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shoot apical meristem leaf blade petiole node

terminal bud axillary bud vascular tissue

(External & Internal Structures)

vascular tissue


Shoot system


vascular tissue

Root system

root hair root apical meristem root cap root tip

(Part 1)

dermal tissue ground tissue vascular tissue


Types of root systems

Tap root system

Fibrous root system

Primary Root System

Fibrous Root System

The primary root is lost and is replaced by numerous adventitious roots arising from the lower part of the stem. These roots are fibrous in appearance , that is, they are slender in form and are more or less equally prominent

Primary Root Secondary Root

Tertiary Root

Three primary meristems

Elongation region
Cells in this region increase in size, particularly in length Protoderm outermost primary meristem gives rise to epidermis. Ground Meristem store food and uptake of minerals Procambium gives rise to stele central cylinder of vascular tissue where xylem and phloem develop Quiescent Zone slower or no cell division

The Root Tip

Root cap

Meristematic region
Actively dividing cells in various stages of mitosis

Produces mucigel for protection, lubrication, water and nutrient absorption

Maturation region
characterized by the presence of root hairs is made up of primary tissues that develop from transitional meristems of the elongation region Protoderm Ground meristem epidermis cortex pericycle phloem vascular cambium xylem

Root hairs
Increase the surface area for the absorption of water


epidermis cortex

cortex endosperm with casparian strip pericycle xylem phloem vascular cambium

Young dicot root

Exarch - tetrarch Stele - actinostele

vascular cylinder

primary root
lateral root arising from pericycle xylem


phloem endodermis with casparian strip cortical parenchyma uncutinized epidermis with root hair

lateral root

Lateral roots develop from the pericycle

epidermis cortex endodermis

Monocot root
pith xylem phloem root hairs


Exarch polyarch Stele actinostele

For Support - Brace roots

Aerial roots arising from the main stem which penetrates the ground

Modified Roots
Corn (Zea mays) Pandan (Pandanus odoratissimus)

For Support - Prop roots

Aerial roots arising from the branches which penetrates the ground

For Support Clinging roots

Aerial roots which adhere to some kind of support

Banyan tree (Ficus indica)

Mangrove (Rhizophora sp.)

English ivy (Hedera helix)

For Support - Buttress

For Reproduction

Plant-like extensions from the lower part of the stem

Ficus sp. Bog Yellowcress (Rorippa palustris)

Adventitious buds in root

For Protection

For Photosynthesis
Green aerial roots

Screw pine (Pandanus tectorius)

Presence of spines

Vanda sp.

For Food Storage

enlarged, fleshy and succulent roots

For Aeration

White Radish (Raphanus sativus)

Carrot (Daucus carota)

Mangrove (Rhizophora sp.)

development of pneumatophores roots with spongy tissues protruding above the ground