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AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

WILLSANDSUCCESSION
FINALSREVIEWER

August22,2009

1. RESERVATRONCAL
Reservationestablishedbylawforthebenefitofcertaincloserelatives
Article 891. The ascendant who inherits from his descendant any property which the latter may have
acquired by gratuitous title from another ascendant, or a brother or sister, is obliged to reserve such
property as he may have acquired by operation of law for the benefit of relatives who are within the
thirddegreeandwhobelongtothelinefromwhichsaidpropertycame.

2. Purpose
Toreturnpropertywhichhavestrayedfromonefamilytoanotherthrutheaccidentofdeath

3. History
Onlyonew/csurvivedundertheNCCamongthediffreservas
Congressthought:itwasnotyettimetodoawaywithReservaTroncal
Findtheprovision,Art891NCC:establishesareservationinfavorofcloserelatives

4. DisabuseyourselfwithnotionthatRTisonlyforRealProperty.ItcanalsobePersonalProperty.

5. SubjectsofReservaTroncal

ABCD

EFGH

IZ5M
LandSale

a) A=Origin
b) I=DescendantPropositus
c) G=Reservista
Not just mere Usufructuary. He is the actual owner. But such ownership is subject only to a
Resolutory condition. If there are existing Reservatarios at time of death of the reservista, her
rightsareextinguishedandautomaticallytransferredtosaidReservatarios.
d) 3
rd
DegreeRelativesofPropositus=Reservatarios
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

6. Propositus(I)beforehisdeathsoldthelandforP5MtoZ.IsthereaReservaTroncal?
None.ThereisnosubstitutioninRT.Theverysamepropearlieracquiredbythepropositusmustbe
theoneacquiredbytheascendantbyoperationoflaw)
Note:Regardlessofthetypeofprop,therewldbeRTaslongascompliantwiththereqts.

7. TobeReserva,theremustbetwo(2)transfers.
a) Fromtheascendant/brother/sistertotheDescendantPropositus(w/cmustbebygratuitoustitle)
b) fromthedescendantPropositustotheascendantReservista(byoperationoflaw)
Atransferbyoperationoflawisnecessarilybygratuitoustransfer(butnotviceversa).
Youcanonlyhaveatransferbyoperationoflawif:
i. acquireditasalegitime
ii. acquireditbyintestatesuccession

8. Prior to the 2
nd
transfer, if the prop is still w/ the Propositus, there is still no RT, bec Reserva commences
onlyfromthetransferbyoperationoflaw.
HencePisfreetodealwiththeprop:hecansell/transferit.
ThatiswhycivilistssaytheDescendantisregardedasthearbiterofthereserva:bechehastheprop,to
decidewhethertherewldbereservalateron.
Heisthelife&deathofthereserve.
IfIdiesintestatewithoutissue,Gwillinherit.Fromthatmomenton,ReservaExists.

9. Requirement:thePmustnothavedescendant(children)otherwisethelatterwillinherit.

10. Pdiesintestate(nowill)=sohisentireestateistransferredtotheReservista(nowbecomestheowner).

11. WhoaretheReservatarios?
Mustbewithin3
rd
degreerelativesofPropositus.
Mustbelongtothefamilylinewherethepropertyoriginated
MustsurvivetheReservista

12. CantheOriginbeareservatario?
YES.Infact,thisisthemostperfectscenariothatthepropreturntotheorigin.

13. CanhebetheReservista?
NO.TheOrigincannotbethereservistabecausetheReservistamustbeanotherascendant.

14. CantheGrandmother(B)beareservatario?
Two(2)views
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

Sir:NotqualifiedtobeaReservatariobecausesheisnotinthedirectline.Shecanlaterongetmarried
toanotherperson&shecanbearachildlatersouponherdeaththerewldpossibilitythatherchild
will eventually get the reserva. There would be possibility that the property will not return, thus
frustratingthepurposeofreservetroncal.

15. Hencetobeareservatario,youmustsatisfytheDUALBLOODrelationship.Youmustberelatedbybloodto
thePropositus(w/in3
rd
degree)andrelatedbybloodatthesametimetotheOrigin.

16. Whowillgettheproperty?
Thelawreservesthepropinfavorofaclass.
Butwithinthatclass,otherrulesofsuccessionwillapplytodeterminewhowillgettheproperty.
a) RuleofPreferenceinDirectLines(Directascendingpreferred)
b) Ruleofproximity(Thenearexcludesthefar)

17. P died intestate. His estate consists of a 4M land (which came from the origin) and 6M other properties =
10M(estate).Whatpropertyisreservable?
OnlythosepropertywhichpreviouslycamefromtheOrigin.

WillentirelandbesubjecttotheReserva?
YES. Minima & Maxima not applicable here because he died intestate. The entire land will pass by
operationoflaw.

18. ButifPdiedTestate,youapplyReservaMaximaandReservaMinima.

ReservaMaxima
Hanggatkasyasalegitime,isaksakdoon
Asmuchoflegitimeshouldbereservable
Sinceof10Mis5M,itisobviousthat4Mcanbecontainedinthelegitime.Thus,theentire4Mlangis
reservable.

ReservaMinima
Thelandpassedpartlybywill&partlybyoperationoflaw.
Thus,onlywillbereservableor2M.

19. Sir:Butthesereservaminima&maximawillnotapplyifthePdiedintestate.

20.
ABC

AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

DEF

GHIJKL

MNOPQRSTU

1
st
Marriage:DE
2
nd
Marriage:EF

21. BdonatedlandtoJ.Jdiedintestate.Finherits.Isthereareserva?
YES.WhenFdies,propertywillnowgotoB.
Becausedirectascendinglineexcludescollateralline.

22. IfBdies,propertywillgotoG,H,I,K,L.Willtheyinheritequally?
NO.
ApplytheruleonDoubleshare:fullbloodsiblingswillgettwiceasmuchasthatofthehalfbloodsiblings
(sameruleappliestoNephews&nieces)

23. IfH&Ldies?
Shareswillgototheirchildren(nephewsorniecesofpropositusJ)
ThereisrepresentationinRTaslongasrepresentativeiswithinthe3
rd
degree.

24. Generallyspeaking,representationisgivenonlytothedirectDescendingline.
Norepresentationinthecollaterallineexceptonlywhenthenephews&niecessurvivewithatleast1
uncleoraunt.TheDistributionthenwillbebyline(perstirpes).
Note: If all Uncles and Aunts are dead, the nephews & nieces (M N O P Q R S T U) will be the
reservatarios.
But this time they will be inheriting in their own rights (bec they did not survive with at least one
aunt/uncle).Sodistributionispercapitabutstillapplyingtheruleofdoubleshare:hencethosechildren
ofthefullbloodsiblingofpropositusJwillgettwiceasmuch.

25. HowaboutZ?Canhegetthepropertyasreservatario?
Nomore.Heisarelativewithinthe4
th
degreealready.

26. Howisreservatroncalextinguished?

AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

a) DeathoftheReservista
ThePropertywillnowgotoReservatarios.

WhatifReservistaandReservatariosselltheproperty?
Example:PriortothedeathoftheReservista,hesoldtheproptoMr.X&theReservatariosalsosoldit
toMrY.
Thisisallowedbutsubjecttosuspensive&resolutoryconditions.
Sir:AstowhowillgetthepropertybetweenX&Y,thewinneriswhoeverPRAYSBETTER(he,he,he).
MrX=willpraythatReservistaoutlivetheReservatarios(&MrY=viceversa).

b) WaiverorRenunciationbyAlltheReservatarios
Note: SHOULD BE All. So if they are 10 and only 9 waived, still the RT continues over the entire
prop.
The waiver executed by the living Reservatarios will not prejudice those Reservatarios who are yet
tobeborn(thelatterwillnotbeaffectedbythewaiveroftheformer).

c) DeathofALLtheReservatarios

d) ThePropertyisRegisteredasFreeProperty
Rightsofaninnocentpurchaserforvalueisprotected.

COLLATIONOFLEGITIME

1. WhatisCollation?
Collationhas3differentmeaningsasusedintheCivilCode:
a) Addition
the value (not the property itself) of all gratuitous dispositions made by the testator made
duringhislifetimewillbeaddedtohisnetestatetodetermineallthehereditaryestateandthe
legitimeofthecompulsoryheir(mathematical&mentalprocess).
Note:thepropisnotbroughtbackonlyitsvalue.
b) Imputation
Gratuitous dispositions (value) to the compulsory heirs during the testators lifetime will be
imputedtotheirlegitime,whilethosegiventootherswillbechargedtothefreeportion.
c) Restoration
ActualRestorationofPropertytotheEstate
Notreallycollation
Happensonlyifdonationistotallyinofficous.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

Sir:WewillbeconcernedwiththeFIRSTTWOMEANINGS.

2. AssumethatXhas2legchildren(A&B),anillegitimatechild(C)andwife(W).
In1975,Ademandedfromhisfatherhisinheritance.
Sohewasgivenbydonationintervivos(DIV)aparcelofland(P20Kvaluein1975).
Aexecutedawaiver.
Xdiedin1995w/awillandinstitutedB&Casheir
Xleft:GrossEstate=P200k&Debts=P100k

Sir:Nopreteritionhere,evenifwifenotmentioned(notdirectline)aswellasA(nottotallyomitted,he
receivedalreadybyDIVduringtestatorslifetime).
NovalidwaiverofA.
LetsGotothePROCESSOFCOLLATION.
a) DeterminetheNETESTATE.
So,GE(200k)Debts(100k)=NE(100k)
b) DoADDITIONtodetermineTotalHereditaryEstate.
GratuitousDispositions(20k)+NE(100k)=THE(120k)
Always use value at the time of donation because since that time property was already owned
bydonee.
c) UsetheTHE(120k)todeterminetheLegitime.
(60k)willgotoA&B(30keach).IllegitimateCwillgethalfasmuchasalegitimategets(15k).
Wifegetsasmuchasalegitimategets(30k).
d) Charging.
The20kDIVgiventoAwillbechargedtohislegitime,soAwillreceive10konly.
FreePortion(15k)willnowgotoB&C(7,500each)becausetheyaretheinstitutedheirs.
IfF.P.isnotsufficienttocoverlegacies,devises&DIVs,preferenceisgivenbylawtoDonations
InterVivos(Reason:Basicallyirrevocable&Priorityintimeispriorityinright.)

FinalDistribution:
A=30k20k=10k
B=30k7,500=37,500
C=15k7,500=22,200
W=30k

3. Xhas3legchildren(ABC)andSpouse(W).
XDiedwithawillandinstitutedasheirsA,B,C,&W.
Heleftagrossestateof400kwithadebtof40k.
MadetheffLegacies/Devisesinhiswill:
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

70k(H&L)toG
30k(Car)toH
60k(Cash)toI
Total:160k
Duringhislifetime,hemadetheffDIVs:
1975,20k(land)toA
1985,70ktoF

Distribution:
a) GE(400k)Debts(40k)=400K(NE)
b) Addition:NE(360k)+DIVs(70k&20k)=450k(THE)
c) Legitimes:
ofTHEis225k.So,ABCgets75keach.
SurvivingspouseWgets75k.
TotalLegitimeis300k.
FreePortionis150k.
d) ChargingorImputation
GiveAonly55kbecauseof20kDIValreadygiventohim.
TheDIVtoF(70k)willbedeductedfromF.P.(150k)
RemainingF.P.is80k.
Note:BeforesatisfyingLeg/Dev,satisfyDIVsfirst.
Since 80k is not sufficient to satisfy Leg/Dev and there are no Preferential Leg/Dev, just distribute
proportionately:Ggets35k,Hgets15k,andIgets30k.

FinalDistribution:
A=75k20k=55k
B=75k
C=75k
W=75k
F=70k
G=35k
H=15k
I=30k

4. Article912
Ifthedeviseconsistsofrealpropwhichcannotbeconvenientlydivided.
Ifthereductiondoesnotabsorbhalfofthepropertyvalue=itwillgotothedevisee
Soifthereductionabsorbshalfofthepropvalue=itwillgotothecompulsoryheir
Butinbothinstances,theremustbecompensationfortheexcessvalue.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

Whatifreductionisexactlyifthevalue?
2views:Jurado(GivetoCompulsoryHeirsbecauseoftheletteroftheLaw)andParas&Tolentino
(Deviseebecauseofintentionofthetestator).
Sir: Better rule is that property should go to the devisee. Reason: the animus testandi of the
testator.Hereallyintendedtogivesaiddeviseetheproperty.

Whatifthepropertyisapersonalpropwhichcannotbeconvenientlydivided?WillyouapplyArt912?
Sir:Yes,otherwisewhatrulewillyouapply?

5. Note:ImperialCase
Ruling:Thepropertyitselfisnotbroughtbackintocollation.Onlythevalue.

6. Xhas2legchildren(AB)
In1975,hedonatedtohisfriendFaland(P40K).
In1985,hedonatedtohisfriendGaland(60K).
Whenxdiedin2005,hehadaGrossEstateof500KandDebtsamountingto700k.

Howdowedistributetheestate?
Nosuchanimalasanegativeestate,theworstwillbeazeroestate.
GototheprocessofCollationbecausetherearecompulsoryheirs&willdispositionsmade.

a) GE(500k)Debts(700k)=0(NE)
b) Addition:NE(0)+DIVs(40k&60k)=100k(THE)
Note:Justfictitiousmathematicalcomputationsbecausepropertiesarewithdonees.
c) Legitimes:
ofTHEis50k.So,ABshouldget25keach.
FreePortionis50k.
d) ChargingorImputation
F.P.(50k)cannotcoverbothdonations.
LawonProperty:LatestDonationwillbeSuppressed.
Hence,theruleisGivePreferencetotheEarlierDonations.
So,50k(F.P.)40k(EarlierDonationtoFmadein1975)=10k(RemainingFreePortion)
10k(RemainingF.P.)60k(InofficiousDonationtoG)=50k
Thus,Gshouldgive50kbacktobeusedtosatisfylegitimesofA&B.

August29,2009
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

1. DISINHERITANCEistheonlylegalwaybywhichtestatormaydeprivecompulsoryheirofthelegitime.

2. Article 915. A compulsory heir may, in consequences of disinheritance, be deprived of his legitime, for
causesexpresslystatedbylaw.
Article 916. Disinheritance can be effected only through a will wherein the legal cause therefor shall be
specified.
Article917.Theburdenofprovingthetruthofthecausefordisinheritanceshallrestupontheotherheirs
ofthetestator,ifthedisinheritedheirshoulddenyit.
3. Whataretherequisitesforavaliddisinheritance?
a) Effectedonlythroughavalidwill;
b) Foracauseexpresslystatedbylaw;
c) Causemustbestatedinthewillitself;
d) Causemustbecertainandtrue;
e) Unconditional;
f) Total;and
g) The heir disinherited must be designated in such a manner that there can be no doubt as to his
identity.

4. Testatorsays,IdisinheritmyyoungestsonDbecausehehasmaltreatedme.Heslappedmeinfrontofso
manypeople.Valid?
Yes.

5. Testatorsays,IdisinheritmyyoungestsonDbecauselooksmorethanourneighborthanme.Valid?
No.Causenotspecifiedbylaw.

6. Disinheritanceistotal.Whycanitbenotpartial?
BasisofDisinheritanceistopunishtheoffensecommittedagainstTestator.Testatorcannotbepartially
offended.
Sir:isitpossibleforaladytobepartiallyvirgin?No,eitheravirginornot
7. IspartialDisinheritancevalid?
No.Invaliddisinheritance,hencetheimperfectlydisinheritedheirwillstillgethislegitime.

8. Yourfathersaidinhiswill(madein2001)IfmysonOliver,shouldeverliveadishonorablelifehewillbe
disinherited,&thenin2004youstartedcohabitingwithMr.Evangelista.Isthereavaliddisinheritance.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

10

Notvaliddisinheritancebecausethelegalcausemustalreadybeexistingatthetimewhenthewillwas
executed.

9. Yourfatherdisinheritedyou,Mr.Evangelista,becauseyouarecohabitingwithMr.Mempinmifhoweverhe
shouldmendhiswaysandrealizethefoolishnessheiscommittingandmendhiswaysandreturnhomeand
servemewellbeforeIdie,thisdisinheritanceshallnotbevalid?Isthereavaliddisinheritance?
Conditionfutureanduncertainevent
ValidDisinheritance,conditionrefersnottothedisinheritance.Itistherevocationofthedisinheritance
thatisconditional,andthisisnotprohibited.

10. Supposingthetestatormadetwo(2)wills:
1985Iamgreatlyoffendedbywhat mysonDhaddone, heutteredinvectivesagainst meandeven
slappedmeinfrontofmanypeople(maltreatment).
1990anotherwill,IherebydisinheritmysonDforthereasonsIstatedinmywillof1985
Validdisinheritance?
YES.Therequisitesforavaliddisinheritanceneednotallbefoundinasinglewill.Theymaybe
found in 2 or more wills as long as connections between or among these various wills arevery
clear.

11. Article919.
Whatarethecausesfordisinheritingachildordescendant?
a) When the heir has been found guilty of an attempt against the life of the testator, his/her
descendantsorascendants,andspouseincaseofchildrenandparents;
b) Whentheheirhasaccusedthetestatorofacrimeforwhichthelawprescribesimprisonmentfor6
yearsormore,iftheaccusationhasbeenfoundgroundless;
c) When the child/descendant has been convicted of adultery or concubinage with the spouse of the
testator;
d) Whentheheirbyfraud,violence,intimidation,orundueinfluencecausesthetestatortomakeawill
ortochangeonealreadymade;
e) Refusalwithoutjustifiablecausetosupportthetestatorwhodisinheritssuchheir.
f) Maltreatmentofthetestatorbywordordeedbythechild/descendant;
g) Whenthechild/descendantleadsadishonorableordisgracefullife;
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

11

h) Convictionofacrimewhichcarrieswithitapenaltyofcivilinterdiction.
12. Whyisthelastgroundincluded(convictionofacrimewithpenaltyofcivilinterdiction)?
Bytheway,theoffensehereneednotbecommittedagainstthetestatororhiscloserelative.Itmaybe
committedagainstatotalstranger.
Theoffenderundercivilinterdictionheremaystillexecuteawill.Heisprohibitedfromexecutingacts
intervivos,butheisnotprecludedfromexecutingactsmortiscausa.

Ifhecanmakeawill,whycanthenotinherit?
If you are sentenced to a penalty that carries with it Civil interdiction, you must have committed
somethingveryseriouslywrong.
It is an accessory penalty attached only to afflictive penalties (Kaya yung offense mo na nacommit
tlagangmatindiorhenious).
So,thereisanelementofscandalanddishonorinsofarasyourfamilyisconcerned.
Thatrevealsthatthereisnowaverywideanddeepmoralchasmbetweenyouandthetestator.Thats
whyitisincluded.

13. Youstabbedyourfatherwithintenttokill,youwerenotprosecutedhoweverbecauseyourfamilywanted
toavoidascandal,canyourfatherdisinherityou?
YES,onthegroundofmaltreatment.Maltreatmentincludesnotjustactsbutwords.

14. Supposingthatyouwereconvictedofanattemptagainstthelifeofyourbrother,canyourfatherdisinherit
you?
YES.

15. Supposingyouweregrantedabsolutepardon.Canyourfatherstilldisinherityou?Why?
YES. The basis of disinheritance is to punish the offense. The absolute pardon by the state does not
erasetheoffense.Theoffenseisstillthere.

16. Inacriminalcase,youtestifiedagainstyourfatheronthecrimeofmurder,thecourtacquittedhimonthe
groundofreasonabledoubt,canhedisinherityou?
NO. Reasonable doubt is not tantamount to groundless. There must have been some evidence but it
justfailedtomeettheConstirequirementofproofbeyondreasonabledoubt.

17. Oneofthegroundsfordisinheritanceiswhenachildordescendantcommitsadulterywiththewifeofthe
testator,doesthismeanincest?
Could be. Law does not make distinction between biological mother and second wife (Sir:
Karimarimarimnamanito!)

AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

12

18. Another ground is refusal without just cause to support the testator. If you refuse to support your father
withoutlegalbasis,canhedisinherityou?
YES.
Sir: Pero anong mawawala sayo? Practically, Wala. Because ultimate basis of support is necessity. If
yourfatherhasthelegalrighttodemandsupportfromyou,thatmeanshehasnomoneyandyouhave
money.Kayaparangwlangnawalasaukahitidisinheritka,kasiwlangansyangpera.
But not entirely useless ground. Ang buhay parang gulong. Theres always the possibility of a radical
change in the fortunes of your father. Eh kung manalo sa lotto, patay kang bata ka, you are validly
disinherited.

19. Your father came home early one afternoon and got the shocked of his life, that you were in bed with the
familydriverwhoismarried.Youwerehavingthetimeofyourlife.Canyourfatherdisinherityou?
NO,thelegalcauseoflivingadisgracefullifecannotbeabasisofdisinheritanceupononeact.Itmust
becontinuousandhabitual.Onceisnotenough.

20. Article920
Causesfordisinheritingaparent:
a) When the parents have abandoned their children or induced their daughters to live a corrupt or
immorallife,orattemptedagainsttheirvirtue;
b) When the heir has been found guilty of an attempt against the life of the testator, his/her
descendantsorascendants,andspouseincaseofchildrenandparents;
c) Whentheheirhasaccusedthetestatorofacrimeforwhichthelawprescribesimprisonmentfor6
yearsormore,iftheaccusationhasbeenfoundgroundless;
d) Whentheheirbyfraud,violence,intimidation,orundueinfluencecausesthetestatortomakeawill
ortochangeonealreadymade;
e) Whentheparent/ascendanthasbeenconvictedofadulteryorconcubinagewiththespouseofthe
testator;
f) Refusalwithoutjustifiablecausetosupportthetestatorwhodisinheritssuchheir.
g) LossofparentalauthorityforcausesspecifiedintheCode;and
h) Attempt by one of the parents against the life of the other, unless there has been reconciliation
betweenthem.

21. Yourfathertriedtokillyourmother,nochargeswerefiled.Canyouvalidlydisinherityourfather?
YES.

AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

13

Assumingtheyreconciled?
Not anymore. Mother, the direct offending party, already forgiven your father. So no legal or even
moralbasisforyoutobemoreexacting.

22. Same, but this time prosecuted and convicted, after conviction there was a tearful reconciliation, can you
stilldisinherit?
YES,groundwillnotbeundernumber8,butnumber2(foundguiltyofanattemptagainstthelife).
23. Withrespectto1
st
ground,whentheparentshaveabandonedtheirchildrenorinducedtheirdaughtersto
liveacorruptorimmorallife,orattemptedagainsttheirvirtue.Distinguish.
Firstpart,abandonment,coversall(maleandfemale)children.
Secondpart, inducement ofimmorallifeorattempt againstthevirtue,coversonlyfemalemembersof
thefamily.
Iffatherattemptedtosexuallyassaultason,notcountedasaground.Atthetimelawwasmade,such
practicewasnotyetprevalent.

24. Article921
Causesfordisinheritingaspouse:
a) When the heir has been found guilty of an attempt against the life of the testator, his/her
descendantsorascendants,andspouseincaseofchildrenandparents;
b) Whentheheirhasaccusedthetestatorofacrimeforwhichthelawprescribesimprisonmentfor6
yearsormore,iftheaccusationhasbeenfoundgroundless;
c) Whentheheirbyfraud,violence,intimidation,orundueinfluencecausesthetestatortomakeawill
ortochangeonealreadymade;
d) Whenthespousehasgivencauseforlegalseparation;
e) Whenthespousehasgivengroundsforthelossofparentalauthority.
f) Refusalwithoutjustifiablecausetosupportthetestatorwhodisinheritssuchheir.

Dean Navarro: Take note of the provisions of Article 55 of the Family Code, 10 grounds for legal
separation.Alcoholism,repeatedviolence,sexualinfidelitykahitnaminsanlang,willalsolegalbasisfor
disinheritance.

25. Underthelaw,themomentthereisreconciliation,whatistheeffect?
It will deprive the offended party of the right to disinherit. If there is already a disinheritance made,
suchwillberenderedineffective.

AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

14

26. Whenistherereconciliation?Whatisreconciliation?
Reconciliation is the mutual restoration of feelings to the status quo. It is indeed the resumption of
friendlyrelations.

27. Isitthesameaspardon?
NO.

28. Howdoesitdifferfrompardon?
Apardonmerelyforgivestheoffendingparty,butinreconciliation,youwillaccept theotherandbring
backtherelationshipyouhadbeforethecauseofdisinheritance.

29. You were disinherited by your father for attempting to kill him, you cannot inherit from your father, what
aboutyourchildren?
YES,mylegitimewillgotomychildren.

Whydoesthelawallowthis?
The offense is something personal to the validly disinherited heir. The disinherited heir should be the
onlyonepunished.
If the descendant will not be allowed to inherit the l, that will amount to penalizing them twice (first:
depriving them of the legitime, 2
nd
: already very unfortunate to have that disinherited heir as their
parent)
Thelawhasalwaysdisplayagreatsolicitudetowardschildren.

30. Ifanheirisvalidlydisinheritedhedoesnotgetanything,whataboutifthedisinheritanceisnotvalid,does
hegetanything?
YES,hegetshislegitime.

Canhegetmorethanhislegitime?
NO.Limitedonlytohislegitimeexceptwhenthetestatormakesaninvalidinstitutionofheirincaseof
preterition.

31. Xhas4legitimatechildren,ABCD.Xsaysinhiswill:IherebygivemyentireestatetomychildrenA&B.I
hereby disinherit my son D because I dont like his face or he married someone I did not like (imperfect
disinheritance).Cisnotmentioned.TheestateisP120,000.Howwillyoudistributethis?
There will be preterition. Institution of heirs is annulled. 120,000 will be divided equally among the
four.30,000each.D,theimperfectlydisinheritedheir,getsmorethanhislegitime.

SupposingthatCisnotpreterited?
A,B,C,Dwillget15,000eachastheirlegitime.RemainingwillgotoA,B,C@P20,000each.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

15

IfDisvalidlydisinherited?
A,B,C@40,000each.

SupposingDhas2children,E&F?
E&Fwillgetlegitime@7,500each.RestwillgooA,B,&C.
In a valid disinheritance, the children can get only up to the extent of the legitime of the disinherited
parentnothingmoreifthereisnodispositionofthefreeportion.

32. LEGACIESandDEVISES

33. Legacies and devises are testamentary dispositions giving an economic benefit or advantage other than an
aliquotorfractionalpartoftheinheritance.Thisistodistinguishthegivingofthesegiftsfromtheinstitution
ofheir.
Legaciesanddevisesareseparatedbythetestatorfromtheuniversalityoftheinheritancethatwouldhave
appertainedtotheheir,andtheyhavefortheirpurposes:
(1) ThecompliancebytheTofsocialduties
(2) Hisrewardingofloveanddevotionoffriendsandrelatives
(3) Hisshowofgratefulnessforactsdonetohim
(4) Hisgivingfundstobeneficentandcharitableinstitution

34. Whohasthedutyofgivingthelegaciesanddevises?
Itdepends.
Asageneralrule,ifnooneischargedwiththisduty,itistheestatewhichmustgivethelegacies
and devises. The estate is of course represented by the executor, or the administrator with a
willannexed.
If the T gives this duty to the compulsory heirs, or to the legatees and devisees, they must
complywiththeirduties,subjecttothelimitationsimposedbylaw.

35. WhatisaSublegacyorSubdevisee?
Article925(1)Atestatormaychargewithlegaciesanddeviseesnotonlyhiscompulsoryheirsbutalso
thelegateesanddevisees.
Example:IgiveyouP1MbutgiveP25ktoMr.Forto.

36. Howdoesasublegacydifferfromadispositioncaptatoria?
Similarity:Botharegivenforthebenefitof3
rd
persons.
Difference:Insublegacy,thedispositionisactuallywritteninthewillwhileincaptatoriathetestatoris
obligingtheheirtomakeadispositioninhiswill.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

16

37. Canapersongivebywayoflegacyordevisesomethingwhichhedoesnotown?
YES.
Thepointis,aslongasthetestatorknowsthatitdoesnotbelongtohim,andstillhegivesit,thereisa
validlegacyordevisesincethereisanimpliedorderfromestatetoacquiresuchproperty.
Ordermaybeexpressorimplied.Thelawdoesnotextinguish.

38. XthoughtheownedacarandgaveittoAbywill.ItturnedoutthatitwasMr.Bwhoactuallyownsthecar.
ValidLegacy?
Invalid.SinceXjustthoughtthatheownedthecar.
Ifthereisnoknowledgeormistakenbeliefofownership,itisinvalid

Supposethataftertwoyrsafterexecutionofawill,XboughtthecarfromB.ValidLegacy?
YES,ValidLegacy.SincecarwasalreadyacquiredbyX.

Supposethataftertwoyrsafterexecutionofawill,AboughtcarfromB.ValidLegacy.
NO, still invalid. Since the legacy in the will was void because X just thought he owned the thing, the
subsequentacquisitionbyAisimmaterial.

39. XgivesMs.Samsonthehouseandlotat123EspanyaSt.Manilabywill,butshewasactuallytheownerof
thehouse,isthereavaliddevise?
NO, even if X knew that she was the owner. Because the fact remains that Ms. Samson is already the
owner.

Supposeafter3months,Ms.SamsonsoldpropertytoMs.Lino.ValidDevise?
NO,stillinvalid.Invalidityisdeterminedattimeofexecutionofthewill.

SupposeinsteadofsellingpropertytoMs.Lino,shesoldittoX.ValidDevise?
YES, now its already valid. By acquiring property, the intention of the testator to validate the
testamentaryprovisionisrevealed.Theintentionistheguidingruleintestamentarysuccession.
Article930canbeappliedbyanalogy.

40. Same facts (X gave property to Ms. Samson which is presently owned by Mr Feliciano and this fact was
knownbythetestator.1yearafter,MsSamsonboughtthesame,isthereavaliddevice?
YES.

Whatwillyouget?
She can claim reimbursement. Since testator knew he was not the owner, he is actually ordering the
acquisitionofthething.
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17

SupposingFelicianoinsteadofselling,justdonated?
NO.Reimbursementcannotbeclaimedanymore.

41. I give Ms. Samson my farm in Pampanga, 6 months after execution of the will, testator mortgaged the
proprety,testatordiesistheestateobligetopaytheloantofreetheproperty?
YES.

Woulditmakeadifferenceifmortgagewasbeforeexecutionofwill?
Nodifference.Estateisstillobligedtopayloan.

42. Supposing instead of mortgaging the property, the testator entered into an antichresis with A, will the
estatebeunderthesameobligationtopaytheloan?
YES,antichresis(andanyotherencumbranceorlien)arecoveredalthoughlaw(Art.934)mentionsonly
pledgeandmortgageaslongasitisgiventosecureorguaranteearecoverabledebt.

43. TestatorenteredintoaacontractofeasementolfrightofwaywithA.istheestateobligedtoextinguishthe
easement?
NO, any other charge, perpetual or temporary, with which the thing bequeathed is burdened, passes
withittothelegateeordevisee.

44. Testatorsaysinhiswill,Igivemycreditof1MtoMsSamsonagainstMs.Lino(legacyofacredit),beforethe
deathoftestator,debtormadeapartialpaymentof200k.Willtherebestillavalidlegacy?
YES,butonlyuptoP800k.

45. Same facts, but before his death, the testator filed an action for collection against Ms. Lino, case pending
whenhedied.Isthereavalidlegacy?
No more. The moment the testator files an action, the legacy of credit or legacy of condonation of a
debtisrenderedineffective.

46. IgivetoMs.Samsonbywayoflegacythecondonationofherdebtof1M.
IftestatorfilesanactionagainstMs.Samsonbeforehedies,suchlegacyisrenderedineffective.

47. Withrespecttogenericcondonations,suchshouldbeinterpretedonlytoapplyonlytoexistingobligations
atthetimeofexecutionofthewill.

48. Testatorowesyou30k,Inhiswill,hegivesMsSamsonbywayoflegacy40k,howmuchcanshecollect?
P70k(30kascreditand40kaslegacy).

AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

18

Supposingtestatorsays,Iorderthatthis40klegacybeappliedtoherdebt.Howmuchcanshecollect?
P40k(30kwillbetestatorspaymentforhisdebt)

49. IgivetoMsSamsoncoconutfarm,afterdeathitwasdiscoveredthatwhileheownedhectaresofsugarland
andricelandhedidnotownapieceofcoconutland,validdevise?
None.

IgivetoMs.Samsonmycar,afterdeathalthoughheisamultibillionaire,hedidnotownasinglecar.Valid
Legacy?
YES.

Whats the reason for the difference? Why is a generic devise not valid if there is no such property in the
estate?Whyisagenericlegacystillvalidevenifthereisnosuchpropertyintheestate?
The genus in personal property is determined by nature while in real property, there is no genus,
becauseeachrealpropertyisindividualizedbytheeffortsofman.

50. Uptowhenwillalegacyforeducationlast?
Until legatee is of age, or beyond the age of mage of majority in order that legatee may finish some
professional,vocational,orgeneralcourse,providedhepursueshiscoursediligently.(Art.944,par.1)

51. Whataboutalegacyforsupport?
Itlastsduringthelifetimeofthelegatee,unlesstestatorprovidesotherwise.

Howdoyoufixtheamount?
DetermineifEstateiscapableofsupportingthelegatee.
If there is already a habit of giving a said amount as support by testator when he is still alive, such
amountwillbethebasis.

52. Whendoesthelegateeordeviseeacquireownershipofthethinggivenbywayoflegacyordevise?
Fromthemomentofdeath(Art.777).Ifwhathasbeengivenissomethingdeterminatewhichisowned
bythetestator.

53. Supposingthedeviceorlegacyissomethingnotownedbythetestator?
Therehastobeacquisitionfirst.

54. Whatabouttherightasdistinguishedfromownership?
Fromthemomentofthedeathofthetestatoraslongaslegacyordeviseissimpleandunconditional.
Ifconditional,wemuststillseeifconditionwillinfactbefulfilled.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

19

Dean Navarro: Once condition is fulfilled, I submit that retroactivity should apply. That would
harmonizeitwiththeruleinArt.777.

55. Article911.OrderofPreferenceintheHereditaryEstate
Afterthenethereditaryestatehasbeenascertained,whatshouldbetheorderofpayment?
a) First,givethelegitimes
b) Thenthedonationsintervivos
c) Thenthepreferredlegaciesanddevises
d) Thenallotherdevisesandlegaciesprorata(incasetheestateisnotsufficient

56. InArticle950,thereisanotherOrderofPreference:
a) Remuneratorylegaciesanddevises;
Thosewhichtestatorgivesbecausehefeelsmorallyobligedtocompensatecertainpersons,for
serviceswhichshouldnothoweverconstitutedemandabledebts.
b) LegaciesordevisesdeclaredbyTestatortobepreferential;
c) Legaciesforsupport;
d) Legaciesforeducation;
e) Legaciesordevisesofaspecific,determinatethingwhichformspartoftheestate;
f) Allothers,prorata.

57. WhendoyouapplyArticles950and911?
Art.950shouldonlybeappliedwhentheconflictisexclusivelyamongthelegaciesanddevises.

58. Remuneratory
Intendedtopaypreviousserviceswhichdoesnotconstitutedemandabledebt.

59. If the testator gives you two legacies one onerous, the other gratuitous can you accept gratuitous and
rejecttheonerous?
Youhavetoacceptboth.

60. Canyouaccepttheonerousandrejectthegratuitous?
Yes,whatthelawprohibitsisonlyacceptingthegratuitousandrejectingtheonerous.
Unlessofcoursetestatormakesitclearthatbothshouldbeaccepted.

61. Article957IMPORTANT.
Whatarethethreesituationsthatwillrenderthelegacyordeviseineffective?
a) Transformation
b) Alienation
c) Loss
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

20

62. WhenisthereTansformation?
Whenthenatureofthinghasbeenchangedcoconutlandtofishpond.
Ifthingchangedinitsform(physicalappearance)anddenomination(namebywhichthethingiscalled
Ifbraceletismeltedandturnedtoaring).
Farmlandtoaresort.(Formanddenominationchanged)

63. Assumethatabraceletwasgivenbylegacy,addeddiamonds,istheretransformation?
None,itisstillabracelet.

64. WhenisthereAlienation?
If the testator gives something, subsequently alienate it to a third person, the question that should be
askedis,didthetestatorintendtopermanentlypartwithownershipofthething?
Ifyes,legacyordeviseineffective,ifno,legacyordeviseisvalid.Ifrighttorepurchase,legacyordevise
isvalid.
Thisiswhythelawitselfexemptsfromoperationoftheseruleswherepropertyisalienatedwithrightto
repurchase.

65. If A gave B his H&L at Manila, subsequently donated to C and delivered the thing but executed only in a
privatedocument, devise isineffective because thereisnointenttopermanentlypartwiththethingsince
thedonationisnullandvoid.
EvenifAisabletorecoverpropertybyreasonofnullity,legacyordeviseremainswithouteffect.

66. Loss:Makeadistinction.
Ifthelosshappensduringthelifetimeofthetestator,thecauseofthelossisimmaterial.
(Soiftestatorgivesyoubylegacyaparticularcar.Beforehisdeath,heburnedhiscar.Legacybecomes
ineffective.)
Ifafterthedeath,itdepends:
Iflossisduetothefaultornegligence ofanyoftheheirs,thenlegacyremainsvalid.Lawimposes
solidaryliabilityamongtheheirswhohastakenpossessionoftheproperty.
Iflossisduetocasofortuito,legacyordeviseisrenderedineffective.

67. Article959DispositionmadeingeneraltermsinfavoroftestatorsrelativesHowwouldyouconstrueit?
Givepropertytorelativenearestindegree.

68. Testator X dies survived by spouse W, grandfather GF, brothers A & B, nephew D son of predeceased
brotherC.Saidinhiswill:Igivefreeportiontomyrelatives.WhowillgettheFreePortion?
GF,A,&B.Sincetheyarethenearestrelatives.
WhynotD?
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

21

No.HecannotrepresentC.
WhynotW?
Sheisnotarelative.
InArticle959therulethatappliesistheruleofproximityonly!!Disregardotherrulesofsuccession.
Norepresentation,nopreferencebetweenlines,etc.

69. Woulditmakeanydifferenceiftestatorsaidinhiswill:Igivethefreeportiontothoseentitledthereto?
YES. He is in fact invoking the rules of Intestate Succession. Therefore, free portion should go to his
legalandintestateheirs.

September12,2009

1. ACCRETION
Article1015.Accretionisarightbyvirtueofwhich,whentwoormorepersonsarecalledtothesame
inheritance,deviseorlegacy,thepartassignedtotheonewhorenouncesorcannotreceivehisshare,or
who died before the testator, is added or incorporated to that of his coheirs, codevisees, or co
legatees.
ConceptofAccretion.
The right of accretion occurs when two or more persons are called to the same inheritance,
legacy or devise, but, by reason of (1) predecease, or incapacity, or repudiation, a vacancy is
createdintheinheritance.
The effect of such a situation is that the vacant portion which had been previously assigned to
the one who died before the decedent, or who is incapacitated to succeed or who repudiated
hisinheritance,legacyordevise,isaddedorincorporatedtothatofhiscoheirs,codevisees,or
colegatees.
ReasonforAccretion.Accretionisarightbasedonthepresumedwillofthedeceasedthatheprefersto
givecertainpropertiestocertainindividuals,ratherthantohislegalheirs

2. Accretionisoneofthemorecomplicatedaspectsofsuccession.
Why? The problem of determining when to apply the rules on accretion and when the other rules on
succession.

3. Therearecertainbasicnotionswhentoapply.(Itshouldbeclearthattherearenotions)
ISRAI
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

22

A. Basic rule, determine the intention of the testator (anchored on the rule that testacy is preferred
over intestatacy). The number 1 rule to follow is apply the rules of institution of heirs and
designationoflegaciesanddevices;
B. As the owner of the property, another rule is primacy of the will or power of the testator to
designatesubstitute;
C. Lawonlegitimes,theyarenotsubjecttosubstitution.Thetestatorcannotnameanysubstitutefor
thelegitime.Theruleonrepresentationwillapply,withrespecttothesharesofthevoluntaryheirs
the rule on substitution will apply (supposing there is no substitute given by the testator from the
freeportion,thisiswhereaccretioncomesin);
D. Accretion,iftherearecoheirs,colegatees,orcodevices,givethevacantportiontothem.

4. AccretionisbasicallyarightinTestamentarySuccession.
There is accretion in case there are two or more persons who are called to the same inheritance pro
indiviso, aliquot or fractional part of the whole, there is a vacancy cause by repudiation, incapacity, or
predeceased.

5. RequisitesforAccretion
(a) Unityofobject.(oneinheritance)
(b) Pluralityofsubjects.(twoormoretoinheritordinarily)
(c) Vacantpotion.(ex:repudiationofhissharebyoneofthosecalledtoinherit)
(d) Acceptance(oftheportionaccruingbyreasonentitled)

6. Iftherearenocoheirs,codevisees,orcolegateess,backupisintestatesuccession.

7. Iffungiblethings,accretionispossibleaslongasthereisnoEARMARKINGorPHYSICALSEGREGATION
I give the balance of my savings at BPI to A and current account at PNB to B, and cash on hand to C.
(thereisearmarking)
IgivethebalanceofmyaccounttoABandC.(thereisnoearmarkinginthiscase)

8. In Intestate or Legal Succession, there is accretion (Art. 1018) in case of repudiation. What about in
predeceaseandincapacity?
Juradomaintainsthatthereisnoaccretioninsuchcases,onlyincaseofrepudiation.
In reality in intestate succession, only repudiation creates vacancy. Meaning, incase of predecease, if
there is a representative the representative takes the place of the predecessor. If there is no heir to
represent,yousimplydisregardhimandgivetheparttothemassoftheestateandgiveittothelegal
heirs.
However,Parasmaintainsthatthereisaccretioninbothcasesofrepudiation(Art.1015)andincapacity
(Art. 1015) although Art. 1018 mentions only repudiation, without prejudice to the right of
representation.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

23

Note:Incaseofpredeceaseinlegalsuccession,thereisreallynovacantportion,andhence,no
accretion for the survivors inherit in their own right; but whether or not there is accretion is
really immaterial for the effect is the same, namely, the part affected is given to the intestate
heirs.

9. Ifthereisgoingtobeaccretionthecoheirstakeitinthesameproportionthattheyinherit.
Article 1019. The heirs to whom the portion goes by the right of accretion take it in the same
proportionthattheyinherit.

10. Refer to illustration (1. Start with their actual shares if there were no repudiation. this is always the
startingpoint.)

11. Takenotethatanheirwhorepudiatescanneverberepresented.

12. RefertotheillustrationsofDeanNavarro.Alwaysstartthecomputationasifnorepudiationyet!

13. EFFECTS of PREDECEASE, INCAPACITY, DISINHERITANCE, or REPUDIATION in both TESTAMENTARY and


INTESTATE SUCCESSION



CAUSE OF
VACANCY
TESTAMENTARY
SUCCESSION

INTESTATE
SUCCESSION
(IS)
Legitime Free
Portion
Predecease 1. RR
2. IS
1. A
2. IS
1. RR
2. IS
Incapacity 1. RR
2. IS
1. A
2. IS
1. RR
2. IS
Disinheritance 1. RR
2. IS
_ _
Repudiation IS A A


Summary:

(A) In testamentary succession:

(1) Legitime:
(a) In case of predecease of an heir, there is representation if there are children or
descendants; if none, the others inherit in their own right.
(b) In case of incapacity, results are the same as in predecease.
(c) In case of disinheritance, results are the same as in predecease.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

24

(d) In case of repudiation by an heir, the others inherit in their own right.

(2) Disposable free portion:
Accretion takes place when requisites are present; but if such requisites are not present, the
others inherit in their own right.

(B) In intestate succession:

(1) In case of predecease, there is representation if there are children or descendants; if none, the
others inherit in their own right.
(2) In case of incapacity, results are the same as in predecease.
(3) In case of repudiation, there is always accretion.

September19,2009

1. CAPACITYTOSUCCEEDBYWILLORBYINTESTACY
2. Art.1024.Personsnotincapacitatedbylawmaysucceedbywillorabintestato.
Theprovisionsrelatingtoincapacitybywillareequallyapplicabletointestatesuccession.
3. CapacitytoSucceed
Itistheabilitytoinheritandretainpropertyobtainedmortiscausa.
Itisalsotermedpassivetestamentarycapacity.

4. RequisiteforCapacitytoInherit
(a) Itisessentialtobeeitheralreadyliving,oratleastconceivedatthemomentthesuccessionopens.
Inthecaseoftheconceivedchild,Art.41mustbecompliedwith
Forcivilpurposes,thefetusisconsideredbornifitisaliveatthetimeitiscompletelydelivered
from the mothers womb. However, if the fetus had an intrauterine life or less than seven
months,itisnotdeemedbornifitdieswithintwentyfourhoursafteritscompletedeliveryfrom
thematernalwomb.(Art.41)
(b) Thereisnoexceptiontotheruleenunciatedinthefirstrequisite,evenifthelawsaysexceptincase
orrepresentation,whenitisproper.
Reason: Even in case of representation, the representative must already be alive or at least
conceived at the time the succession opens. He himself must be capable of succeeding the
decedent.(Art.973)

5. KindsofIncapacitytoSucceed
(a) ABSOLUTEcanneverinheritfromanybodyregardlessofcircumstances.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

25

)
)
)
(b) RELATIVE cannot inherit only from certain persons or certain properties, but can inherit from
othersorcertainproperties
Note:Therearethreekindsofrelativeincapacity
1) Becauseofpossibleundueinfluence.(Art.1027
2) Becauseofpublicpolicyandmorality.(Art.1028readtogetherwithArt.739
3) Becauseofunworthiness.(Art.1032

6. Nonnaturalpersoncaninherit.

7. Article1026DispositionsinFavorofEntities
Some of the orgs referred to in this Article are juridical persons; others are not. In case of the latter,
theyareallowedtoinherit,notbecausetheyhavejuridicalexistence,butbecauseofthisArticle.
In case of juridical persons, it is not enough that they have been conceived by certain individuals; it is
essentialthattheyhavecompliedwithalltherequirementsfortheexistenceofjuridicalpersons.

8. Art.1027.Thefollowingareincapableofsucceeding:
(1) The priest who heard the confession of the testator during his last illness, or the minister of the gospel
whoextendedspiritualaidtohimduringthesameperiod;
(2)Therelativesofsuchpriestorministerofthegospelwithinthefourthdegree,thechurch,order,chapter,
community,organization,orinstitutiontowhichsuchpriestorministermaybelong;
(3) A guardian with respect to testamentary dispositions given by a ward in his favor before the final
accountsoftheguardianshiphavebeenapproved,evenifthetestatorshoulddieaftertheapprovalthereof;
nevertheless, any provision made by the ward in favor of the guardian when the latter is his ascendant,
descendant,brother,sister,orspouse,shallbevalid;
(4) Any attesting witness to the execution of a will, the spouse, parents, or children, or any one claiming
undersuchwitness,spouse,parents,orchildren;
(5) Any physician, surgeon, nurse, health officer or druggist who took care of the testator during his last
illness;
(6)Individuals,associationsandcorporationsnotpermittedbylawtoinherit.
9. Ifseveralpriestheardtheconfessionofthetestator,allofthemareincapabletoinheritandnotnecessarily
thelastpriest.

10. Exceptionto(3)ofArt.1027isiftheguardianishisascendant,descendant,brother,sisterorspouse.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

26

11. Numbers(1)to(5)ofArt.1027refertoRELATIVEINCAPACITYwhile(6)referstoABSOLUTEINCAPACITY.

12. Thebasisof(1)to(5)ofArt.1027isundueinfluence.

13. LegitimecannotbeaffectedbyArt.1027becauselegitimecannotbeaffectedbyundueinfluence.

14. Art.1027appliesonlytoTestamentarySuccession.

15. WifeofPriestorMinistercaninherit.

16. Number(5)ofArt.1027;Thephysician,surgeon,nurse,healthofficerordruggistmustactuallytookcare
thetestator.

17. RefertotheillustrationofDeanNavarro.Article1027iswithoutprejudicetointestatesuccession.

18. Article 1028. The prohibitions mentioned in article 739, concerning donations inter vivos shall apply to
testamentaryprovisions.
IncapacitybyReasonofPublicMorality
Thefollowingdonationsshallbevoid:
(a) Thosemadebetweenpersonswhoareguiltyofadulteryorconcubinageatthetimeofdonation;
(b) Thosemadebetweenpersonsfoundguiltyofthesamecriminaloffense,inconsiderationthereof;
(c) Thosemadetoapublicofficerorhiswife,descendantsandascendants,byreasonofhisoffice.

19. Article1029
Thedipositionofthewholeorpartofhispropertyforprayersandpiousworksforthebenefitofhissoul
mustbeingeneraltermsandwithoutspecifyingitsapplication.
20. Art.1032.Thefollowingareincapableofsucceedingbyreasonofunworthiness:
(1)Parentswhohaveabandonedtheirchildrenorinducedtheirdaughterstoleadacorruptorimmorallife,
orattemptedagainsttheirvirtue;
(2) Any person who has been convicted of an attempt against the life of the testator, his or her spouse,
descendants,orascendants;
(3) Any person who has accused the testator of a crime for which the law prescribes imprisonment for six
yearsormore,iftheaccusationhasbeenfoundgroundless;
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

27

(4)Anyheiroffullagewho,havingknowledgeoftheviolentdeathofthetestator,shouldfailtoreportitto
anofficerofthelawwithinamonth,unlesstheauthoritieshavealreadytakenaction;thisprohibitionshall
notapplytocaseswherein,accordingtolaw,thereisnoobligationtomakeanaccusation;
(5)Anypersonconvictedofadulteryorconcubinagewiththespouseofthetestator;
(6)Anypersonwhobyfraud,violence,intimidation,orundueinfluenceshouldcausethetestatortomakea
willortochangeonealreadymade;
(7)Anypersonwhobythesamemeanspreventsanotherfrommakingawill,orfromrevokingonealready
made,orwhosupplants,conceals,oraltersthelatter'swill;
(8)Anypersonwhofalsifiesorforgesasupposedwillofthedecedent.

21. Article1032=byreasonofunworthiness;samegroundsfordisinheritance
ImportantPoints:
Take note that in (5), the law incapacitated the one who is convicted of adultery/concubinage but not
thespouse
Nextpoint,manyofthesegroundsaregroundsfordisinheritance.
Striedtokillhisfatherwhowasconvictedbyfinaljudgment.BeforethedeathofXtherewas
reconciliation.CanXinherit?
Ask one question, did the testator apply the rule on disinheritance or the rules on
unworthiness.
DidXapplytheruleondisinheritance?Ifnot,applyArt.1032.
If the testator invoked the rules on disinheritance, we have to apply the rules of
disinheritance. Hence, under Article 922, once there is reconciliation X cannot be
disinherited.
Anexpresspardonisirrevocable.

22. Article1034.Whenshouldincapacitybedetermined?
Article777,Uponthedeathofthetestator.

23. Iftheinstitutionoflegacyordeviceissubjecttoacondition,therearetwomomentstoconsider.
Firstmoment,momentofdeath;
Secondmoment,atthetimetheconditionisfulfilled.Otherwisetheheirwillnotinherit.
Bothmustconcur

24. Article1039.Capacitytosucceedisgovernedbythelawofthenationofthedecedent.
Notethatcapacitytoinheritisnotgovernedbythenationallawoftheheirs,devisees,orlegatees,but
bythenationallawofthedecedent.(Thisistruewhetherthesuccessionbetestateorintestate.)
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

28

BecauseofthisArticlereadtogetherwithArt.16,four(4)thingsaregovernedbythenationallawofthe
decedent,namely:
(a) Orderofsuccession
(b) Amountofsuccessionalrights
(c) Intrinsicvalidityoftheprovisionsofthewill
(d) Capacitytosucceed

25. ACCEPTANCEandREPUDIATION
ThesecanonlybedoneafterthedeathoftheTestator,otherwise,itispremature.

26. Oncethereisacceptanceorrepudiation,theeffectswillretroacttothemomentofthetestatorsdeath.

27. Asbetweenacceptanceandrepudiation,theformeriseasiertodo.

28. Acceptancemaybeexpressorimplied.
Art.1049.Acceptancemaybeexpressortacit.
Anexpressacceptancemustbemadeinapublicorprivatedocument.
Atacitacceptanceisone resultingfromactsbywhich theintentiontoacceptisnecessarilyimplied,or
whichonewouldhavenorighttodoexceptinthecapacityofanheir.
Actsofmerepreservationorprovisionaladministrationdonotimplyanacceptanceoftheinheritanceif,
throughsuchacts,thetitleorcapacityofanheirhasnotbeenassumed.
Expresseitherpublicorprivatedocument.

29. Theexecutionofactsofownershipisimpliedacceptance.
Article1050,enumerates3actsofimpliedownership.
Article1050.Aninheritanceisdeemedaccepted:
(1)Iftheheirsells,donates,orassignshisrighttoastranger,ortohiscoheirs,ortoanyofthem;
(2) If the heir renounces the same, even though gratuitously, for the benefit of one or more of his co
heirs;
(3)Ifherenouncesitforapriceinfavorofallhiscoheirsindiscriminately;butifthisrenunciationshould
begratuitous,andthe coheirsinwhosefavoritismadearethoseuponwhomtheportionrenounced
shoulddevolvebyvirtueofaccretion,theinheritanceshallnotbedeemedasaccepted.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

29

30. Repudiation
Art. 1051. The repudiation of an inheritance shall be made in a public or authentic instrument, or by
petitionpresentedtothecourthavingjurisdictionoverthetestamentaryorintestateproceedings.
Public or authentic (document whose genuineness cannot be controverted) document or by judicial
authorization.

31. Article1052.BasicrightsofCreditors.
WhenCreditorsmayAccept?
(a) Whilerightsmaybewaived,stillwaivercannotbeallowed,ifamongotherthings,itisprejudicialto
athirdpersonwitharightrecognizedbylaw.
(b) The creditors do not accept in their own name; they accept in the name of the heir (or devisee or
legatee).
(c) TheCreditorcannotaccepteverythingthathasbeenrepudiated,theycanacceptonlytotheextent
theyhavebeenprejudiced.
(d) Even if the creditors accept everything that has been repudiated, the renouncing heir is not
consideredashavingacceptedheisstillarenouncer,andcannotthereforeberepresented.

32. Thecreditorswillnotbeallowedtoacceptinthenameoftheheiriftheyhavenotbeenprejudiced.

33. COLLATION
AccordingtoDeanNavarro,itmeans(1)addition,(2)imputation,and(3)actualrestoration.

34. Asusedinthelawofsuccession,collationhasatleasttwo(2)meanings:
(a) First, it means computing or adding certain values to the estate, and charging the same to the
LEGTIME.(Arts.1061,1062,1063,1064)
(b) Secondly,itmeanscomputingoraddingcertainvaluestotheestate,andchargingthesametothe
FREEPORTION.(Arts.1062,1063).Conversely,thephrasenotcollationablecanmean:
1) First,itshouldbecomputedoradded,butitshouldbechargedtothefreeportion(andnot
tothelegitime).
2) Secondly, it should NOT even be computed or added to the estate, for it is not part of the
same.(Art.1067)

35. DEROMAvsCA
If you are a compulsory heir and given property during the lifetime of the testator, said property must
begivenbacktothemassofestateofthedecedent.
Notwithstandingthedonationistermedtobeirrevocableitissubjecttocollation.
The SC held, We agree with the respondent court that there is nothing in the above provisions
expressly prohibiting the collation of the donated properties. As the said court correctly observed, the
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phrase "sa pamamagitan ng pagbibigay na di na mababawing muli" merely described the donation as
"irrevocable" and should not be construed as an express prohibition against collation. The fact that a
donation is irrevocable does not necessarily exempt the subject thereof from the collation required
underArticle1061.

36. GeneralRuleisthatallgratuitousdispositionsmadebythetestatormustbesubjecttocollation.
Exception:Article1067.SEMACO
Expenses for support, education, medical attendance, even in extraordinary illness,
apprenticeship,ordinaryequipment,orcustomarygiftsarenotsubjecttocollation.
Theserefertothecollationinthesenseofaddition,
Intermsofeducation,onlyuntilhighschool.

37. Article 1068. Expenses incurred by the parents in giving their children a professional, vocational or other
careershallnotbebroughttocollationunlesstheparentssoprovide,orunlesstheyimpairthelegitime;but
whentheircollationisrequired,thesumwhichthechildwouldhavespentifhehadlivedinthehouseand
companyofhisparentsshallbedeductedtherefrom.

38. Article1068
GenRuleischargeitagainstthefreeportion
Itwillnotbechargedtothelegitimeratherinthefreeportion.
Youdonotaddittothenetestate.

39. NaICUka,evenifthebillreachedP3M,notcounted.Nocollation

40. RefertotheillustrationofDeanNavarro.

41. Finesandindemnitiespaidbytheparentslegitimeyan!

42. Donationsgiventodaughterinlaws
Consideredasdonationtoastranger.Hence,chargedtofreeportion.
Ifgiventobothspousehalfwillbechargedtothelegitimeofthespouse.
Inlawsareneverconsideredasheirs.

43. Article1070.WeddingGifts
The wedding gifts here, although really donations, are not chargeable to the legitime in view of the
sentimentalimportanceofawedding.
Nevertheless,theymaybereducediftheyexceed(foreachchild)onetenthofthefreedisposal.Thisis
topreventabuseandextravagance.
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Itwillbechargedinthefreeportionaslongasitdoesnotexceed10%ofthefreeportion,otherwisethe
excesswillbechargedagainstthelegitimeofthespouse.

44. Xhas4legitimatechildrenABCandD.DismarriedtoW.BhasasonE.ThenetestateisP500K.During
thelifetimeofthetestator,hemadegratuitousdisposition:

P300K A(formedicalexpenses)
P30K B(forelectionexpenses)
P10K E(ring)
P20K W(bracelet)
P40k D(weddinggift)
P10K C(forcollege)

P300K(medicalexpenses)notsubjecttocollation,thus,onlyP110Kisthetotalamounttocollate.
NetEstateisequaltoP500k+P110whichisequalP610k
LegitimethenisequaltoP305kwhichishalfoftheNetestate(P610k)
Thendeterminethelegitimeofeachheir
ThenChargingeithertolegitimeorfreeportion

TheMedicalexpensesnotincluded
Electionlegitime
Ringfreeportion
Braceletfreeportion
Weddinggift30,500freeportion,9,500tothelegitimeofD
CollegeFreeportion

*RefertotheillustrationofDeanNavarroforthecomputation

45. PARTITIONandDISTRIBUTIONoftheESTATE

46. Article1078.Wheretherearetwoormoreheirs,thewholeestateofthedecedentis,beforeitspartition,
ownedincommonbysuchheirs,subjecttothepaymentofdebtsofthedeceased.
Example:ThastwochildrenAandB.IfTdies,AandBwillbecoheirsofthewholeestate,subjectof
coursetothepaymentofdebts.
Principle:Coheirsarecoowners

47. MANGOYvsCA
TheSupremeCourtconsideredvoidwillsasvalidpartitions
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48. Avoidwillcanbeavalidpartitionifthefollowingconcur:
a)ifitisinfactapartition;
b) the heirs and other beneficiaries must be legal heirs (because partition is not a mode of acquiring
ownership)

49. Effectsofpartition,takenote
Generallytheheirswarranttoeachothertitleandqualityofthepropertiesassignedtothem,theaction
toenforcewarrantyis10yearsfromthecauseofactionaccrues.

50. Article1104.Apartitionmadewithpreteritionofanyofthecompulsoryheirsshallnotberescinded,unless
itbeprovedthattherewasbadfaithorfraudonthepartoftheotherpersonsinterested;butthelattershall
beproportionatelyobligedtopaytothepersonomittedthesharewhichbelongsto
PreteritionofCompulsaryHeirsinthePartition
a) Thisinvolvesapreteritionofcompulsoryheirs,notintheinstitution,butinthepartition
b) SuchpreteritioninthepartitionwillNOTcauserescissionexceptiftherewas:
1) Fraud
2) Badfaith

51. VIADONONvsCA
The exclusion of petitioner Delia Viado, alleged to be a retardate, from the deed of extrajudicial
settlementverilyhashadtheeffectofpreterition.Thiskindofpreterition,however,intheabsenceof
proofoffraudandbadfaith,doesnotjustifyacollateralattackonTransferCertificateofTitle373646.
The relief, as so correctly pointed out by the Court of Appeals, instead rests on Art. 1104 to the effect
that where the preterition is not attended by bad faith and fraud, the partition shall not be rescinded
butthepreteritedheirshallbepaidthevalueofthesharepertainingtoher.Again,theappellatecourt
hasthusactedproperlyinorderingtheremandofthecaseforfurtherproceedingstomaketheproper
valuationoftheIsarogpropertyandascertainmentoftheamountduetopetitionerDeliaViado.

52. Article1105. Apartition whichincludesapersonbelievedtobeanheir,but whoisnot,shallbevoidonly


withrespecttosuchperson.
IntrusionofastrangerintheParition
a) Insteadofapreteritionhere,thereisintrusion
b) Nevertheless,thepartitionisnotcompletelyvoid
c) OnlythepartcorrespondingtothenonheirisVOID
d) Those who are liable to get shares, although they are not entitled thereto, must give them to one
whoisanheirandlawfullyentitledtoreceivethesame
53. EFFECTSOFINCLUSIONOFINTRUDERINPARTITION:
1. BetweenatrueheirandseveralmistakenheirspartitionisVOID.
2. BetweenseveraltrueheirsandamistakenheirtransmissiontomistakenheirisVOID.
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3. Througherrorormistake,shareoftrueheirisallottedtomistakenheirpartitionshallnotberescinded
unless there is bad faith or fraud on the part of the other persons interested, but the latter shall be
proportionatelyobligedtopaythetrueheirofhisshare.

NOTE:partitionwithrespecttothemistakenheirisVOID.