy solecism. in a passive senseJ th7s. o co7rse. B%his orm o e!pression. Nobody wo7ld think o sayin". that it seems likely to prevail.eter 37llions. corresponding to the progressive orm in the active voice. and in which. i"7res are sometimes 7sed o so delicate a nat7re that it shall o ten happen that some people will see thin"s in a direct contrary sense to what the a7thor and the maAority o the readers 7nderstand them* to s7ch the most innocent irony may appear irreli"ion.' B%he 7se o this orm is A7sti ied only by condemning an established usage o the lan"7a"eJ namely. O co7rse the e!pression 'is being b7ilt. there is no s7ch e!pression in &n"lish as is being.—takin" or "ranted. that there is no progressive form o the verb to be. the passive?.B says* B%here is properly no passive orm. Now. which this novelty . the orm in C7estion Mis being builtN is not reC7ired. b7t which has "ained s7ch c7rrency.B—. See . to banish s7ch e!pressions rom the lan"7a"e. and all like e!pressions. and is becomin" so amiliar to the ear. o the verb to be and the present participle passive. a necessary orm. with all its 7nco7thness and de ormity.?. B#n writin"s o h7mor. '%he ho7se is b7ildin"'J '%he "arments are makin"'J 'Wheat is sellin". let it be observed that the only verbs in which the present participle passive e!presses a contin7ed action are those mentioned above as the irst class. #n re erence to this it is lippantly asked. See A66(AHA%&. is o7nd not to e!press what it is intended to e!press. Irri$a$!. in his B6rammar o the &n"lish -an"7a"e. %hat mode o speech in which what is meant is contrary to the literal meanin" o the words—in which praise is bestowed when cens7re is intended—is called irony. when analyDed. is desired.(&S&N%. that the participle ining can not have a passive sense in any verb. and consent that we o7rselves.." 44@sense in some verbs o the participle in ing.4' In$!rr#0a$i#n. let it be considered. in which the re"7lar passive orm e!presses a continuance o the actionJ as. B+o we mean to s7bmit to this meas7reR +o we mean to s7bmit. is loved. it is hoped. and wo7ld be 7sed only by s7ch as are either i"norant o its import or are careless and loose in their 7se o lan"7a"e. etc. %he rhetorical i"7re that asks a C7estion in order to emphasiDe the reverse o what is asked is called interrogationJ as. and no need o itJ hence. in &n"lish.ambrid"e. indeed. etc. Is !in0 +i&$. e!cept where it is made by the participle ing. will.. b7t o is and being builtJ that is. o7r co7ntry and its ri"hts. %he (ev. . 'What does the ho7se b7ildR' 'What does the letter writeR' etc. o late. %o make this mani est. B%his mode o e!pression had no existence in the lan"7a"e till within the last fifty years. be obtained rom the ollowin" e!tracts. %he ollowin" are a ew e!amples rom writers o the best rep7tation. 'He is bein" loved'J '%his res7lt is bein" desired. mockery. shall be trampled onRB B+oth 6od pervert A7d"mentR or doth the Almi"hty pervert A7sticeRB In$r#*+c!. wo7ld not make the e!pression wron".?5@ %his. irst." 45@which has been recently introd7ced chie ly thro7"h the newspaper press.

3rown..B B# heard o a plan ormin". and .' '%hese thin"s were transactin" in &n"land.'—+. FK.' '%o know nothin" o what is transactin" in the re"ions above 7s.B and others o a similar kind.B and so orth. B%he ho7se is b7ildin". as. B%he books are now bein" sold.B—BSells whatRB # 7sa"e allows 7s to say. b7t it is sometimes met with in respectable writersJ it occ7rs most reC7ently in newspaper para"raphs and in hasty compositions. 'An attempt is makin" in the &n"lish parliament. BWheat is sellin" at a dollar. A. '%he present participle is o ten 7sed passivelyJ as. had been being published. W. See Worcester's BEniversal and .' p.B in a sense that is not activeR'—Hart's '6rammar. to several important obAections. BWheat sells at a dollar.'—Harrison's '(ise. than the more comple! phraseolo"y which some late writers adopt in its steadJ as.lo7"hs whatRB BWheat sells well. '%he ch7rch now erectin" in the city o New 'ork. (eview. +e War observes* '%he participle in ing is also passive in many instancesJ as. b7t the ri"ht o which to be at all is not 7lly . why may we not say..'—Sir 6.' '%his mode o e!pression ?the ho7se is bein" b7ilt@ is becomin" C7ite common. etc. '#t wo7ld be an abs7rdity.resent Str7ct7re o the &n"lish -an"7a"e. 004 and 04L. never done. at the head o those intr7ders in lan"7a"e which to many persons seem to be o established respectability.B B%he brid"e was being built.'—3ancro t.'—+r. B%he ield plo7"hs well. A. Webster. 3lair. 6r.' C7oted by /r. '%he co7rt was then holdin". indeed. B%he work is now being published. the s7pport o any respectable "rammarian. . B%his new doctrine is in opposition to the almost unanimous #udgment o the most distinguished grammariansand critics. What a lan"7a"e shall we have when o7r verbs are th7s conA7"atedT'— 3rown's '6r. 'When we say.' p.B'—.'—"ress. Bis bein" b7ilt. #t is liable.B is certainly no better &n"lish than. 'And still be doin". shall or will have been being published. (eview.' p. as ar as # know. B37ildin" whatRB We mi"ht ask.'—#rvin". is almost 7niversally condemned by "rammarians.B— .' pp.B and so on thro7"h all the moods and tenses. p. and Maccordin" to my apprehensionN in ar better taste. B%he work was being published.B /r. when yo7 say.'—Arnold's '&n"lish 6rammar. '%he prevailin" practice o the best a7thors is in avor o the simple ormJ as.B %he orm o e!pression. who have considered the s7bAect.ritical +ictionary.?.' p. 5Q.B e!presses his opinion o the loc7tion is being in this wise* B#n bad eminence.. B%he ho7se is b7ildin". s7ch as the new an"led and most 7nco7th solecism Bis being done. FQ. B%he ho7se is b7ildin". o &n". 'As to the notion o introd7cin" a new and more comple! passive orm o conA7"ation. have been or a ew years insin7atin" themselves into o7r lan"7a"eJ still they are not &n"lish. #t has not. J. 0F4." 4K@shall or will be being published." KL@'%he phrase. is being committed. 6ibbs. however. /c)enDie.' p. #t appears ormal and pedantic.has been being published. (ichard 6rant White.'— Allen's '6rammar.?. %he easy and nat7ral e!pression is. B%he brid"e is being built. 0F4. '%he ortress was b7ildin".B or the "ood old &n"lish idiom Bis doingB—an abs7rd periphrasis drivin" o7t a pointed and pithy t7rn o the &n"lish lan"7a"e.'—'N.B'—Weld's '6rammar. and e!pressed their views concernin" it.B the advocates o the new theory ask. &verett.'—'N. to "ive 7p the only way we have o denotin" the incomplete state o action by a passive orm MviD. is being built. 1Q0. it is one o the most abs7rd and monstro7s innovations ever tho7"ht o . Wells.—G7oted in '$raDee's 6rammar.'—%om.42 wo7ld condemn* 'While the ceremony was per ormin". %he ollowin" are a specimen* '&!pressions o this kind are condemned by some criticsJ b7t the 7sa"e is 7nC7estionably o ar better a7thority. in his BWords and %heir Eses. '%he spot where this new and stran"e tra"edy was actin". B%he ship is b7ildin". B%he ho7se is b7ildin".B' etc.B'—6oold 3rown. by the participle in ing in the passive senseN. 'Several other e!pressions o this sort now and then occ7r.B in a sense that is not active.'—&.B'—Wells' 'School 6rammar. in t7rn. '%he books are sellin".

." KO@been 7sed by some respectable writers. there occ7rs 'were carryin".' p7blished in 05FO.B instead o . it sho7ld not be passed by in silence. is being. to have ori"inated on o7r side o the Atlantic. ori"inally. o my askin"J b7t. which neither convenience. BAs lately as 04QL. $itDedward Hall?. 37t the ded7ctive character o the miscreant is another thin"J and hereon there is a war between the philosophers. e!ecrated. torment the ear. in the ne!t place." K0@replies at some len"th. %hey rather . altho7"h more than hal a cent7ry old. /arsh. 0402 and 04OL. sho7ld be incl7ded amon" "rammarians. as i he had act7ally spotted the wretched creat7re. stands o7t the orm o speech is being done.' and that this. in his B-ect7res on the &n"lish -an"7a"e. by a most pec7liar process o ratiocination. /r. intelli"ibility.'?K@ is spoken o in '%he North American (eview'?0L@ as 'an o7tra"e 7pon &n"lish idiom. in an article p7blished in BScribner's /onthlyB or April. /arsh.' speaks o it as havin" 'been introd7ced' 'within a ew years. Bto be detested. Almost any pop7lar e!pression which is considered as a novelty.B' S7ch is the assertion and s7ch is the opinion o some anonymo7s l7minary. White. while acknowled"in" that 'this new orm has?. endeavors to prove that what +r. or even seek to enrich it with new and startlin" verbal combinations. 'and the appearance o is being with a per ect participle in a very ew books p7blished between A. that phrases o the orm here pointed at have hitherto enAoyed very m7ch less avor with 7s than with the &n"lish. do not de orm lan"7a"e with antastic solecisms. He premises that in Jarvis's translation o '+on G7i!ote.. 6rammarians. #ts deviser is. o 8 hand. is somewhat in advance o the herd o his co7ntrymen. indicate the ormer period as that o the ori"in o this phraseolo"y. which. 6. or rather. and to those who are o their way o thinkin" with re"ard to is being. is still prono7nced a novelty as well as a n7isance. 045O. as 7ndiscoverable as the name o the valiant antedil7vian who irst tasted an oyster.. B%he ho7se is building. O the assertion # have C7oted. more than likely. s7bstit7tin" a compo7nd participle or an active verb 7sed in a ne7ter si"ni ication* or instance. abhorred. White devotes thirty pa"es o his book to the disc7ssion o the s7bAect.' contin7es o7r lo"ician. abo7t seventy or ei"hty years a"o. %hat one is.B %o these "entlemen. and assa7lt the common sense o the speaker o plain and idiomatic &n"lish.43 admitted.' replies /r. ?4@who. a 3riton is pretty certain to ass7me. etc. B%he ho7se is being built. +r. +r. no proo is o eredJ and there is little probability that its a7thor had any to o er. be"an to a ront the eye. with all their a7lts. 'that it is the work o any "rammarian is more than do7bt 7l. +r. nor syntactical con"r7ity demands.B says that the deviser o the loc7tion in C7estion was Bsome "rammatical pretender.' '%his chan"e. +. Hall writes* B'All really well ed7cated in the &n"lish ton"7e lament the many innovations introd7ced into o7r lan"7a"e rom AmericaJ and # do7bt i more than one o these novelties deserve acceptation. Worcester calls 'this new orm' came into e!istence A7st i ty8si! years a"o. and add7ces evidence that is more than s7 icient to convince those who are content with an ex parte e!amination that Bit can hardly be that s7ch an incon"r7o7s and ridic7lo7s orm o speech as is being done was contrived by a man who. (ichard 6rant White. and "iven over to si! tho7sandB penny8paper editors'J and the act is.' in the phrase 'are bein" thrown 7p. which. devised o7r modern imper ects passiveR %he C7estion is not. in the edition o 0404. . as the learned are at open e7d on the s7bAect. or his liberality in welcomin" a s7pposed Americanism. re errin" to is being built. by any stretch o the name. 'Are bein".B /r.' '37t. 6eor"e .B and that it is Ban awkward neolo"ism.' BWho. passionately and cate"orically deno7nces him as 'some "rammatical pretender. Worcester.' /r. is sophisticated into 'were bein" carried.B /r.

' etc. +ickens. 05K2. when no ceremony o the . .' B'While my hand was being drest by /r. in an ima"inary conversation. 37t the writers whom # have C7oted are ormidable e!ceptions.?0F@ 'that the orm is being done. name no more. what has he to rest his in erence on. &ven /r.' #n the same pa"e with this. lacks the s7pport o a7thoritative 7sa"e rom the period o the earliest classical &n"lish to the present day. in his '. Amon" these.' 'the bride that was being marriedto him. So ar as # have observed.helsea Hospital was building.' Also. 'Not done. who o7nd is being built.atholic .44 resist novelty.'?00@ %his is in a letter. (obert So7they had not. B# need. # spoke or the irst time. irst o ered violence to the whole circle o the proprieties. /r. %he best written o the &n"lish reviews. on the Kth o October. 37t repeated instances o the same kind o e!pression are seen in So7they's "raver writin"s. Skillern.harles -amb speaks o realities which 'are being acted be ore 7s..' BWalter Sava"e -andor. S. -ord /aca7lay. in /arch.' On one occasion he writes. White in re"ardin" 'neither B%he 3rooklyn &a"leB nor /r. %h7s.' and '%he 3rooklyn &a"le' are alle"ed by /r.' A"ain* '# have seen nobles. and Ao7rnals are perpet7ally marked by itJ and some o the choicest o livin" &n"lish writers employ it reely.' and o 'a man who is being strangled.' and 'the train was preparing. 'Simple8minded common people and those o c7lt7re were alike protected a"ainst it by their attachment to the idiom o their mother ton"7e. or the like. with which they elt it to be directly at variance. (. White in orms 7s.' BNor does /r. 'o7n". ma"aDines. is being made. s7rely. White will scarcely deny to them the title o 'people o c7lt7re.?.' BSo m7ch or o enders past repentanceJ and we all know that the sort o phraseolo"y 7nder consideration is daily becomin" more and more common. my 7tmost competence.' # 7lly conc7r with /r. as to the present day.' wrote . /r. b7t the practice o -ord . /. +e G7incey scr7ple at s7ch &n"lish as 'made and being made. it is eno7"h i # speci y 3ishop Wilber orce and /r. the irst edition o which was p7blished at 6lo7cester in 04LO." K1@and eeble8minded so7l. represents .' and elsewhere calls him 'some pedantic writer o the last "eneration. acceptable. +ickens as a very hi"h a7thority in the 7se o lan"7a"e'J yet.olloC7ies. when he has reno7nced the aid o these contemned straws. '%he Atlantic /onthly. A. been o7t o his minority C7ite two months when. the irst "rammar that e!hibits them is that o /r.' 'Hence we see.?01@ B&!tracts rom 3ishop Jewel downward bein" also "iven.at7ll7s* 'Some criminal is being tried or m7rder.h7rch was being performed.olerid"e. is being built.harles (eade. in a translation rom ." KF@kneelin" in the street be ore these bishops. White in proo ?. #t is pain 7l to pict7re to one's sel the a"oniDin" emotions with which certain philolo"ists wo7ld contemplate an a7thentic e i"y o the Attila o speech who.' and 'the sha ts o Heaven were even now being forged.. evidently deliverin" himsel in a way that had already become amiliar eno7"h.' he adds. amon" the dead.itt as sayin"* '%he man who possesses them may read Swedenbor" and )ant while he is being tossed in a blanket. men and women. not even Maccordin" to modern p7rismN being done'J as i 'p7rism' meant e!actness. rather than the avoidance o neoterism. by his is being built oris being done.?0O@ we read o 's7ch ?n7nneries@ as at this time are being re8stablished.' So /r. White compliments the "reat 7nknown as 'some precise?. # con ess." K2@that people still 7se s7ch phrases as '. 05K5. B. and devote themselves to orm7latin" that which 7se has already established. he wrote o 'a ellow whose 7ttermost 7pper "rinder is being torn out by the roots by a m7tton8 isted barber.' %o add even one word toward a sol7tion o the knotty point here indicated transcends.

only exists$ built.' Are the e!pressions here italiciDed either perspic7o7s or "race 7lR Whatever we are to have in their place.?0Q@ which is plainly ne7ter. to a verbal s7bstantive. in. %uiltis determined as active or passive by the verbs which C7ali y it. probably corr7pted rom a phrase more p7re. #n is building and is being built.. vicio7s as it con essedly was. that s7""ested the orm # am disc7ssin". # will not pretend to answer. when embodied in has built. with is pre i!ed. S7ch. embodied in has been built. entailed. pre i!ed. All scholars are aware that. or whether she was ta!ing to account by some disappointed votary.B' in the opinion o +r.?05@ . '%he ho7se is in building' co7ld be taken to mean nothin" b7t ædes ædificanturJ and. elt or 7n elt. rom the conte!t. it is not s7rprisin" that he went on pre errin" what he o7nd established. is the e!cl7sively passive been built. Whether a amiliar o the #nC7isition was "ripin" her in his cl7tches.olerid"e. 3esides this. %heir trem7lo7s and impatient dread o removin" ancient landmarks even disC7ali ies them or thoro7"hly investi"atin" its character?. is 'a vicio7s e!pression. (s being \ built. when &n"lish was 7nder"oin" what was then tho7"ht to be p7ri ication. We are debarred. when the in "ave place to a. with a tr7e %ory's timidity and aversion to chan"e. as will be seen. in strict harmony with the constit7tion o the per ect and 7t7re tenses. a A7st resentment o ambi"7ity was evidenced in the creation o is being built." K5@and pretensions..B' 'et. 7nder the in l7ence o ree tho7"ht. %he lament is too late that the instinct o re ormation did not restore the old orm. we ind the active participle per ect and the active in initive s7bAoined to a7!iliariesJ and so. 37t anythin" that is new will be e!cepted to by minds o a certain order. with is. namely. . in its "reatest simplicity. Johnson. #t has "one oreverJ and we are now to make the best o its s7ccessors. has been \ built wo7ld si"ni y somethin" like has existed$ built." KQ@representation. %oward the close o the same cent7ry. rom s7ch an analysisJ and.45 /aca7lay and '%he Atlantic /onthly'R %hose who think it will bow to the dictatorship here prescribed to themJ b7t there may be those with whom the classic sanction o So7they. #n the early part o the last cent7ry. that building was "overned by a preposition. have and beJ and the "rammarians are ri"ht in considerin" it. in many cases. an a7!iliary ollowed by the active participle present and the passive participle present. . we possessed the ormer. the polite world s7bstantially resi"ned is a-building to the v7l"ar. #n has built and will build. #t m7st have been an inspiration o analo"y. we sho7ld be thank 7l to "et C7it o them. prod7cin" the orm is being built. as the active present imper ect. has provoked a very levanter o ire and vili ication. and -andor will not be wholly void o wei"ht. it be"an to be elt that even ideas had a ri"ht to aith 7l and 7neC7ivocal?. to convey the sense o the imper ects passive. 'B%he brass is forging. B#nasm7ch as. there ore. the passive participle per ect and the passive in initive are s7bAoined to a7!iliaries. is the proced7re which. it is in ri"id accordance with the symmetry o o7r verb that. to constr7ct the passive present8imper ect. we have. as active. however. we pre i! is to the latter.?02@ it was still mani est eno7"h. conc7rrently with building or the active participle. when. a terward corr7pted into a. o7r ancestors. as # passed by the r7ins o a palace thrown down by the earthC7ake. %he second sta"e o chan"e. by parity o reasonin". pretty nearly. we may not resolve is being built into is being \ built.. when the a was omitted. cent7ries a"o. "reat dan"er o con 7sion. 37t was the e!pression 'vicio7s' solely beca7se it was a corr7ptionR #n 0545 William 3eck ord wrote as ollows o the ort7ne8tellers o -isbon* '( saw one dragging into light. Bthe brass is a-forging. and being built or the correspondin" passive participle. in has been built and will be built. since its analo"7e. wo7ld never have been proposed as adeC7ate to convey any b7t a ne7ter senseJ whereas it was per ectly nat7ral or a person aimin" to e!press a passive sense to pre i! is to the passive concretion being built. b7t now somewhat obsolete. to the end. etc. as it can mean.

/r.B and other phrases o the like kind. And the more recent deno7ncers in the same line have no more reason on their side than their elder brethren. incl7sively. and very di erent. 'in the combination o is with beingJ in the makin" o the verb to be a s7pplement.' A"ain. White himsel J or. to Archbishop Whately. set orth. /arsh seems to have ancied that. a blemish in is being built. or. nor syntactical con"r7ity demands. W. the illo"ical. con 7sin". /arsh's estimation. not by essor J. elt conscientio7s scr7ples at sayin" Bthe ho7se is building.. re"ardless o its 7tility. and sho7ld have warmed themselves. wherever he points o7t a bea7ty in is building. like /r.' 'B%he brid"e is being built. b7t on the lowest hassock o despair. and who are ready to ind an ar"7ment a"ainst it in any random epithet o dispara"ement provoked by 7nreasonin" aversion. +avid 3ooth. inacc7rate. is being built ill7strates 'corr7ption o lan"7a"e'J it is 'cl7msy and 7nidiomatic'J it is 'at best b7t a philolo"ical co!combry'J it 'is an awkward neolo"ism. White advances to the char"e are alto"ether tropical. And that it is so e!pended thinks /r. the essence o its nonsense. he owns that 'to check its di 7sion wo7ld be a hopeless 7ndertakin". As concerns the mode o e!pression e!empli ied by is being built. he points o7t. have pained the eye' o /r. /. and the 7se o which o7"ht. into 7tterin" opinions which no calm A7d"ment can accept. tho7"h passin" sentence in the spirit o a Je reys. intelli"ibility. the proposed s7bstit7te is at war with the "eni7s o the &n"lish ton"7e.B'?04@ #n all this. the preA7dice o those who resolve to take their stand a"ainst an innovation. # s7spect his chapter on is being built wo7ld have been m7ch shorter than it is at present. Harrison. accordin" to /r. so monstro7s.. as it occ7rred to?. appears ormal and pedantic'J and 'the easy and nat7ral e!pression is.' /r. 'are not &n"lish. /arsh and /r. in "rammarians' phrase. seems not to have been hitherto pointed o7t. little or nothin" is discernible beyond sheer preA7dice. sho7ld have missed the real "ro7nd o their "rammatical de ensibleness. '#n act. 'Some precise and eeble8minded so7l. an a7!iliary to itsel —an abs7rdity so palpable.' #t is not 'consistent with reason'J and it is not 'con ormed to the normal development o the lan"7a"e.' $inally. #t is very sin"7lar that those who. B'One who is being beaten' is. it means nothin".' %o . 6ibbs 'this mode o e!pression . so it m7st have occ7rred spontaneo7sly to h7ndreds besides." 0LL@so7l' were ro7sed by been built. White. '%he atal abs7rdity in this phrase consists.B $or what co7ld the ho7se b7ildR' As children say at play. B%he ho7se is building. '7nco7th &n"lish. in their opposition to them." KK@by an arbitrary chan"eJ and.46 B%he analo"ical A7sti ication o is being built which # have bro7"ht orward is so obvio7s that. or instance. have pondered lon" and pain 7lly over loc7tions typi ied by is being built. and eeble8minded?. and is the most incon"r7o7s combination o words and ideas that ever attained respectable 7sa"e in any civiliDed lan"7a"e.' # so. why not reserve himsel or service a"ainst some evil not avowedly beyond remedyR BA"ain we read. which neither convenience.' %hese be 'prave 'ords'J and it seems a pity that so m7ch sterlin" vit7perative amm7nition sho7ld be e!pended in vain.' #t is 'a monstrosity. '%o reAect' is building in avor o the modern phrase 'is to violate the laws o lan"7a"e?. he is not really on the A7d"ment8seat. havin" been ta7"ht that there is a passive voice in &n"lish. so . B%he ervor and eelin" with which /r. '%he 7ll abs7rdity o this phrase. 'precise. there ore. b7t yet imper ectly. in this partic7lar case. # it had occ7rred to him that the 'conscientio7s scr7ples' o his hypothetical. building is an active participle. and builded or built a passive.' he tells 7s. White b7rns here. B#n /r. and that. to be disco7ntenanced." K4@mysel more than twenty years a"o. S7ch phrases. as an attempt at the arti icial improvement o the lan"7a"e in a point which needed no amendment. 7nidiomatic character o which # have at some len"th.

')o be and to exist are. A"reeably to one o /r. sho7ld he reckon the #talian sono stato. G. White has t7mbled headlon" into his own snare. while awkward . not or"ettin" to re"ret that any "entleman's c7ltivation o lo"ic sho7ld r7cti y in the shape o irrepressible tendencies to s7icide. %hey m7st say. perhaps. and essendo stato. to be no less obAectionable to /r.B' We may reply that.'?0K@ -astly. existing orewarned o dan"er. o a cr7de sort. "oes on to say* '%he re ormers who obAect to the phrase # am de endin" m7st. saro stato. non &. a ter settin" orth the all8s7 iciency o is building. BHe. we say that it exists done. there ore. b7t in others there is none whateverJ and the latter are those which serve o7r present p7rpose. is being built.' is modi ied into a tr7e a7!iliary. is being \ built. in the passive sense. 37t ædificans est. the mortarwould have been being mixed. fossi stato. in declarin" all . or more nearly per ect. that it sho7ld need only to be pointed o7t to be sco7ted. there ore. primarily 'to stand. on his 7nderstandin" o it. hereabo7ts partic7larly.47 ridic7lo7s. #t was. and so being and existing$ is being is the same as the 7nimpeachable is existing. we are..retan. /r. employ the proposed s7bstit7te with all passive participles. B/r. Not 7nlike the 7n ort7nate . there ore. '%he C7estion is th7s narrowed simply to this.' to wit. as 'the s7pposed correspondin" -atin phrase. is being built. than any two verbs in the lan"7a"e. b7t # know that a considerable s7m is being wanted to make 7p the amo7ntBJ Bthe "reat Hictoria 3rid"e has been being built more than two yearsBJ Bwhen # reach -ondon. White o a mistaken analysis. too. Sanity. BHe. 'the essence o its nonsense.being orewarned o dan"er." 0L0@has its co7nterpart in some other lan"7a"eJ rom the very conception and de inition o an idiom every idiom is ille"itimate. ell into a pit o his own di""in". 'per ect synonyms. even i his analysis had been correct. +oes to be being Messe ensN mean anythin" more or other than to beR' BHavin" convicted /r.' vanishes th7s into thin air.B When we say that a thin" isdone. White than is being. may accept itJ and sanity may p7t it to a 7se other than its propo7nder's. (s being done is simplyexists existing done. the coat would have been being made yesterdayBJ Bi the ho7se had then been being built." 0LO@my sensesJ and. that is to say. $or instance. When we say. #n some o their meanin"s there is a shade o di erence.B' +eclinin" to admit their identity. /arsh.' to /r. However.B we say. Ass7me that a phrase in a "iven lan"7a"e is inde ensible 7nless it?. in consistency. on the model which he o ers. 3y parity o non-sequitur.. is C7ite as ille"itimate as ens æedificatus est. So # was abo7t to comment bl7ntly. B# now pass to another point. White's apprehension. # am not concerned with the observations which he o7nds on his mistake. # have not preserved all?. le t the C7estion o his veracity do7bt 7l to all eternity. he represents by ens ædificatus est. %he . o the active is building.. since is and exists are eC7ipollent. $or in #talian both essere and stare are reC7ired to make 7p the verb s7bstantive.' 37t. +.'?OL@ %he -atin is ille"itimateJ and he in ers that. some o his ar"7ments wo7ld avail him nothin". a translation. which # make no apolo"y or citin" twice. o co7rse. or the rest. J7st as abs7rd.sarei stato. the ship -eviathan will be being builtBJ Bi my orders had been ollowed. accordin"ly—tho7"h it may be in me the very s7per etation o l7nacy —# wo7ld ca7tion the reader to keep a sharp eye on my ar"7ments. led. and in other tenses as well as the present. entirely 7navailin" that he insisted on the insanity o those who sho7ld "ainsay his 7ndamental post7late. sia stato. essere stato. 37t this wo7ld be precipitate. %he alle"ed ' 7ll abs7rdity o this phrase. White's A7dicial placita. era stato.retans to be liars. B%he s7bscription8paper is being missed. (s existingo7"ht. as in -atin both esse and the o sprin" o fuere are reC7iredJ and stare. who. 'no man who has preserved all his senses will do7bt or a moment that Bto e!ist a masti or a m7leB is absol7tely the same as Bto be a masti or a m7le.retan. the &n"lish is the same. led. to s7rrender the active is building.

1KQ o the same work. or more plainly and most plainlyJ and some adverbs. A7st as their ear or pleas7re dictated.4 instances o the old orm are most ab7ndant in o7r literat7re.' A"ain." 0LF@are to tr7st the conservative critics. was 'dragging into li"ht. inacc7rate monstrosities. at the least.' ' ormal and pedantic. often. to a lar"e e!tent. White. con 7sin". witho7t bein" char"eable with e!action. and designedly seem C7ite nat7ralJ yet we do not eel that they a7thoriDe 7s to talk o 'the seeingness o the eye. /arsh. 'was ta!ing to acco7nt. or i he will arrest and photo"raph 'the "eni7s o the &n"lish ton"7e. in '# passed a ho7sewhose windows were open. or want o somethin" better. i we?. in the words o his acc7ser.' 'philolo"ical co!combries.' lays down that 'the adAective reliable. or withmore and most.' Similarly. then.' is 'by no means yet 7lly established'J and at p. provided it had allen within the sphere o ethics.' '%he now too notorio7s act' is tolerableJ b7t 'the never to be s7 iciently e!ecrated monster 3onaparte' is intolerable.' 'incon"r7o7s and ridic7lo7s orms o speech. %here was a time when. (eally. 37t. what incontestable de ect in it has any one s7cceeded in demonstratin"R /r. %he s7pposed enormity perpetrated in its prod7ction. obligingness. with 'as near an approach to the sin a"ainst the Holy 6host as is practicable to h7man in irmity. as easily to be picked o7t o e!tant literat7re as s7ch instances o the new orm. the perpendic7lar o whose sides.' 'cl7msy. do well in eschewin" the violence to which. /r.' /any moderns wo7ld say and write 'being draggedinto li"ht. he r7les that whose. those o the latter are '7nco7th." 0L1@soon. wo7ld. at least.' or o 'a statement ac!nowledgedlycorrect. can any one claim that a man who pre ers to say is being built sho7ld say has been being builtR Are not awkward instances o the old orm. i /r. is alto"ether 7nidiomatic'J and yet. perchance. seldom. people compared them. 00O. he will con er a p7blic avor. as early. in opposin"?. they are neither 'consistent with reason' nor 'con ormed to the normal development o the lan"7a"e'J they are 'at war with the "eni7s o the &n"lish ton"7e'J they are '7nidiomatic'J they are 'not &n"lish. %he s7n may be shorn o his splendorJ b7t we do not allow clo7dy weather to shear him o it. And now # s7bmit or consideration whether the sole stren"th o those who decry is being built and its con"eners does not consist in their talent or callin" hard names. at p." 0L2@to the e!pression obAections based on an erroneo7s analysis. was char"ed.' 'illo"ical. there is no ear that the rep7lsive elaborations which have been worked o7t in ridic7le o the new orms will prove to have been anticipations o 7t7re 7sa"e.' and. on one view. at p. as to their adverbs. And as o7r ore athers treated their adverbs we still treat many adAectives. typi ied by is building. at p. the eeble potencies o philolo"ical t7rpit7de seem to have e!hibited their most cons7mmate realiDation in en"enderin" is being built.' and 'was being ta!en to acco7nt.' 37t. i his own A7d"ments sit so very loose on his practical conscience. are to be inventedR And 'the re ormers' have not orsworn their ears. preparedness. B3eck ord's -isbon ort7ne8teller. 'urthermore. be ore had into co7rt.' etc. as a brand8new e!empli ication o total depravity. a ter all. we may. late.' /oreover. or some microscopic pen7mbra o heresy. the advocates o weak ca7ses proverbially resort. they wo7ld. in comparison with e!pressions o the ormer pattern. in the sense o worthy of confidence.' so that we may know the ori"inal when we meet with it. with -er and -est.' 'awkward neolo"isms. and?. 012 o his admirable '-ect7res. %hey wrote plainlier and plainliest. B# once had a riend who. likely ever to be 7sed.' #n passin". # they have not an 7neasy s7bconscio7sness that their ca7se is weak. 0F2 o his very learned '/an and Nat7re' he writes 'a C7adran"7lar pyramid. How. we still compare in a way now become anomalo7s. /arsh will so de ine the term unidiomaticas to evince that it has any applicability to the case in hand. ask o him to rela! a little the ri"or o his reC7irements at the hands o his nei"hbors.' 'theunderstoodness o a sentence. with its den7nciators. simply lays a . have ranked. he writes 'reliable evidence.

oloni7s's still 7nder"oin" mand7cation. he m7st. b7t. it wo7ld. 7nivocal. on the comparatively ew occasions which present themselves or e!pressin" other imper ects. which so distempers the intellect7al vision o theolo"ians and politicians. that it wo7ld be the "rossest inA7stice to write o his ele"ant '-i e and 6eni7s o Shakespeare. White himsel . # am con ident. %he dead . # there are any who. 'he became worm8eaten. 'While the arkwas built. 9:. At the same time. White.?O0@ %he p7rists may. m7st. we possessed no discriminate eC7ivalents to ædificaturand ædificabaturJ is built and was built. other imp7"ners o is being builthave. absol7tely.43 phantom o his own evokin"J and. /arsh's spec7lative approbation o consistency.ό<:. with his black la" and no C7arter. correspondin" e!actly to ædificatus est andædificatus erat. yieldin".?OO@ Shakespeare is commended or his ambi"7o7sis eaten.=> ]^_`a^όbc_d=>?.' says /r. no ar"7ment whatever a"ainst it over and beyond their rep7"nance to novelty. # am an!io7s. With eC7al reason a man wo7ld be entitled to commendation or tearin" his m7tton8chops with his in"ers. with r7thless impartiality.hristmas'J and the same person—A7st as. White.' writes /r. or else to 7se periphrases. dismiss their apprehensions. White's thinkin". and deserves not only admiration there or.' BHavin" now done with /r. 7ll amends or the discom ort o enco7nterin" smiles or rowns. more likely than not. B. On the wealth o the 6reek in e!pressions o imper ect passive # need not dwell. by which they were rendered. '(s eaten. inadeC7acy. b7t to be imitated. i he were to employ the old orm in all cases. . 'not where he eats. so ar as # am in ormed. to speak Johnsonese—was in Shakespeare's mindJ and his words describe a passion no lon"er in "eneration. however." 0L5@. a keener horror o phraseolo"ical 7n"ainliness than themselves.assive. S7bAected to a little 7ntro7bled contemplation. be o opinion that in very many cases he con orms to the most approved 7sa"e o o7r time by employin" the old ormJ that. One may?. # believe. and ambi"7ity in the passive 'the ho7se is building. b7t or its participle. elect is in preparationpre erentially to is being prepared. 'does not mean has been eaten. let it be hoped that they will ind. b7t where he is eaten. to /r. in Hamlet's phrase. when he mi"ht c7t them 7p with a kni e and ork. provided he did not eel a harshness. at"ressive . be ore takin" leave o him." 0LQ@have no hesitation abo7t sayin" 'the ho7se is being built. Cum ædificaretur was to 7s the same asædificabatur. his meanin" wo7ld sometimes be 7ncertain. let them be mind 7l o the career o /r.' Shakespeare. With rare e!ceptions. in /r.' and may yet recoil rom sayin" that 'it should have been being built last . the (omans were satis ied with the present8imper ect and the past8 imper ectJ and we. # believe.' a book which does credit to American literat7re.oloni7s was.' 'while the ark was prepared. tho7"h in eating or an eating wo7ld have been not only correct in his day.rior to the evol7tion o is being built and was being built.'B %he st7dent o &n"lish who has honestly wei"hed the ar"7ments on both sides o the C7estion. clearly. accordin"ly. in the tone which # have o7nd 7navoidable in dealin" with his 'Words and their Eses. no e!ception o the perspicacity o philolo"ists. especially as the neoterists have. shall be s7re to have reco7rse to the old orms rather than to the new. is seen to make. where they wo7ld have come in his sentence. be o opinion that o7r lan"7a"e is the richer or havin" two orms or e!pressin" the .' Hery tr7eJ b7t a contin7o7s 7n inished passion— . in their Dealotry or the con"r7o7s.' he wo7ld 7se the e!pression—will. $7rther. in this wise e!pressed himsel at the best. have ceased lon" a"o to be matter o controversyJ b7t the d7st o preA7dice and passion. with all emphasis. choose to adhere to the new orm in its entire ran"e o e!chan"eability or the old. when 'he was eaten o worms'J the ori"inal. to record. %he )in" o +enmark's lord chamberlain had no precedent in Herod. White.

S7ch a work as this "entleman's has lon" been wantedJ his work. the a7thor o vol7mino7s precepts and e!amples on the s7bAect o "rammar. However. which we ind orced into the +octor's service in the second sentence. notwithstandin" it is said to be 'executed.' tho7"h this work is nothin" that has an e!istence. can not be too hi"hly commended. and the +octor and the "rammarian will hear how it will so7nd.herrycheek have "iv'd a thick handkecher. . a constellation o obsc7rities.' %his is on a level with '%his?. occ7rs in a piece o composition. 37t.' we know very well that he means to say.hiladelphia Academy. the 'e!ertions' become. %he word gentleman is in the possessive case. # all7de to two sentences in the '. be allowed to la7"h at the i"norance o o7r ellow8creat7res.herrycheek has "iven me this handkerchie 'J and yet we are too apt to laugh at him and to call himignorantJ which is wron". i correctness be ever to be e!pected. .ivinity and read by him to st7dents in "rammar and lan"7a"e in an academyJ and the very sentence that # am now abo7t to C7ote is selected by the a7thor o a "rammar as testimony o hi"h?. or a very kind and worthy man. i one may 7se the e!pression. all o a s7dden.oll . prod7cin". %his piece is on the s7bAect o "rammarJ it is a piece written by a . insist on correctness. testimonials vo7chin" or the e icacy o his literary panacea.' No do7bt +octor Abercrombie meant to say. clap in an it. it wo7ld not be amiss were the "rammarian to try his skill 7pon this article rom the hand o his di"ni ied e7lo"istJ or here is. '%his "entleman's exertions have done more than any other writer.oll . #t is so small and so convenient that ew are care 7l eno7"h in 7sin" it. beca7se he has no pretensions to a knowled"e o "rammar. S7rely. '. it is not the gentleman that has done anythin"J it is 'theexertions' that have done what is said to be done." 0L4@a7thority in avor o the e!cellence o his work. that case certainly does arise when we see a pro essed "rammarian. '%he e!ertions o this "entleman have done more than those o any other writer. /7rray is an able hand at this kind o work.lass o the . Whenever they are at a loss or either a nominative or an obAective to their sentence. -indley /7rray as a testimonial o the merits o his "rammarJ and which sentences are by /r. they. we will not la7"h at +octor Abercrombie.uch a wor! has lon" been wanted. and he may be very skill 7l as a plo7"hboy.5< I$. witho7t any kind o ceremony.' p7blished in 04LQJ which sentences have been selected and p7blished by /r. and rom the s7ccess with which it is e!ec7ted. many years a"o. O7r poor oppressed it. in any case. where we mi"ht. contrary to the laws o "rammar and o sense.octor of .' #n the irst sentence. and as in the same opinion /r. we ind most la"rant instances o bad "rammar.obbett disco7rses o this little ne7ter prono7n in this wise* B%he word it is the "reatest tro7bler that # know o in lan"7a"e. A very remarkable instance o this pressin" o poor it into act7al service. whom # knew. mind yo7. a 'writer'* the exertionshave done more than 'any other writer'J or. and has nothin" to do with the action o the sentence. it m7st be in a case like this. .'&eant4 No do7bt at all o thatT And when we hear a Hampshire plo7"hboy say. /7rray "iven to 7s in the ollowin" words* '%he 7nwearied e!ertions o this "entlemanhave done more toward el7cidatin" the obsc7rities and embellishin" the str7ct7re o o7r lan"7a"e than anyother writer on the s7bAect. '. in those testimonials. in imitation o the possessors o val7able medical secrets. -et 7s "ive the sentence a t7rn. seein" the s7ccess 7l manner o its e!ec7tion. Writers seldom spare this word. with A7stice. can not be too hi"hly appreciated. relates to 'such a wor!.har"e o the (everend +octor Abercrombie to the Senior .' BAs in the learned +octor's opinion obsc7rities can be el7cidated." 0LK@"entleman's dog has killed more hares than any other sportsman. and when. i we may.


BHowever, my dear James, let this stron" and strikin" instance o the mis7se o the word it serve yo7 in the way o ca7tion. Never p7t an it 7pon paper witho7t thinkin" well o what yo7 are abo7t. When # see many its in a pa"e, # always tremble or the writer.B 8!#(ar*i.!. %his is a modern word which we co7ld easily do witho7t, as it means neither more nor less than its venerable pro"enitor to #eopard, which is "reatly pre erred by all care 7l writers.?," 00L@ 8+s$ 0#in0 $#. #nstead o B# am #ust going to "o,B it is better to say, B# am A7st about to "o.B Ki*s. B%his is another vile contraction. Habit blinds people to the 7nseemliness o a term like this. How wo7ld it so7nd i one sho7ld speak o silk "loves as sil!sRB Kin*. See ,O-#%&. Kni04$s T!-(&ars. %he name o this ancient body has been adopted by a branch o the /asonic raternity, b7t in a perverted orm—9nights )emplarJ and this orm is commonly seen in print, whether re errin" to the old kni"hts or to their modern imitators. %his do7btless is d7e to the erroneo7s impression that )emplar is an adAective, and so can not take the pl7ral ormJ while in act it is a case o two no7ns in apposition—a do7ble desi"nation—meanin" )ni"hts o the order o %emplars. Hence the pl7ral sho7ld be 9nights )emplars, and not 9nights )emplar. /embers o the contemporaneo7s order o St. John o Jer7salem were commonly called )ni"hts Hospitallers. La*'. %o 7se the term lady, whether in the sin"7lar or in the pl7ral, simply to desi"nate the se!, is in the worst possible taste. %here is a kind o pin8 eather "entility which seems to have a settled aversion to 7sin" the termsman and woman. 6entlemen and ladies establish their claims to bein" called s7ch by their bearin", and not by arro"atin" to themselves, even indirectly, the titles. #n &n"land, the title lady is properly correlative to lordJ b7t there, as in this co7ntry, it is 7sed as a term o complaisance, and is appropriately applied to women whose lives are e!emplary, and who have received that school and home ed7cation which enables them to appear to advanta"e in the better circles o society. S7ch e!pressions as BShe is a ine lady, a clever lady, a well8dressed lady, a "ood lady, a?," 000@modest lady, a charitable lady, an amiable lady, a handsomelady, a ascinatin" lady,B and the like, are st7dio7sly avoided by persons o re inement. 0adies say, Bwe women, thewomen o America, women's apparel,B and so onJ vulgarwomen talk abo7t B7s ladies, the ladies o America,ladies' apparel,B and so on. # a woman o c7lt7re and re inement—in short, a lady—is compelled rom any ca7se soever to work in a store, she is C7ite content to be called a sales8womanJ not so, however, with yo7r yo7n" woman who, bein" in a store, is in a better position than ever be ore. She, Heaven bless herT boils with indi"nation i she is not denominated a sales8lady. -ady is o ten the proper term to 7se, and then it wo7ld be very improper to 7se any otherJ b7t it is very certain that the terms ladyand gentleman are least 7sed by those persons who are most worthy o bein" desi"nated by them. With a nice discrimination worthy o special notice, one o o7r daily papers recently said* B/iss Jennie Halstead, da7"hter o the proprietor o the '.incinnati .ommercial,' is one o the most brilliant yo7n" women in Ohio.B #n a late n7mber o the B-ondon G7eenB was the ollowin"* B%he terms ladies and gentlemen become in themselves v7l"arisms when misapplied, and the improper application o the wron" term at the wron" time makes all the di erence in the world to ears polite. %h7s, callin" a man a gentleman when he sho7ld be called a man, or speakin" o a man as a man when he sho7ld be spoken o as agentlemanJ or all7din" to a lady as a woman when she sho7ld be all7ded to as a lady, or speakin" o a woman as a lady when she sho7ld properly be termed a woman. %act and a


sense o the itness o thin"s decide these points, there bein" no i!ed r7le to "o 7pon to determine when a man is a man or when he is a gentlemanJ and, altho7"h he?," 00O@is ar o tener termed the one than the other, he does not thereby lose his attrib7tes o a "entleman. #n common parlance, a man is always a man to a man, and never agentlemanJ to a woman, he is occasionally a man and occasionally a gentlemanJ b7t a man wo7ld ar o tener term a woman a woman than he wo7ld term her a lady. When a man makes 7se o an adAective in speakin" o a lady, he almost invariably calls her a woman. %h7s, he wo7ld say, '# met a rather a"reeable woman at dinner last ni"ht'J b7t he wo7ld not say, '# met an a"reeable lady'J b7t he mi"ht say, 'A lady, a riend o mine, told me,' etc., when he wo7ld not say, 'A woman, a riend o mine, told me,' etc. A"ain, a man wo7ld say, 'Which o the ladies did yo7 take in to dinnerR' He wo7ld certainly not say, 'Which o the women,' etc. BSpeakin" o people en masse, it wo7ld be to belon" to a very advanced school to re er to them in conversation as 'men and women,' while it wo7ld be all b7t v7l"ar to style them 'ladies and "entlemen,' the compromise between the two bein" to speak o them as 'ladies and men.' %h7s a lady wo7ld say, '# have asked two or three ladies and several men'J she wo7ld not say, '# have asked several men and women'J neither wo7ld she say, '# have asked several ladies and "entlemen.' And, speakin" o n7mbers, it wo7ld be very 7s7al to say, '%here were a "reat many ladies, and b7t very ew men present,' or, '%he ladies were in the maAority, so ew men bein" present.' A"ain, a lady wo7ld not say, '# e!pect two or three men,' b7t she wo7ld say, '# e!pect two or three "entlemen.' When people are on ceremony with each other ?one another@, they mi"ht, perhaps, in speakin" o a man, call him a gentlemanJ b7t, otherwise, it wo7ld be more 7s7al to speak o him as a man. -adies, when speakin" o each other ?one another@, 7s7ally?," 001@employ the term woman in pre erence to that o lady. %h7s they wo7ld say, 'She is a very "ood8nat7red woman,' 'What sort o a woman is sheR' the term lady bein" entirely o7t o place 7nder s7ch circ7mstances. A"ain, the term yo7n"lady "ives place as ar as possible to the term girl, altho7"h it "reatly depends 7pon the amo7nt o intimacy e!istin" as to which term is employed.B Lan0+a0!. A note in Worcester's +ictionary says* B0anguage is a very "eneral term, and is not strictly con ined to 7tterance by words, as it is also e!pressed by the co7ntenance, by the eyes, and by si"ns. )ongue re ers especially to an ori"inal lan"7a"eJ as, 'the Hebrewtongue.' %he modern lan"7a"es are derived rom the ori"inal tongues.B # this be correct, then he who speaks $rench, 6erman, &n"lish, Spanish, and #talian, may properly say that he speaks ive languages, b7t only onetongue. La'%Li!. &rrors are reC7ent in the 7se o these two irre"7lar verbs. 0ay is o ten 7sed or lie, and lie is sometimes 7sed or lay. %his con 7sion in their 7se is d7e in some meas7re, do7btless, to the circ7mstance that lay appears in both verbs, it bein" the imper ect tense o to lie. We say, BA mason lays bricks,B BA ship lies at anchor,B etc. B# m7st lie downBJ B# m7st lay mysel downBJ B# m7st lay this book on the tableBJ BHe lies on the "rassBJ BHe lays his plans wellBJ BHe lay on the "rassBJ BHe laid it awayBJ BHe has lain in bed lon" eno7"hBJ BHe has laid up some money,B Bin a stock,B Bdown the lawBJ BHe is laying o7t the "ro7ndsBJ BShips lie at the whar BJ BHens lay e""sBJ B%he ship lay at anchorBJ B%he hen laid an e"".B #t will be seen that lay always e!presses transitive action, and that lie e!presses rest.?," 00F@
"9ere lies o$r soverei&n lord, the kin&,>hose word no man relies on)9e never says a foolish thin&,5or ever does a wise one."

—Written on the bedchamber door o .harles ##, by the &arl o (ochester.


L!arn. %his verb was lon" a"o 7sed as a synonym o teach, b7t in this sense it is now obsolete. %o teach is to "ive instr7ctionJ to learn is to take instr7ction. B# willlearn, i yo7 will teach me.B See %&A.H. L!a)!. %here are "rammarians who insist that this verb sho7ld not be 7sed witho7t an obAect, as, or e!ample, it is 7sed in s7ch sentences as, BWhen do yo7 leaveRB B# leave to8morrow.B %he obAect o the verb—home, town, or whatever it may be—is, o co7rse, 7nderstoodJ b7t this, say these "entlemen, is not permissible. On this point opinions will, # think, di erJ they will, however, not di er with re"ard to the v7l"arity o 7sin" leave in the sense o letJ th7s, B0eave me beBJ B0eave it aloneBJ B0eave her be—don't bother herBJ B0eave me see it.B L!n*. See -OAN. L!n0$4'. %his word is o comparatively recent ori"in, and, tho7"h it is said to be an Americanism, it is a "ood deal 7sed in &n"land. %he most care 7l writers, however, both here and elsewhere, m7ch pre er the word long* Balong disc7ssion,B Ba long disco7rse,B etc. L!ni!nc'. /r. 6o7ld calls this word and lenienceBtwo philolo"ical abortions.B 0enity is 7ndo7btedly the proper word to 7se, tho7"h both Webster and Worcester do reco"niDe leniency and lenience. L!ss. %his word is m7ch 7sed instead o fewer. 0essrelates to C7antityJ fewer to n7mber. #nstead o , B%here were not less than twenty persons present,B we sho7ld?," 002@say, B%here were not fewer than twenty persons present.B L!ss!r. %his orm o the comparative o little is acco7nted a corr7ption o less. #t may, however, be 7sed instead o less with propriety in verse, and also, in some cases, in prose. We may say, or e!ample, BO two evils choose the less,B or Bthe lesser.B %he latter orm, in sentences like this, is the more e7phonio7s. Lia &!. (ichard 6rant White, in invei"hin" a"ainst the mis7se o this word, cites the e!ample o a member rom a r7ral district, who called o7t to a man whom he met in the villa"e, where he was in the habit o makin" little p7rchases* B# say, mister, kin yer tell me whar #'d be li'bleto ind some beansRB See, also, A,%. Li!. See -A'. Li1!%As. 3oth these words e!press similarityJ li!eMadAectiveN comparin" thin"s, as MadverbN comparin" action, e!istence, or C7ality. -ike is ollowed by an obAect only, and does not admit o a verb in the same constr7ction.As m7st be ollowed by a verb e!pressed or 7nderstood. We say, BHe looks li!e his brother,B or BHe looks ashis brother loo!s.B B+o as # do,B not Bli!e # do.B B'o7 m7st speak as James does,B not Bli!e James does.B BHe died as he had lived, li!e a do".B B#t is as bl7e as indi"oBJ i. e., Bas indi"o is.B Li1!9 T#. See -OH&. Li1!&'. See A,%. Li$. %his orm o the past participle o the verb to light is now obsolete. BHave yo7 lighted the ireRB B%he "as is lighted.B /et or heated is a similar, b7t m7ch "reater, v7l"arism. L#an%L!n*. %here are those who contend that there is no s7ch verb as to loan, altho7"h it has been o7nd in?," 00Q@o7r literat7re or more than three h7ndred years. Whether there is properly s7ch a verb or not, it is C7ite certain that it is only those havin" a v7l"ar penchant or bi" words who will pre er it to its synonym lend. 3etter ar to say B0endme yo7r 7mbrellaB than B0oan me yo7r 7mbrella.B

%he dictionaries barely reco"niDe it. beca7se he eels his loss !eenlyB MadverbNJ BHe appears wellB MadverbN. the thin" they perhaps love most is—ta y. in like manner. and to appear are o7nd in sentences where the C7ali yin" word m7st be an adverbJ th7s. %he verbs tosmell. %he ormer says. when 7sed as a s7bstantive. BWhere do yo7 intend to settleRB not locate. more properly. and to appear are also o7nd in sentences in which the C7ali yin" word m7st be an adAective and not an adverb. B/iss . to feel. BHe eels sad ?adAective@. the latter in America. BHe eels his loss !eenlyBJ B%he kin" looked graciously on herBJ B# smell it faintly. We say. or freshBJ B# eel glad." 004@ L+nc4. or sadly. love a m7ltit7de o thin"s. A person may look sic! or sic!ly. or beautiful. BHave yo7 lunchedRB or. b7t in both cases the C7ali yin" word is an adAective. and conseC7ently sho7ld have its adAectival orm—shoc!ing.?. between non8painstakin" and painstakin" bad "rammar. and their co7ntry. L+00a0!%Ba00a0!. and.o"hlan looked gladly. in the sense o ran! . as s7ch it is marked Brarely 7sed.he loo!ed beautifully. or bad. in Nebraska. L#)!%Li1!.B %he bonnet certainly does not reallyloo!J it is loo!ed at. orpleasedly. BHave yo7 had luncheonRB as we may in most cases pres7ppose that the person addressed wo7ld hardly take anybody's else l7ncheon. tr7th. %he proper phraseolo"y to 7se is. to sound.B #n the irst sentence the epithet C7ali ies the verb is trimmed. amon" their loves.?. or annoyed. or madly. to feel. or timidly. that he or she looks sweet. -o""erheads internallyRT L##1s !a+$i3+&&'. always 7sin" an adAective. may at the best be acco7nted an inele"ant abbreviation o luncheon. or graceful." 005@or horrid. in the sense o to settle. %he second sentence means to say. or despondent. not locates. on the contrary.%#H&S. or e!ample.S&%%-&. Women. #t is sometimes interestin" to note the di erence between vulgar bad "rammar and genteel bad "rammar. also. their sweethearts. or charming. love ew thin"s* their wives. B. or. and so on. adAectives instead o adverbsJ the latter 7ses adverbs instead o adAectives. B%his bonnet looksshoc!ingly. BHave yo7 had yo7r luncheonRB or. or timid. or sad. B%he rose smellssweetBJ B%he b7tter smells good. looked charmingly. %he 7se o the verb to locate in the sense o to settle is said to be an Americanism.B See A+J&. -7!7rio7s was once 7sed. %he ormer o these words is "enerally 7sed in &n"land.54 L#ca$!%S!$$&!. or nervousBJ B%his constr7ction so7nds harshBJ BHow delightfulthe co7ntry appearsTB On the other hand. So we say.B %he "rammar o the BNew 'ork HeraldB wo7ld not have been any more incorrect i it had said that /iss . as a r7le. Altho7"h the dictionaries reco"niDe to locate as a ne7ter verb. to sound.o"hlan. L#00!r4!a*s. B#n the mean time $rance is at loggerheads internally. B%his bonnet is trimmed shoc!ingBJ the latter says. B%his bonnet presents a shockin" appearance.he seemed confusedly. and to the loo!er its appearance isshoc!ing. L+5+ri#+s%L+5+rian$. 0440. to loo!.B April OK. to smell. and have not an 7nd7e leanin" toward the s7perlative. See. A man settles. %he e!pression. %he ormer 7ses.B is not a whit more incorrect than B. as -ady %eaDle. or handsome.B—BNew 'ork Herald. better. %he line is drawn m7ch more sharply between these two words now than it was ormerly. or bad.B We mi"ht also say. orcharmingly. /en who are at all care 7l in the selection o lan"7a"e to e!press their tho7"hts. their kinsmen. or delightedly. %his word. o a person. or e!ample. A7stice. to some e!tent at least. it is amon" the v7l"arisms that care 7l speakers and writers are st7dio7s to avoid.B and. and conseC7ently sho7ld have its adverbial orm—shoc!inglyJ in the second sentence the epithet C7ali ies the appearance—a no7n—o the bonnet.

At table.B—Acts !!vi. "rowth or prod7ctionJ th7s. the $n"o$th refine.?. luxuriant "rowth. #n the sense o can. ##. o the bee @RB not.. and that this wo7ld be the proper way to make the anno7ncement o their havin" been wedded. 0. B%ho7"h we may say a horse.B %he irst may here is permissibleJ not so. Americans say crazy." 0OL@ M!-#ran*+-. the active orm is a matter o co7rse. See $&/A-&. may. ! wo$ld . Ma*. which. "Pr$ne the luxuriant. $ormad. to say the least. 0ratiano." BAnd bein" e!ceedin"ly mad a"ainst them. Ma1! a )isi$. luxuriousease. %here has been some disc7ssion. in a recent n7mber o B%he 6entleman's /a"aDine. has become obsolete. in conseC7ence o bein" misplaced.B says* B%he wordmad in America seems nearly always to mean angry. at one time and another.B BJohn Jones. . luxuriant olia"e or branches. -7!7riant. Sally 3rown is married to John Jones. t7rkey. in a ne"ative cla7se. BJohn Jones married Sally 3rownB on s7ch a date. BJohn Jones was married to Sally 3rown on +ec. not he o hers—inasm7ch essor (ichard A. is inele"ant. 0440BJ not. we ask or and o er bee . M!r!. Ma'. . wemay not say a o!. with ew e!ceptions. is restricted to the sense o ran!. BWill yo7 have another piece o meatRB?."—Pope. m7tton. whatever it once was.roctor. and sometimes. luxuriant weeds. Ma&!. %he phrase Bma!e a visit. We talk o a luxurious table. #s John Jones married to Sally 3rown or with Sally 3rown. #n speakin" de initely o the act o marria"e. and do not ask or nor o ermeat. M!a$. that words merely meet with no response. the second.Bo$ &ive yo$r wife too $nkind a "a$se of &rief)#n +twere. as we 7se the word. in faith. steak. to me. in speakin" inde initely o the fact o marria"e. veal. is no lon"er &n"lish. or are they married to each otherR #nasm7ch as the woman loses her name in that o the man to whom she is wedded." 00K@ Marr'. %here is also a di erence o opinion as to whether the active or the passive orm is pre erable in re errin" to a person's wedded state. which sho7ld be can. with re"ard to the 7se o this word.e mad at it. it is chan"ed to an adverb* B#t is tr7e o men as o 6od."—"=er"hant of Ceni"e. a luxurious liver. etc. as in the ollowin" sentence. married ?married himsel .B accordin" to +r. BWhom did John Jones marryRB BHe married Sally 3rown. # persec7ted them even 7nto stran"e cities. %his word is not 7n reC7ently misplaced. BWill yo7 have ?not. take@ another piece o beef ?not. e!cept when the sin"7lar means a bookJ then the pl7ral is memorandums. Herein they have mani estly impaired the lan"7a"e. the passive orm is necessarily 7sed with re erence to either spo7se. on the other hand.B Have theyR "5ow. . b7t now all care 7l writers and speakers 7se it in the sense o indulging or delighting in luxury. Hall. it is her li e that is mer"ed in his—it wo7ld seem that.B 6ot married is a v7l"arism. as the $rench say@ and settled down. when he had sown his wild oats. properly.B What the writer evidently intended to say is. %he pl7ral is memoranda. luxurious reedom. and becomes a member o his amily. or excessive. however. that merewords meet with no response.55 growth.:$t show no mer"y to an empty line. 37t. or M7nless they were G7akersN some third person married him to her and her to him. d7ck. and not John Jones to Sally 3rown.

e. the container or the thin" contained. Mis(&ac!* C&a+s!s. the common e!pression is the gown.. e. in passin" thro7"h the crystal. in some respect.B?.B &!pressed in metaphors. 0. the si"n. in r$sset mantle "lad. F. what people. 'Hear.' i. e. and physic. hissword. /aterial and thin" made o itJ as. #n writin" and speakin". e.anst tho$ not minister to a mind diseased—Pl$"k from the memory a rooted sorrow6"%P& '2'( "#t len&th @rasm$s*temmed the wild torrent of a .B B. O. 2." 0OO@ Mi*s$9 T4!.'%hey have&oses and the prophets. . e. the young and beautiful. to another.' i.. #t is o7nded.B says* B&etonymy is the e!chan"e o names between thin"s related. or the thin" si"ni ied.aro$s a&e. is called metonymy.B—. 5. See #N OE( /#+S%. B-ord Salisb7ry's mind is capricious. '%hy word is alamp to my eet. %he ollowin" are a ew instances o misplaced cla7ses and adA7ncts* BAll these circ7mstances bro7"ht close to 7s a state o thin"s which we never tho7"ht to have witnessed ?to witness@ in peace 7l &n"land. e.' i. Si"n and thin" si"ni iedJ as.' i. transparent so7l o the poet.B—B%rib7ne. '%he scepter shall not depart rom J7dah. this becomes* B%he white li"ht o tr7th. it was determined to approach the throne more boldly. An implied comparison is called a metaphorJ it is a more terse orm o e!pression than the simile. 1. .a7se and e ectJ as. ':outh and beauty shall be laid in d7st." B.. %h7s we say the miter or the priesthoodJ the crown or royaltyJ or military occ7pation we say the swordJ and or the literary pro essions.'B A metaphor di ers rom a simile in bein" e!pressed witho7t any si"n o comparisonJ th7s. law. G7ackenbos. not on resemblance. or the instr7ment or the a"ent.omposition and (hetoric. or symbol. !ingly power.etitions havin" proved 7ns7ccess 7l. in traversin" the many8sided. e. in s7ch a manner that a comparison is implied$ though not formally expressedJ a comparison or simile comprised in a wordJ as. %he rhetorical i"7re that p7ts the e ect or the ca7se..ampbell.' i.ontainer and thin" containedJ as. in his B. the colorless rays o tr7th are trans ormed into bri"htly8 tinted poetry.. Bthesilver moonB is a metaphorJ Bthe moon is bri"ht as silverB is a simile. is re racted into iris8h7ed poetry.lace and inhabitantJ as.. . in traversin" the so7l o the poet. beams o white li"ht are decomposed into the colors o the rainbowJ so.>alks o+er the dew of yon hi&h eastern hill. o7r sailors. when the bad"e is p7t or the o ice.. O #sraelT' i.o7rse o . (n the sister island$ indeed$ we had . &!amples* ":$t look.56 M!$a(4#r. this sentence rom Spenser's B. the ca7se or the e ect. See &GEAN#/#%' O$ /"enitor and posterityJ as. 'What land is so barbaro7s as to allow this inA7sticeR' i. b7t on the relation o .B M!$#n'-'. their writin"sJ '6ray hairssho7ld be respected. %ake. it is as important to "ive each cla7se its proper place as it is to place the words properly.B Worcester's de inition o a metaphor is* BA i"7re o speech o7nded on the resemblance which one obAect is s7pposed to bear. 'O7r ships ne!t opened ire.hilosophy o StyleB* BAs. old age.ens7re is the ta! a man pays to the p7blic or bein" eminent." ". those especially o theolo"y. Q. the morn. descendants of (srael. or e!ample. S7bAect and attrib7teJ as.#nd drove those holy Candals off the sta&e. ..' i. Min*%Ca(rici#+s.B April 1. 'His steel "leamed on hi"h. +r. or a i"7re by which a word is trans erred rom a s7bAect to which it properly belon"s to another. BOne very common species o metonymy is. 0440.

B—6oldsmith. -et 7s see whether we can not make it clear.erson who has been?.B See ON-'. the br7tes. smothers her. B%he Normal School is a commodio7s b7ildin" capable o accommodatin" three h7ndred st7dents o7r stories hi"h. and live at this day in that sava"e manner as # have said be ore.B ." 0OF@+octor. however uneasy.B B%O . '# asked the C7estion with no other intention than.'B B(eason is the "lory o h7man nat7re. Mis(&ac!* W#r*s. to set the "entleman ree rom the necessity o silence. by a !ind introduction o the only s7bAect on which # believed him to be able to speak with propriety. Bthis is one o the most common. %his is thesecond sentence. with all his commas.B B%he +yin" Uo7ave the most wonder 7l mechanical representation ever seen o the last breath o li e bein" shot in the breast and li e's blood leavin" the wo7nd.B says . H——. B# shall have a comedy or yo7. All the words may be the proper words to be 7sed 7pon the occasion. and # have "ot a hat that is not his.B etc.—A hi"hly respectable middle8a"ed . the meanin" may be wholly destroyedJ and even made to be the contrary o what it o7"ht to be.obbett. in this lower world. that # believe will be worth yo7r acceptance.obbett. and one o the chie eminences whereby we are raised above o7r ellow8creat7res.&(. 'he co7ld not then escape. B%his. e!cept the "overnment o amilies. no do7bt they are the e!pectant ones. by a misplacing o a part o them. seiDin" a bolster boilin" over with ra"e and Aealo7sy. and perhaps it leads to the "reatest n7mber o misconceptions. 3ettered* B#n a season or two at arthest. 3etter* B%he sava"e people . Only observe how easily this mi"ht have been avoided. %—— presents his compliments to /r. and yet. and to "ive him an opport7nity o min"lin" on eC7al terms with a polite assembly rom which he. '$rom which he. o s7ch horrors occ7rrin" in the sister island. BO all the a7lts to be o7nd in writin".57 read of such horrors.B etc. Bin &n"landas normalB—a very di erent tho7"ht.B B%he /oor.B—+r. he co7ld not then escape. they . Bis a very bad sentence alto"ether. by a !ind introduction. however 7neasy. # shall have a comedy or yo7 that # believe will be worth yo7r acceptance.' We know what is meantJ b7t the?." 0O1@ illin" the above Sit7ation with a "entleman or 7pwards o eleven years and who is now deceased is an!io7s to meet a similar one. co7ld not then escape. in a season or two at arthest. in America have no "overnment at all.B—+octor Watts' B-o"ic. have no "overnment at all.B What the writer intended was. b7t now they were bro7"ht home to o7r very ho7sehold hearth. and. indeed.#ANO8$O(%& /A)&(S. Johnson. i he have a hat that is not yo7rs. %he words in this lower world are not words misplaced onlyJ they are wholly unnecessary. leaves the sentence con 7sed. there are some that are as am7sin" as they are instr7ctive* B%his ortho"raphy is re"arded as normalin 2ngland.B B# asked the C7estion with no other intention than to set the "entleman ree rom the necessity o silence.B B# have be ore showed an error. however uneasy.—A lady keepin" a irst8class school reC7irin" a "ood piano. is desiro7s o receivin" a da7"hter o the above in e!chan"e or the same.obbett remarks.B BHOES&)&&. by a kind introd7ction o the only s7bAect on which # believed him to be able to speak with propriety. and to "ive him an opport7nity o min"lin" on eC7al terms with a polite assembly rom which..B Amon" the ollowin" e!amples o the wron" placin" o words and cla7ses.' A ter this we have. B%he sava"e people in many places in America.B says . 3etter* BWe had read.B—Hobbes.B—Swi t. co7ld not then escape. '/owever uneasy' applies to assembly and not togentleman. Bin the first sentence o +octor Watts' work. and they do "reat harmJ or they do these two thin"s* irst. e!cept the "overnment o amilies..B B/r.

B %hat this statement may appear within bo7nds. mostass7redly. yo7 are in the wron"B* say.B BHe has made char"es . Entil they do invent s7ch a theory.B Bthe most complete cookin"8stove ever invented. 7sed by "ood writers.B say. that he comes more every day than he does every ni"ht.. i he says anythin". is the word to 7se.B and the like.B $or Byo7 are mista!en.B Mis$a1!n. as Horace and . are eno7"h. and probably will contin7e to be. M+$+a&.B &utual properly relates to two persons.J Bit is most e ect7ally nailed to the co7nterBJ Bit is most 7ndeniable that. in another para"raph. a terward perceivin" that he had revised and corrected '%he (ambler' with extraordinary care. S7ch e!pressions as. 7sa"e in lan"7a"e makes ri"ht. he adds* B# a man wo7ld cross o7t most wherever he can ind it in any book in the &n"lish lan"7a"e.B Here mista!en means. %his word is m7ch.B /aca7lay says* B&utual riend is a low v7l"arism or common riend. or more complete than completeness. and so onJ or you are.?.B B%oth the circ7mstances o contin"ency and 7t7rity are necessaryB* sho7ld be. and not most.'B %he position o the adverb sho7ld be as near as possible to the word it C7ali ies. B'o7 are wron"J yo7 do not 7nderstandBJ b7t it mi"ht be taken to mean.. accordin" to the tho7"ht we wish to e!press. yo7 aremista!en. #n s7ch sentences almost. M#r! (!r3!c$. it will be better to say you mista!e. can not be de ended lo"ically. Bs7its a amiliarrather than a "rave style. Bthe more per ect o the two.B etc. B# # mista!e not. he "ives many e!amples rom "ood a7thors. B#mista!e you.B Bthe most per ect thin" o the kind # have ever seen. some o which are the ollowin"* Ba most pro o7nd silenceBJ Ba most A7st ideaBJ Ba most complete oratorBJ Bthis was most e!traordinaryBJ Ban obAect o most per ect esteemBJ Ba most e!tensive er7ditionBJ Bhe "ave it most liberally awayBJ Bit is. Bin the writin"s o even some good a7thors.5 imply that there are brutes in the higher worldJ and. Sometimes we place it be ore the a7!iliary and sometimes a ter it. not beca7se # val7e his services leastBJ Bwo7ldmost serio7sly a ect 7sBJ Bthat s7ch a system m7st mostwidely and most power 7lly.B # .B B#t is a reC7ent error in the writings even o some "ood a7thorsB* sho7ld be. then the "rammarians o7"ht lon" a"o to have invented some theory 7pon which the loc7tionyou are mista!en co7ld be de ended. B# mi"ht "reatly e!tend the n7mber o my e!tracts rom these a7thorsJ b7t here. or he is—as the case may be—in error. B&verybody ab7ses this word. they e!cite a do7bt whether we are raised above those brutes. B%he colon may be?. # tr7st. BHe comes here most every day. Byo7 mista!e.B Here it is 7ncertain at irst si"ht which verb the adverb is intended to C7ali yJ b7t the nat7re o the case makes it probable that the writer meant Bhas 7tterly ailed to s7stain.B %he 7ser o s7ch a sentence as this means to say that he comes nearlyevery day. B%he circ7mstances o contin"ency and 7t7rity are bothnecessary. 6o7ld in his B6ood &n"lishBJ and then. # chose to make my e!tracts rom that work rather than rom the '-ives o the . he mista!es. 7sed or almost. he wo7ld inalmost every instance improve the style o the book. %his word is m7ch mis7sed in the phrase Bo7r mutual riend.B B%his mode o e!pression rather suitsa amiliar than a "rave styleB* sho7ld be.oets'J b7t. B# # am not mista!en. Bmayproperly be 7sed.B—BNew 'ork %rib7ne. b7t he really says. Johnson's '-ives o the . and very erroneo7sly. which he has ailed utterly to s7stain. %he di erence between B%he ish sho7ld properly be broiledB and B%he ish sho7ld be properlybroiledB is apparent at a " essor +avidson aver. ." 0O2@properly 7sed in the ollowin" casesB* sho7ld be.B etc. Still s7ch phrases are.B B# tell yo7.oets.B says /r. # had noted down abo7t two hundred errors in +r." 0OQ@ M#s$. as nothin" can be more per ect than per ection. second.

6rammarians di er with re"ard to the correctness o 7sin" never in s7ch sentences as. or rather mis7se. See &#%H&(. N!2. %his orm o the personal prono7n is properly 7sed in the nominative case only where increased emphasisis aimed at." 0O5@on each otherB is the e!act eC7ivalent o Bm7t7ally dependentBJ hence.B BHow are yo7RB B3icely. it is better. N!i$4!r%N#r. "! had as lief not . a nice point. in this wise* BHow do yo7 doRB B3icely.B—%hackeray.53 and implies reciprocity o sentiment—sentiment. BJohn and James are mutually dependent. sho7ld be.B #n sentences like these. BSome can neither or wits norcritics pass. and over8nice. or a mutual aversion. %his word is sometimes improperly 7sed ormentionJ th7s.e!n awe of s$"h a thin& as ! myself. o this word* B%hat st7pid v7l"arism by which we 7se the word nice to denote almost every mode o approbation. Nic!.?O1@ Nic!&'. (earran"e th7s. to 7se ever. 3rown and mysel were both very m7ch pleased..B So. sho7ld be. the tho7"ht conveyed by these words bein" already e!pressed in the word mutual. %he conA7nction sho7ld be placed be ore the e!cl7ded obAectJ Bneither giveB implies neither some other verb.opeN. a meanin" not intended. a nice day.B i. b7t its place is not everywhere. B# never mentioned the matter to any one. a nice discrimination. a nice sermon.B #t is not the suit and the pair that are new. %h7s.#N#%'. We talk very properly abo7t a nice distinction. Archdeacon Hare remarks o the 7se. a nice co7ntry. BShe can neither help her bea7ty.harm he never so wisely. or almost every variety o C7ality. wrap 7p everythin" indiscriminately in this characterless domino. speakin" at the same breath o a nice cheese8cake. norher co7ra"e.e as live to .B etc." 0O4@tho7"h never so wise. as i a 7niversal del7"e o niaiserie— or nice seems ori"inally to have been only niais—had whelmed the whole island.B N!)!r. b7t the clothes and thegloves. there ore. %his adAective is o ten misplaced. they like or dislike each otherJ or. B+ependent?. BShe can help neither. a nice calc7lation.B N!i04 #r4##*. care sho7ld be taken not to add the words for each other or on each other. B# never named the matter to any oneB* sho7ld be.B Nice is as "ood a word as any other in its place. nor oil. #n 7sin" the word mutual.?. and the likeJ b7t we certainly o7"ht not to talk abo7t BOthello'sB bein" a nice tra"edy. e.B i. BHe wo7ld neither "ive wine. nor oil. sho7ld be.B Na-!. received and ret7rned. a nice tra"edy.B . See H#. abo7t Salvini's bein" a nice actor. BHe has anew s7it o clothes and a new pair o "loves. or ear o sayin" anythin" de inite. BSome neither can or wits nor critics passB M. to say the least. BHe is in error." B# will do it myself. or New 'ork bay's bein" a nice harbor.nor money. %he very C7intessence o popinAay v7l"arity is reached when nicely is made to do service or well. they are dependent on each other. in common with the "reat maAority o writers. BHe had time neitherto intercept. incorrect to say.B B. nor her cr7eltyB M%hackerayN. N!i$4!r. and. BJohn and James have a mutual a ection.nor money. B/rs. e.B B# saw it myself.B etc. M's!&3. be it what it may. and abo7t a person's bein" nice. BHe had neither time to interceptnor to stop herB MScottN. rom sheer poverty o tho7"ht.B #t is. we say properly. takin" all the common parts o the contracted sentences to"ether* BHe wo7ld "ive neither wine. sayin" that John and James are mutuallydependent on each other is as red7ndant in orm as it wo7ld be to say that the editors o B%he 6reat Hili ierB are the bi""est. "reatest m7d8slin"ers in America..

BWhether he is there or no there. sho7ld be. 'He pretended.B B%here was no one o them who wo7ld not have been pro7d. At present. when it stands in the irst member o a sentence.B p. B%here were i ty persons there. B3ot or thy ivory nor thy "old will # 7nbind thy chain. %he ne"ative sho7ld precede in this case* BNeither John nor James was there. 'He did not pretend to e!tirpate $rench m7sic.B %he wron" placin" o not o ten "ives rise to an imper ect ne"ationJ th7s.B—-acon.!r. are. &!ample* B37t perhaps some people are C7ite indi erent whether or no it is said.B Sho7ld be. 3otorious characters are always persons to be sh7nned.B BWhether he is there or no. BA person may be very near8si"hted i they can not reco"niDe an acC7aintance ten eet o . %ho7"h this word can not be properly 7sed in any b7t a bad sense. i he.B S7pply the ellipsis. in BWords and %heir Eses. B*as there manyRB say.B etc.B BO7r company was not presentB Mas a company. but only to c7ltivate and civiliDe it.B . are.' Here the not is obvio7sly misplaced." 01L@the orce o the whole e!pression. BJohn and James were not there.B etc. # we ask.—(ichard 6rant White. B3ot ewer. %he verb to be is o ten 7sed in the sin"7lar instead o in the pl7ralJ th7s. 4F.B and B%he wa"es o sin are death. andno "race o diction nor any m7sic o well8t7rned sentences will make amends. the word to 7se in sentences like this is not no. #t sho7ld be.6< N#. B&rrors reC7ently arise in the 7se o not—b7t only. %his word o ne"ation is responded to by nor in?. BNo less than i ty persons were thereJ No fewer. and not with its predicate. neither shall yo7. BNo matter how many there wasB* say. or e!ample. B%here is several reasons why it wo7ld be betterB* say.B etc. B%here were not ewer than i ty.B . B+eath is the wa"es o sin. were.B etc. %he correlative o not. not to e!tirpate. the writer himsel makes one. BHow many is thereRB say. to him.B N#$% +$ #n&'. or pro essed. Bsaid or no said. is nor or neither.'B—3ain. we sometimes see it 7sed instead o noted. and we have. N#)ic!. B%here was not one o them. See A/A%&E(. A verb sho7ld a"ree in n7mber with its s7bAect.B N#$. #t is not an 7ncommon thin" or a prono7n in the pl7ral n7mber to be 7sed in connection with an antecedent in the sin"7lar. and we have.learly. to 7nderstand which we m7st attend to?.B # ind.B B# will notdo it.B means that John and James were not there in company. B%here is o7rB* say. were there or were there notRB the reply clearly wo7ld be. #t does not e!cl7de the presence o one o them. We say." 0OK@sentences like this* B-et yo7r meanin" be obsc7re. the ollowin" notice may be seen in some o o7r 3roadway omnib7ses* B$i ty dollars reward or the conviction o any person ca7"ht collectin" or keepin" ares "iven to them to deposit in the bo!.B #n a little book entitled B-ive and -earn. which may be 7sed in either a "ood or a bad sense.B Sho7ld be. And yet o7r best writers sometimes inadvertently 7se nowith whether. S7pply the ellipsis. are. sho7ld be. N#$#ri#+s. whereas noted characters may or may not be persons to be sh7nned. were. N+. b7t some o 7s mi"ht have beenN.. b7t not. #n correctin" one mistake. BNo member o o7r company was present. B%his is the ta! a man m7st pay or his virt7es—they hold 7p a torch to his vices and render those railties notoriousin him which wo7ld pass witho7t observation in another.

BOhT yo7 are come at last. then. o bein" tenJ b7t it does not really mean that.B either the off or the of is v7l"arly s7per l7o7s. BWhat did yo7 observeRB or BWhat did yo7 say.B B%he words are as incapable o analysis as the thin" si"ni iedB* correctly.B BHe is the elder o the two sons.B etc. #t is only the most care 7l writers who 7se these two interAections with proper discrimination. On!. of all others. B#ts si"ni icance is as varied as the passionsB* correctly. %he sentence sho7ld be. O heavens..B Sho7ld be. it reallymeans a C7arter a ter nine.B B3o book and no paper was arran"ed. b7t not with both o them.B O s!r)!. the verb m7st be sin"7lar. %his phrase is o ten 7sed when of all is meantJ th7s. i. o tener.BO. B%he vice o coveto7sness.B B%he elder son is heir to the estateJ he is older than his brother by ten years. however. B%he vice o coveto7sness. coveto7sness enters deepest into the so7lBJ or. Bthe lar"est of all. BHe is the older man o the two.B etc. o tenest. and every twi". in addition to bein" an e!clamation. and sho7ld always be ollowed by some mark o p7nct7ation. %he distinction between them is said to be modern. B-et them depend each onhis own e!ertionsBJ B&ach city has its pec7liar privile"esBJ B&verybody has a ri"ht to look a ter his own interest. %he dictionaries a7thoriDe the 7se o this word as a synonym o say and remar!J as.ertain prono7ns o demonstrative si"ni ication are called inde inite beca7se they re er to no partic7lar s7bAect. #nasm7ch as to means toward. enters. Oh is simply an e!clamation.?. O3 a&& #$4!rs. a prono7n or verb to a"ree with it m7st also be sin"7larJ th7s.B BOh. enters.B etc. BO all the vices. it is not easy to seeJ this mode o comparin" it is certainly not e7phonio7s. We "et on a chair. enters deepest into the so7l. B#t is a C7arter to ten o'clock. O"c&#c1. and "ive ear. denotes a callin" to or adA7rationJ th7s. we mi"ht say. B2ach boy and each "irl studies. Horatio. on a st7mp. restore himTB BO shameT where is thy bl7shRB O&*!r%E&*!r." 01O@ O3 an'. O4%O. every. or e!ample. or remar!RB #n this sense.B We say. on an omnib7s. B6ive me a yard off ofthis piece o calico. BS7pposeyou were to lose yo7r way in a woodBJ or. which means. B ell off the tree." 010@by each. help him. We sho7ld say. BHear. woe is meTB BOhT # die. and every drop o water teems with li e. BS7ppose onewere to lose one's way in a .B On $#.B %his sentence says that coveto7sness is one o the other vices.?. a C7arter out of ten. and the oldest in the nei"hborhood.6' BWhen sin"7lar no7ns connected by and are preceded?. yo7 sweet heavensTB BOh. or no. #n s7ch sentences as. . or e!ample.B What does this statement mean. 7s7ally by an e!clamation point.above all others.B O3$!n. Bas are the passions. and on a spree. nor can it be one o a n7mber o other thin"s." 011@BS7ppose ( were to lose my way in a woodBJ or. # we were p7ttin" a s7pposition by way o ar"7ment or ill7stration. B%his is the lar"est of any # have seen. e. A thin" can not beanother thin". %his adverb is properly compared by chan"in" its termination* o ten. literallyR We understand by it that it lacks a C7arter o ten.J or. it is better to leave observeto the e!cl7sive 7se o those who deli"ht in bein" ine. and not on to. o all the vices. B%he vice o coveto7sness. Why some writers 7se more and most to compare it. literally. and the eldest o the amily. %he sentence wo7ld be correct with either one. O33 #3. O earthTB BO "rave.B 2ach bein" sin"7lar. where is thy victoryRB BO heavenly powers.B B2very lea . %his is one o them. Bas isthe thin" si"ni ied. a C7arterof.B &rrors are o ten the res7lt o not repeatin" the verbJ th7s. B%he apples ell off of the treeB* read.

62 wood." 01F@alternation o 'we' with 'one'—possibly not accidental M6eor"e &liotN* '#t's a desperately ve!atio7s thin" that.ooper. 'A mancan never do anythin" at variance with his own nat7re. it sho7ld be 7sed itsel a second time. B# like essor 3ain says. while the va"7eness act7ally remains.omposition 6rammarB* B%his prono7n contin7ally lands writers in di ic7lties. 'Neither do men li"ht a candle. what sho7ld one doRB is more co7rtly than to take either one's sel or the person addressed or the e!ample. Bany o the little ones.B Sho7ld be. and p7t it 7nder a b7shel. as we "row s7bstantial in the world. perhaps. the less liable he is to be misled by it. and writers have reco7rse to vario7s s7bstit7tions.B On&'. altho7"h at the same time he wanted to p7t it "enerallyJ and 'one' mi"ht hint that modesty s7cceeded in "ettin" the better o him. #n 'Adam 3ede' we have. as a r7le. %he correct 7sa"e is shown by . patroon.' B'/en' was more reC7ent in "ood writin" ormerly than now. b7t.+ B%he representative '#' or 'we' occasionally acts the part o 'one. by indicatin" somethin" that has "one be ore. or ripe ones. is not very partic7larJ an e!ample may be C7oted* '/odesty is a poor man's wealthJ b7t. the last is to be pre erred. either in conversation or in writin". we mi"ht pers7ade o7rselves that he chose 'we' and 'one' with a p7rpose* 'we' mi"ht indicate that the speaker had himsel and the patroon directly in his eye. is more reC7ently misplaced than any other word in the lan"7a"e. a ter all one's re lections and C7iet determinations. &n"lish idiom reC7ires that. %his word.' '+o men "ather "rapes o thornsR' H7me is ond o e!pressin" a "eneral s7bAect by 'men. seems to be revivin".ope* 'One may be ashamed to cons7me hal one's days in brin"in" sense and rhyme to"ether. papers o sterlin" merit ?only@ will only appearB M/iss 3raddonNJ B%hin"s are "ettin" d7ll down in %e!asJ they only shot ?only@ three men down there last weekBJ B# have only "ot ?only@ three.' %his 7sa"e is hardly 'inde inite'J and it needs no 7rther e!empli ication. and the second makes ree with another's person. B$enimore .' Were . One sho7ld be ollowed by one. #ndeed. B# one's honesty were impeached. Bthe less liable one is to be misled by it. when 7sed as an adAective. the repetition o the prono7n is o ten elt to be heavy. # am con ident that it is not correctly placed hal the time.' %he ollowin" sentence presents a c7rio7s?.B Only is sometimes improperly 7sed or . b7t # m7st have a ripe one. 37t 'himsel ' and 'his' wo7ld alone show that s7ch spec7lations are too re ined or the occasion. &ven an ear acc7stomed to the idiom can scarcely accept with 7nmi!ed pleas7re this instance rom 3rownin"* "+#la"k8 one lies oneself @ven in the statin& that one's end was tr$th. %he irst ver"es on e"otism.' BStill.B . %h7s. whereas the third is indi erent.' which was at one time common. has to come a ter. B%he orm 'a man.ooper a care 7l writer. when the prono7n has to be a"ain re erred to. B#n?. one can a ord to be"in to speak tr7th o himself as well as o hisnei"hbor. we sho7ld be r7led by moods that one can't calc7late on be orehand.' B'Small birds are m7ch more e!posed to the cold than lar"e ones. and not by he. or. B%he better acC7ainted one is with any kind o rhetorical trick.Tr$th only.' We mi"ht s7bstit7te 'one. if one states so m$"h in words.' #t wo7ld be a"ainst idiom to say 'hal his days. in his B.B All these orms are 7sed.B one is the n7meral employed in the manner o a prono7n. a more pointed re erence is s7""ested.' 3y the 7se o 'we' here." 012@its pa"es.B #n the phrase. like Scott.

%he p7rist does not 7se the word pantaloons even. not or the sake o any other persons. ants are worn by gents who eat lunches and open wine. %he proper arran"ement wo7ld be to connect the adverbial adA7nct. O+04$%S4#+&*.' b7t did not wor!.?.' Only now C7ali ies ' or their sakes. and not or any other reason. the word immediately adAoinin". whether in boots or o7t o them.' sho7ld be. 'think o the past. B'He lived or their sakes only. 'He alone lived or their sakes'J that is. 'As he did not leave his name. 'the only thin" # am able to do is to re 7teJ # may not retaliate.ope.' is an insin7ation that more was e!pected.' 3etteronly. %his abbreviation is not 7sed by those who are care 7l in the choice o words. b7t flows over them. Here only is ri"htly placed.?. B'He only lived or their sakes. tho7"h they both imply obli"ation." 01Q@ B'When men "row virt7o7s in their old a"e. 3ain. says* B%he word reC7irin" most attention is only. ' or the sake o them alone'J that is. andflowed o to flow. or let it drop. BAccordin" to the position o only. 'lown is the past participle o to fly. and to make only C7ali y at church and no more* 'the ne"roes are to appear in boots only at ch7rch. See +E&. Pan$s. # m7st refute it. As. it was only known that a "entleman had called on b7siness'* it was known only.63 except or unlessJ th7s.' Here only m7st be held as C7ali yin" 'lived or their sakes.B %he meanin" here is clearly Bexcept when the bell rin"s.' the emphasis bein" on lived. 'He lived or their sakes.' %he orce o the word when placed at the end is pec7liar. and trousers are worn by gentlemen who eat luncheons and order wine. they onlymake a sacri ice to 6od o the devil's leavin"s. sho7ld not be 7sed indiscriminately. '%hink only o the past as its remembrance "ives yo7 pleas7re. in his BHi"her &n"lish 6rammar. 'He lived or their sakes alone. '%he ne"roes are to appear only at ch7rch in boots' mi"ht mean that they are not to appear anywhere b7t at ch7rch.he$ and nobody else. instead o only. the same words may be made to e!press very di erent meanin"s. or their sakes. Oughtis the stron"er termJ what we ought to do. when the ne"roes "o to ch7rch they are to have no clothin" b7t boots.on ederates that any s7ch desi"n co7ld be carried o7t. did so. We ought to be tr7th 7l and honest. 'He "ave si!pence only. '# can only re 7te the acc7sation by layin" be ore yo7 the whole'* this wo7ld mean." 015@ O2in0. namely. '#t was alone by the help o the . only as its remembrance.'—. O)!r&'. %he meanin" then is 'he lived.' or. andshould be respect 7l to o7r elders and kind to o7r in eriors. b7t trousers. %hen it o ten has a dimin7tive or dispara"in" si"ni ication. B3y the 7se o alone. O)!r3&#2n. . with its verb. other meanin"s are e!pressed. in boots.B speakin" o the order o words. B%he trains will not stop only when the bell rin"s. B'He lived only or their sakes.' '%he ne"roes are to appear at ch7rch only in boots'J that is. %hese two words.' and the sentence means he lived or this one reason. we are morally bo7nd to do. appear. we sho7ld say o it that it has overflowed. did not do any other thin" or their sakes.' etc.B +r. and not that it has overflown. a river does not fly over its banks. there ore.' and not or any more worthy reason.'B #t th7s appears very plain that we sho7ld look well to o7r onlys. %his word is now 7sed only by the 7nschooled. did not die.

not their patronage. %his is a very "ood word in its place.' '(epeatupon' is nonsenseJ we m7st read 'is repeated to and inc7lcated 7pon." 014@the 7sin" it be ore the word most. is obsolete. %hen he wo7ld solicit his nei"hbors' custom. b7t that does not make it correct. 'by. Bin writin" bad verses." 01K@m7ch less 7sed by the American tradesman than they are. Par$'. /ost writers wo7ld have said Bthe 7sin" of it. #t is?. and. Bthe drawin" of a concl7sion. 'other obAect than.B p.J while a man may have c7stomers inn7merable.B—/oon. Par$a1!. When 7sed in speakin" o the a airs o every8day li e. A thin" done in part is partly. %he omittin" o the preposition is a common error. '%his d7ty is repeated and inc7lcated upon the reader. When the present participle is 7sed s7bstantively. done. it is the drawing a concl7sion which was be ore either 7nknown or dark. in the sense o drawing-room. instead o placin" himsel 7nder obli"ations to them. 'o ormin".' B'#t was an e!ample o the love to form comparisons'* read. A man can have no patrons witho7t inc7rrin" obli"ations—witho7t becomin" a prot.B B%here is a mis7se o the article a which is very common. Par$ia&&'%Par$&'.B B. 'to.' B'A testimonial of the merits o his "rammar'* read. it means the "oods which a woman is allowed to have a ter the death o her h7sband. i he were better acC7ainted with their tr7e meanin".rinces are the patrons o those tradesmen whom they allow to call themselves their . #n (oman law. which accords with one onlyJ e. it is preceded by the de inite article and ollowed by the preposition of.rompted by the most e!treme vanity. Pa$r#ni. BNothin" b7t st7dy o the best writers and practice in composition will enable 7s to decide what are the prepositions and conA7nctions that o7"ht to "o with certain verbs. %his word.' B%wo verbs are not 7n reC7ently ollowed by a sin"le preposition. in sentences like the ollowin". %his is a law term. accordin" to +r. ". Hall. 'to. %his is a very ine word to 7se or eatJ A7st the word or yo7n" women who hobble on $rench heels.. %h7s. 7ses withJ th7s. #n &n"lish law. Par&#r. not partially. /oon ar"7es or his constr7ction. .' B'(epetition is always to be pre erred before obsc7rity'* read.' or omit 'other.B /r.B—G7een Hictoria. We o ten see for 7sed with the s7bstantive sympathyJ the best practice. 'to meet. it meant the "oods which a woman bro7"ht to her h7sband besides her dowry. Par$ic&!s.omposition. however. B#t is only partially done.B sho7ld be. %his word and its derivatives wo7ld be?. e!cept in the Enited States and some o the &n"lish colonies. %he ollowin" e!amples ill7strate some common bl7nders* B'#t was characteriDed with eloC7ence'* read.B %his 7se o the adverb partially is sanctioned by hi"h a7thority.B sho7ld be.' B'%hey have no other obAect but to come'* read. consistin" o her apparel and ornaments s7itable to her rank.' B'He made an e ort for meeting them'* read. he may place them 7nder obli"ations to him. it is "enerally mis7sed.'B—Nichol's B&n"lish . 1K. b7t it is very m7ch o7t o its place when 7sed—as it o ten is by the v7l"ar—where "ood taste wo7ld 7se the wordperson. Par$ici(&!s.!.g. besides her dower. BWords can not e!press the deep sympathy # eel with yo7.B or Bin the writin" of bad verses. BOr.64 Para(4!rna&ia. he persisted in the writin" bad verses.

Winter "omes to rule the varied year.B #t can not properly be applied to an individ7al.B B%he worm. P!r3#r-.65 p7rveyorsJ as. %hat rhetorical i"7re which attrib7tes se!. in evil ho$r. B%here is b7t one case on record o a peer o &n"land leavin" over e5. to be consistent. is called personification or prosopop<ia.B Here the . a man. J7d"e. as. P!r(!$+a&&'. in his BWords. P!&&7-!&&. and Nature from her seat.B says* B%he #rish are perpetually 7sin"?.B #n how m7ch better taste it is to say simply. and only when A7sti ied by the presence o stron" eelin". etc. apo7nd. chariots. . per ann7m.?orth rea"hin& to the fr$it." B-evity is o ten less oolish and "ravity less wise than each o them appears. we sho7ld call those whoperform.reaks heads. "hat all was lost#"—=ilton. (. li e. or e!ample.B or. i my ears are "ro7ndless* B37t some ew people contract the 7"ly habit o makin" 7se o these e!pressions 7nconscio7sly and contin7o7sly.LLL personalty. # mi"ht perhaps vent7re to intimate that perpetually is likewise mis7sed in the ollowin" sentence. %he hi"hest orm o personi ication sho7ld be 7sed seldom. the hills reAoice and clap their hands. BShe playsthe piano well. which # copy rom the B-ondon G7een. %his word is sometimes mis7sed orcontinually. BJohn Smith. and Dove sheds tears)>ar has swords. their Ese and Ab7se. a ton.B P!rs#n.B P!r. the . she pl$"ked. mean the articles worn on one's person..rince o Wales. Haberdasher to H.B is as incorrect as it wo7ld be to say. +r. ga!e signs of woe.reaks hearts. her rash hand. perman. perpetually interlardin" their conversation with them. in s7ch phrases as per day. haranguedhim th7s. 7ninterr7ptedJ while continualmeans that which is constantly renewed and rec7rrin" with perhaps reC7ent stops and interr7ptions. and so on. See . "ives especial scope or personi ication. BShe performs on the piano bea7ti 7lly."—Thomson. by reservin" the distinction o "ender or livin" bein"s that have se!. BHe r7shed down the stairsmixed together. William /athews. per ton. Be!ceedin"ly well. violin8per ormers.lood. P!rs#na&$'.B erpetual means never ceasin". As the #rish do somethin" besides mis7se shall." 0FL@shall or will.A(%'J also. H. %P& '4'(Sighing through all her wor s. ">ar and Dove are stran&e "ompeers. "*o sayin&.rince patronizes John Smith. she ate8Earth felt the wound. per po7nd. piano8per ormers. %his word does not. more s7perlatively. er is correct be ore -atin no7ns onlyJ as. and Dove has darts)>ar .B—3ain. or action to inanimate obAects.B P!rs#ni3ica$i#n. contin7in" witho7t intermission. per diem. and so on. per cent. B/en. etc.B i # were not conscio7s that the monster who can write and print s7ch a sentence wo7ld not hesitate to cable a th7nderbolt at an o ender on the sli"htest provocation. BHe r7shed pell8 mell down the stairs.Sullen and sad with all his risin& train.B or BadmirablyBT # we talk abo7t performing on m7sical instr7ments. %o say.B "*ee. aware o his intent. #t is properly a law term. and means personal property. #n all s7ch cases it is better to 7se plain &n"lish. or e!ample. %his adverb means mi!ed or min"led to"etherJ as.>ar sheds . %his -atin preposition is a "ood deal 7sed in &n"lish. and Dove .2LL. cornet8per ormers. horses. or ascribes to obAects and br7tes the acts and C7alities o rational bein"s.B B%he &n"lish lan"7a"e. the +octor sho7ld have said that they continually 7se shall or will. B%he mo7ntains sing together. and say. a day. #N+#H#+EA-. crowded pell-mell. as some persons think.

and has come to be properly 7sed in the sense o assumed or believed to be the conseC7ence o . %his word is o ten incorrectly 7sed or part. P4!n#-!n#n.B He who is not very s7re that he 7ses the word correctly wo7ld do better not to 7se it at all. both in this co7ntry and in &n"landJ and this 7se is s7pported by respectable a7thorities. P#r$i#n. %his word is o ten very incorrectly 7sed in the sense o to baseJ as. B# wrote yo7 a letter yesterdayB* here a letter is red7ndant. BA lar"e portion o the land is 7n illed. (ed7ndancy or pleonasm is the 7se o more words than are necessary to e!press the tho7"ht clearly. in his '.l7ral. b7t one remove rom slan". # think.Enowled&e is pro$d that he has learned so m$"h)>isdom is h$m. (ed7ndancy is sometimes permissible or the s7rer conveyance o meanin".B P&!n$'. are. in the sense o plentiful. We accept !ind. . allotted. %his word is m7ch 7sed by persons o do7bt 7l c7lt7re." 0F1@wo7ld be either part or proportion. not polite invitationsJ and.'B We sho7ld say. co7nty. Pr!*ica$!. far from . we tell him that he has been!indJ and. %o predicate means primarilyto spea! before.ampbell. to endow. or plentiful'J and +r. then. BHe predicates his opinion on ins7 icient data.B %hen we sometimes hear people talk abo7t predicatin" an action 7pon certain in ormation or 7pon somebody's statement. We ask. when any one has been obli"in". A word very m7ch and very inele"antly 7sed or informed." 0FO@not sometimes o7nd it in works o considerable merit. that money is plentiful. there ore. B# thank yo7 and /rs. .ope or my !ind reception. at the best. i we pre er "randiloC7ence to correctness. P#&i$!. a division.B the ri"ht word?. B# will post yo7. BHepleaded not "7ilty. town. %he imper ect tense and the per ect participle o the verb to plead are both pleaded and not plead.B B# m7st post mysel 7p.le that he knows no more. in what portion@ o the co7ntry. B%hey ret7rned bac! again to the same city from whence they came forthB* the ive words in italics are redundantor pleonastic. Enowled&e dwells!n heads replete with tho$&hts of other men)>isdom in minds attentive to their own. phenomena.B— Atterb7ry. .' says* ' lenty or plentiful appears to me so "ross a v7l"arism that # sho7ld not have tho7"ht it worthy o a place here i # had?. P#s$!*. P&!a*. and in the lan"7a"e o poetic embellishment. and not that it is plenty. S7ch e!pressions as.B B'o7 sho7ld have pleaded yo7r ca7se with more ervor. we may be s7re that the person by whom he has been received deserves well or his considerate kindness. B%he di erent departments o science and o art mutually re lect li"ht on each otherB* either o the e!pressions in italics embodies the whole idea. A portion is properly a part assi"ned. #n the sentence.owper.ein& one. where those o the better sort 7se the word!ind. to parcel. &!amples* B.66 "Enowled&e and wisdom.B and the like.ontentment is predicated o virt7eBJ B6ood health may be predicated o a "ood constit7tion.hilosophy o (hetoric. B%he universalopinion o all menB is a pleonastic e!pression o ten heard.B B# # had been better posted."—. %he verb to portionmeans to divide. P&!#nas-. . when an interviewin" reporter tells 7s o his havin" met with a polite reception. set aside or a special p7rposeJ a share. or emphasis. or street do yo7 liveRB—or. B#n what part ?not. reside. tho7"h it is condemned by vario7s critics. accordin" to the intention o the writer. Johnson says* '#t is 7sed barbaro7sly. state.9ave ofttimes no "onne"tion. #n Worcester's +ictionary we ind the ollowin" note* B lenty is m7ch 7sed colloC7ially as an adAective.

B and BHe is prepossessed in his avor. take care not to imitate the +octor in knowled"e and reasonin". %he errors made in the 7se o the prepositions are very n7mero7s. allin" into the hands o novel8writers and o members o . Johnson created a race o writers and speakers. Johnson so m7ch deli"hted.learness . b7t o the erroneo7s 7se o the adverb while instead o the preposition in. not o the mis7se o the preposition. than that o 7sin" present. has the val7e o the "ood work o Wordsworth or 3yron..' %his is what the +octor meantJ b7t this wo7ld have marred a little the antithesis* it wo7ld have 7nsettled a little o the balance o that seesaw in which +r. He means that. BHe is pre#udiceda"ainst him. B. Be!cept in snatches. enables the reader to see tho7"hts witho7t noticin"?. models for the &n"lish8speakin" ton"7e. %h7s. then it sho7ld be ofJ b7t i it means models or &n"lish or"ans o speech to practice on.B B%a!es with 7s are collected nearly ?almost@ solely from real and personal estate. 37t. $ew errors are more common.B . the mind is ati"7ed while attemptin" to trace the analo"ies. at any rate. ew will believe." 0FF@the lan"7a"e with which they are clothed. BHe comes rom Ohio or from #ndianaBJ or.B %a!es are levied on estates and collectedfrom the owners. # may hope to be pardoned or their brevity. BHe comes either rom Ohio or #ndiana. observe. Pr!(#si$i#ns. B%he boy went to and asked the advice of his teacherBJ B# called on and had a conversation with my brother.B—%ownsend's BArt o Speech.. resent means to place in the presence o a s7periorJ introduce. especially amon" those who are always strainin" to be ine.67 Pr!/+*ic!%Pr!(#ss!ss.arliament. that the state o the nation is very critical. in "eneral. Here we have two e!amples. '# # am not commended or the bea7ty o my works. and on an o icial occasion to o7r .. and prepossessin a avorable one. in the social world. and which. when it sho7ld be.B—/atthew Arnold.?. 3oth these words mean. he shall have the merit o brevity.(&JE+#.B %he rhetoricians wo7ld have 7s avoid s7ch orms o e!pression as.B Hery o ten the preposition is not repeated in a sentence. instead o introduce. B# # am not commended for the bea7ty o my works. these imitators "o no 7rther than the rame o the sentences." 0F2@has. BHe is pre#udiced in his avor. O1Q. l7lled so many tho7sands asleepT +r. See . # this means models o &n"lish. then also it sho7ld be for. '/r. BShakespeare . we say..B b7t this can not be acco7nted a "ood 7se o the word. Johnson. and the 3ible are . all men will allowJ b7t that it is wholly desperate.B—BAppletons' Jo7rnal. be s7re that the person who speaks or writes it has been readin" +r.residentJ b7t persons who are 7nknown to .B—#bid. %he prevailin" and best modern 7sa"e is in avor o to instead o froma ter averse and aversion. and be ore the obAect. Speaker. to incline in one direction or the other or some reason not o7nded in A7sticeJ b7t by common consent pre#udicehas come to be 7sed in an 7n avorable sense..B—#bid. by movin" 7nenc7mbered with any o the +octor's reason or sense.' When yo7 hear or see a sentence like this.B We clothe tho7"hts in lan"7a"e.. Sho7ld be.&. %hey. i we deem the brevity a faultJ b7t this is not what he means. B$or my part # can not think that Shelley's poetry. We say properly. # may hope to be pardoned on account of their brevity.B We sometimes hear the e!pression.B p.B Pr!(#ss!ss.obbett comments on this sentence as ollows* BWe may commend him for the bea7ty o his works. to brin" to be acC7ainted. B%he indolent child is one who ?thatR@ has a stron" aversion from action o any sort. and we may pardonhim for their brevity. e!cept bysnatches and ra"ments.B—6raham's B&n"lish Synonymes.B BAristotle is in error while th7s describin" "overnments. Pr!s!n$%In$r#*+c!. or some o his imitators. then it sho7ld beforJ or i it means models to model &n"lish ton"7es a ter. B# the resemblance is too aint. A person is presented at co7rt.

7ncertainty.rayer or the . B# promise yo7 # was very m7ch astonished. a pl7rality may sin" to"ether in chor7s. we saw a man comin" toward us'J 'we like our new c7rate'J 'yo7 do us poets the "reatest inA7stice'J 'we m7st see to the e iciency o our orces.' %he widest 7se o the prono7n will be mentioned presently. we m7st say. B%he editorial 'we' is to be 7nderstood on the same principle. only one person can speak at the same time to the same a7dience. b7t sharin" with other persons the responsibility o his views. BWhere did yo7 procure itRB Pr#3ani$'." 0FQ@ Pr!s+-($i)!. that several persons can be conAoint speakers. and speaks . Entil previousis reco"niDed as an adverb. $or e!ample. more or less comprehensive. 'we' may be re"arded as an o icial orm whereby the speaker personally is ma"ni ied or enabled to rise to the di"nity o the occasion. %his word is sometimes very improperly 7sed or assureJ th7s. %his is a word m7ch 7sed by people who strive to be ine. $inally. that /r. as a r7le. %his adAective is m7ch 7sed in an adverbial senseJ th7s. BA speaker 7sin" 'we' may speak or himsel and one or more othersJ commonly he stands orward as the representative o a class. beca7se a pl7rality o persons may append their names to a doc7ment. not that she was introd7ced to /r. # these ellows co7ld be made to know how o ensive to decency they make themselves. 3lank. #t is only by some e!ceptional arran"ement. %his word is sometimes mis7sed by the careless or presumptuous. the novelist.reed.B etc. %he e!tent to which some men habit7ally interlard their talk with oaths is dis"7stin" even to many who. A"ain." 0F5@. bein" himsel an e!ample o what he is speakin" o . it is the yo7n"er who is introd7ced to the olderJ the lower to the hi"her in place or social positionJ the "entleman to the lady. or in the sim7ltaneo7s repetition o the -ord's?. as a r7le. A lady sho7ld say. or disp7te. Pr!)i#+s.B Pr#c+r!. A 7seless and 7nwarranted syllable is sometimes added to this word— preventative.?. B revious to my ret7rn. # called on his lordship. Pr#-is!.' we are met with a contradictionJ or. do not themselves hesitate to "ive e!pression to their eelin"s in oaths portly and 7nct7o7s. B reviously to my ret7rn. 'et when we consider the orce o the pl7ral 'we. in written compositions. B%he ordinary 7ses o '#' and 'we. wo7ld appear to be above all ambi"7ity. BWhere did yo7 get itRB with them is.B Pr#n#+ns #3 $4! Firs$ P!rs#n. one person may be the a7thoriDed spokesman in deliverin" a A7d"ment or opinion held by a n7mber o persons in common. or the philosopher.6 each other areintroduced by a common acC7aintance. or some latit7de or license o e!pression. 3lank was introd7ced to her. the 'we' is not 7ns7itable. i we wo7ld speak "rammatically. perhaps. on occasion. be less pro ane. Or.' as the sin"7lar and pl7ral prono7ns o the irst person. B'We' is 7sed or '#' in the decrees o persons in a7thorityJ as when )in" -ear says* +Enow that we have divided!n three our kin&dom. and may Aoin in the responses at ch7rch. associates the rest o mankind with him. Pr!)!n$i)!. %he preacher.+ 3y the iction o pl7rality a veil o modesty is thrown over the ass7mption o vast s7periority over h7man bein"s "enerally. 'As soon as my companion and # had entered the ield. An a7thor 7sin" 'we' appears as i he were not alone. in dwellin" 7pon the pec7liarity o o7r common constit7tion. B%his representative position is at its 7tmost stretch in the practice o 7sin" 'we' or h7man bein"s "enerallyJ as in disco7rsin" on the laws o h7man nat7re.B B reviouslyto my leavin" &n"land. And in these introd7ctions. they wo7ld.

' #n modern 6erman. b7t we seek one to come. %he sin"lin" o7t o one person or address is s7pposed to be a liberty or an e!cess o amiliarityJ and the e ect is so tened or dil7ted by the iction o takin" in others." 02L@irreverent to mer"e this vast personality in a promisc7o7s assembla"e. or makes himsel the e!ample.ieN.omposition 6rammar.ommandments.aley in the individ7al orm. like 'we. B''o7' is not 7n reC7ently employed. by 7sin" '#." 0FK@o the hearer or reader to his own relation to the matter 7nder consideration. 'tho7' MduN is the address o amiliarity and intimacyJ while the ordinary prono7n is the c7rio7sly indirect 'they' M.ato.B—3ain's B. sir. On solemn occasions. and va7lts. either '(think. # o7r address is 7ncomplimentary.' '*e are weak and allible'J 'we are o yesterday'J 'we are doomed to dissol7tion.' 'Here have we no contin7in" city. %he pl7ral orm has almost wholly s7perseded the sin"7larJ a 7sa"e more than ive cent7ries old.' 'my 0ord. the e ect bein" ambi"7ity and con 7sion. 'yo7.' '*e ?speaker@ think we ?himsel and hearers to"ether@ sho7ld come to the concl7sion. %he action is represented with "reat vividness. thou reasonest well.?OF@ B%he motive is co7rtesy. when the person or persons addressed may be p7t orward as the per ormers* '%here is s7ch an echo amon" the old r7ins. 'tho7' addresses to each individ7al an 7navoidable appeal* ')hou shall not——. the hearer bein" e!pected to p7t himsel in the same position. in his meditative soliloC7y on readin" . BAnomalo7s 7sa"es have spr7n" 7p in connection with these prono7ns.lato. says* '.' Say. we may revert to 'tho7.' %he C7estion o "eneral moral obli"ation is orcibly stated by . 'Why am ( obli"ed to keep my wordR' #t is sometimes well to con ine the attention?.' #n s7ch a case the a7thor sho7ld all back 7pon the sin"7lar or himsel —'( will now consider—.' 37t o7r ordinary means o makin" the personal appeal is. ener"etic speakers and writers sometimes 7se '#' as representative o mankind at lar"e. more especially in di ic7lt or non8 pop7lar ar"7ment or e!position.' .' does the action himsel .' So in the . yo7——.S7ch is our ?back to representative@ make that anythin" may become the instr7ment o pain and sorrow to us. personal appeal implied in the sin"7lar 'tho7. What( see in walkin" is seen beca7se ( have an or"an o vision.' or the passive constr7ction co7ld be s7bstit7tedJ the remainin" we's wo7ld then be consistently representative.' B#t is not 7n reC7ent to have in one sentence.63 collectively by means o ?. *e ?chan"e o s7bAect to a limited class@ see men in the tort7res o pain—. %h7s* '%he c7rrent impressions received thro7"h the senses are not vol7ntary in ori"in. %he application o the motive o co7rtesy is here reversedJ it wo7ld be?. both the editorial and the representative meanin".B Pr#n#+ns #3 $4! S!c#n* P!rs#n.' as a representative prono7n. or in close pro!imity. madam. %he speaker. the stin" is lessened by the pl7ral ormJ and i the reverse.@ are capable o the latter or a m7ch lon"er time.' 'yo7. yet we ?rep. pointed. %he orators o 6reece deli"hted in the stron". '-etus ?the a7thor@ now consider why we ?h7manity "enerally@ overrate distant "ood. beyond all comparison. %his is a re inement that was 7nknown to the ancient lan"7a"es.' etc. the shock to modesty is not so "reat. that i you stamp a little .' %he 'we' at the commencement o the second sentence—'*esee men in the tort7res'—co7ld be advanta"eo7sly chan"ed to 'yo7. B$rom the "reater emphasis o sin"7larity.lato's views on the immortality o the so7l be ore killin" himsel .J we reserve 'tho7' or the special case o addressin" the +eity." 0F4@'we.' B%he ollowin" e!tract rom 37tler e!empli ies a similar con 7sion* 'S7ppose we ?representative@ are capable o happiness and o misery in de"rees eC7ally intense and e!treme.' or 'you wo7ld.

and is shorter by one syllable. %his orm or the past participle o the verbto prove is said to be a Scotticism. to resolveJ hence. Pr#)#1!. %h7s.B Pr##3.B Pr#sais$. +r.B See #N$#N#%#H&. shall you wake many and many a day to d7ty and labor. and reAected the proposalo his riend. See A66(AHA%&. Hall is o opinion that this is a word we shall do well to enco7ra"e. to intend. %hackeray MAdvent7res o .B B# purpose to write a history o &n"land rom the accession o )in" James the Second down to a time which is within the memory o men still livin". . or to do.&." 02O@%ho7"h no two writers co7ld be o7nd who p7nct7ate A7st alike. BWhat evidence have yo7 to o er inproof o the tr7th o yo7r statementRB See also &H#+&N. B# p7rpose writing. BOn which he purposed to mo7nt one o his little "7ns. %he correct orm is proved. %his word is m7ch and very improperly 7sed or evidence. %he di erence that p7nct7ation may make in the meanin" o lan"7a"e is well ill7strated by the ollowin" anecdote* At (amessa there lived a benevolent and hospitable prior. B''e' and 'yo7' were at one time strictly distin"7ished as di erent casesJ 'ye' was nominative. riend. #t is not 7sed by care 7l writers and speakers. who ca7sed these lines to be painted over his door* .omposition 6rammar. BHe demonstrated the proposition o &7clid. %he present participle o the verb to provideis sometimes v7l"arly 7sed or the conA7nction provided. Scott. as thy s7n rises. Pr#(#si$i#n. %he importance o p7nct7ation can not be overestimatedJ it not only helps to make plain the meanin" o what one writes.. still in the main those who pay attention to the art p7t in their stops in essentially the same manner. and others mi"ht also be C7oted. means. 'yo7' obAective Mdative or acc7sativeN.' B%here sho7ld not be a mi!t7re o 'tho7' and 'yo7' in the same passa"e. b7t we wo7ld know somethin" o the ormer.?. a purpose is an intention. as in this sentence rom the B-ondon G7eenB* BSociety may be con"rat7lated. to p7t?. which is only the medi7m o proof.B—/aca7lay. Pr#)i*in0. ''e' is restricted to the e!pression o stron" eelin". correctly 7sed. #t will be observed that /aca7lay says. P+nc$+a$i#n. b7t it may prevent one's bein" misconstr7ed. a proposal is a scheme or desi"n o ered or acceptance or consideration.7< lo7der than ordinary.B etc. you hear the so7nd repeated'J 'Some practice is reC7ired to see these animals in the thick orest. even when you hear them close by you. Pr#)!n. Pr#(#s!%P+r(#s!. ropose. an aim. a proposition. proof bein" the e ect o evidence. %his word is o ten 7sed when proposalwo7ld be better. providing that. over the h7mble ho7se8tops ro7nd abo7t your home. . Who is thy masterR' Shakespeare. urpose means.hilipN* 'So. Writers and speakers o ten ail to discriminate properly between the respective meanin"s o these two verbs. &!amples* BWhat do yo7 purpose doin" in the matterRB BWhat do yo7propose that we shall do in the matterRB B# will doB means B# purpose doin"." 020@ orward or to o er or the consideration of othersJ hence.ooper MWater8WitchN* ')hou hast both master and mistressR :ou have told 7s o the latter. #t is 7sed by "ood writers. 37t the &liDabethan dramatists con o7nded the orms irredeemablyJ and 'yo7' has "rad7ally o7sted 'ye' rom ordinary 7se. that which one sets before one's self. to desi"n.B—3ain's B. B# p7rpose to writeB and not..' So. or the reason that proposal has b7t one meanin".B 7sin" the verb in the in initive rather than in the participial orm. and in this employment occ7rs chie ly in the poets.

N in any wayM.N who lived adAacent to the rontier.N rose as a man.' etc.' etc. and SpainM.N and a clearer vision. Q.loyce and &liDabeth .N who chanced to be at the capitalM. %H& . 'All the cabin passen"ersM.N who had not le t their homeM.N he removed to .N is neededM.N and ive other ma"istratesM. %he lines over the door o the priory were allowed to remainJ one stop. 0L M3ancro tN. whereas it is meant that only a certain small proportion o them were savedJ rom No. '%he -7sitaniansM.7' ":e open evermore.' etc.N or consistin" o M.ambrid"e.' 0L.. 0O. witho7t chan"e o voice.N were saved.N do not all a"ree. Holland. the manners.N in this period. schoolmasters. '%he wind didM.N perhapsM. however.4 tho$ my door8To none .roctor. 'ObserversM.N that. had preceded him to Washin"ton. that somebody whose name is accidentally omitted went to Salem 'to e!amine Sarah .O//A. or with only a sli"ht one or breath.N isM. '%he s7bAect ?witchcra t@ "rew interestin"J andM. 'O7r aith has acC7ired a new vi"orM. K.roctor.anada .N to e!amine Sarah . that they sho7ld be read witho7t a perceptible pa7se. that none o the -7sitanians had le t their . rom No. 'No other writer has depictedM.N in a leis7rely way. andM.N to be saidM. and ive other ma"istrates'J rom No.' 1.N were not backward to make their boast o him.' 0K. 'Ha"7e reports .N o the nei"hborhood. 'We sho7ld never apply dry compresses.loyce and &liDabeth .' etc..' 04. '#t remainsM." 021@ B0.N what man and steam to"ether had ailed to do in ho7rs.N with so m7ch art or so m7ch acc7racyM. which made them read th7s* ":e open evermore.—%he chie di erence in the p7nct7ation o di erent writers is 7s7ally in their 7se o the comma. '+orZ was born at Strasb7r"M.' Q.' 0F.' etc.' 05. O. the cla7ses between or ollowin" the inclosed commas are so closely connected "rammatically with the immediately precedin" words or phrases. 00. F. %h7s. or thinkM. to look. '%he obedience is not d7e to the power o a ri"ht a7thority. 4. Nowadays the best practice 7ses it sparin"ly. charpie.4 tho$ my door8To none—.'?.N no obedience at all. the dep7ty8 "overnor. and labors. and his /ississippi riendsM. in re"ard to which there is a "ood deal o latit7deJ m7ch is le t to individ7al taste.N in 041O.' 5. '$ormedM. or waddin"M.e sh$t to honest or to poor8" He p7nct7ates best who makes his p7nct7ation contrib7te most to the clear e!pression o his tho7"htJ and that constr7ction is best that has least need o bein" p7nct7ated.N to the wo7nd. that all observers have recently investi"ated the point in C7estionJ rom No.N in realityM. '—"ladly welcomed painters o $landers.N clay. Some o the commas wo7ld "rossly pervert the meanin" i strictly constr7ed.N to their shores. '%he patriot dist7rbances in . the a7thor will eel. and peasantryM. "athered rom vario7s so7rces—chie ly rom standard books—the s7per l7o7s commas are inclosed in parentheses*?..' 01.N be riended it.N sit7ated beyond the center o the boatM.' 02. b7t to the spirit o ear.N there oreM. awakened deep interest amon" the people o the Enited StatesM." 02F@ B#n all these cases. was altered.e sh$t—to honest or to poor8" #n time the "ood prior was s7cceeded by a man as sel ish as his predecessor was "enero7s. i any lesson at allM. '—to stand idle. '—portraits taken rom the armers.N went to Salem. act.N as to these delicate mattersM.' etc. 1 it wo7ld appear that the people o the Enited States in "eneral lived adAacent to the rontierJ rom No. 0Q.N in an instantM.' F. '#n 040KM..N who have recently investi"ated this pointM. '# it shall "ive satis action to those who haveM. the dep7ty8"overnorM. it is not so m7ch a lesson. that all the cabin passen"ers were so sit7ated that they were saved.N the habits. 2.' 00. An idea o the e!tent to which opinions di er with re"ard to the 7se o the comma may be ormed rom the ollowin" e!cerpt rom a paper prepared or private 7se* B#n the ollowin" e!amples.

B All cla7ses sho7ld "enerally be isolated by commasJ where.@ and # rowed to within a h7ndred yards o the shore. likewise.' and then 'the artist and # rowed.@ they passed thro7"h 3el"a7m. which made everybody la7"h. when they brea! the connection. there s7ck #. a limit at which orbearance ceases to be a virt7e.B B%here is. in tr7th. F. to be brie ." 02Q@means war at any cost.B B%ho7"h he slay me. is replete with moral lessons.' O. there. which these orators seem to advocate.' etc. s7cceeded.B BHis ather dyin". the artist?. 7nC7estionably.@ are essentially and 7niversally trans ormed. which # "reatly re"ret. s7ch commas. accordin"ly.@ it can be borne.B B. o co7rse.72 home. too. in short. apparently. namely. there ore. by chance. there ore. where the sense and correct readin" reC7ire a pa7se. and what he wants in knowled"e he s7pplies by s7 iciency.B B%he yo7n"er.roceedin" into the interior o #ndia?. meanwhile. in reality. perhaps. are inclosed in brackets* B0.B BWhere the bee s7cks. '$ar below?. had nothin" strikin" in his appearance.B BO7r civiliDation.' 2. 1.' F. the reader nat7rally en7nciates 'the little stream o the Oder' as in the obAective case a ter 'below'J b7t there he comes to a predicate which compels him to "o back and read di erently. '# -orin" is de eated in the Si!th +istrict?. s7rely. in that case. 7nwillin" to obtr7de himsel on o7r notice. indeed. le t in the mornin". no do7bt.eace at any price. no point may be necessary. so panteth my so7l a ter thee. B%he A7ry. in the mean time. as it were.B B(ome.B B%he prince. however dark the ni"ht may . in a word.B B%o con ess the tr7th. moreover. in "eneral.B # . B37t his pride is "reater than his i"norance. the adverb does not break the connection.@ the little stream o the Oder oamed over the rocks. bro7"ht in a verdict. havin" retired or hal an ho7r. and ind an a"reeable companion in a stat7e.B B%he little that is known." 022@Q. #n the ollowin" e!amples. sho7ld be between commas.B B%he stran"er. '%he modes o tho7"ht?. # was m7ch at a7lt. is not an 7nmi!ed "ood.B BHe did not come.?.opes. the connection is very close or the cla7se is very short. say it is 7nl7cky to embark on $riday.B BHis stories. who drank heartily.'?. '. omitted in the works rom which they were taken. Some o the most common words and phrases so 7sed are the ollowin"* Also. remember. on the contrary.@ this doctrine co7ld have no e ect whateverJ indeed?. '%aken by itsel ?. to be s7re.@ and the types o character which those modes prod7ce?.' 1. he s7cceeded to the estate. the commas are omitted. at all events. conseC7ently. however.B BA man o polite ima"ination can converse with a pict7re.B BAs the heart panteth a ter the water8brooks. were o ten made to order.B %he comma is 7sed be ore and a ter a phrase when coPrdinatin" and not restrictive. the city o the &mperors. BHistory.B B%his. however. however. now and then. m7st be considered as honorable to him.' B#n No. whereas it was the sla7"hter by the (omans o a "reat n7mber o them whohad le t their home that ca7sed the risin". became the city o the .@ it wo7ld amo7nt to nothin" b7t a verbal proposition. who was yet a boy.B Adverbs and short phrases. notwithstandin". it appears that 'the day ret7rned the pro essor.B BAs an orator. # "rant yo7. who are "enerally s7perstitio7s. B/ornin" will come at last. is not o "reat importance. and the circ7mstance that little is known. in act.B BSailors. however. #n No.B B%hey passed the c7p to the stran"er. 'When the day ret7rned?. his ather bein" dead. yet will # tr7st him. b7t readily coalesces with the rest o the sentence. in a word. inally. he was not "reat. or the most part. B. and in certain positions very "enerally.ommas are reC7ently omitted.@ the pro essor.

B&very one m7st love a boy who ?that@ is attentive and docile. was represented to the 6overnment. sir.B B%o s7m 7p. yet not d7ll. their prince.atience.B BA kin" dependin" on the s7pport o his s7bAects can not rashly "o to war.B BA wise man seeks to shine in himsel J a ool.airs o words. what is yo7r n7mberRB .?. the matter is this. is kind Nat7re's hand. are the prime movers in p7blic transactions. tr$th. &lories. B#n tr7th. where do yo7 liveRB B'es. boy." 024@ BHe rewarded his riends. a 7ll man. and verbs in sentences like the ollowin"* "#re all thy "on7$ests. wise and oolish.B B3y lookin" a little deeper."%25( ?.B BWhere yo7r treas7re is.B BSink or swim. rich and poor. an e!act manJ readin".B B%he thin"s which ?that@ are seen are temporal.B B-iberal. was very modest. however. # sho7ld deny the concl7sion. and love. BAny one that re 7ses to earn an honest livelihood." ">ho to the enrapt$red heart. tri$mphs.B B%hat the work o ormin" and per ectin" the character is di ic7lt. # sayJ yo7r mind perhaps may chan"e.B %he comma is 7sed a ter adAectives. yet comelyJ and tho7"h rash. riendship and enmity. he .B B%ell me. and melody.73 be.B BAnd he. B%ho7"h deep. virt$e.B B.B B.B B$inally.onversation makes a ready manJ writin". "ratit7de and reven"e. %he name or desi"nation o a person addressed is isolated by commas. chastised his oes.B B/r. B%he mathematician Newton was very modest. come here.B B/r.B B%hat he had persistently disre"arded every warnin" and persevered in his reckless co7rse. divine. . as.B B# the premises were admitted. they set o7t. # will do as yo7 say.B B%he sailor who ?that@ is not s7perstitio7s will embark any day. had not yet 7ndermined his credit with his d7pes.B B&verythin" bein" ready.B A restrictive cla7se is not separated by a comma rom the no7n.B Adverbial phrases and cla7ses be"innin" a sentence are set o by commas.B BWe then proceeded on o7r way. "onne"ts and e7$als all.ea$ty. no7ns. 3rown. and made his conC7est sec7re. B#t to7ches yo7.B BO7r civiliDation is there ore not an 7nmi!ed "ood. # co7ld not tell.B %he comma is 7sed to separate adAectives in opposition. my lord.B commas are not 7sed. is not an obAect o charity. as well as me. shall rank amon" my peers. the reason will be o7nd. were involved. live or die.B . beni"n. honor and shame. is "enerally allowed. let me s7m 7p the ar"7ment. there will yo7r heart be also.B BHe preaches s7blimely who ?that@ lives a holy li e.B and B%he &mperor Napoleon was a "reat soldier. yet clearJ tho7"h "entle.B A lon" s7bAect is o ten separated rom the predicate by a comma.resident. # "ive my hand and heart to this vote.B BJohn.B A ter a nominative. b7t closely connected. my obAect is peace." 025@BNewton.B #n s7ch sentences.B Words 7sed in apposition sho7ld be isolated by commas.B B%ho7"h black. B%o err is h7manJ to or"ive. s7rvive or perish. in others. set J7stice on her seat.—BOld and yo7n". the "reat mathematician. and ear. where the verb is 7nderstood.B B%he circ7mstance o his bein" 7nprepared to adopt immediate and decisive meas7res. and eyeTea"h . not lavish. spoils*hr$nk to this little meas$re6" "9e fills.o$nds.B B#nterest and ambition.

B . that e!pressin" p7rpose Mso that.B BEnited." 0QL@is do7bly pleasant to those who labor. nor.B A comma m7st not be placed be ore that e!cept when it is eC7ivalent to in order that. and other conA7nctions. brilliant. %he ollowin" sentences present some miscellaneo7s e!amples o the 7se o the comma by writers on p7nct7ation* B#nd7stry. and to be distr7sted and betrayed even by riends— s7ch is too o ten the ate o "eni7s. virt7e. not the webJ and wit the ornament?.B BWhat is oreordained to be. spri"htly "irl. A7"7st. we standJ divided. # say 7nto yo7.B B%o be overlooked.B B*hen you are in doubt as to the propriety of inserting commas$ omit themJ #% #S 3&%%&( %O HAH& %OO $&W %HAN %OO /AN'.B B.B BShe is tall.B BJ7ly O0. is essential to the prod7ction o "reat works.B B(oom OL. +.B BWhatever is.resident 6ar ield was shot. 0440J he died. and ne"lectedJ to be mis7nderstood. the colon is to be pre erred* B.B B/an proposes. b7t 6od disposes.la7ses in opposition are separated by a semicolon when the second is introd7ced by an adversative* BStraws swim at the s7r aceJ b7t pearls lie at the bottomBJ B-yin" lips are an abomination to the -ordJ b7t they that deal tr7ly are his deli"ht. Sat7rday mornin". as well as "eni7s. (. this is rank inA7stice. $.B BWell. ollow the dictates o yo7r inclination.B B6od said. J7ly O.B B%o those who labor." 02K@sentences. when the en7nciation o partic7lars is preceded by a colon* B%he . sir. B3e virt7o7s.B B%hose who persevere. tho7"h not so handsome as her sister.B Witho7t a comma be ore or a ter only. very respect 7lly. sli"hted. we distr7st him.B BNew 'ork. tall.B—G7ackenbos.rosperity showeth vice* adversity. or the most part. because.B B-ove not sleep. when introd7ced so as not to inter ere with the harmonio7s low o the periodJ and. s7cceed.lain and honest tr7th wants no arti icial coverin". John Jones. in order thatN. therefore. not by the acC7isition o territory or riches. and the vileJ to be cr7shed by oes. -et there be li"ht.B?OQ@ A comma is placed between short members o compo7nd?. lest yo7 come to poverty.B B# am.B BA C7ick. the meanin" o this sentence is do7bt 7l. misrepresented. was a patron o the ine arts. S. but. st7dio7s. pleasin". /.B Witho7t the adversative. also.B?O5@ BHowever airly a bad man may appear to act. /onday ni"ht. a comma is placed a ter each e!cept the lastJ there 7sa"e omits the point.B BHerily. the &mperor. sleep is do7bly pleasantBJ BSleep?. Sept. B%ime and tide wait or no man.rosperity is sec7red to a state.74 #n a series o adAectives that precede their no7n. 0440. b7t by the enco7ra"ement o ind7stry. 0440.—(easons are preceded by semicolonsJ B&conomy is no dis"raceJ or it is better to live on a little than to o7tlive a "reat deal. yo7r obedient servant.B B%he &mperor A7"7st7s was a patron o the ine arts. BHe who p7rs7es pleas7re only de eats the obAect o his creation." 0Q0@o the mind. will be.B BWhy. not the 7rnit7re. verily. partic7larly.B A comma is sometimes necessary to prevent ambi"7ity. 0440. &C7itable 37ildin". and.B BA rich and prospero7s people.B %he thin"s en7merated m7st be separated by semicolons.B B. learned man. %H& S&/#.B B. 0K. willowy.B B'o7r manners are a able. connected by and.B %he "reat divisions o a sentence m7st be pointed with a semicolon when the minor divisions are pointed with commas* B/irth sho7ld be the embroidery o conversation. is ri"ht.B B%he comma may be omitted in the case o too. and slanderedJ to be trampled 7nder oot by the envio7s. when the sentence is short.O-ON. or. BA bea7ti 7l.B BA7"7st7s. the i"norant.whereas.B A comma m7st not be placed be ore and when it connects two words only.. we all.B?O4@ B(obert Horton. New 'ork. and perhaps. for. BHe says that he will be here. that yo7 may be respected. 3roadway.

or other matter. as they b7sied themselves abo7t the ho7sehold—were victims to an enemy. as they "amboled on the beachJ reapers. 'A simpleton.B B-ord 3acon has s7mmed 7p the whole matter in the ollowin" words* 'A little philosophy inclineth men's minds to atheismJ b7t depth in philosophy brin"eth men's minds to reli"ion.—Fryden.B B(eason as we may. are properly preceded by a colon. and others we can not do* we can walk. B'o7 have called yo7rsel an atom in the 7niverseJ yo7 have said that yo7 are b7t an insect in the solar blaDe* is yo7r present pride consistent with these pro essionsRB BA cla7se is either independent or dependent* independent.'B Some writers wo7ld p7t a colon. even by the comma. when introd7ced by s7ch phrases as in these words. B. a ter say.B B. and the p7rs7it o happiness.B etc.O-ON.?OK@ . Bit is "enerally preceded by a commaJ i lon".B %H& . When the C7otation. i short. by a colonJ as.e&an1+0reat 7$een.—%his point is less 7sed now than ormerly* its place is s7pplied by the period. and direct C7otations. liberty. B%o "et rid o ools. the semicolon. asked him. BWhat a ords wise men the?. the . BWhen the C7oted passa"e is bro7"ht in witho7t any introd7ctory word. thus. "#ll were attentive to the &odlike man>hen from his lofty "o$"h he th$s . ollowed with a dashJ as. i it orms an assertion by itsel J dependent. we are. when the lesser breaks are marked by semicolons.omplete sentences are always ollowed either by a period.75 val7e o a ma!im depends on o7r thin"s* the correctness o the principle it embodiesJ the s7bAect to which it relatesJ the e!tent o its applicationJ and the ease with which it may be practically carried o7t.+" et".B A colon is sometimes 7sed instead o a period to separate two short sentences. the sa"e replied. etc.B %H& . When several s7ccessive cla7ses have a common connection with a precedin" or ollowin" cla7se.&(#O+.+" et". it is preceded by a semicolon.hildren. be"ins a new para"raph. who disappeared the moment a blow was str7ck. the colon is. BWe hold these tr7ths to be sel 8evident* that all men are created eC7alJ that they are endowed by their . the ." 0QO@"reatest pleas7reRB %7rnin" on his heel.. B%he cloth bein" removed.resident rose and said*— "+Dadies and &entlemen. BNever?.'B B%he h7man amily is composed o ive races* irst. the /on"olianJ third. these.B BSome thin"s we can.B says G7ackenbos.B'B $ormal en7merations o partic7lars. %he colon is 7sed to mark the "reater breaks in sentences. it is impossible not to read in s7ch a ate m7ch that we know not how to interpretJ m7ch o provocation to cr7el deeds and deep resentmentJ m7ch o apolo"y or wron" and per idyJ m7ch o do7bt and mis"ivin" as to the pastJ m7ch o pain 7l recollectionsJ m7ch o dark orebodin".as follows. as they "athered the harvestJ mowers. as they rested rom 7sin" the scytheJ mothers. namely. which are closely connected. i it enters into some other cla7se with the val7e o a part o speech. or the dashJ and sometimes. %he colon is 7sed very di erently by di erent writers.—.reator with certain inalienable ri"htsJ that amon" these are li e. meetin" a philosopher.hilosophers assert that Nat7re is 7nlimitedJ that her treas7res are endlessJ that the increase o knowled"e will never cease. BHe was heard to say.B When as introd7ces an e!ample. the. by many writers. the following. this. they are separated by semicolonsJ as. '# have done with this world." 0Q1@ latter people* leave that to s7ch as mean to betray them.a7casianJ second. b7t we can not ly. some a comma. or by an e!clamation or an interro"ation point.

.O#N%. 'the dash' is a cover or i"norance as to the 7se o points. &loc7tionist.artha"e. and it can answer no other p7rpose. like /r. W. rom this time orth. as we see rom the ollowin"* B-et me ca7tion yo7 a"ainst the 7se o what. how profo$nd8"—Bo$n&.. #t is very o ten preceded by another point. is called the dash.' witho7t meas7re. (. the halfinch. $. BAnd?." 0Q2@H7itDilopochtli—a sweet name to roll 7nder one's ton"7e— or how many years has this venerable war8"od blinked in the noonday s7nTB B.J Jas.—%his mark is placed a ter interAections.ity. Jr. -o7is. Han Nostrand.le &oddess8 from her e. '# am rich—# was poor—# shall be poor a"ain. dry 7p my brainsTB B+ear maid. %he dash is the proper point with which to mark an 7ne!pected or emphatic pa7se. alas. +. or a s7dden break or transition.erin& world. -ondon.B "9e s$ffered—. b7t never by an e!clamation8point.hila.B B'o7 are— no. St.obbett was wron".J Jno. /orris. 'Wo7ldn't it be too bad. /o. BUo7ndsT the man's in earnest. sa. and not or"otten yetRB?. %he dash is a stroke alon" the lineJ th7s. '. (.. B%he child still livesRB #t sho7ld not be 7sed when the C7estion is reported indirectly. #'ll not tell yo7 what yo7 are.—%his point is 7sed a ter C7estions p7t by the writer. BHe asked me where # was "oin".B %his is one o the ew instances in which . 4 9ope8 with eyes so fair. %he di erence between BWhat's thatRB and BWhat's thatTB is obvio7s.obbett did not avor the 7se o this mark. a ter all—no. to place thedash amon"st the grammatical points..B &S. BWhat can # do or yo7RB BWhere are yo7 "oin"RB BWhat do yo7 sayRB cried the 6eneral. B6reece. #t will be observed that the interAection O is an e!ception to the r7le* it is o ten ollowed by a comma. #N%&((O6A%#ON8.>hat was thy deli&hted meas$re6"—. it comesTB B(est.B B%he J7d"e asked the witness i he believed the man to be "7ilty.. how dead8 and darkness.' %his is wild work indeedT Who is to know what is intended by these dashesR %hose who have tho7"ht proper.—. pert7rbed spiritTB BO heat.B B. recallin" the everish scenes that occ7rred when the .rowds "athered abo7t the newspaper b7lletins.76 %he period is also 7sed a ter abbreviationsJ as.a.B BO rose o /ayTB BOh. %he inch.$t his pan&s are o+er)@n2oyed—.*ilen"e. . o7"ht to "ive 7s some r7le relative to its di erent lon"it7dinal dimensions in di erent cases.on throne. ":$t tho$. and a ter solemn invocations and addresses. New 'ork . +. by some.—where are theyRB BHe chastensJ—b7t he chastens to save. 3.resident's li e was tho7"ht to be han"in" by a thread.O#N%.!n rayless ma2esty now stret"hes forth9er leaden s"epter o+er a sl$m. . Wallack. kind sister. -indley /7rray." 0QF@ "5i&ht."—=ont&omery.J Jas. m7st be a perilo7s thin" or the yo7n" "rammarian to handle. #n short. the quarter-inch* these wo7ld be somethin" determinateJ b7t 'the dash. my tho7"hts be bloody or be nothin" worthTB BO heavensT die two months a"o.' said one. N. An e!clamation8point sometimes "ives the same words C7ite another meanin".ollins.shawT what can we doRB B3ahT what's that to meRB B#ndeedT then # m7st look to it.B . sweet OpheliaTB BWhile in this part o the co7ntry.-A/A%#ON8. "9ail. rest. and a ter C7estions reported directly.B B-ook. holy li&ht8 offsprin& of heaven 2$st . /. with what melancholy presentimentsT—the home o my yo7th.orn8"—=ilton. # won't allow mysel to think o it. &n".$t his deli&hts are fled)9ad friends—his friends are now no more)#nd foes—his foes are dead. a ter sentences and cla7ses o sentences o passionate import. (ome. 'i .'B BWas there ever—b7t # scorn to boast. %H& +ASH. # once more revisited—and. 3. the three-quarter-inch. (oberts. my lord. S.

rono7ns are 7s7ally capitaliDed when they re er to the +eity. . 5uantity sho7ld be 7sed in speakin" o what is meas7red or wei"hedJ number.A(&N%H&S#S. probably beca7se it dis i"7res the pa"e less.onstit7tion perpet7al—which 6od "rant it may beT—it is necessary that its bene its sho7ld be practically elt by all parts o the co7ntry.B . %his word is o ten improperly 7sed ornumber. '01. and take o7t the x's. 3rown's ho7seJ the kin"'s commandJ /oses' sta J or conscience' sakeJ the boys' "arden. and o the Hir"in /ary m7st be"in with a capital. and which mi"ht be omitted witho7t detriment to the "rammatical constr7ction. o the days o the week. the /ayor o 3oston. %he dash is pre erred. when 7sed to desi"nate partic7lar persons.hrist. %his word is m7ch pre erred to its synonym buy. Also to denote the possessive caseJ as. '40J('ve or ( haveJ you'll or you willJ 'tis or it isJ don't ordo notJ can't or can notJ #t was in the year 'K1J the spirit o '5QJ #t was in the years 040O. %H& . by that class o people who pre er the word reside tolive.roper names. and who wo7ld be "reater still i they were to pretend to all they have to pretend to. %H& A. Also with s to denote the pl7ral o letters.lessin& findH!s not to a"t or think . procure to get. are capitaliDedJ as. %he bracket is o ten 7sed in this book. the 3aron replied. and no7ns and adAectives ormed rom proper names. o Jes7s .OS&.—%his mark is comparatively little 7sed nowadays. the . %he o ice o the parenthesis is to isolate a phrase which is merely incidental. o the %rinity. and '0F. dot yo7r i's. All names o the +eity.Cirt$e alone is happiness . P+rc4as!.—%his mark is 7sed principally to inclose words improperly omitted by the writer. and si"nsJ as.A. as a r7le. :+an$i$'.ardinal presided. %hese divisions?. every line o verse.—#n writin" or the press. o what is co7nted. "Enow then this tr$th Geno$&h for man to knowH. .liss of man G"o$ld pride that .—%his point is 7sed to denote the omission o letters and sometimes o i"7resJ as. the several topics treated o sho7ld.77 +ashes are m7ch 7sed where parentheses were ormerly employed. the &arl o +7nraven. or words introd7ced or the p7rpose o e!planation or to correct an error. Jan'y. the division o matter into para"raphs is o ten C7ite arbitraryJ in letter8writin"."—Pope. are capitaliDed. %itles o nobility and o hi"h o ice. i not "rammatical—acC7ired m7ch c7rrency." 3(A.(O. B#n the days o %weed the e!pression to divide air— orcible. on the contrary. See .B B%o render the .—A capital letter sho7ld be"in every sentence. i"7res.)&%S.H.#%A-S. be isolated by para"raphic divisions. names o streets.elow.H&.B B#n tr7th. the character o the "reat chie was depicted two tho7sand ive h7ndred years be ore his birth. o the months." 0Q5@"ive one's letters a shapely appearance that they otherwise never have.A(A6(A. and every direct C7otation. . P+r(#s!. and depicted—s7ch is the power o "eni7s—in colors which will be resh as many years a ter his death.OS%(O. and so on.%P& '66( "The .ross yo7r t's.eyond mankind. and mind yo7r p's andq'sJ make yo7r 2's better. &!amples* BWhat quantity o . . and o the holidays. inaugurate to begin. %hey are "enerally o those who are "reat in pretense.

B#t is quitewarmBJ BShe is quite tallBJ BHe is quite pro icient. to stopJ as. railway—stop or passen"ers. BShe is C7ite the lady. to orsakeJ as. %his word is m7ch mis7sed or rendering. %he sentence above sho7ld read. Ra$i#cina$!. and ar"7e that. may C7ali y an adAective. or the points rom which they start and at which they arrive.&. is sometimes p7t to stran"e 7ses. 7llyJ and this is the sense in which it was 7sed by the early writers o &n"lish. in conseC7ence o bein" ill8 ormed.B etc. R!&ia &!. B%he e!cellence o /r.B etc.?. quite a n7mber. meanin". R!(&'.B etc. %his word ori"inally meant completely. to "o away rom.B etc. realan"ry. quite an amo7nt. 055. See . p. Rar!&'. and so on. %o those who contend or B#t is very rarely that.eter and Sir Antony.B etc. #n America. real c7te.B %his is the only sense in which the &n"lish 7se it.B is a vile phrase. accordin" to "ood modern 7sa"e. :+i$!. tr7st. it is "enerally 7sed in the sense o to leave o . b7t not a no7n. Brarely C7ali ies a verb—the verb to be.%EA%&. and whatnumber o pineapplesRB B+elaware prod7ces a lar"equantity o peaches and a lar"e number o melons. totally. "endition means the act o yieldin" possession. . %his word.—BAppletons' Jo7rnal.B and so on.5uite. real nice. properly..B :+i$. are.B etc. B37t. &!ample* B(esolved. to declare worthy o esteem.B says the de ender o this phraseolo"y. Rais! $4! r!n$. 0440.. that the ta!8payers o the co7nty be recommended to meet.7 apples have yo7. better. %his is a modern word which is o ten met?. i written o7t in 7ll.—%his word means. BShe is very or quite ladylike." 0QK@withJ b7t it is not 7sed by o7r care 7l writers. &!ample* B%he e!cellence o /r. R!a&. What the resolvin" "entlemen meant was. #t is no 7ncommon thin" to see this adverb improperly 7sed in s7ch sentences as. entirely.B $ebr7ary. Sir . or B%he circ7mstance is a very rare one that. s7rrender. BAva7ntT quit my si"ht.—%his adAective is o ten v7l"arly 7sed in the sense o the adverb veryJ th7s. B#t is a very rare thin" that. 6ilbert's rendition o certain characters.B Sometimes it is incorrectly 7sed in the sense o considerableJ as. See ANSW&(.B Rai&r#a* D!(#$. or avor. %he sentence. %hey pre er its synonym trustworthy. quite a ort7ne. See 3A-AN. See &$$&. that the ta!8payers sho7ld be counseled to meet. or instance. per ectly. 6ilbert's rendering. R!*+n*anc'. #t is very sadlythat persons o c7lt7re will write and then de end—or rather try to de end—s7ch "rammar. R!-ain*!r. is not eC7aled. # wo7ld say. real pretty. #t is now o ten 7sed in the sense o ratherJ as. Rai&2a'. $ew thin"s are more o ensive to astidio7s ears than to hear a railway station called a depot. which means to commend or praise to another. or B#t is a very rare occ7rrence that. to leave. R!n*i$i#n.B Not at all.. "endition is also sometimes improperly 7sed or performance. An e!pression incorrectly 7sed orincrease the rent. properly. %he &n"lish pre er this word to railroad.B etc. R!c#--!n*.-&ONAS/. B5uit yo7r nonsenseBJ B5uit la7"hin"BJ B5uit yo7r noiseBJ BHe has quit smokin".B etc." 0Q4@A depot is properly a place where "oods or stores o any kind are keptJ and the places at which the trains o a railroad—or. reliable can not possibly have the si"ni ication in which it is 7sed. as the rendition o a town or ortress. the stations. B#t is very rarelythat the p7ppets o the romancer ass7me. wo7ld be.

Whether an Americanism or not. or in any kind o vehicle or carria"e. irony—and embellished with the i"7res o ill7stration. &mphatically.rabb says that sarcasm is the ind7l"ence only o personal resentment. says that we m7st always 7se the second o these words when we speak o "oin" o7t in a carria"e.B Webster "ives impatient.%&(. #n speakin" o a man's domicile. Sarcas-. #t is only the over8nice who 7se retire in the sense o go to bed. "Tr$e ease in writin& "omes from art. Witho7t some st7dy o the art o composition. it is not only in better taste b7t more correct to 7se the term housethan residence.B Ri04$. . Some o the dictionaries.orrectly. %he e!pressions Bri"ht hereB and Bri"ht thereB are Americanisms. See . ." 050@sense o 7nd7latin" is said to be an Americanism. R!si*!nc!. accordin" to all the le!ico"raphers. R4!$#ric. R+ !rs.?. (ichard 6rant White. inn7endo. Sa a$4.B R#&&in0. %his word. o this 7se o restive. or to A7d"e the literary work o others. they sho7ld.73 R!(+$a$i#n. A man has a residence in New 'ork. in de iance o "ood taste. standin" still st7bbornly.#s those move easiest who have learned to dan"e. that it was 7nA7st to ta! them. or -ord's day. %he art which has or its obAect the renderin" o lan"7a"e e ective is called rhetoric. #s 7ses the little word live. means 7nwillin" to "o. rom o7r literat7re. by some people. to do service or ought. both in &n"land and in this co7ntry. B%hey wereunder no obligation to pay ta!es.HA(A. B'o7 sho7ld have told me.B meanin". st7bborn. and is never A7sti iable. %he 7se o this participial adAective in the?.7ritans. Ri04$ 4!r!. /any persons are in do7bt whether they sho7ld or sho7ld not p7t the be ore these adAectives. 7sed or overshoes. this word is made. Sin"7larly eno7"h. R!s$i)!. %he ormerbuy thin"sJ the latter purchase them. in common with gums andarctics. not "han"e. R!si*!." 05L@as a second meanin"J and this is the sense in which the word is nearly always 7sed. R!s$. R!)!r!n*%H#n#ra &!. obstinate.B B%he . and nothin" else.B by &dward S. . A bi" word that /r." Ri*!%Dri)!.unday. B'o7 had a right to tell me.olonists contended that they had no right to pay ta!es. contend that this word. 6o7ld. altho7"hride means. Nowadays it is little 7sed in this sense. Wo7ldbe 7ses where /r. is o ten. can be prod7ced. it wo7ld seem to be C7ite 7nobAectionable. by the . when properly 7sed. $itDedward Hall says* BHery ew instances. when he has lived here lon" eno7"h to have the ri"ht to e!ercise the ranchise hereJ and he may have a house in $i th Aven7e where he lives.eople who are live in ho7sesJ people who would be reside in residences. in duty bound.B by (ichard 6rant White. 3ain says that sarcasm is vit7peration so tened in the o7tward e!pression by the arts and i"7res o dis"7ise—epi"ram. 7neasy. See BWords and %heir Eses. %his term was irst 7sed in &n"lish or S7nday. or a 7ll disc7ssion o the C7estionJ also B6ood &n"lish. e.B i.. %he word to 7se is . $ashion. no one can e!pect to write well. 7nderobligation toJ th7s. Bto be carried on a horse or other animal.&. #n combatin" this opinion.B meanin". and some other writers. R!$ir!. See 3A-AN. yes. # apprehend. BA7st hereB and BA7st there. .

in his B&n"lish Synonymes. We say.B—. to plantJ?. place yo7rsel on a seat.B when the meanin" intended is.sitting.B S!ra(4i-.B i.B i. %o setJ imper ect tense. state..A%&. e.on"ress sits.B B# never went to the theatre in my li e. its obAect bein" the re ormation o ab7ses.B S!$$&!.?. -O.B We set down i"7res. e." 051@to p7t in any place. S!c$i#n. When thin"s are not what they appear. will not "o to bedJ B. toset apart. too. is said to be a Westernism. S!!-%A((!ar. %osit means to rest on the lower part o the body. S!$%Si$. A lampoon. %o set means to p7t. nei"hborhood. to set aside. B. there ore. o7r A7d"ment is at a7lt. e. BOne o theseraphim. Satire is "eneral rather than individ7al. and a hensits on e""s. S!&*#. is called satire. payo7r hotel8bills. which has been de ined as a personal satire. %he imper ect tense o the verb to see is carelessly 7sed by "ood writers and speakers when they sho7ld 7se the per ectJ th7s. or was less the man he seemed to be. See.B or Bseldom or never. 6arments sit well or otherwise. when the period o time re erred to e!tends to the time when the statement is made. %hin"s appear as they present themselves to the eyeJ they seem as they are represented to the mind. We pay o7r way. b7t they are hardly as commonJ yet we o ten hear s7ch e!pressions as.B instead o have been in . when he cared less to keep on the mask. as ar as we can A7d"e by o7r senses. B# was never in . etc. %his is the pl7ral o seraph. satJ participles. %he holdin" 7p to ridic7le o the ollies and weaknesses o mankind. i not incorrectly.hiladelphia.B says o these two words* BWhat seems is in the mindJ what appears is e!ternal. to set a"ainst. to perch. . to set "oin". %he 7se o this word or re"ion..erception and sensation have to do with appearin"J re lection and comparison. setting. Bas cross as a sitting?not. pay o7r are. by way o reb7ke. o ten disre"arded. S4a&& an* Wi&&.. and is intended to inA7re rather than to re orm.#r !)!r. and the down.B BNo man had ever a "reater power over himsel . as a setting@ hen. with seemin".B B%o %hee cher7bim and seraphim contin7ally do cry. We say. B# never saw anythin" like it be ore. sat. condition. to set o7t.hiladelphia. to set down Mto p7t in writin"N. %he nice distinctions that sho7ld be made between these two a7!iliaries are. 7sed or pay. %his phrase sho7ld be Bseldom ifever. attacks the individ7al rather than his a7lt. %o sitJ imper ect tense." 05O@-ike mistakes are made in the 7se o other verbs. and that. vicinity. and have gone to the theatre. %hin"s appear "ood or bad. . B# never saw anythin" like it when ( was in arisBJ b7t. to repose on a seat. so does a co7rt.B Sa2.larendon. B# have sat 7p lon" eno7"h. %his word is o ten inele"antly. also. or post7re. set. 6raham. B# have never ?in all my li e@ seen anythin" like it be ore ?7ntil now@.< Sa$ir!. Said Sheridan* BSatires and lampoons on partic7lar people circ7late more by "ivin" copies in con idence to the riends o the parties than by printin" them. it m7st be have seen. %he proper 7se o shalland will can m7ch better be learned rom e!ample than rom .H&(E3#/. We set a hen. setJ participles. to set abo7t. A section is a division o the p7blic lands containin" si! h7ndred and orty acres. o7r senses are deceivedJ when thin"s are not what they seem.B We say properly. We sit a horse and we sit or a portrait. by persons o hi"h c7lt7re. b7t we sit down on the "ro7nd.B See . in some parts o the &n"lish8speakin" world. %he ormer o these two verbs is o ten incorrectly 7sed or the latter. which shortly a ter appearedto everybody. part Mo the town or co7ntryN. to place.B i. We sho7ld 7p. rise rom lyin" to sittin"J BWe will sit 7p. %hin"s seem ri"ht or wron" as we determine by re lection. as a bird.B B# have set it on the table.

and shall try to arrive by noon.B A clever writer on the 7se o shall and will says that whatever concerns one's belie s. B#t is reC7ested that no one will leave the room.B # convey the impression that my "oin" depends 7pon circ7mstances within my control—that my "oin" or not depends on mere inclination. # will have the headacheTB We reC7est that people will do th7s or so. B'o7 shall hear me o7t. in an affirmative sentence$ in the first person$ and W#-. %h7s. %h7s. B# will ?# promise to@ assist yo7. do so 7nconscio7slyJ it is simply habit with them.hall yo7 demand indemnityRB B. B*ill yo7 have an appleRB B*ill yo7 "o with me to my 7ncle'sRB B*ill he be o the partyRB B*ill they be willin" to receive 7sRB BWhen will he be hereRB *ill can not be 7sed interro"atively in the irst person sin"7lar or pl7ral.B B# shall notJ # shall wait or better weather. B# shall "o to town to8morrow.hall # "o with yo7RB BWhenshall we see yo7 a"ainRB BWhen shall # receive itRB BWhen shall # "et wellRB BWhen shall we "et thereRB B. /any persons who 7se the second and third persons$ merely announce future action. in an interrogative sentence$ in the second person$ as!s concerning the wish$ and$ in the third person$ concerning the purpose or future action of others. in an interrogative sentence$ in the first and third persons$ consults the will or #udgment of another= in the second person$ it inquires concerning the intention or future action of another.B B'o7 willbe pleased. conveys its commands in the you-will orm instead o the strictly "rammatical you-shall orm.hall is rarely. 7sed or willJ it is will that is 7sed or shall.hall yo7 "o to town to8morrowRB BWhatshall yo7 do abo7t itRB W#--.hall he come with 7sRB B. in an affirmative sentence$ in the second and third persons$ announces the spea!er's intention to control.B B'o7 shall "o. ears.B BWe shall?. can not be e!pressed in conA7nction with ( will.B . with well8ni"h 7nerrin" correctness. -et 7s see* B/ary.B B# shall soon be twenty.B B'o7 will ind him honest.' precept. B*ill # "oRB B*ill# help yo7RB B*ill # be lateRB B*ill we "et there in timeRB B*ill we see yo7 a"ain soonRB O icial co7rtesy.B # convey the impression that my "oin" depends 7pon circ7mstances beyond my controlJ b7t i # say. i ever.hiladelphia to8morrow. and also shouldand would.B %he writer re erred to asks.B BHe shall be my heir. '# willhave the headache'RB # answer. likes." 052@comp7lsion.B B%hey shall "o.B BWe will have . B# ear that # shalllose itBJ B# hope that # shall be wellBJ B# believe that #shall have the a"7eBJ B# hope that # shall not be le t aloneBJ B# ear that we shall have bad weatherBJ B#shall dislike the co7ntryBJ B# shall like the per ormance.B BWe shallbe "lad to see yo7.B B'o7 will soon be twenty. where yo7 will ind 7rther instr7ctions awaitin" yo7. hopes. B# think # shall"o to .B BWe will ?we promise to@ come to yo7 in the mornin".B W#--. or e!ample. %h7s. B# think # will "o to . as every yo7n" woman knows. tho7"h their c7lt7re may be limited. We can not say. will receive a sort o verbal shock rom 3iddy's inC7iry. B'o7 will proceed to )ey West. and they. yo7 know yo7 promised John to drive o7t with him to8morrowJ how shallyo7 "et o7t o itRB BOh. &!pressions like the ollowin" are common* BWhere will yo7 be ne!t weekRB B# will be at home. Are there no e!ceptions to this r7leR # # say." 05F@set o7t early. %h7s. SHA--. and not that they shall.B BHe will "o with 7s. ma'amRB when yo7r #rish or Scotch co7ntess wo7ld not be in the least dist7rbed by it.hiladelphia to8morrow.B B# will ?# am determined to@ have my ri"ht. in order to avoid the semblance o ?. B*ill # p7t the kettle on.B SHA--. BHow can one say. %h7s. B. #t says. in the first person$ expresses a promise$ announces the spea!er's intention to control$ proclaims a determination.B SHA--. %h7s. or dislikes. sick or well. We certainly m7st say. Hery easily. whether they want to "o or not.

whether this is a store that makes a specialty o 6erman laces.B or B6erman -ace8StoreBN.B B# knew that # should be ill. notover.B B# should notJ # should wait or better weather. alse "rammar. Nothin" is more common than erroneo7s p7nct7ation in si"ns. (ather than call it shimmy.B %he reason "iven in Webster's +ictionary or pre errin" the 7se o under is abs7rdJ viD.orrect speakers say.lemens writes under the si"nat7re o B/ark %wain.B B#should like to "o to town. Sam7el -. Bsick at the stomach.B BWe should be "lad to see yo7.ic!. %he bad taste.B BEnder the si"nat7re o 3oDB means B7nder the dis"7ise o the ass7med name 3oD.B BHow will yo7 "o abo7t itRB BWhen will yo7 be"inRB BWhen will yo7 set o7tRB BWhat will yo7 do with itRB #n all s7ch e!pressions.harles +ickens wrote under the si"nat7re o B3oDBJ /r. as it o ten is. .B BEnder his own si"nat7reB or BnameB means B7nder his own character.B B# knew # should dislike the co7ntry. and "ross mistakes by the 7nlettered in the wordin" o the simplest printed matter.B B# should have been ill i # had "one. B# should "o to town to8morrow i # had a horse. %he e!pression is elliptical. the word denotes a man's shirt.hould and would ollow the re"imen o shall and will. that they have or sale . #n this co7ntry.B B# should so like to "o to &7ropeTB B# should pre er to see it irst.B Si0na$+r!9 #)!r #r +n*!r. An advertisement tells 7s that Ba pillow which assists in proc7rin"?. however. and will not ?determination@ 7nless compelled to. BWe derive rom the $rench lan"7a"e o7r word chemise—prono7nced shemmeeze. when it is a C7estion o mere 7t7re action on?. pants.B B# tho7"ht # should have the a"7e. and has no re erence to the position either o the si"nat7re or o the paper. A man writes under. (ll is 7sed in &n"land more than with 7s* there sic! is "enerally limited to the e!pressin" o na7seaJ as. See OE6H%.*ould is o ten 7sed or shouldJ should rarely or would.B B# hoped that # should see him." 055@word to 7se. and would "o i # co7ld. as well as the 7nder "arment worn by women. it is o ten prono7nced by people who sho7ld know better—shimmy.B—BH7l"arisms and Other &rrors o Speech. i the weather had been clear. #n one o the principal b7siness streets o New 'ork there is a si"n which reads. ." 054@sleep is a benedictionBJ a placard. is the stron"er word. a si"nat7re. res7me the 7se o the old &n"lish wordsshift and smoc!. is somethin" that the si"n do7btless means to tell 7s. are really s7rprisin". or whether it is a store where all kinds o lace are sold. and in advertisements. the a7!iliary m7st be shall. tho7"h the date be placed. .B B# was a raid that we should have bad weather.B B#would assist yo7 i # co7ld. .B Now. and ridic7lo7s nonsense met with on si"ns and placards.B B# shouldbe deli"hted.harlottede (7sseB or sale within. Sic1%I&&.2 dinner at si! o'clock.B We always write under a certain date.B B# would # were home a"ainTB B# should"o ishin" to8day i # were home.B B# should be "lad to have yo7 s7p with me.B S4#+&*. B6erman -ace Store. #n $rench. that they have B. %hese words are o ten 7sed indiscriminately. kept by a 6erman or a ter the 6erman ashion.B BWe shouldhave started earlier. gums. Si0ns. witho7t dis"7ise.B S4i--'. 6ood 7sa"e 7nC7ali iedly condemnsgents." 05Q@the part o the person speakin" or spoken to. which means. owin" to the absence o a hyphen MB6erman8-ace Store. and "enerally the better?. i it means anythin".. does not tell 7s. and shimmy.B B#should not like to do it. .B B# eared that #should lose it. that the paper is under the hand in writin". b7t. and not will. !ids. at the bottom o the pa"e. B6iven 7nder my hand and sealB means B7nder the "7arantee o my si"nat7re and my seal. incorrect p7nct7ation.B B# hoped that # shouldnot be le t alone.

so much so ?lar"eR@ as to ta! the capacity o the di erent lines. See . rises silent to thee. S-!&& #3. to which an arbitrary meanin" is "iven.ladders.owper.elieves his own. B%he shipments by the coast steamers are very lar"e. so large as to ta!. +r. Bnot lon"B or Bsome timeago ?a"one@.oys that swim on . "enerally coarse. See ASJ SE. deep in my . Ago is derived rom the participle agone. 0440. B%he shipments by the coast steamers are very lar"e. Johnson's r7le will hardly s7 ice as a s7re "7ide."— Pope. S#&!cis-.B +r." 05K@preposition. '#t is a year ago. down in the s$nless retreats of the o"ean. b7t it is sa e to assert that they are always persons o coarse nat7res. on how many si"ns do we see the possessive case when the pl7ral n7mber is intendedT Si-i&!."— . S#. See S&%. See . b7t ago never or since. #t is "enerally denoted by li!e. a direct and ormal comparison is called a simile."—*hakespeare. there ore.B—B%ele"ram. See %AS%& O$.$i e little wanton . the ormer—sang—is to be pre erred. S# -+c4 s#. BAs no roads are so ro7"h as those that have A7st been mended. B. Sinc!%A0#.ince he was here. we 7se sinceJ as. #n rhetoric.(#/&. the prayer of devotion.3 somebody or somethin" called . S-ar$. Johnson says o these two adverbs* B(eckonin" time toward the present. then. as c7stoms chan"e. We sometimes meet with persons o considerable c7lt7re who interlard their talk with slan" e!pressions." "Thy smile is as the dawn of vernal day. "! have vent$red.rin&s forth the fo$lest deeds.HJ %HA%.. "0ra"e a.B .ince is o ten 7sed or ago. yet ea"h .B—B-acon.As ri"hest soil the most l$-$riant weeds.osom. O the two orms—sang and sung— or the imper ect tense o the verb to sing. perhaps. S&an0.$sed .B etc. there is nothin" that is more to be sh7nned.B September 0K. we 7se agoJ as."— =oore. Si$. while since comes rom a?. so no sinners are so intolerant as those who have A7st t7rned saints.These many s$mmers in a sea of &lory. %he slan" that is heard amon" respectable people is made 7p o "en7ine words. orsoJ as. and not 7n reC7ently oolish.B Sin0. . 37t.ince reC7ires a verbal cla7se a ter itJ as. "+Tis with o$r 2$d&ments as with o$r wat"hes) none0o 2$st alike. #t is always low. "As.B Sin.-&H&(. A solecism. B/odern "rammarians desi"nate by solecism any word or e!pression which does not a"ree with the established 7sa"e o writin" or speakin".Inheard . always observed. #n rhetoric. as. %he sentence sho7ld be.*weet flow+rets are sprin&in& no mortal "an see) So. With the e!ception o cant. a solecism is de ined as an o ense a"ainst the r7les o "rammar by the 7se o words in a wron" constr7ctionJ alse synta!.harlotte o (7ssianJ and. '#t is a year since it happened'* reckonin" rom the present.ince # saw yo7BJ B. that which at one time is considered a solecism may at another be re"arded as correct lan"7a"e. We say properly.y the world.' %his is not.

orrectness and clearness properly belon" to the domain o dictionJ simplicity. b7t we can not properly say that a allacy is specio7s. BShe is some better to8day. S$an*(#in$. as its 7se is a contin7al so7rce o disp7te amon" "rammarians and o perple!ity to schools. in act. which properly means to make known speci ically. "ravity. S+ /+nc$i)! M##*. tho7"h it be dry. %his orm has within a recent period been "enerally s7bstit7ted or speciality. orce. be better to abolish it entirely. di 7seness. eebleness." 040@ S$#(. point of view. pla7sible. a deceit 7l or alse appearanceJ while speciousmeans havin" the appearance o tr7th. and can. who do not allow it to appear in their col7mns. since it is reC7ired by the etymolo"y o the word. noton. BWhere are yo7 stoppingRB BAt the /etropolitan. S#-!. splendid andawful seem to be abo7t the only adAectives some o o7r s7perlative yo7n" women have in their vocab7laries. why the i sho7ld be dropped. Hence we see that the very essence o a fallacy is its speciousness. and so orth. %his word. B# think it is some ten miles rom hereB* read. not on—thin"s occ7r in. S(&!n*i*. S(!ci#+s Fa&&ac'. since witho7t specio7sness we can have no allacies. %his poor word is 7sed by the "entler se! to C7ali y well8ni"h everythin" that has their approval. the street." 04O@ . A very hi"h wind constit7tes a storm. and amon" them are the editors o some o o7r daily papers. 3A(3A(#S/. not stop. to dwell. perhaps.B S(!cia&$'. not on—meet o7r acC7aintances in. or with a riend. etc. We live in. Babout ten miles rom here. at a hotel. there is "ood reason to s7ppose it will soon become obsolete. Another says that it wo7ld. not on— ho7ses are b7ilt in. at home. One says that it is rapidly allin" into dis7seJ that.yclopWdia. is o ten mis7sed or say. /any persons ind7l"e in a careless 7se o this word. o five syllables. conciseness. as the case may be.B #t is likewise o ten mis7sed or aboutJ th7s. )o stopmeans to cease to "o orward. When say says all one wants to say. coarseness. %he phrase to which no one obAects is. never become established as correct lan"7a"e. loridity. also. %here is no apparent reason. why 7se a more pretentio7s wordR?. 7sin" it when they mean to say simply that it rains or snows. inasm7ch as the latter consists in the 7se o a word or e!pression which is alto"ether contrary?.enny . We stay. %his mood is 7npop7lar with not a ew now8a8day "rammarians." 04L@to the spirit o the lan"7a"e. S$rai04$2a'. to soAo7rn.B—B. is bein" 7s7rped by the -atin word immediately. S$#r-.. Here is a "ood An"lo8Sa!on word o two syllables whose place. however. and is retained in nearly all other words o the same ormation. Another says that it is a 7niversal st7mblin"8blockJ that nobody seems to 7nderstand it. S$a$!. . %his is a term that is 7sed to characteriDe the pec7liarities that distin"7ish a writer or a composition. to leave o J and to staymeans to abide. A fallacy is a sophism. #n act.4 di ers rom a barbarism. rom a s7"ar8pl7m to the national capitol. a lo"ical arti ice. S$'&!. We may very properly say that a fallacy is more or lessspecious. %his word is not 7n reC7ently mis7sed or somewhatJ th7s. %his is a word to which many st7dents o &n"lish serio7sly obAect. ele"ance. S$r!!$. to e!plain partic7larly. properly speakin".B See. witho7t any "ood reason. %o a storm a violent commotion o the atmosphere is indispensable.B %he proper word to 7se here is staying. belon" to the domain o style.?. to tarry. altho7"h almost everybody attempts to 7se it.

' 'i tho7 shouldcome.' %he meanin" intended is probably—'as # do not know whether they have or not.' %hese events are all in the 7ncertain 7t7re.' #t is in accordance with "ood 7sa"e to e!press a 7t7re . '# he will' has a real meanin". '# do not know whether or not # shall come'J b7t 'i # shall come. # wo7ld "o. b7t that it is obsolescent is very ar rom certain. BAs futurity is by its nat7re 7ncertain. and o the prepositions. /eanwhile. %he tendency appears stron"est in the case o 'wert.' and there ore the s7bA7nctive 'have' is pre erable. he wo7ld have said. # think. in the s7bA7nctive mood* '# # be able. #t wo7ld not be easy.' e!pressin" a condition. one can not. to ind a sin"le contemporary writer who does not 7se it. is not an &n"lish constr7ction.' B%he s7bA7nctive in le!ions have been wholly lost." 04F@o7r i"norance rom o7r knowled"e. that he die'J 'take heed lest at any time yo7r hearts be overchar"ed with s7r eitin". yet will # tr7st in him. we shall not be able to "o'J 'i # be well'J 'i he come shortly'J 'i tho7 return at all in peace'J 'tho7"h he slay me. says 7pon the s7bAect. With that obAect in essor o -o"ic in the Eniversity o Aberdeen. BA wish contrary to the act takes the s7bA7nctive* '# wish he were here' Mwhich he is notN. then we are also A7sti ied in abolishin" the 7se o shall and will. in which case the s7bA7nctive is properly employed. Had 6ray been speakin" serio7sly. as /r.' 'i # were stron" eno7"h.' BEncertainty as to a past event may arise rom o7r own i"norance.' B%he only correct orm o the 7t7re s7bA7nctive is—'i # sho7ld. do better than to attend to what +r. or s7rely their ri"ht 7se is likewise at times most p7DDlin".5 %hat the s7bA7nctive mood is m7ch less 7sed now than it was a h7ndred years a"o is certain. and as # believeN. 'i i"norance be bliss. '# any o my readershas looked with so little attention 7pon the world aro7nd him'J this wo7ld mean—'as # know that they have. and serves the 7se 7l p7rpose o distin"7ishin"?. . '# can 7nderstand yo7. the verb is sometimes.?1L@ '# # weres7re o what yo7 tell essor 3ain's BHi"her &n"lish 6rammarB we ind* B#n s7bordinate cla7ses. %he sense that somethin" is wantin" appears to have led many writers to 7se indicative orms where the s7bA7nctive mi"ht be e!pected. 7se the s7bA7nctive mood. '# i"norance is bliss.' which is now 7sed as indicative M or 'wast'N only in poetical or elevated lan"7a"e.' which # MironicallyN admit. b7t not always. B%he ollowin" is the r7le "iven or the 7se o the s7bA7nctive mood* BWhen in a conditional cla7se it is intended to e!press do7bt or denial.' he himsel dissentin" rom the proposition. most persons will think it well to learn to 7se the s7bA7nctive mood properly. %hat it is not always easy to determine what orm o it we sho7ld employ is very tr7eJ b7t i we are A7sti ied in abolishin" it alto"ether. BAn intention not yet carried o7t is also s7bA7nctive* '%he sentence is that yo7 be imprisoned.' ?. beca7se its correct 7se is not always easy. perhaps.' 'i he have the will. and introd7ced by a conA7nction o condition. and are p7t in the s7bA7nctive. Ale!ander 3ain.' etc. the s7bA7nctive is e!tensively 7sed or 7t7re conditionality* '# it rain.—#n a cla7se e!pressin" a condition. #n .' %his is eC7ivalent to a cla7se o ass7mption. as bein" the present s7bA7nctive o the verb 'will'* 'i he be willin".handler s7""ests." 041@ BWhen the conditional cla7se is affirmative and certain. .?10@ BA 7t7re res7lt or conseC7ence is e!pressed by the s7bA7nctive in s7ch instances as these* '# will wait till hereturn'J 'no ear lest dinner cool'J 'tho7 shalt stone him with stones. the verb is indicative* '# that is the case' Mas yo7 now tell me. or s7pposition* '%hat bein" the case.' 'inasm7ch as that is the case.' We may say.

6 s7bA7nctive meanin" by a present tenseJ b7t in that case the orm m7st be strictly s7bA7nctive. he shall or eit a penny or the 7se o the cl7b'J this o7"ht to be either 'absent. analo"o7s to '#should have ainted'J the word or 7t7rity. as bein" still in the 7t7re* '# to8morrow be ine. B%he past s7bA7nctive may imply denialJ as. or denied. We may re er it to the "eneral tendency. '# do not know?.—%he principal cla7se in a conditional statement also takes the s7bA7nctive orm when it re ers to what is 7t7re and contin"ent. # will rack thee with old cramps'J better.' %he indicative wo7ld be A7sti ied by the speaker's belie that the s7pposition is s7re to t7rn o7t to be the act. '# any memberabsents himsel . 'i tho7 neglect or do 7nwillin"ly. accordin" to the manner o the principal cla7se.' 'i it rain.' 'were # as # have been.' etc. # will walk with yo7.' 'Nay.' 'wo7ld. to e!press conditionality by a past tenseJ or the indicative may be 7sed as a more direct and vivid mode.' means.' "+!f +twere done when +tis done. as i they had "yves on.' B%he past s7bA7nctive may be e!pressed by an inversion* '/ad # the power.omposition 6rammarB the ollowin"* B%he case most s7ited to the s7bA7nctive is contingent futurity. and not indicative. is withdrawn. he would s7cceed'J 'i # had seen him. and the villains march wide between the le"s. So. w>rde haben and h?tte.' or 'sho7ld absent. it sho7ld be at yo7r service.' insin7ates pretty stron"ly that # am or am not prepared.B #n addition to the ore"oin". '# the book is in the library' Mas # know it isNJ 'i it be' M# am 7ncertainNJ 'i itwere' Mas # know it is notN. and its past in le!ion trans erred to 'have.' 'wo7ld have.' 'sho7ld. 'i the book were in the library Mas it is notN.' or 'i tho7 sho7ld ne"lect. or the e!pression o an event 7nknown absol7tely.' 'sho7ld have'J and it is to be noted that in this application the second persons take the in le!ional endin" o the indicative* 'sho7ldst. # should have asked essor 3ain's B. 'i it rains. # wo7ld. . 'i # can.la7ses.+ B%he &n"lish idiom appears sometimes to permit the 7se o an indicative where we sho7ld e!pect a s7bA7nctive orm.' B#n .eH well!t were Gsho$ld .' B%he 7s7al orms o the s7bA7nctive in the principal cla7se are 'wo7ld.' means '# do not know.' 'i it rained. # will.' B'Enless # were prepared. in constr7ction. "+>hi"h else lie f$rled and shro$ded in the so$l. '/any acts.' not bein" necessary to the sense.' B'# the book be in the library.' . and when it re ers to what is past and 7ncertain.' etc. 'Had' may be s7bA7nctiveJ '# had ainted' is.' '# tho7 neglectest or doest 7nwillin"ly what # command thee. as already seen in the 7ses o 'co7ld.' 'wo7ldst." 04Q@s7bA7nctive in the same circ7mstances in -atin.' implyin" that they had not.eH done 7$i"kly.ompare 6erm. were employed'J '# had ainted.' 'sho7ld. '# can not'J whereas. 7nless # had believed. '# he sho7ld try. 'shall.. that had been otherwise blamable. we ind in . then +twere Gwo$ld .' We have th7s the power o discriminatin"three di erent s7ppositions. 'Had' may be indicativeJ A7st as we sometimes ind pl7per ect indicative or pl7per ect?.+ B#n 'else' there is implied a conditional cla7se that wo7ld s7it 'lie'J or the present may be re"arded as a more vivid orm o e!pression." 042@whether it be or not.' which means. B%he same power o the past tense is e!empli ied in 'i # could.rincipal .

+%P& ' ( "+(ome one. ——'* 'should yo7 abandon ——. # will marry yo7.! m$st . be they what they mi"ht.' B*ere is 7sed in the principal cla7se or 'sho7ld be' or 'wo7ld be. tho7"h it be in wrath'J 'i he smite him with an instr7ment o iron so that he die.' "+&o not my horse the . were they never so insi"ni icant intrinsically. . it does not ca7se ambi"7ityJ nevertheless.' "+*ho$ld he .t. come all.lin damn+d. cost what it may..alypso.+ B%he $7t7re S7bA7nctive is "iven in o7r scheme o the verb as 'sho7ld' in all persons* '# # sho7ld.*$"h partin& were too petty.'—Scott.*o lon&.olerid"e. # co7ld not "rati y the reader.'ring with thee airs from heaven or .'?1O@ "+! were GJsho$ld . i tho7 sho7ld. B'&ven were # disposed.arlyle. no do$.$t ridin& forth to air yo$rself. B'(f yo7 should abandon yo7r . While dispensin" with the conA7nction. '# hope to see the e!hibition be ore it close'J 'wait till hereturn'J 'tho7 shall stand by the river's brink a"ainst he?. BA"ain. were operatin" in his avor.+ "+>ho .+—*helley. have or most part plenty o /emoir8writers. nill yo7.!t were not well) indeed it were not well." 045@come'J 'take heed lest passion sway thy A7d"ment'J 'speak to me. no do$. 'Whatever this be'J 'whoever he be'J 'howe'er it be' M%ennysonNJ and s7ch like.+ "+9ere had we now o$r "o$ntry+s honor roof+dWere the &ra"ed person of o$r :an7$o present.' B'And will yo7.lasts from hell. he is a m7rderer'J 'beware this ni"ht that tho7 cross not my ootsteps' MShelleyN.t. we have 'tho7shouldst'* 'i tho7.'—.etter.e"ome a .+—*"ott.+ B'He were Mgwo7ld beN no lion.7 "+>hat+s a tall man $nless he fight6+ "+The sword hath ended him1 so shall it thee. i he sho7ld.' BAn inverted conditional orm has taken deep root in o7r lan"7a"e. not less than if a panther>ere pani". if #tti"$s were he6+ B'# am to second #on i he fail'J the ailin" is le t C7ite do7bt 7l. 'e thy intents wi"ked or "harita. B'6overnin" persons.stri"ken . "+>ere yo$ . 4 0od.' #n old &n"lish.Tho$ "om+st in s$"h a 7$estiona.*hall ! n$rse in my dark heart. this ro"k shall fly?rom its firm .'—'%amin" o the Shrew.le shapeThat ! will speak to thee. as she%a!e a &rain of love for me. were not (omans hinds. !f she es"ape me. B%he ollowin" e!amples are "iven by /ftDner* B'Harney's comm7nications..e ro$sed o$t of his sleep to. and may be re"arded as an ele"ant and orcible variety. a spark of will5ot to .' /aca7lay th7s implies that the scope o his work is to be wider than mere battles and sie"es. shouldst mark iniC7ities.$t m$st la$&h.+ "+'e tho$ a spirit of health or &o. 'Wallenstein.Inless tho$ yield thee as my prisoner.e trampled o$t.'—Warren.9owever weary. -ord. conditionality is well marked.ase as soon as !.orrower of the ni&ht?or a dark ho$r or twain. B'3rin" them back to me. if s$"h a man there be6>ho wo$ld not the antelope+s eye. "+#nd as long. .le.'—. '# sho7ld very imper ectly e!ec7te the task which # have 7ndertaken i # were merely to treat o battles and sie"es.eH a fool.enelope and yo7r home or .+— *helley. B%he s7bA7nctive appears in some other constr7ctions.

and sho7ld be so handsome.' we shall "et the same meanin".+%34( B'/ad better. as lie .+ "+?or on"e he had . ! hadde levere than my s"herte.Wsar were livin"——R' '*ouldyo7 rather have Mwould yo7 prefer thatN .B With a little transposin".Wsar were livin"R' B'He had better reconsider the matter' is 'he wouldbetter have MtoN reconsider the matter. we have.+—>ri&ht. B'# had as lie not be.een kill+d when first tho$ didst pres$me.+ BHere 'were' is 7nC7estionably or 'wo7ld be'J and the whole e!pression mi"ht be "iven by 'had.ompare now* "+#h me were le!ere with lawe loose my lyfThen so to fote hem falle.' th7s* 'Ah. BWith all d7e de erence to an a7thoritysuch hi"h on a matter such very important. +Polit.B/ad is sometimes 7sed in the principal cla7se or 'sho7ld have' or 'wo7ld have. such narrow. such a lovely. i we s7bstit7te 'be' or 'have.." 04K@ B'Had # known this be ore we set o7t.' %he e!ploded notion that 'had' is a corr7pted 'wo7ld' m7st be "7arded a"ainst. as ! have. %his verb comes in or its 7ll share o ma7lin".B instead o summoned. *. he had done a kinder deed.'N B%he constr7ction o 'had' is th7s ill7strated in . BWith all d7e de erence to such a hi"h a7thority on such a very important matter. as well.' "+! had rather ." 0KL@ "+:y 0od.%#H&.een sin. 'Had' stands or 'wo7ld have.ha7cer.mon&ers)! had rather hear a .een ta+en or slain. solon". etc.' chan"in" rom s7bAects o 'were' to obAects o 'hadde.. etc. we ind in /r. -at.'—Scott. in the . this sentence is made to read.Tho$ hadst not lived to kill a son of mine. "+9adst tho$ .' %he interchan"e helps 7s to see more clearly that 'hadde' is to be e!plained as s7bA7nctive or 'wo7ld have.'B See #N+#.allad.een his ministry. as in—Nonne . We o ten hear s7ch e!pressions as B# will summons?. 6eor"e Washin"ton /oon's B+ean's &n"lish and 3ad &n"lish. best.B 3y a little transposin" o the words o this sentence. 'habeo' and 'mihi est.restes %ale.p.A%#H& AN+ SE3JEN.B the sentence. are incorrect.B which makes it C7ite clear that we sho7ld say so large an ox and not such a large ox.B %he phrases. . # think # hadMg wo7ld haveN remained at home.+ "+!f he9ad killed me. S+c4.+ B-et 7s compare this orm with another that appears side by side with it in early writers. and so on. rather. BWith all d7e de erence to so hi"h an a7thority on so very important a matter.#n it had not .ha7cer e!ample above.' B'/ad yo7 rather .'?11@ ?. M.' BSo.B #t is clear that the sentence sho7ld read. such a lon". th7s* '3y 6od.ra/en "ansti"k t$rned. As proo that this error in the 7se o such is common. B# have never be ore seen an o! such lar"e." 0K0@him.( hadde levere ——.e a kitten and "ry mewThan one of these same metre .such a handsome.B instead o summon himJ and BHe was summonsed.+ B.+—*"ott.That ye hadde rad his le&end. it had . so lovely.' is a orm that is e!plained 7nder this headin". "+!f tho$ hadst said him nay. me were levere ——. S+--#n. B# have never be ore seen such a lar"e o!.' %hat is—'# would as lie havenot MtoN be' g '# wo7ld as willin"ly Mor as soonN have non8e!istence.' 'MtoN loose' and 'MtoN falle. 1LL*?.

%he e!pression an inferior man is not less obAectionable. /en to whom this kind o an or"aniDation has been "iven "enerally have active minds. the impartial critic who will take the tro7ble to e!amine any o /r. tell yo7 that they have not said A7st what they wo7ld like to sayJ there is always a s7btle. %hese men. 3ature. # shall 7se the word in both senses—in its common and in its philosophical import. are so . not "en7ineJ and improperlyin the sense o conAect7ral.ome home as soon as ever yo7 can. "i tedJ as. they are verbose. Whether s7ch men talk or write.hilosophically considered. %o their mental vision all is ill8de ined.B B# havegot the headache.B BHe has got all he can carry. transcendental. and all other men. We ind e!amples in plenty o this kind o writin" in the essays o /r.B B%hey conversed together or a lon" time.ost' reporters. e!cellent. va"7e. B%his is a supposititious case.B meanin" an excellent womanJ BHe is a superior man. a stat7e.B—BNation. both Nat7re and Art. pres7mptiveJ as. #n their writin"s they are eccentric.' #n en7meratin" the val7es o Nat7re and castin" 7p their s7m. and we both took a walk.?. re ers to essences 7nchan"ed by man* space. &merson has seen everythin" he has ever made the s7bAect o his essays very m7ch as -ondon is seen rom the top o Saint .B meanin" an imaginary or presumptive case. they contin7ally escape their "rasp. a pict7re. BWhenever # try to write well. will8o'8the8wispish. sp7rio7s.B B# can do it equally as well as he.B B#ron sinks down in water.B BWe co7ld not orbear from doin" it. S+(!ri#r. the river. sho7ld con ine themselves to the descriptiveJ or when they enter the essayist's domain. b7t their minds never present anythin" clearly. %here is a kind o ill8balanced brain in which the re lective and the ima"inative very m7ch o7twei"ht the perceptive.?. all which philosophy distin"7ishes rom the3ot &e—that is. l7rkin" somethin" still 7ne!pressed.a7l's in a o". %his word is not 7n reC7ently 7sed or able. #n inC7iries so "eneral as o7r present one. and which yo7r penetration is e!pected to divine.B Here is a correct 7se o the word. i write they m7st. S+((#si$i$i#+s.B BHis cond7ct was approved of by everybody. B%he &n"lish critic derived his materials rom a stray copy o some supposititiousinde!es devised by one o the '.?12@and reC7ently 7n"rammatical. a ter lon" dissertations. chaotic. is C7ite s7re to come to the concl7sion that /r. #n their talk they will. 37t his operations. in the common sense. hypothetical. there ore. they write what # will vent7re to callswosh.B B%he balloon rose upvery rapidly. #ndeed. %heir tho7"hts are phantomlikeJ like shadows.B B6ive me another one. (alph Waldo &merson. &merson's essays at all care 7lly. co7nter eit.3 S+(!r3&+#+s W#r*s. taken to"ether. the 7niverse is composed o Nat7re and the So7l. a canal. ima"inary. %hey see everythin" in a haDe. which they are very prone to do.B BHave yo7 got any brothersRB BNo. Strictly speakin". all that is separate rom 7s. the lea . %his word is properly 7sed in the sense o p7t by a trick into the place or character belon"in" to another." 0KO@ S2#s4. BShe is a superior woman.B BWho inds him in moneyRB BHe came in last of all. Art is applied to the mi!t7re o his will with the same thin"s. #always ind # can do it.B BWhat have yo7 gotRB BNo matter what # have got. the air. intan"ible.B B3e ore # "o. as in a ho7se.B BWe orced them to retreat bac! 7lly a mile.B B# shall have inished by the latterend o the week. and my own body—m7st be ranked 7nder this name 'NA%E(&.B meanin" anable man. b7t # have got a sister. illo"ical. # m7st first be paid." 0K1@ /r. &merson's de inition o Nat7re r7ns th7s* B. labyrinthine.B BWe were compelled to ret7rnbac!. the inacc7racy is not materialJ no con 7sion o tho7"ht will occ7r. pretentio7s.B B/y brother called on me. which somethin" is the real essence o the matter.B All the words in italics are s7per l7o7s.B B.B BHe combinedtogether all the acts.

B %he irst para"raph o /r. people will listen to.B writes* B%here are all de"rees o pro iciency in knowled"e o the world. when in act it is not only the veriest swosh.olitics. m7st be a s7bstantial personality. also. synecdoche. B%he bay was covered with sailsBJ i.B—Swi t. careworn.B #n B-etters and Social AimsB /r. as we have seen. A third class live above the bea7ty o the symbol to the bea7ty o the thin" si"ni iedJ these are wise men. with ships. %hey are s7blime when seen as emanations o a Necessity contradistin"7ished rom the v7l"ar $ate by bein" instant and alive. as the poet and artist. e. no matter what "eni7s or distinction other men there present may haveJ and. #n a knot o men conversin" on any s7bAect. and can and will state them. in rhetoric. and know how to tell it. +7nderhead o any tr7th which +7nderhead does not see. the identity o their law. &merson's B&ssay on &loC7enceB* B%he orator. and to labor to e!press. and lead the conversation. the name o the whole or that o a part. &merson's B&ssay on ArtB reads* BAll departments o li e at the present day—%rade. i he wishes it. tasteJ and the third. We can make no "reater mistake than to s7ppose that the reason we do not 7nderstand these rhetorical contortionists is beca7se they are so s7btle and pro o7nd. as well as his works. in his B&ssay on . One class live to the 7tility o the symbol. spirit7al perception. At their very best. BWhatever is dark is deep.r7dence. &merson. in its lowin" bene icence. %hey believe in themselves. .B %hose who are wont to accept others at their sel 8assessment and to see thin"s thro7"h other people's eyes—and there are many s7ch—are in dan"er o thinkin" this kind o writin" very ine. does not o er to b7ild ho7ses and barns thereon. and the nat7ralist and man o science." 0K2@o nat7re. reverencin" the splendor o 6od which he sees b7rstin" thro7"h each chink and cranny. He who wo7ld convince the worthy /r. %he 7sin" o the name o a part or that o the whole. and washin"—that in an impression so "rand as that o the world on the h7man mind they do not vary the res7lt. %hey are?. %he irst class have common senseJ the second. b7t that kind o swosh that e!cites at least an occasional do7bt with re"ard to the writer's sanity. s7ch practical chemistry as the conversion o a tr7th written in 6od's lan"7a"e into a tr7th in +7nderhead's lan"7a"e. bakin". %his in l7ence is conspic7o7sly visible in the principles and history o Art. Science." 0KF@rays o one s7nJ they translate each into a new lan"7a"e the sense o the other. esteemin" health and wealth a inal "ood. or the 7sin" o a de inite n7mber or an inde inite. %hen. #t is s7 icient to o7r present p7rpose to indicate three. irst. and dissolvin" man. %hey have b7t one thin" to recommend them—honesty. or (eli"ion—seem to eel. whilst he pitches his tent on this sacred volcanic isle?. has a clear eye or its bea7tyJ and. is called. B%he man was old. We 7nderstand them C7ite as well as they 7nderstand themselves. patchin". .B Another para"raph rom /r. he m7st have power o statement—m7st have the act.B /r. in any p7blic assembly. and it is deeper than a well. Once in a lon" time a man traverses the whole scale. Stir a p7ddle. &merson writes* B&loC7ence is the power to translate a tr7th into lan"7a"e per ectly intelli"ible to the person to whom yo7 speak. is one o the most bea7ti 7l and co"ent weapons that is or"ed in the shop o the +ivine Arti icer. tho7"h he is otherwise i"norant. they are b7t incoherent dil7ters o other men's ideas. tho7"h he is hoarse and 7n"rate 7l. tho7"h he st7tters and screams. S'n!c*#c4!. him who has the acts.3< insi"ni icant—a little chippin".. +eclamation is commonJ b7t s7ch possession o tho7"ht as is here reC7ired. and sees and enAoys the symbol solidlyJ then. -etters. m7st be a master o his art. the person who knows most abo7t it will have the ear o the company. Another class live above this mark to the bea7ty o the symbol. lastly.

G7ackenbos is in error. his hair. BHe haswent o7tB* say. +r. gone."—*hakespeare. 1LL. B# he had wentB* say. whether in the same or in di erent words. to go. as +r. have seen. or 7sin". BAdvanced . B# wish yo7 had wentB* say. BHe was the lar"est man # ever sawB* say. See &H#+&N. T!s$i-#n'. is that o 7sin" two verbs in a past tense when only one sho7ld be in that timeJ th7s. e. Another error is made in s7ch sentences as these* B# # had haveknownB* say. in connection with the transitive verbs to taste and to smell. Ta+$#(4#n'. T!ac4. B#t was my intention to have comeB* say.B %he 7nc7lt7red o ten mis7se learn or teach. began. literally. the makin" o which is not con ined to the 7nschooled.&.B then. B# yo7 had have told meB* say. and the repetition o the same sound. bee . gone. %he errors made in the 7se o the tenses are mani old. which is the repeating of the same thought.B—+r. T!ns!. to in orm. Tas$! #3.B p. BHe come to me or adviceB* say. %o impart knowled"e. B# come to town this mornin"B* say. Amon" the thin"s to be avoided in writin" is tautology. in conti"7o7s words. co ee. B#tbegun very lateB* say. BHis roo was at the service o the o7tcastJ the 7n ort7nate ever o7nd a welcome at his threshold.B BHe had seen seventy winters. Another reC7ent error. to find.3' and "rayBJ i. %he repetition o the same senseis ta7tolo"y. or to re reshments o any?. to instr7ctJ as. had come.have seen.. B#t had already beganB* say.and smell of "al$mny. G7ackenbos has it. BWill yo7have some dinner.B B$or a"e b7t tastes of pleas7res.B Ta1!.have had. %his a7lt is known as tautology.B B%h7s spoke the tempterB* here the part o the character is named that s7its the occasion. B3ine tenths o every man's happiness depends on the reception he meets with in the world. B# e!pected tohave found yo7 hereB* say. is love. to find. was "ray.B Accordin" to B%he G7een. gone. ish. 'Will yo7 ta!e' is not considered comme il fautJ the verb in avor or the o erin" o civilities bein" to have. B# was very desiro7s to have goneB* say. B# never in my li e had s7ch tro7bleB* say. See -&A(N.omposition and (hetoric. or. %he one most reC7ently made by persons o ?. G7ackenbos.B "Bo$ shall stifle in yo$r own report. gone. came. came. in the pro"ress o a sentence. %he red7ndant of. B%he ollowin" toasts were dran!B* say. BHis te!t was that 6od was loveB* say. Amon" other common errors are the ollowin"* B# seenhim when he done itB* say. B# he had have come as he promisedB* say." 0K5@c7lt7re—the one that everybody makes wo7ld. Ta+$#&#0'. B# never saw it played b7t onceB* say. to go. be nearer the act— is that o 7sin" the imperfect instead o the perfect tenseJ th7s. or by 7sin" in conti"7o7s words similar combinations o letters. drun!. B# intended to have goneB* say. tea. to avoid repeatin" a so7nd by employin" the same word more than once. is a 'ankeeism. salad. B)each me how to do itBJ B)each me to swimBJ BHetaught me to write. not tasteof nor smell of a thin".B is tautophony. We taste or smell a thin". to come. Bthe repeatin" o a so7nd by employin" the same word more than once. begun. %he ne7ter verbs to taste and to smell are o ten ollowed by of.o7rse o . B# b7tter tastes of brass. BA re"ard or harmony reC7ires 7s. perhaps. not the man. wine." 0KQ@kind.. had told. tea.B etc. o ten 7sed. BHe was better than # e!pected to have found himB* say. had !nown. similar combinations o letters. in this co7ntry. .B B# sho7ld have went homeB* say. we m7st say. . 6. # copy rom the B-ondon G7eenB* B%he verb to ta!e is open to bein" considered a v7l"ar verb when 7sed in re erence to dinner. B# saw him when he did it.

' A h7ndred s7ch phrases mi"ht be collected rom H7me.B T4an1s. e. 37t it does not always?. 'no devil sat hi"her than who sat." OLL@b7t . and even rom +rs.' And when. . than whom.B %ake away himand p7t he in all these cases. he "ives 7s no reason or this depart7re rom a clear "eneral principleJ 7nless we are to re"ard as a reason the e!ample o /ilton. )han and as implyin" comparison have the same case a ter as be ore them. in order to avoid the repetition o the word 3eelDeb7b. who says?. 'no devil sat hi"her than whom sat. T4an 24#-.' And then he "ives an instance rom /ilton.B B# "ive yo7 more than ( give him. We sho7ld say. e!cept Satan'J and not. described a pensioner as a slave o state. Johnson phrase. o "rammatical errors. However. +r. BHe is stron"er than she. is always in the obAective case. in his B(ecent &!empli ications o $alse .'?15@ %he s7pposition that there can be a no7n or prono7n which has re erence to no verband no preposition. none sat hi"her. even i this co7ld beJ b7t it appears to me impossible that a no7n or prono7n can e!ist in a "rammatical state witho7t havin" re erence to some verb or preposition.than whom no man was more hearty in the ca7se. havin" re erence to no verb or preposition 7nderstood. What is meant by /iltonR '%han 3eelDeb7b. and the "rammar is A7st as "ood. havin".ope.' #t is c7rio7s eno7"h that this sentence o the 3ishop is. as she is. b7t the meanin" is C7ite di erent. '3eelDeb7b. in my dictionary. '%he +7ke o Ar"yll. too* '. when it ollows than. BHe owes more thanmeB* read. then. and beca7se it is very deceivin". who has committed many h7ndreds. i s7bstit7ted in its place. than whom ew men had more vanity. wo7ld be in the nominative.B B# love yo7 as well as himBJ that is to say.'?1Q@ #t is a very common . than whom ew men have been o7nd more base.B means that # love yo7 as well as he loves you. others may resolve at their leis7re and pleas7re. as she—i.' # do not see the reason.hilolo"yB* B%hat any one?. $itDedward Hall remarks.B etc. e!cept by callin" its than a preposition.' '. '/ysel . and there ore pres7mablycorruptJ b7t it is a +r.B says* B%here is an erroneo7s way o employin"whom.. who sho7ld be made 7se o * or it is nominative and not obAective.32 T4an.arliament8ho7se phrase. 'et they are bad "rammar. B# love yo7 as well as him. which # m7st point o7t to yo7r partic7lar attention. and havin" a terward mysel become a pensioner.B B# "ive yo7 more thanhim. e. beca7se it is so o ten seen in very "ood writers.B means that # love yo7 as well as ( love himJ b7t.' B# di er in this matter rom 3ishop -owth. none hi"her sat.obbett wo7ld abide this as &n"lish is hi"hly improbableJ and how the e!pression—a C7ite classical one—which he discards can be A7sti ied "rammatically. B# love yo7 as well as he. 3lair and Johnson. either e!pressed or 7nderstood. we know its meanin"J b7t. #n all s7ch cases." 0KK@that '%he relative who. BJohn is not so old as herB* read. the 7ll constr7ction m7st be. 'havin" re erence to no verb or preposition7nderstood." 0K4@happen that the nominative case comes a ter than or as. 'No man was more hearty in the ca7se than he was'J 'No man was better skilled in arti ice than he was.romwell. e!cept Satan. than (—i.B O this. %here are many persons who think it in C7estionable taste to 7se than!s or than! you. is always in the ob#ective caseJ even tho7"h the prono7n. tho7"h he says that who. many o which the 3ishop himsel has pointed o7t. . i not tho7sands. is certainly a mistake.obbett. B# love yo7 more than him. more than ( owe.than whom no man was better skilled in arti ice.B B'o7 are richer than (. 3lackstone.' %he +octor did not say. Satan e!cept. 7n"rammaticalT O7r poor 7n ort7nate it is so placed as to make it a matter o do7bt whether the 3ishop meant it to relate to who or to its antecedent..B BShe is older thanhe. when it ollowsthan. B# love yo7 more than ( love him. %here is a sort o side8wind attempt at reason in the words. the relative becomes necessary. in his B6rammar o the &n"lish -an"7a"e. b7t only to its antecedent. itsel .B B# love yo7 as well as ( love him.

also avoids ambiguities that o ten attend the indiscriminate 7se o 'who' and 'which' or coPrdinate and or restrictive cla7ses. and the do7bt wo7ld be removed by writin" th7s* 'his &n"lish riends that had not known him lon".' the ne7ter o the de inite article.' 'Whom' is here idiomatically 7sed. who had not known him lon". and wo7ld be best bro7"ht o7t by 'that'* 'the ne!t winter that yo7 will spend in town. 6ower has. and to masc7lines and eminines. When 'as. with varyin" s7ccess.' 'which.+ Here.' BA 7rther consideration in avor o employin" 'that' or e!plicative cla7ses is the 7npleasant e ect arisin" rom the too frequent repetition of 'who' and 'which1' 6rammarians o ten recommend 'that' as a means o varyin" the styleJ b7t this end o7"ht to be so7"ht in s7bservience to the still "reater end o perspic7ity. when we say. on the other*?. %h7s.' So in the ollowin" sentence there is a similar ambi"7ity in the 7se o 'which'* 'the ne!t winter whichyo7 will spend in town will "ive yo7 opport7nities o makin" a more pr7dent choice.33 T4a$.' etc. in both n7mbersJ so is 'that'J and the only opport7nity o a special application o 'that' lies in the important distinction between coPrdination and restriction. /r. 'which' is the proper relativeJ in the latter case. and we ind c7rio7s do7ble orms* 'whom that. B')hat. on the one hand. 'Hen7s whose priest that # am'J .oth their laws. these do7ble orms have disappeared. #n the ormer case. the partic7lar portion that had not known him lon"—were s7rprised.' . B'%HA%' is the proper restrictive$ explicative$ limiting$ or defining relative.ha7cer writes—'%his Abbot which that was an holy man. or 'the ne!t o the winters when yo7 are to live in town. 'which' or thin"s. arose. 'his cond7ct s7rprised his &n"lish riends. 'whom' is eC7al to 'and him.' and 'who' came orward to share the work o 'that.' 'which as. and all the relatives are 7sed sin"ly witho7t hesitation. B%he ollowin" e!amples will serve 7rther to ill7strate the distinction between that.' %his may mean. it wo7ld be a clear "ain to con ine them to this sense. %he best writers o ten appear to "rope a ter a separate employment or the several relatives.' 'his love the which thathe oweth. "+:a"on at last.' let that come when it may. either 'yo7 will spend ne!t winter in town' M'which' bein" coPrdinatin"N. 'Who' is 7sed or persons. and who andwhich. also. 'that' has been str7""lin" with 'who' and 'which' to re"ain s7perior avor. then. B%he 7se o 'that' solely as restrictive. %his arran"ement. wo7ld fall in with?. as 'who' and 'which' are most commonly pre erred or coPrdination. the meanin" is restrictive or de inin". bein" the eC7ivalent o 'and them he 7sed to call.han"ellor of ." OLO@ B'#n "eneral. a mi&hty man.' there seems to have arisen not a little 7ncertainty abo7t the relatives.' we may mean either that his &n"lish riends "enerally were s7rprised Mthe relative bein"." OL0@the most general use of 'that$' especially beyond the limits of formal composition. with 'who' and 'which' solely as coPrdinatin". All the other oldest relatives "rad7ally dropt away. co@rdinatingN. Now.' 'which that. or that only a portion o them—namely. in that case.' 3y the &liDabethan period. was early in 7se as a ne7ter relative. $rom then till now. and to reserve 'that' or the restrictive application alone. #n this last case the relative is meant to de ine or e!plain the antecedent.Whom a wise kin& and nation "hoseDord .' etc. whom he 7sed to call harmless little men. and 'that' came to be applied also to pl7ral antecedents. 37rchell was ondest o the company o children.

?. 'A theory which does not tend to the improvement o practice is 7tterly 7nworthy o re"ard.' %his means either 'the yo7n"est boy is James. 37t it is not very common.' b7tN the circ7mstance 'that he does not want sense. '# met the boatman. which alarmed his mother very m7ch. for the court "ives c7rrency to manners.' we may have a series o parallel e!amples.' B3oth relatives are introd7ced discriminatin"ly in this passa"e*—'She had learned that rom /rs. increases o7r desire o livin". is a very 7se 7l animal.' %he antecedent?. 'incorporeal ri"hts that have or many years. 37t i there be several boatmen.' 'He is neither over8e!alted by prosperity. which "ives c7rrency to manners. Wood.' or. 'that' wo7ld convey the sense. and 'that' sho7ld be 7sed.' etc.' 'He be"an to look a ter his a airs himsel .34 B#n the ollowin" instance the relative is restrictive or de inin". 'o the boys. Mnot 'sense.which was the way to make them prosper.' B%he ollowin" sentences are ambi"7o7s 7nder the modern system o 7sin" 'who' or both p7rposes*—'# met the boatman who took me across the erry.' b7t the act e!pressed by the entire cla7se—'William ran.' 'We have done many thin"swhich we o7"ht not to have done. '%he co7rt. the 7niversal practice o A7d"es is to direct A7ries by analo"y to the Stat7te o -imitations.and he took me across. # sho7ld 7se 'that.' %he relative here also is coPrdinatin".' %he ollowin" sentence is one o many rom 6oldsmith that "ive 'that' instead o 'which'*—'A"e.' mi"ht mean 'we o7"ht not to have done many things'J that is. B'All words. and # wish to indicate one in partic7lar by the circ7mstance that he had taken me across the erry.ompare another o Addison's sentences* 'a man o polite ima"ination is let into a "reat many pleas7res that the v7l"ar are not capable o receivin". '%he cat. who had heard it rom her h7sband." OLF@is obvio7sly not the no7n 'wall. 'He by no means wants sense. that lessens the enAoyment o li e." OL1@ B%7rnin" now to 'which.' it bein" s7pposed that the boatman is known and de inite. 'we o7"ht to have done ew thin"s.' and the sense is clear. B'%heir aith tended to make them improvidentJ b7t a wise instinct ta7"ht them that i there was one thin" whicho7"ht not to be le t to ate.' %his last sense is restrictive.' B'#n all cases o prescription. the yo7n"est that has learned to dance is James. it was the artillery'J a case where 'that' is the proper relative. and not restrictive.' 'Which' is the idiomatic relative in this case.' '%he yo7n"est boy who has learned to dance is James. who had heard it at the p7blic8ho7se rom the landlord. sho7ld be e!emplary'* here the meanin" is 'the co7rt sho7ld be e!emplary. which only serves to a""ravate his ormer olly'J namely. the meanin" is.' %his "ives an erroneo7s impression.' %he meanin" is restrictiveJ 'a theory that does not tend. B#t is necessary or the proper 7nderstandin" o 'which' to advert to its pec7liar 7nction o re errin" to a whole cla7se as the antecedent* 'William ran alon" the top o the wall. # it were intended to point o7t one individ7al cat specially despised by the person addressed. and 'that' wo7ld be pre erable* 'the concl7sion o the B#liadB is like the e!it o a "reat man o7t o companywhom he has entertained ma"ni icently. which yo7 despise so m7ch.' . and sho7ld be 'all words that are si"ns o comple! ideas.' %hackeray also was ond o this 7sa"e. and he has learned to dance. which are si"ns o comple! ideas.' # 'who' is the proper relative here. 7rnish matter o mistake. nor too m7ch depressed by mis ort7neJ which yo7 m7st allow marks a "reat mind. who had been let into the secret by the boy that carried the beer to some o the prisoners.' '%hat' wo7ld "ive the e!act sense intended* 'we have done many thin"s that we o7"ht not to have done.' . to decide a"ainst incorporeal ri"hts which have or many years been relinC7ished'* say instead. or to the precepts o a deceased prophet.

' %his. we do not desi"nate by a name o their own. is incorrectly stated in the B-i e o Sir Walter. or settledN amon" an 7nciviliDed people are rarely ree from.' B%he too reC7ent repetition o 'who' and 'which' may be avoided by resolvin" them into the conA7nction and personal or other prono7n* '#n s7ch circ7mstances. o ense was taken at this 7sa"e by some o o7r leadin" writers at the be"innin" o last cent7ry.' b7t when the relative is 'that.'B—3ain's BHi"her &n"lish 6rammar. there is s7ch a thin" as a $rench. the 7tmost that 3osC7et co7ld be e!pected to do was to hold his "ro7nd.'—.' etc. ?.' %he relative sho7ld be restrictive* 'that # was a witness of. and related by -ockhart. B%he indebtedness o the &n"lish ton"7e to the $rench.B T4!. by the simple omission o the de inite articleJ?. B'A spirit more amiable. 3etter* 'there are many wordsthat are adAectives that have nothin" to do with the C7alities o the no7ns MthatN they are p7t to. b7t less vi"oro7s. wo7ld be* 'other obAects that we have not occasion to speak of so reC7ently.' b7t the relative may be entirely dispensed with by participial conversion* 'preA7dices are notions or opinions entertainedby the mind witho7t knowin" the "ro7nds and reasons o them. B'Sorrow or the dead is the only sorrow from whichwe re 7se to be divorced'* 'the only sorrow MthatN we re 7se to be divorced from.' B'Other obAects. 37n"lin" writers sometimes write sheer nonsense. of which we have not occasion to speak so reC7ently.' B'.B Accordin" to this.B'—-eslie's '/emoirs. and to this circ7mstance we m7st re er the dis7se o 'that' as the relative o restriction.arlyle. Owin" to an imper ect appreciation o the "eni7s o o7r lan"7a"e. B# was that nervo7s # or"ot everythin"BJ B# was that ri"htened # co7ld hardly stand." OL5@th7s. or say somethin" very di erent rom what they have in their minds. i amended.' B'%here are many words which are adAectives whichhave nothin" to do with the C7alities o the no7ns to whichthey are p7t." OLQ@ B'Ori"inality is a thin" we constantly clamor for.B %his word is sometimes v7l"arly 7sed or soJ th7s. We can 7se a preposition be ore 'who' and 'which.35 BWe m7st ne!t all7de to the cases where the relative is "overned by a preposition.'—3erkeley. MwhichN and this he did.'—Addison.' the preposition m7st be thrown to the end o the cla7se. 'Nor is it at all improbable that the emi"rants had been "7ilty o the a7lts that Msuch a7lts asN civiliDed men that settle Msettling. we do not.' B'Nor is it at all improbable that the emi"rants had been "7ilty o those a7lts from which civiliDed men whosettle amon" an 7nciviliDed people are rarely ree. .'—/aca7lay. there is not a sin"le sentence in this play that# do not know the meanin" of.' B'Why." OL2@ B'#t is c7rio7s that the only circ7mstance connected with Scott.reA7dices are notions or opinions which the mind entertains witho7t knowin" the "ro7nds and reasons o them. and assented to witho7t e!amination. %he 'which' in both cases sho7ld be 'that.'—. and which are assented to witho7t e!amination. of which # was a witness. -atin and 6reek ton"7e. ?14@ ?. than -7ther's wo7ld have shr7nk back rom the dan"ers which he braved and s7rmo7nted'* 'that he braved'J 'the dan"ers bravedand surmounted by him.obbett. -atin and 6reek is disclosed in almost every sentence ramed. and constantly C7arrel with.

%aylorN. Amon" the thin"s that are in bad taste in speakin" and writin". sho7ld not be 7sed or the in initive itsel * th7s. B#n his then sit7ation. and they that seek me early shall ind me'J 'they that are whole have no need o ?. is the modern s7bstit7te or the ancient idiom they that. i brevity be really the so7l o wit. "+"hat man hath perfe"t ." OLK@B air women and brave menBJ Brevelry by ni"htBJ BA rose by any other name wo7ld smell as sweet. B')hey that told me the story said'J '3lessed arethey that mo7rn'J 'and Simon and they that were with him'J '# love them that love me. Bnor is he likely to do it.'B—3ain.' B%ake now the ollowin"* '%he +7ke o Wellin"ton is not one o those who inter ere with matters over whichhe has no control'* 'the +7ke is not one o them that inter ere in matters that they have no control over Mmattersthat they can not control.&. BHe has not done essor %ownsend meant to say* B%he indebtedness o the &n"lish ton"7e to the $rench. %he 7se o this word as an adAective is condemned in very emphatic terms by some o o7r "rammarians. Johnson says. nor is he likelyto. beyond their control. %his phrase. T4!n.' B'%hat' and 'those.B .B or B%hose drove o cattle. B%hose sort or !ind o people.B T4#s! 1in*. B)hose kind o apples are bestB* read. Johnson. Hawkins. Some o these us. B)hat kind o apples is best.B which. B'o7 will ind that he knows more abo7t the a air than yo7 think for.B T#. #t wo7ld be A7st as correct to say. the si"n o the in initive mood.36 . T4r!a* ar! :+#$a$i#ns. T4in1 3#r. We not 7n reC7ently hear a s7per l7o7sfor tacked to a sentenceJ th7s.B However. certainly has m7ch more so7l in it than B#n the sit7ation he then occ7pied. the 7se o threadbare C7otations and e!pressions is in the ront rank. as an adAective.B etc. and are not there ore well s7ited or the orward re erence implied in makin" 7se o 'that which' and 'those who' as restrictive relatives. will ever a"ain ind avor with care 7l writers. re er backward.lessednessWho walketh not astray. 'the +7ke is not one to interfere in matters o7t o his province'J 'the d7ke is not one that interfereswith what he has no control over. See WH&N.B #t is tr7ly remarkable that many persons who can A7stly lay claim to the possession o considerable c7lt7re 7se this barbaro7s combination.s et cass." OL4@a physician'J 'how sweet is the rest o them that laborT' '# can not tell who to compare them to so itly as to them that pick pockets in the presence o the A7d"e'J 'they thatenter into the state o marria"e cast a die o the "reatest contin"ency' MJ. 'the man hath—that walketh. we may adopt as a convenient compromise.' # 'them that' so7nds too antiC7ated.B T4#s! 24#. Whately. out of their provinceN.+ i e!pressed accordin" to the old idiom wo7ld be. an idiom in accordance with the tr7e meanin" o that.s old8timers are the ollowin"* B%heir name is le"ionBJ Bhosts o riendsBJ Bthe 7pper tenBJ BHariety is the spice o li eBJ B+istance lends enchantment to the viewBJ BA thin" o bea7ty is a Aoy or everBJ Bthe li"ht antastic toeBJ Bown the so t impeachmentBJ?. #t is also very c7mbro7s to say 'that case to which yo7 all7de' or 'the case MthatN yo7 all7de to. B%hose lock o "eese. and Sir J.B as to say. applied in a restrictive sense. it is do7bt 7l whether then. and the 6reek.B #t sho7ld be. the -atin. T4!nc!. and yet this 7se o it has the sanction o s7ch eminent writers as Addison.' as demonstrative adAectives. 'the +7ke is not one o those that'J or. #t is a well8established r7le o "rammar that to.

so ar as he knows. to my 7ncle's. the blind asylum. B# have beento the theatre. #ts primary meanin" is to evaporate insensibly thro7"h the pores.B and so on. T#2ar*. which is as incorrect as it wo7ld be to say. now reely 7sed a"ain.eabody says that no standard &n"lish writer makes this mistake.. $or the sake o conciseness. less "rate 7l than the do" that licks the hand that eeds it. forward. with everythin" to make them happy." B%here be some who. separated by an adverb rom the verb to which it belon"s.?. #n &n"land. %he word is correctly 7sed th7s* B'o7 will not let a word concernin" the matter transpireBJ B#t transpires ?leaks o7t@ that S. downward.B—-'&stran"e.B BHence to yo7r idle bedTB 3y this i"7re the diction is rendered more terse and vi"oro7sJ it is m7ch 7sed in verse. it occ7rs reC7ently with b7t one respectable American writer. vicio7s. and the like. Trans3!rr!* E(i$4!$." O00@ Tr'. it is 7sed in prose in s7ch phrases as the lunatic asylum. Hery o ten to is 7sed instead o atJ th7s. We ma!e e!periments. or the trial.andry of many thrifty years.upward. this word is restricted to meanin" ill8 avoredJ with 7s it is o ten 7sed—and not witho7t a7thority—in the sense o ill8tempered. to happen. also.B Trans(ir!. essor A.earthward. Y 3. heavenward. afterward. . the condemned cell. and talked the flowin& heart. %hose who pro ess to know abo7t s7ch thin"s say that etymolo"y 7rnishes no prete!t or the addin" o s to ward in s7ch words as bac!ward.)ranspire is now properly 7sed in the sense o to escape rom secrecy. U0&'. the cholera hospital. . %his is one o the most reC7ently mis7sed words in the lan"7a"e. to leak o7tJ and improperly 7sed in the sense o to occ7r. %his word is o ten improperly 7sed or ma!e. control the enterpriseBJ BSoon a ter the 7neral it transpired ?became known@ that the dead woman was aliveBJ B#t has transpired?leaked o7t@ that the movement ori"inated with John 3lankBJ BNo report o the proceedin"s was allowed totranspireBJ B#t has not yet transpired who the candidate is to be. the preposition to 7se is clearly at. and that. and to elapse. not try them. to become known. #n all these cases. . %his is the shi tin" o a C7ali yin" word rom its proper s7bAect to some allied s7bAect. See. &!amples* "The little fields made &reen:y h$s. B/7ch tongue and m7ch A7d"ment seldom "o to"ether. See (&-#A3-&. %he meanin" o trifles and o minutiæis so nearly the same that no one probably ever 7ses the phrase trifling minutiæ e!cept rom tho7"htlessness. Tr+s$2#r$4'. T#n0+!.37 We o ten ind to. 7nmana"eable. T# $4! F#r!. to come to pass. to ch7rch. An old idiomatic phrase.B Tri3&in0 Min+$i<. b7t in this sense it is not 7sedJ in this sense we 7se its twin sister perspire. to a concert.?. and not to. and the like. plod their discontented and melancholy way thro7"h li e. AN+. the foundling asylum. try the attempt. "*till in harmonio$s inter"o$rse they livedThe r$ral day. toward." O0L@the criminal court. when the si"n o the in initive. ." BHe plods his weary way.B %he word is incorrectly 7sed th7s* B%he /e!ican war transpired in 04F5BJ B%he drill will transpire7nder shelterBJ B%he accident transpired one day last weekBJ B'ears will transpire be ore it will be inishedBJ B/ore than a cent7ry transpired be ore it was revisited by civiliDed man. See -AN6EA6&.

%. %ownsend's style is pec7liar. proceedin". e.B vol. or power o 7tterin". %his phrase is o ten 7sed. $or e!ample. mere. Uni)!rsa&%A&&. and as s7ch is to be avoided. lar"e man. or more thanJ th7s.B— essor -. B# tho7"ht what # read o it verbiage. 01L. Bthe 7tterance o artic7late so7nds. BA bi". 0FF. b7t we can say utterdiscord—i. i not improperly. where it is 7sed instead o great or large to C7ali y s7ch words as n7mber. is a v7l"arism. %r7th and its derivatives wo7ld s7pply all o7r needs." O0O@entireJ b7t he who 7ses it indiscriminately as a synonym o these words will reC7ently 7tter utter nonsense—i.?.learness may be developed and c7ltivated in three ways. Witness* B. wordiness. %he phrase. not anunderhanded. 3i" words and e!pletives sho7ld be 7sed only where they are really neededJ where they are not really needed. or more thanthree C7arters o a cent7ry.. An 7nnecessary pro 7sion o words is calledverbiage* verbosity. manner. BHe is universally esteemed by allwho know him. %he proper word is underhand. per ect.B %he irst sentence evidently means.B %he transparency o +r.B Vas$.. we ind* B%he laws and r7les0 th7s ar laid downO 7rnish ample o7ndation or1 the "eneral statement that an easy and . #t is now 7sed in the sense o complete. and the like. witho7t the pale o concord. we can not say utter concord. %his word is o ten met with in orcible8 eeble diction. p. %his word is no lon"er 7sed e!cept by the 7nschooled. V!r ia0!.B We utter a cryJ express a tho7"ht or sentimentJspea! o7r mindJ and. %his word. . B# have been here or upward of a yearBJ B$or upward of three C7arters o a cent7ry she has. he will 7tter that which is witho7t the pale o sense. %o utter means to spea!. i.B # he is universally esteemed.learness?. An underhand. e. i he is esteemed by all who know him. which recently appeared in one o the more astidio7s o o7r mornin" papers. Un*!r4an*!*. %he sportsman that h7nts small "ame with b7ck8shot comes home empty8handed. tho7"h o7nd in the dictionaries. m7ltit7de. adds* B%his may be re"arded as the s7rest path to "reater transparency o style.B is eC7ally "ood diction. vocal e!pressionJ as. at least inele"antly. %ownsend.ark aviary. on the o7tsideJ b7t it is no lon"er 7sed in this sense.B etc. B.B veracity is entirely s7per l7o7s. he m7st be esteemed by all who know himJ and. BA man o tr7th and veracity. %he loss wo7ld be a small one i we were to lose this word and its derivatives. U(2ar* #3.B What the writer probably meant to say is. %he ollowin" sentence. total. tho7"h prayers are said. he m7st be universally esteemed. to pronounceJ and its derivativeutterance means the act. maAority. meanin". %his verb is o ten mis7sed or say. says.. %he primary meanin" o the adAective utter is o7ter. Also.3 Un !1n#2n." O01@may be attained in three waysBJ b7t what the second sentence means—i it means anythin"—is more than # can tell. it havin" precisely the same meanin" as tr7th. Va&+a &!. Sometimes a better name than verbia"e or wordiness wo7ld be emptiness. V!raci$'. #n the phrase so o ten heard. MaN 3y constantly practicin" in heart and li e the tho7"hts and ways o honesty and rankness. B/r. BSea captains are amon" those whose contrib7tions to the . expressed a sentiment. U$$!r.ark aviary are the most val7able. they "o wide o the obAect aimed at. p. 3lank is ri"ht in all he uttersB* read. BArt o Speech. express. is o ered as an e!ample o e!treme slipshodness in the 7se o lan"7a"e* BSea captains are amon" the most valuablecontrib7tors to the . they may beuttered in a certain tone or manner. B%he co7rt uttered a sentiment that all will appla7dB* read.

See . V#ca$i#n%A)#ca$i#n. As a no7n. it means the common people. his callin"." O0F@%ownsend wanted to say in it.B V+&0ar. i # am at all s7ccess 7l in "7essin" what . as Bthe vulgar people. repress ind7stry." O02@B%he tracin" o resemblances amon" the obAects and events o the world is a constant avocation o the h7man mind. 1. # this means anythin".ro essor?. or e!ample. pro!imity. ApproximatesynonymsTT Who ever heard o any anta"onistic or even o dissimilar synonymsR 5. neighborhoodwo7ld be the better word.5 M0N %hro7"h moral4 and mental discipline. MON 3y the st7dy o o7r best a7thors. i properly 7sed in the sentence. tho7"h he so intimates. then—when shorn o its red7ndancy and hi"h8 lown emptiness—it will read somewhat like this* B%he laws th7s ar presented A7sti y the "eneral statement that a clear and nat7ral mode o e!pression—to"ether with that art o 7sin" appropriate i"7res and that ability properly to discriminate between synonyms which are necessary to correctness—is attained in two ways. this word is probably more reC7ently 7sed improperly than properly. F. What is nat7ral is easyJeasy.Qeach bein" an important actor in correct style. in order to eC7aliDe wealth. # s7""est the word#ustify in place o these o7r. BNothin" dis"7sts sooner than the empty pomp o lan"7a"e. the manyJ as an adAective.33 nat7ralFe!pression. %his word is sometimes incorrectly 7sed witho7t the possessive prono7nJ th7s.B0L 0. Q. indecent. is s7per l7o7s.B (ead witho7t the ei"hteen words in italics and with the o7r inclosed.B %he sense in which it is mis7sed is that o immodest. 3y the many. it does not mean more than the adAective clear wo7ld e!press. regulating men's gains. are attained in two ways. and witho7t brin"in" abo7t a more a"reeable condition o thin"s than now?we@ shall simply disco7ra"e enterprise. BWashin"ton and vicinity. %ownsend did not make these laws.(#/&. bolsterin" here. the lower orders. o a "own too short at the top may be indecent. Wo7ld not laws cover the whole "ro7ndR O. middle.B instead o BWashin"ton and its vicinity. /ademoiselle 3ernhardt's vocationis actin"J her avocations are paintin" and sc7lpt7re.B %he ollowin" sentence is rom a leadin" ma"aDine* B# we be"in a system o inter erence.?.B %he primary meanin" o vicinity is nearness. in order to strengthen this interest. %hose attainmentsT What are theyR +r. %hese words are reC7ently con o7nded. an e!act verbal incarnation o one's thinkin". An intimate acC7aintance wo7ld s7 ice or most people. we shall do an ?a@ immense deal o mischie . ?and@ repressin"elsewhere ?there@. 2n passant # wo7ld remark that +r. . MON %hro7"h contin7o7s and intimateK acC7aintance with s7ch a7thors as best e!empli y those attainments.2to"ether with the power o 7sin" appropriate i"7res. M0N 3y mental discipline. and check material "rowth in all directions. b7t is not vulgar. %he wearin". low. Vicini$'.B Vic!. #n many o the cases in which vicinity is 7sed. 0L. %ownsend's corr7"ated style makes it hard to tell. or tail o itJ still. it means coarse. the m7ltit7de. 7nre ined. tho7"h vicinity is perhaps pre erable where it is a C7estion o mere locality. %he transparency o this sentence is not 7nlike the transparency o corr7"ated "lass. 2. and o makin" nice discriminations between appro!imate synonyms. 4. What has morality to do with correctnessR K. A man's vocation is his pro ession. %his para"raph is so badly conceived thro7"ho7t that it is well8ni"h impossible to make head. his b7sinessJ and his avocations are the thin"s that occ7py him incidentally. there ore.

'And # sho7ld like to be a soldier.B B%he "reatest o 3yron's works washis whole work taken to"ether. So in the adAectival cla7seJ as. and not limitin" that cla7se in any way. and not who. where it. do7bt that. or they. which Mand itN # o7nd 7se 7l a terward. Ba vicio7s mode o speechB to say from whence. it is. 'He str7ck the poor do". so7rce. or altho7"h itN had never done him harm.B which is the eC7ivalent o BWho did he knowRB 37t BWho saw yo7RB in this instance. %he sentences above sho7ld read is.'<< Was.B W4!nc!. who do not make reC7ent mistakes in the 7se o this prono7n.'B B*hich sometimes has a special re erence attachin" to it. and wo7ld say. is clearly not correct. /ilton to the contrary notwithstandin". B*hence do yo7 comeRB not B'rom whence do yo7 comeRB -ikewise.Wsar crossed the (7bicon. BHe went hence.). instead o BWho did yo7 seeRB say.' Here the new cla7se is somethin" independent added to the previo7s cla7se.B not Bfrom hence. and sho7ld be 7sed in the obAective orm. not was. which is whom. %his prono7n as an interrogative applies topersons as well as to thingsJ as a relative. which # sho7ld like to be. %ake the irst one. as in 'John is a soldier. W4#. BWho knew he. B%here is a pec7liar 7sa"e where which may seem to be still re"7larly 7sed in re erence to persons. and are not de ensible by s7pposin" any ellipsis whatsoever. Johnson styled it. B*hich is likewise 7sed in restrictive cla7ses that limit or e!plain the antecedentJ as. even amon" the most c7ltivated.B?. B# have nothin" but what yo7 seeBJ B'o7 have bro7"ht everythin" but what # wanted. W4a$. the ho7se that is the s7bAect o the statement. B*ho did yo7 seeRB B*hodid yo7 meetRB B*ho did he marryRB B*ho did yo7?. BHe wo7ld not believe b7t what # did itB* read.' S7ch instances represent the most acc7rate meanin" o which. or ca7se.'B See %HA%. we have only to p7t the C7estions in another orm. b7t the entire cla7se. See +O. B# have not decided whether # shall "o to 3oston or whether ( shall go to . As this adverb means—7naided—from what place. '%he ho7se which he b7ilt still remains. We say properly. namely. Nor is there any more propriety in the phrase from thence.' Here the cla7se introd7ced by which speci ies. 'At school # st7died "eometry.B W4!$4!r. it is now made to re er to things only.which was in e ect a declaration o war. BWho saw yo7RB which.' that is. %o show that these sentences are not correct. as +r.hiladelphia. %hey say. by the circ7mstance that a certain person b7ilt it. %here are ew persons. and a conA7nction mi"ht answer the p7rposeJ th7s. as the ne7ter relative* '. . i correct.Oh(+#NA%#N6 (&-A%#H&S. *ho and which mi"ht be termed the .' %he antecedent in this instance is not "ubicon. and. BHe said he had come to the concl7sion that there was no 6od. B*hich is employed in coPrdinate sentences. as thence means— 7naided— rom that place. What is tr7e at all times sho7ld be e!pressed by 7sin" the verb in the present tense. B# do not do7bt but what # shall "o to 3oston to8morrowB* read. or points o7t." O05@hearRB B*ho did he knowRB B*ho are yo7 writin" toRB B*ho are yo7 lookin" atRB #n all these sentences the interro"ative prono7n is in the obAective case. As remarked with re"ard to who. since it says directly the opposite o what is intended. b7t that. which Mand it.B—/atthew Arnold." O0Q@ W4ic4. o7r most idiomatic writers pre er that in this partic7lar application. '%he ho7se that he b7ilt still remains. %his conA7nction is o ten improperly repeated in a sentenceJ th7s. W4ar3. A7sti ies 7s in sayin".

the end of which is to instr7ct 7s.hilosophy. 37t. %he prono7n which. more especially in books. who is reC7ently employed to introd7ce a cla7se intended to restrict. ew "rammarians will concede. See H&A-%H'. had no possessive. . %his was s7pplied. they have the same e ect as adAectives in limitin" no7ns. e. de ine. to of which. and he mi"ht be s7bstit7ted or who.harles. have now come re"7larly to adopt.B . i they were not so e!ceedin" modest. '%hat is the man who spoke to 7s yesterday. He says.. See %HA%.B B%he whole (7ssians are inspired with the belie that their mission is to conC7er the world. # think. %hat they are 7sed colloC7ially by well8ni"h everybody. or e!plain a no7n Mor its eC7ivalentNJ as." O04@cla7se is o the kind termed adverbial. 3ain says* B#n modern 7se. who Mfor he. On this s7bAect +r. as this co7ld not ail to en eeble the e!pression. %his may be called the(&S%(#. when speakin" o inanimate obAects. in the common periphrastic manner.'<' *ho was little 7sed as a relative till abo7t the si!teenth cent7ry. # this be tr7e—i who may be re"arded as a modern obAective orm. %his word is sometimes most improperly 7sed or allJ th7s. W4#s!. are correct.' Here the two cla7ses are distinct and independentJ in s7ch a case. ori"inally indeclinable. when so m7ch time was "iven to mere conA7nctives. "ivin" the pre erence.ampbell says* B%he possessive o ?. S7ch relative cla7ses are typical ad#ective cla7ses—i. all o7r best a7thors. we do not know who the man is. 'Why sho7ld we cons7lt . B%he best writers. and that they wo7ld be 7niversally reco"niDed as bein" the "reatest. s7ch e!pressions as B*ho did yo7 seeRB B*ho did yo7 meetRB B*ho did he marryRB B*ho were yo7 withRB B*ho will yo7 "ive it toRB and the like. BAnother orm o the same 7se is when the second?. that "ood writers 7se that orm or the possessive case o which that in their A7d"ment is. perhaps. and not "rammar to 7se. side by side with whom. the possessive o who. by the help o the preposition and the article. /r. m7st "ive law to "rammar. both in prose and verse.'B BHere the cla7se introd7ced by who is necessary to de ine or e!plain the antecedent the manJ witho7t it. BNow it will be o7nd that the practice o o7r most idiomatic writers and speakers is to pre er that to who in this application. W4#&!. well established. seeing that heN knows nothin" o the matterR' B*ho may be re"arded as a modern obAective orm. 6eor"e Washin"ton /oon disco7ntenances the 7se o whose as the possessive o which. '# met the watchman. where we may resolvewho into a personal or demonstrative prono7n and conA7nction.' Some "rammarians remonstrateJ b7t it o7"ht to be remembered that 7se. as in the e!ample ollowin"* '. B%he whole 6ermans seem to be sat7rated with the belie that they are really the "reatest people on earth. W4#&!s#-!. B*ho is properly 7sed in s7ch coPrdinate sentences as. $or many "ood writers and speakers say 'who are yo7 talkin" o R' 'who does the "arden belon" toR' 'who is this orR' 'who romR'B etc.' or '. side by side with whom— then. %he tr7th is. whose end is to instr7ct 7s in the knowled"e o nat7re. o co7rse. the more e7phonio7s. and th7s have s7bstit7ted one syllable in the room o three.B %he correctness o this statement is do7bt 7l." O0K@who is properly whose. limit. who told me there had been a ire. in each partic7lar case. 7se of which instead o whose.B— Alison. in s7ch cases.%#H& 7se o the relative. no one will disp7teJ b7t that they are correct.hilosophy.

/ow are theyA %hose who wo7ld say you wassho7ld be consistent. Wi*#2 W#-an.' %his is better than 'the de ormity of which we have seen. altho7"h the possessive o who. %he e!act eC7ivalent in 6erman o o7r /ow are youA is. %he past participle o the verb to weave iswoven. BWhere was this cloth wovenRB not wove. is not tr7e in America. ?1@ Sho7ld be." OOL@without my ather consentsB* properly. where the antecedent is not only irrational b7t inanimate.Y c. %here is "ood a7thority or 7sin" this word in speakin" o men as well as o women. B'o7 will never live to my a"e without yo7 keep yo7rsel in breath and e!erciseBJ B# shall not "o?.ro essor 3ain says* B*hose. %his. for his course a text-boo!. %he 6ermans speak to one another in the third person pl7ral. Nowhere in the Enited States is s7ch BC7estionable "rammarB as this reC7ently heard in c7ltivated circles.—A. :ours$ Bc1 THE END. %his word is o ten improperly 7sed instead o unlessJ as. FOOTNOTES: ?0@ # this is tr7e in &n"land. not me is the 7s7al practice.'<2 . consider you was a "ross v7l"arism. a text-boo! for his course. . in the case o ne"ation.ropositions o whose tr7th we have no certain knowled"e. Y#+rs9 =c. Wi$4#+$. 6ood 7sa"e does. :ou is the orm o the prono7n in the second person pl7ral. and none co7ld be more so. A.B And so orthT orth whatR $ew v7l"arisms are eC7ally o ensive. why say a widow womanR #t wo7ld be per ectly correct to say a widowed woman. $itDedward Hall says that the 7se o whose or of which. See /#S%A)&N. i we wo7ld speak correctly. and it is to be hoped always will. # con idently a irm. Y#+ 2as. the newspapers o ten content themselves with this short8hand way o intimatin" that the writer's name was preceded by some one o the amiliar orms o endin" lettersJ this an occasional d7nderhead seems to think is s7 icient a7thority or writin" himsel . #t is a c7stom we have—and have in common with other peoples—to speak to one another in the second person pl7ral. Y#+ ar! -is$a1!n. without my ather's consent. %he i"norant and obt7se not 7n reC7ently pro ess themselves at the bottom o their letters B'o7rs. %he ar"7ment that we 7se you in the sin"7lar n7mber is so nonsensical that it does not merit a moment's consideration.B +r.'—-ocke. #n printin" correspondence. certain "rammarians to the contrary notwithstandin". Wi*#24##*. ?O@ B#t may be con idently a irmed that with "ood speakers. and practically o which. it is not tr7e in America. not at worst.B—3ain. and not. or. and in like manner say you has andyou does. We sho7ld say at the worst. unless my ather consents. be 7sed with the correspondin" orm o the verb.' '. is yet reC7ently employed or the p7rpose o restriction* 'We are the more likely to "7ard watch 7lly a"ainst those a7lts whose de ormity we have seen 7lly displayed in others. Since widows are always women. W#rs$. W#)!. has had the s7pport o hi"h a7thority or several h7ndred years. and m7st. and that is all there is o it.

commas o7"ht to be 7sedJ altho7"h. who attends me here. +.'—'%he Historie o the Holy Warre. taken or "ranted in this C7otation. the makin" o the verb to be a complement to itsel .B ?0O@ BHol.'B ?0F@ B'Words. in -atin. .B ?OO@ B'Words and their Eses. p. or havin" not yet been done. See the e!tract # have made above. White reco"niDes no more di erence between supplementand complement than he reco"niDes between be and exist. 0QF5N. FQ Med.' p.'—'%he +octor. p. oot8note.. yet.B ?05@ BSam7el (ichardson writes* 'Jenny.7t 'o7rsel in his . ?OF@ B%he 7se o the pl7ral or the sin"7lar was established as early the be"innin" o the o7rteenth cent7ry. --.' p. ..B ?O1@ %he possessive constr7ction here is.B ?0L@ BHol..'—'Sir . He does not say e!actly what he meansJ b7t what he means is. the modern school. p. S.orrespondence o the late (obert So7they. 004.' vol. p. 37t. p. Worcester's '+ictionary. as the conA7nction is "enerally employed in s7ch cases or emphasis. have a nat7ral aptit7de to e!ist herea ter.' pre ace.B ?5@ 37llions' B6rammarB was p7blished in 04Q5. 14 and FL Mmono8tome ed.B ?K@ B%he analysis. iii.'B ?04@ B# am here indebted to the last edition o +r. %he e!tract "iven above is rom '..j. either readin" or being read to by Anne.' p.7blic Opinion. i.B ?0K@ B'Words and their Eses.' chapter !.'—(bid1. 1F1.H. in the s7pposed correspondin" -atin phrases.' vol. rom p. &S.-). 0550N. has more than once hinted to me that /iss Jervis loves to sit 7p late..B—/orris. the monstrosity is not in the 7se o ens with factus.B ?O0@ B'37t those thin"s which. +.. 121. O04 Med. who. wo7ld have to p7t being not now being done. is not ond o the task.B ?Q@ B#s to put them in tab7lar orm. the 7se o is with being. not imperatively demanded. 121. And. o 'are bein" thrown 7p' into 'are bein"' and 'thrown 7p' will be dealt with in the seC7el. ). 7nmistakable. i. /r. 022. p. A7st what it is in &n"lish. the last stake o the . in my A7d"ment. ?4@ B-. %he possessive constr7ction seems to me. !lv. 12F. viii Mp. ens ædificatus est Mthe obsoleteness o ens as a participle bein" "rantedN. 6o7ld criticises the +ean's diction.'—Harris's 'Hermes. 04QQ. tho7"h she reads well. %here is certainly no lack o a7thority or p7ttin" the three s7bstantives in the acc7sative. $or Harris's being not now doing. k 021. B%he transition is very sli"ht by which we pass rom 'sits bein" read to' to 'is bein" read to. pp. ?2@ 3etter. not his style.B ?00@ B'%he -i e and . to be pre erable.harles 6randison.' book #.' pp. b7t in that o ens with est. 122. %. which is to translate <ὴ 9i. W. !!!i!. 1FL. however. 114.'<3 ?F@ /r. O this reverend "entleman's personality # know nothin". %here is not m7ch to choose between the two. %he abs7rdity is. 2LF M0415N.N. ed. where the words are . may be properly said to appertain to the 7t7re. Bto revise it. 052FN. BApparently. being not now doing. he writes* 'She basked in the present deli"ht. chap. ens factus est. 'A st7dent who is being crammed'J 'that verb is eternally being declined..' etc. ?O2@ BSome writers omit the comma in cases where the conA7nction is 7sed.hristians was on losing. OFK. and shown to be 7ntenable.B ?01@ B#n '. and looked as i she was being ta!en to heaven by an an"el.B ?0Q@ B# e!press mysel in this manner beca7se # distin"7ish between beand exist.ό<:.B ?OL@ B'(t is being is simply eC7al to it is.B ?02@ B%homas $7ller writes* 'At his arrival.lace. p.' Jan7ary OL. i they p7rs7ed 7ni ormity with more o idelity than o taste.

and proscribed in all cases. %h7s. 'had st. then is o7r preachin" vain.' /?tten is still conditional.' #n the contin7ation. was reprinted si!teen years a terward.B %ranslated by a New 'ork lawyer. that the no7n man is more closely connected with learned than with the other adAectives. so h?tten wir ihn "esehen. not indicative. O45. perhaps with an 7nnecessary astidio7sness. the indicative mood wo7ld be more s7itable than the s7bA7nctive* '# tho7 be the Son o 6od.hrist is preached.' 'tho7 wo7ldst. Bcan insin7ate into 7s. #n the e!ample. sho7ldst.' And this 7sa"e is e!ceedin"ly common.' -ikewise in the ollowin"* 'Now i . ?O4@ %he commas be ore and a ter particularly are hardly necessary. tho7"h the old orm contin7ed in 7se lon" a ter the time o +ryden. e!cept Satan. 'His B&ssay on +ramatic . they may be omitted.oesy. 'Wfre er da "ewesen.B—G7ackenbos.B ?1F@ B#n principal cla7ses the in lection o the second person is always retained* 'tho7 had st.'<4 very closely connected.B ?14@ BSpeakin" o +ryden. /alone has care 7lly noted all theseJ they show both the care the a7thor took with his own style.hrist not risen.romwell—than he no man was more skilled in arti iceJ or.'B—Harrison on the B&n"lish -an"7a"e. and it is c7rio7s to observe the chan"es which +ryden made in the e!pression.B And. and the chan"e which was "rad7ally workin" in the &n"lish lan"7a"e. they really meant to make the s7pposition or to "rant that he was the Son o 6odJ 'seein" that tho7 art the Son o 6od. altho7"h s7bA7nctive. . then is .B p.B p7blished in 0QQ4. and 'be' is appropriate* '37t i there be no res7rrection rom the dead. ?O5@ /any writers wo7ld omit the last two commas in this sentence. in 6erman. it has o late years been reckoned inele"ant. hftt' ich $ll"el. B# can not think so contemptibly o the a"e # live in.' $or. ?1L@ B+r.onsistency and correctness reC7ire 'remember. h?tte occ7rs or w>rde haben. ?1O@ BSo.7nct7ation. #n -atin.B ?10@ B#n the ollowin" passa"es.B—3i"elow's BHandbook o .'B ?11@ BSo. '# tho7 bring thy "i t to the altar. 'Hftt' ich Schwin"en.B is e!chan"ed or Bthe a"e in which # live. the s7bordinate cla7se.hrist be not risen. %he An"licism o terminatin" the sentence with a preposition is reAected. An"7s on the '&n"lish %on"7e. it stands th7s* B%ranscendentalism is two holes in a sand8bank* a storm washes away the sand8bank witho7t dist7rbin" the holes. altho7"h the address was not sincere on the part o the speakers. . ?OK@ %he only e!ception to this r7le is the occasional 7se o the colon to separate two short sentences that are closely connected. command that these stones be made bread'J 'i tho7 be the Son o 6od.romwell—no man was more skilled in arti ice than he MwasN. nach den Hl"eln z@g' ich hin.' or 'w>rde ichziehen.' etc.B ?15@ BNo devil sat hi"her than he sat.B ?OQ@ B%his 7sa"e violates one o the 7ndamental principles o p7nct7ationJ it indicates.' A"ain. or where they constit7te a cla7se in the midst o a lon" sentence. the pl7per ect indicative is occasionally 7sedJ which is e!plained as a more vivid orm. how say some amon" yo7 that there is no res7rrection rom the deadR' %he meanin" is. Analo"y and perspic7ity reC7ire a comma a ter learned.B is altered. to which # have not 7ni ormly de erred.' or 'so w>rden wir ihn "esehenhaben.' etc. and yo7r aith is also vain. shows.hrist be preached.B ?12@ %o those who are not C7ite clear as to what transcendentalism is. 2O5. 'Seein" now that . w?re or w>rde sein. the ollowin" l7cid de inition will be welcome* B#t is the spirit7al co"noscence o psycholo"ical irre ra"ability connected with conc7tient ademption o incol7mnient spirit7ality and etherealiDed contention o s7bs7ltory concretion.B BA deeper e!pression o belie than all the actor can pers7ade 7s to. that He rose rom the dead. very improperly. come down rom the cross.B ?1Q@ B. and there rememberest. and the r7les o -atin and $rench "rammar are not always to bind 7s.' art. the conditional cla7ses are o a di erent character. And i . in 6erman. Hallam says. since o7r lan"7a"e is o %e7tonic str7ct7re.' .

.le. &enerally . rule.mNn.y r in the same sylla. taken rom /assin"er's '6rand +7ke o $lorence. • • ạ.+ "+—— if ! had ."rṳeL.' will show what was the 7sa"e o the &liDabethan writers*— "+?or ! m$st $se the freedom ! was born with. in 0erman. not TL/hȧ. not M. #sia—TLshẹ. rhetori" which yo$ ma e use of. rumor.lQpLạ. . as in rude.!r #3 $4! Na-!s #3 F#r!i0n A+$4#rs9 Ar$is$s9 !$c.+ "+!n that d$m. has invaria.thRst.dKLmẹ and s"eptres mankind bows to.9 $4a$ ar! #3$!n -is(r#n#+nc!*.R". • • • • • • ạ its sharp. SELECTIONS FROM THE WORK.e"omes simply oo. ạ". not . not Ạ. • . ay. not . :RsLmVr"k.rTL.Ldọ. aye Gmeanin& alwaysH—T. kULrK) in the Inited *tates.een heir4f all the &lo. hissin& so$nd.R".+ "+! look to her as on a prin"essI dare not be ambitious of. o The orthoPpists a&ree that u.+" THE ORTHO>PIST: A "O3OC3C(36 &A3CA0."rOL. o #t the end of a sylla. rural. B' ALFRED AYRES.+ "+—— the name of friendWhich yo$ are pleased to grace me with.+ "+—— wilf$lly i&norant in my opinion4f what it did in!ite him to.R/L. or aye Gmeanin& yesH—U.lQpLạ.'<5 B%he ollowin" e!amples..airo—in @&ypt.ȧ. pre"eded .+ "+—— a d$ty"hat I was born with. s.ruby.le. C#n$ainin0 a #+$ T4r!! T4#+san* Fi)! H+n*r!* W#r*s9 inc&+*in0 a C#nsi*!ra &! N+. kTLrK.thy) ạl. SrLạ..

.O.—korL. ̵ o The latter is a >e.ster+s."ọ. ̱ not dis.ạn. o ?inal e in 0erman is never silent.nQmLị. dẹ.s.fRXLit."iYrL.ọ.s.lTte. not . dịs. or Y. New 'ork* +. for sayin&d)c*o+ro." some of o$r a""idental 4thellos to the "ontrary notwithstandin&. (AKA Alfred Ayres .. not dẹ. o The first is the markin& of a lar&e ma2ority of the orthoPpists.te. honust !a&o."ạl.'<6 • • • . ̤ dN"Lạde.e to says-n*o+ro. • fRn."KLroWs. o The only a$thority for sayin& )n*er+!. dịs. >or"ester+s.late. nor . not dẹ. o "9onest.le to "honust. or RsLọ. o The a$thority is small. ̱ not dis. On! )#&." is prefera. ̵ not YLpQ"h. • 9eULnẹ.dTinL.e"omin& less. • • • • dNfLị.lTt. Y 2 3ond Street. honest !a&o. • ẹ.9 ?@-#9 c&#$4. 0.$sed word is rarely prono$n"ed "orre"tly..kTdL.hQnLor.BB. and is .Wst. and *mart+s) the se"ond. • honest—QnLest. N"."Rt.-&%ON Y ."ạl. • NpLọ"h.o$r. o The first markin& is >alker+s. Pric!9 A?.sterian pron$n"iation.Rst.. o This m$"h. whi"h is not even permitted in the late editions. >e. • RsL ̱ ọ.nQmLị. End of the Project Gutenberg E!oo" of The Verbalist.te is pop$lar $sa&e) all the orthoPpists say e+nẽr*!. by Thomas Embly Osmun. A.nYrLvTte. not ULsọ.TL. not hine. whi"h is really as in"orre"t as it wo$ld .

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