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WILLSANDSUCCESSION
MIDTERMSREVIEWER

June27,2009
1. Whatissuccession?
Article774,
It is a mode of acquisition by virtue of which the property, rights and obligations to the extent of the
valueoftheinheritance,ofapersonaretransmittedthroughhisdeathtoanotherorotherseitherbyhis
willorbyoperationoflaw.
ImportantElementsoftheDefinition:
(a)modeofacquisition(orownership)
(b)transferofproperty,rightsandobligationstotheextentofthevalueoftheinheritance,ofa
person(calledgrantorortransferor,decedent,testator,orintestate)
(c)transmissionthrudeath(notduringlife)
(d)transmissiontoanother(calledgrantee,ortransferee,heir,legatee,ordevisee)
(e)bywillofbyoperationoflaw(testamentaryoflegalsuccession)

2. Ifapersondiesleaving manyunpaid debsbut thesonisamillionairecanthesonbeliabletothe debtsof


thefatherwhodied?
NO

3. Supposingtheassetsofthedecedentwereexhaustedandtherearestillunpaiddebts,canthesonbemade
liable?
NO
Thedebtsareonlychargeabletotheestateofthedecedent.Asearlyofarticle1311,evenifthesonisa
millionairethesonisnotobligatedtopaythedebts,thereisnolegalobligation.

4. Issuccessionsameasinheritance?
NO
The inheritance is the legal object of succession which consist of all the property, rights etc of the
decedent.
Successionisthelegalmodebywhichinheritanceistransmittedduetodeath.

5. Sowhatisincludedintheinheritance?
Allthepropertiesandrightsandobligationsofthedecedentincludingrightswhichmighthaveaccrued
afterdeath.

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6. If example, after his death there is accretion through alluvium the area increased, would the inheritance
includealltheareaoftheaccretion?
YES
Article 777. Rights are transmitted from the moment of death of the decedent. Therefore, from the
momentofdeath,thepropertyalreadytransmittedtotheheirs.
Oneoftherightsofownership,youaretheownerofanyaccretion

7. Thereseemstobeaconflictintermsofunderlyingprinciples,eventheaccessionsofthepropertyoccurred
afterthedeathofthedecedenttheycanbemadeliabletopayforthedeathsofthedecedents.

8. Cantherebetestateorintestatesuccessionwithoutdeath?
YES.Itdealswithpresumptivedeath.

9. Whenisapersonconsidereddead?
Actualdeath.

10. Mister x suffered massive heart attack, examined by two doctors and agreed that he is dead. They even
filledoutthedeathcertificate.Hisrelativestookhimhomeforfuneral,around11amhestoodupandask
foraglassofwater.Washedeadfrom7amto11amandwastheresuccessiononthatshorttime?
Inalegalpointofviewthereisnotemporarydeath.
Deathisthemostpermanentthingfromthepointofviewofthelaw,soduringthisperiodhewasnot
dead.Thisisbecausetheeffectofdeathisradical.

11. Canweagreeonastandardfordeterminingwhetherapersonisdead?
A person is dead if his vital functions, his essential organs and bodily functions have all ceased to
functionandthesameisirreversibleincharacter.(Walangheartbeat,etc.)

12. Itistruethatdeathtransferstherightstothesuccession,butonlyifthefollowingconditionsarepresent:
Note:AlsocalledastherequisitesforsuccessionMortisCausa
1)thatindeedtherehasbeenadeath(eitheractualorpresumed)
2)thattherightsorpropertiesareindeedtransmissibleordescendible
3)thatthetransfereeis:
a)stillalive(nopredecease)
b)willing(norepudiation)
c)iscapacitatedtoinherit

13. Death,forpurposesofsuccession,maybepresumedandthereforeopenshissuccession.
However, it is necessary that he must have been absent for at least ten (10) years, it being unknown
whetherornothestilllives.
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Exceptions:
First, if the absentee disappeared after the age of seventy five (75), in which case an
absenceoffive(5)yearsshallbesufficientinorderthathissuccessionmaybeopened;
Second,iftheabsenteedisappearedunderanyoneofthethreecircumstancesunderArticle
391oftheNCC,inwhichcaseanabsenceoffour(4)yearsshallbesufficient.
a)Apersononboardavessellostduringaseavoyage,oranaeroplanewhichismissing
b)Apersoninthearmedforceswhohastakenpartinwar
c)Apersonwhohasbeenindangerofdeathunderothercircumstances
Seepage11ofJuradosbook
14. AbsencemayeitherbeOrdinaryabsenceorExtraordinaryabsence.
Inordinaryabsencethewaitingperiodis10yearsandincasethepersonismorethan75years,5years
becausethelawisbasedonprobabilities,theprobabilityishighthatifapersonismorethan75hewill
die.
Ifthereisahighriskofdangerorprobabilityofdeathitisextraordinaryabsence.

15. Whenisdeathdeemedtohaveoccurredinthecaseofextraordinaryabsence?
Itisataboutthetimewhenhedisappearedandnotattheendoffour(4)years.
In other words, at the end of four (4) years, the presumption will arise that death occurred 4 years
before(Paras,page18).
A person boarded an airplane on 2001 and went missing thereafter. As of 2004 there would be a
presumptionofdeath,thenextlogicalquestioniswhenishehavedeemedtohavedied?
Itisatthetimeofthedisappearance,becauseitisforallprobabilityitcrashedatthereforefrom
ordinary human experience the person actually died in 2001, because of the very high risk of
death,buteventhenwestillhavetowaitfor4yearsforthepresumptiontoarise.

16. Howaboutinordinaryabsence?
Itisdeemedthatdeathoccurredattheendofthewaitingperiod.

17. Isthehumanbodypartoftheinheritance?Cantheheirssellthebody?
Itisnotvalidbecauseitiscontrarytomoralityandpublicpolicybecausehisdignitymustbeprotected
evenafterdeath.(viewofDean)

18. Therightsofsuccessionaretransmittedfromthemomentofdeath,ifAdiedfromthisverymoment,there
would be transmission of successional rights. This is the rule in the case of Lorenzo v. Posadas case in
bookseepage9ofJurado.

19. LORENZOvs.POSADAS(Jurado,page9)
Successionalrightsaretransmittedfromthemomentofdeath
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Paymentofinheritancetaxissue.Theinheritancetaxistobepaidfromthemomentofdeathbecause
successionalrightistransmittedfromthemomentofdeathofthetestator.

20. ThesamedoctrineisreiteratedisinLOCSINvs.CA
UnderArticle777,youareonlyentitledtowhateverexistsintheestateatthemomentofdeathofthe
decedent.

21. Article777isthemostimportantprovisioninsuccession.Rememberthatprovision!

22. BARQUESTIONWhenandhowistherighttosucceedadeceasedpersonacquired?
The right to the succession is transmitted from the moment of the death of the decedent thru
testamentary,intestate,ormixedsuccession.

23. WhenissuccessionTestamentary,Intestate,andMix?(Jurado,page15)
1) Testamentary that which results from the designation of an heir, made in a will executed in the form
prescribedbylaw.
2)Intestatewhichiseffectedbyoperationoflawindefaultofawill.
3) Mix which may be effected partly by will and partly by operation of law. (example: in a will, if some
provision of it is declared invalid. Or the testator did not dispose all of the property or testate of the
testator.)

24. WedonthaveContractualSuccessionanymore.(Paras,page32)

25. SubjectiveelementsofSuccession:decedent,heirs,legateeanddevisee
1)Heirapersoncalledtosucceed,tothewholeoraliquotportion,bywillorbyoperationoflaw.
ex.TinstitutesYasheir,TgivesY1/3ofhisproperties
2)Legateeapersontowhomagiftpersonalpropertyifgivenbyvirtueofawill.
ex.TgivesLthisLexuscar;TgivesP5M
3)Deviseeapersontowhomagiftrealpropertyifgivenbyvirtueofawill.
ex.TgivesDthispieceofland

26. ExampleofDean,IgiveMr.MempinmyfarminBulacanconsistingof100hectares.Ihavenocompulsory
heirs,andIonlyhadthatfarm.Areyouanheir,adeviseeoralegatee?
Devisee,becausethedistinctionisthatanheirisonewhosucceedsbyauniversaltitle(thatis,toALLor
aFRACTIONorALIQUOTPARToftheproperties,rightsandobligations)whileadeviseeorlegateeisone
whosucceedsbyaparticulartitle(iftheysucceedbyparticulartitletocashortoaparticularorspecified
itemofthingintheinheritance).
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Seepage24ofjuradounderarticle660oftheSpanishcodeinfootnote76.Itdependsonthemanner
inwhichthetestatorbequeathsyoupartof

27. It is important to remember the distinction between heirs and legatee or devisee because under some
provisionofsuccessiontheyaretreateddifferently.
Importanceofdistinction:(Jurado,page28)
1) In case of preterition or pretermission in the testators will of one, some, or all of the compulsory
heirsinthedirectline.
2)Incaseofimperfectirdefectivedisinheritance
3)Incasepropertiesareacquiredbythetestatoraftertheexecutionofthewill.
Withregardstoafteracquiredproperties,itisbettertobeanheir.

28. ThemostimportantprovisionwherethelawtreatsthemdifferentlyisArticle854.
Under this article the omission of one some or all of compulsory heirs whether living at the time of.
deathshallannultheinstitutionofheir;butlegaciesanddevisesarerespectedinsofarastheyarenot
inofficious.

29. XhasalegitimatechildS,dieswithawill,provisionnumber1provides,IgiveP10KtoF,therestIgiveto
myfriendG.ThetotalestateisP100K.
Under854,Sispreterited.
ButthelegacyofP10KtoFisvalidbeingnotinofficious.

30. CorrelateArticle781withArticle793.

31. Thecaseofafteracquiredproperties,whatarethese?
Thesearethepropertiesacquiredafterthewillwasexecuted.

32. IgiveMs.Papioallofmycars.Whenthewillisexecutedtherewasonlyonecar.Whentestatordiedhe
had1000cars.HowmanycarscanMs.Papioget?
ApplytheGeneralrule.
What are given by the will are only those properties already possessed and owned by the
testatoratthetimethewillwasmade,notthoseacquiredafter.(Paras,page56)
Thereforesheisonlyentitledtothecarspresentatthetimethewillwasmade.

33. Supposinghesaid,IgiveMs.PapioallmycarsandallImayacquire.
Exceptiontothegeneralrule.(Paras,page56)
Thereforesheisentitledtoallthecars.

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34. IgiveMs.Papiomyentireestateinthewillmadein1985.Hehad1carin1985,whenhidiedin2005hhas

35. Article793onlyappliestolegateesanddevisee.

36. WhatisaWill?
Article 783. A will is an act whereby a person is permitted, with the formalities prescribed by law to
controltoacertaindegreethedispositionofhisestate,totakeeffectafterhisdeath

37. Whatarethecharacteristicsofawill?PIVSDMA
1)Itisastrictlypersonalact
2)Itisanindividualandunilateralact
3)Itisafreeandvoluntaryact
4)Itisaformalandsolemnact
5)Itisadispositionofproperty
6)Itisanactmortiscause
7)Itisambulatoryandrevocableduringthetestatorslifetime

38. Article784
Themakingofawillisastrictlypersonalact
Inotherwords,youmustexecutethewillyourself

39. AwillisessentiallyREVOCABLE.Thetestatorisnotrequiredtostateanyreasonatall.

40. Article787Nondeterminationbythirdperson
Itisapersonalact.Itmustnotbeoperativeuponthediscretionof3
rd
person
41. Thewillmuststatethespecificpropertyandamountdependinguponthecircumstance.

42. Article785Discretionofathirdperson
Thisprovisionreinforcestherulethatthemakingpowerofawillisstrictlypersonalact.
Ifforexample,thetestatorsays,IgivemylandtoXforaslongasmyfriendYallows,thiswouldbea
clearcaseofillegaldelegationoftestamentarypower.

43. Whenistheambiguitypatentandwhenisitlatent?
Itispatentwhenitisclearuponfirstreadingthatthereisambiguity.
Thelatentambiguityofawilliswhenitisnotobviousuponfirstreadingthatthereisambiguity.

44. Thecardinalruleoftestamentaryconstructionistoascertaintheintentionofthetestatorandgiveiteffect
Testatorialintentionistheguideoftestamentaryconstruction(Article788794)
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Oralevidenceisnotaccepted.

45. A is giving of his entire estate to his cousin named Jose Santos. There are 4 Jose Santos who are first
cousins.Thisisacaseoflatentambiguitybecauseuponthereadingofthewillitseemstobeclearbutthere
arefourfirstcousinsthathavethesamename.
Thefirstthingtodoistodeterminetheintentofthetestator.
The oral declarations of the testator are excluded because they are inherently unreliable. They are
merelyhearsay.Itisverydangeroustoadmitoraldeclaration.
The testator will not be available to rebut the testimony of the witnesses in case there are some, such
oraldeclarationofthetestator.

46. Personainsertia,thedispositioninhisfavorwillbeconsideredvoidincasewecannotascertaintheidentity
ofthe

47. Isitpossiblethattheambiguitymaybeclarifiedbyotherprovisionsofthewill?
YES.ThisisanIntrinsicEvidence,onewhichisfoundinthewillitself.
ExtrinsicEvidencearethosefoundoutsideofthewill.

48. SupposingthetestatorwrotealettertoJoseSantosofsuchwillitisadmissibleinevidence.

49. Supposingthetestatorwascaughtonvideoadmittingtosuchprovisionidentifyingthe.

50. Whatiftheambiguityispatent?Igivetotwo(2)ofmyfive(5)brotherstheHouse&LotinQC
IntrinsicandExtrinsicevidencemustbeascertain.

51. Therulesfortheinterpretationofwillsaresomehowsimilartoprincipleofstatutoryconstruction.
First,determinetheintentionofthetestator;
Second, words are to be given in their ordinary grammatical sense. If technical, then it will be in the
technicalsense.

52. Thelawpreferstestacyoverintestacy,why?
Ithasbeensaidthatintestatesuccessionisbasedonthepresumedwillofthedecedent.
Testatesuccessionisbasedontheexpresswillofthetestator.
As explained by Dean, the provision of intestate succession are simply the statement of what the law
presumesthetestatorwouldhavedoneifhewasabletomakeawill.Itisanaccuratesuccession.

53. Article795
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The validity of a will as to its form depends upon the observance of the law in force at the time it is
made.

54. Xmadeawill,notarialwillin1985.Therewere3witnessesandalltheotherformalitieswerecompliedwith.
Assume that in 1990 the law was amended, the law requires 4 witnesses for a valid will. X died in 1992
withoutmakinganewwill.Isthewillbevalid?
YES.Thewillisvalid.(Jurado,page36)

55. Supposingthe1990lawprovidesforretroactivity,canhis1985willbeconsideredtobevalid?
NO

56. Samefactsasabove,providesforretroactivitybutXdies2weeksbeforetheeffectivityofthe1990law.The
willwasenteredforprobatein1992,canthewillbeallowed?
YES,because2weeksbeforethe1990lawtherewasalreadytransmissionofsuccessionalrights.
PursuanttoArticle777,theyarealreadyvestedwithrightsandthevestedrightsareprotectedbylaw.

57. Theknowledgeinmakingthewillmustbegeneralandnotspecific.

58. WhatisTestamentaryCapacity?
Testamentarycapacityreferstotheabilityaswellasthepowertomakeawill.

59. Whataretherequirementsinorderthatapersoncanmakeawill?
Article796.Allpersonswhoarenotexpresslyprohibitedbylawmaymakeawill.
The only persons who are expressly prohibited from making a will are those who do not posses the
necessaryageandmentalrequirements.
Inorderthatapersoncanmakeawill,thefollowingrequisitesarenecessary:
1)Hemustbeatleast18yearsofage
2)Hemustbeofsoundmind

60. Article799TestofSoundnessofMind,2
nd
Paragraph
Whetherthetestatorknows:
1)thenatureoftheestatetobedisposed
2)theproperobjectsofhisbounty
3)orunderstandsthecharacterofthetestamentaryact

61. Whatisthemeaningofcharacteroftestamentaryact?
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Heshouldknowthatheisreallymakingawillandthatwhatheismakingwillbethebasisofthewillin
thefuture
Thatitisadispositionmortiscausa
Thatitisessentiallyrevocable

62. Whatdoesknowingtheproperobjecthisbountymeans?
Heshouldknowtowhomitwouldbepropertogive.
Heshouldknowallhiscloserelatives,thosepeoplewhoareclosetohimwhointheordinarycourseof
thingsshouldreceivefromhim
Example: He must know that he has a wife, children, parents, etc. (sino ang mga karapatdapat na
makatanggap)

63. Ifthetestatornolongerknowsthepeoplearoundhim,examplehiswifeetc.,hecannolongermakeawill.

64. Isthereamaximumageformakingawill?
NO,solongasallthreerequirementsinparagraph799arepresent.

65. Does mere lapses of memory (senility) of recent events tantamount to senile dementia (decay of mental
faculties), hence does not render the testator incapacitated and as long as they satisfy the requirements
underArticle799?
NO,senilitydoesnottantamounttoseniledementia.
The two must be distinguished. The latter, when advanced or absolute, may produce unsoundness of
mindresultingintestamentaryincapacity.

66. Atthetimehemadethewillhemustbeoflegalage.Indeterminingofthecapacityoftheperson,thetime
oftheexecutionofthewilliswhatistakenintoconsideration.Thetestatormustbecapacitatedatthetime
oftheexecution.

67. Canamarriedmanmakeawillwithouttheexpressauthorityofwife?YES

68. Whataboutthewomen?
YES. Women have right of disposition but subject to the result of the settlement or liquidation of the
partnershiporofthecommunity.
Furthermore, what can be disposed of would be merely the ideal share of the spouse making the will
andnotanyspecificordeterminatepropertybelongingtothepartnershiporcommunity

July4,2009

1. FORMALITIESOFAWILL(NOTARIALANDHOLOGRAPHICWILL)
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2. Article804
Everywillmustbeinwritingandexecutedinalanguageordialectknowntothetestator.
KindsofWillsallowedundertheNewCivilCode:
1)OrdinaryorNotarialwill(Art.805809)
That which requires, among other things, an attestation clause, and acknowledgment before a
notarypublic.
2)HolographorHolographicwill(Art.810814)
Themostimportantfeatureifwhichisitsbeingwrittenentirely,fromthedatetothesignature,
inthehandwritingofthetestator.Here,neitheranattestationclausenoranacknowledgment
beforeanotarypublicisneeded.

3. Article805809NotarialWill

FORMALITIESOFWILLS
(EXTRINSICVALIDITY)

COMMONFORMALITIES
1. Everywillmustbeinwriting;and
2. Executedinalanguageordialectknowntothetestator.

SPECIALFORMALITIES

NOTARIALORORDINARYWILL

a. SUBSCRIPTIONmadeattheendthereofbythetestatorhimselforbythetestator'snamewritten
bysomeotherpersoninhispresenceandbyhisexpressdirection;

Subscription refers to the manual act of testator and also of his instrumental witnesses of
affixingtheirsignaturetotheinstrument.

b. ATTESTATION AND SUBSCRIPTION (evidenced by an attestation clause) by 3 or more credible


witnessesinthepresenceofthetestatorandofoneanother;

Attestationconsistsintheactofwitnessesofwitnessingtheexecutionofthewillinordertosee
and take note mentally that such will has been executed in accordance with requirements
prescribedbylaw.

ATTESTATION SUBSCRIPTION
1.anactofthesenses 1.anactofthehand
2.mentalact 2.mechanicalact
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3.purposeistorenderavailable
proofduringprobateofwill
3.purposeisidentification

c. MARGINALSIGNATURESaffixedbythetestatororthepersonrequestedbyhimtowritehisname
and the instrumental witnesses of the will on each and every page thereof, except the last, on the
leftmargin;

Exceptions to the rule that all of the pages of the will shall have to be signed on the left
marginbythetestatorandwitnesses:

(1)inthelastpage,whenthewillconsistsoftwoormorepages;
(2)whenthewillconsistsofonlyonepage;
(3) when the will consists of two pages, the first of which contains all the testamentary
dispositions and is signed at the bottom by the testator and the witnesses and the second
containsonlytheattestationclausedulysignedatthebottombythewitnesses.

Theinadvertentfailureofonewitnesstoaffixhissignaturetoonepageofatestament,dueto
the simultaneous lifting of two pages in the course of signing, is not per se sufficient to justify
denialofprobate(Icasianovs.IcasianoIISCRA422).

d. PAGENUMBERINGSWrittencorrelativelyinlettersplacedontheupperpartofeachpage;

NOTE:Thisisnotnecessarywhenallofthedispositivepartsofawillarewrittenononesheetonly.

e. ACKNOWLEDGMENTDonebeforeanotarypublicbythetestatorandtheinstrumentalwitnesses.

NOTE:Thenotarypublicbeforewhomthewillwasacknowledgedcannotbeconsideredasthethird
instrumentalwitnesssincehecannotacknowledgebeforehimselfhishavingsignedthewill.Ifthe
third witness were the notary public himself, he would have to avow, assent, or admit his having
signedthewillinfrontofhimself.Toallowsuchwouldhavetheeffectofhavingonlytwoattesting
witnesses to the will which would be in contravention of Arts. 805 and 806. (Cruz vs. Villasor 54
SCRA31)

MANNEROFSIGNING:
Theuseofanysignature,marksordesignintendedbythetestatortoauthenticaterendersthe
willsufficientlysignedbythetestator.
Asignaturebymarkwillbesufficientevenifatthetimeofplacingit,thetestatorknewhowto
writeandisabletodoso.
It is sufficiently signed by writing his initials, or his first name, or he may use even an assumed
name.
A complete signature is not essential to the validity of a will, provided the part of the name
writtenwasaffixedtotheinstrumentwithintenttoexecuteitasawill.

ATTESTATIONCLAUSE
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memorandum or record of facts wherein the witnesses certify that the will has been executed
before them, and that it has been executed in accordance with the formalities prescribed by
law.

Absenceofthisclausewillrenderthewillanullity.

ItmuststatethefollowingESSENTIALFACTS:

1. thenumberofpagesuseduponwhichthewilliswritten;

HOWEVER,evenifnumberofpagesisomittedintheACBUTifthereisanacknowledgmentclause
whichstatesthenumberofpagesorthewillitselfmentionedsuchnumberofpages,itmaystillbe
consideredvalidapplyingtheLiberalInterpretationofthelaw.(Tabuadavs.Rosal)

2. the fact that the testator signed the will and every page thereof, or caused some other person to
writehisname,underhisexpressdirection,inthepresenceoftheinstrumentalwitnesses;

Whenthetestatorexpresslycausedanothertosigntheformersname,thisfactmustberecited
intheattestationclause.Otherwise,thewillisfatallydefective.(Garciavs.Lacuesta90Phil489)

3. that the witnesses witnessed and signed the will and all the pages thereof in the presence of the
testatorandofoneanother.

TEST OF PRESENCE: Not whether they actually saw each other sign, but whether they might
have seen each other sign had they chosen to do so considering their mental and physical
condition and position with relation to each other at the moment of inscription of each
signature.(Jabonetavs.Gustilo)

Inthecaseofanordinaryorattestedwill,itsattestationclauseneednotbewritteninalanguageor
dialectknowntothetestatorsinceitdoesnotformpartofthetestamentarydisposition.

The language used in the attestation clause likewise need not even be known to the attesting
witnesses. Art. 805 merely requires that, in such a case, the attestation clause shall be
interpretedtosaidwitnesses.(Canedavs.CA222SCRA781)

EffectsofdefectsorimperfectionsintheAttestationClause:

Ifthedefectoftheattestationclausegoesintotheveryessenceoftheclauseitselforconsistsinthe
omission of one, some, or all of the essential facts, and such omission cannot be cured by an
examination of the will itself, the defect is substantial in character, as a consequence of which the
willisinvalidated.

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However,Intheabsenceofbadfaith,forgery,fraud,orundueandimproperpressureandinfluence,
defectsandimperfectionsintheformofattestationorinthelanguageusedthereinshallnotrender
the will invalid if it is proved that the will was in fact executed and attested in substantial
compliance with Art. 805 (formal requirements). This is known as the DOCTRINE OF LIBERAL
INTERPRETATION(Art.809)

Purposesofrequiringwitnesstoattestandtosubscribetoawill:
1.identificationoftheinstrument
2.protectionoftheinstrument
3.theascertainmentofthetestamentarycapacityofthetestator

NOTE:Certainpointstoconsider(Tolentino)
1. Mere knowledge by testator that another is signing, and acquiescing in it, there being no express
direction,isNOTsufficient.
2. Not required that the name of the person who writes the testators name should also appear on
thewill;enoughthattestatorsnameiswritten.
3. If the required numbers of attesting witness are competent, the fact that an additional witness,
whowasincompetentalsoattestedtothewill,cannotimpairthevalidity.
4. Immaterialinwhatordertheactsareperformedprovidedthesignatureoracknowledgmentbythe
testator and the attestation of the witnesses be accomplished in one occasion, and as part of one
transaction.
5. The law refers to page and not to sheet or leaf or folio, so every page used in the will should be
signedontheleftmargin.
6. An attestation clause need be signed ONLY by the witnesses and not by the testator as it is a
declarationmadebythewitnesses.
7. dateofwill:
a. ordinarywill:notanessentialpart;
b. holographicwill:anessentialpart.
8. Failureorerrortostatetheplaceofexecutionwillnotinvalidatethewill.
9. Signing of a will by the testator and witnesses and acknowledgment before a notary public, need
notbeasingleact.
10. Testamentarycapacitymustalsoexistatthetimeofacknowledgment.

ADDITIONALREQUIREMENTSFORSPECIALCASES
1. Deafordeafmutetestator:
a) personalreadingofthewill,ifabletodoso;OR
b) ifnot possible,designationof2 personstoread thewilland communicateto him,insome
practicablemanner,thecontentsthereof.(Article807)
2. Blindtestator:
Doublereadingrequirement:
a. first,byoneofthesubscribingwitnesses,AND
b. second,bythenotarypublicbeforewhomthewillisacknowledged.(Article808)

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Art.808appliesnotonlytoblindtestatorsbutalsotothosewho,foronereasonoranother
areincapableofreadingtheirwills(e.g.poor,defectiveorblurredvision).

In a case where the testator did not read the final draft of the will, but the lawyer who
drafted the document, read the same aloud in the presence of the testator, 3 witnesses, and
notary public, the Court held that the formal imperfections should be brushed aside when the
spiritbehindthelawwasservedthoughtheletterwasnot.(Alvaradovs.Gaviola226SCRA347)

WITNESSTONOTARIALWILLS
(ARTS.820&821)
Requirements:
1. ofsoundmind;
2. abletoreadandwrite;
3. notblind,deafordumb;
4. atleast18yearsofage;
5. domiciledinthePhilippines;
6. hasnotbeenconvictedoffalsificationofadocument,perjury,orfalsetestimony

NOTE: A witness need not know the contents of the will, and need not be shown to have had a good
standinginthecommunitywherehelives.Also,theacknowledgingnotarypubliccannotbeoneofthe3
minimumnumbersofwitnesses.

Interestedwitness
A witness to a will who is incapacitated from succeeding from the testator by reason of a
devise/legacyorothertestamentarydispositionthereininhisfavor,orinfavorofhisspouse,parent,or
child.However,hiscompetenceasawitnesssubsists.

4. WesometimescallArticle809asthedoctrineofliberalinterpretation.
This article provides the rule for substantial compliance that is, as long as the purpose sought by the
attestationclauseisobtained,thesameshouldbeconsideredvalid.

5. Doesarticle804appliestoholographicwill?YES

6. WhatisthereasonfortherequirementofArticle804?

7. SupposingthetestatoronlyspeaksinpampangoandthewillwaswritteninEnglishbyhislawyerbutthewill
wasinterpretedortranslatedtohim,isitavalidwill?NO

8. Isitessentialforthevalidityofthewillthatthewillitselfshouldcontaina,thatthewillwasinalanguage
knowntothetestator?
NO,itcanbecontestedandadmittedthroughevidence,itneednotbewritteninthewill.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

15

9. Whatisthedifferenceifanyofattestationandsubscription?(Referto#2,samedate)(Jurado,page60)

10. Article805subscribedattheendthereof=>veryimportant!

11. Testator,anoldman,askedhisgrandsontowritehisname.Isthisvalid?
YES,butmustbewritteninhispresenceandbyhisexpressdirection.

12. Article806NotarialAcknowledgement
Acknowledgementcanbedonebythewitnessesevenonseparatedates.

13. Thetestatormustsignthewill,andisalsorequiredtosignintheleftmargin,canhesignhiswillwithhisnick
nameoraliasorinitialorthumbmark?
Aslongasitisintendedbyhimtoauthenticatethewill.
Canthetestatorsignusinghistoemarkorhislips?
YES,forthesamereason.Doesnotnecessarilymeansthatthesignatureisinthehandwritingof
thetestator.

14. Whenwespeakofsignatureitistakenfromthewordsignummeaningmark.

15. AssumethatthewillwasnotarizedinAngelesCity,butthenotarypublichadanotarycommissionissuedin
Bulacan,wouldthatbeavalidwill?NO
GUERREROvs.BIHIS
Had he exercised his notarial commission properly, the intent of the law to effectuate the decedent's
finalstatementsasexpressedinherwillwouldnothavecometonaught.
Anotarypublicwhoactsoutsideofhisjurisdictionarea(notarialcommission)doesnotdoanyvalidact.
Anotarypublicisauthorizedtoperformnotarialacts,includingthetakingofacknowledgments,within
thatterritorialjurisdictiononly.Outsidetheplaceofhiscommission,heisbereftofpowertoperformany
notarialact;heisnotanotarypublic.

16. Thewillcanhaveanynumberofwitnessesstartingwith3.

17. Ifthetestatorisverysick,hecanaskanotherpersontosignthewillforhim.Supposingthetestatoriswell,
canheaskanotherpersontosignthewillforhim?
YES, there is no prohibition to that effect or the law does not distinguish as to whether the testator is
capableornot.

AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

16

18. Isacquiescenceenoughtocausesomeotherperson?(Jurado,page57)
No.Mereacquiescencewillnotsuffice,whatisrequiredbylawisexpressdirection.
Althoughanexpressdirectiontosignforthetestatormaybegivenbyhimwithoutusingwords,amere
impliedassenttothesigningbyanotherpersonisnotsufficienttomeettherequirementofanexpress
direction

19. Youcannothaveavalidnotarialwillwithoutattestationclause.

20. Supposingthattheattestationclauseisinalanguagenotknowntothetestator,isthewillvalid?
YES,becausetheattestationclauseisamerememorandumorrecord.
Itistheactofthewitnessesandnotthetestator.

21. Isitessentialforthevalidityofthewillthatthenotarypublicbepresentatthetimeoftheexecutionofthe
will?
Thepresenceofthenotarypublicisnotessentialatthetimeoftheexecutionofthewill.

22. Canthewitnessesacknowledgethewillallinthepresenceofoneanotherbeforethenotarypublic?Orcan
theydoitseparately?
Acknowledgement is different from signing the will as witnesses, in such case the parties can do the
acknowledgeseparately.

23. Testatorinvitedhisthreeclosefriendstobehiswitnessesforhiswill.Whenthewitnessesweretherethe
testatorshowedthewilltothem,thenaskedthewitnessestosignthesame,isthatavalidwill?
Thetestatorshouldactuallyaffixedthosesignatureinthepresenceofthewitnesses.Thereforethewill
isnotvalid.

24. Woulditaffectthevalidityofthewillifthewitnessessignedthewillwiththeirthumbmarks?
NO,itwontaffectaslongastheyareliterate.

25. Athirdpersonwasdirectedbythetestatortosignthenameofthetestator.Thatfactwasnotstatedinthe
attestationclause,willthataffectthevalidityofthewill?
YES,becausethelawexpresslyprovidesthatthesamebewrittenintheattestation.

26. AssumeJuanDelaCruzistheTestator,PedroSantosisthe3
rd
person,buthewroteby:PedroSantos
Itisinvalidbecausethenameofthetestatormustbewrittenasexpresslyrequiredbylaw.

27. Testator in the presence of the 3 witnesses signed his will. Then when it was their turn to sign, testator
coveredtheprovisionofthetestatmentaryprovisions,isthatavalidwill?
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

17

YES,thereisnorequirementforthewitnessestoknowtheprovisionsofthewill.

28. Thelawrequiresamongothersthatthetestatorwillsubscribethewillattheendthereof,whereistheend?
Afterthelasttestamentaryprovisions.

29. Supposingthatitisafive(5)pagewillandthetestatorandthewitnessessignedontheleftmarginonallthe
pages.Thetestatordidnotsignontheendisitallowed?NO

30. Supposing thatpage5ofthewillcontainsonlytheattestation clause.Assumingthatthewitnessessigned


below the attestation clause and you dont find the signature of the testator in the end of such page. Is it
valid?
YES,ifthelastpagecontainstheattestationclause.

31. The witnesses however did not sign at the end of the attestation clause but their signature is in the left
margin,valid?NO.
NO,itispreciselyoneofthepointsinAZUELAvs.CA
Awillwhoseattestationclauseisnotsignedbytheinstrumentalwitnessesisfatallydefective.
Marginalsignatureisdifferentfromthesignatureatthebottom.
Theabsenceofthesignaturebelowtheattestationclausenegatesthepurposeofthesaidrequirement.

32. Woulditmakeanydifferenceifthewitnessesofthewillsignaheadofthetestator?
Thewillwouldstillbevalidaslongastheyallsignedinonecontinuousoccasion.

33. ALVARADOvs.CABIOLA
ContrarytotheexplicitprovisionsofArticle808,thereisnoquestionthatthewillwasreadonlyonce,
andyetthewillwasallowed.Why?
There was substantial compliance because the three (3) witnesses and the notary public were
givenacopyandwhilethelawyerwasreadingthewillthewitnesseswerefollowingbyreading
theircopy.

34. Assumethatthetestatorsignedthewillonhistable,whilesigningthewitnesswaslookingoutthewindow,
wastheresigninginthepresence?Whatisthetestofpresence?
Aslongasthereisnoobstacle/obstructioninthelineofvision(Dean)
Notwhethertheyactuallysaweachothersign,butwhethertheymighthaveseeneachothersignhad
theychosentodosoconsideringtheirmentalandphysicalconditionandpositionwithrelationtoeach
otheratthemomentofinscriptionofeachsignature.(Jabonetavs.Gustilo)(Jurado,page65)
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

18

35. Supposingthetestatorisblindhowwillyousatisfyinthepresenceofthetestator?
Thetestatorcanperhapsholdthepartofthepaperorhemaylistenvisionisnottheonlyway.

36. Supposing that the testator is very sick and decided to make his will, called his lawyer, witnesses, notary
public.Thetestatordictatedtothelawyer,andasktowritethename,andthelawyerrushedtohisofficeto
print it. When he came back the testator is comatose. Tthe lawyer asked the witnesses to sign the will,
valid?
NO,thetestatorisnolongerconsciousofwhatisgoingon.

37. 5pagewill.Onpage3,thetestatorfailedtosignontheleftmargin,canthewillbeallowed?
Intheabsenceofthemarginalsignatureeitherthetestatororwitnesseswouldinvalidatethewill.
ICASIANOvs.ICASIANO(Jurado,page68)
The inadvertent failure of one witness to affix his signature to one page of a testament, due to the
simultaneous lifting of two pages in the course of signing, is not per se sufficient to justify denial of
probate.
Thecourtallowedthewillinthecase.Thecourtwasnotconvincedthattherewasforgery.
Theoppositorshaveinvokedbothfraudandundueinfluence.Theycannotcoexist.
Mereinequalityofdistributiondoesnotfollowthatitwasdoneneitherinundueinfluencenoroffraud.
Thatsthereasonwhyapersonmakesawill.Otherwise,dieintestateifyouwantyourchildrentohave
equalshares

38. Inpreviousrulings,ifthereisamissingmarginalsignatureeithertestatororwitnessitisvoid.
TheIcasianocaseislimitedtotheprecisecircumstanceinthesaidcase.
Inthatcase,therecouldbenodoubtthattherewasavalidwillbecausetherewasaduplicateoriginal.
Therefore, if there is no duplicate original and there is a missing marginal signature the will should be
void.

39. Butthemarginalontheleftisdirectory

40. Howdoyounumberapagecorrelativelyinnumber?
Spellitoutone.ButyoucanputRomannumeralorletters.
Theplacingofthepageisnotmaterialinsofarasthevalidityisconcern.

41. SupposingthereissomethingmissingintheAttestationClause,willitmeanthewillisvoid?YES

42. ButinthelastparagraphofthewillIherebysignthisconsistingof5pages
Ifwhatismissingisstatedinanotherpartofthewill,itissufficient.Thewillmaybeallowed.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

19

Whatisnotallowedisthattoprovethatsomethingthroughanextrinsicevidence.

43. Missingthetestatorsigns

44. Whydoesthelawrequireattestationclause?
Torenderavailableproofduringtheprobateproceedingsthatthewillhasbeenexecutedinaccordance
withtherequirementsprescribedbylawandthattheinstrumentofferedforprobateisauthentic.
Subscription on the other hand, as it is used in this part of the Code, consists in the manual act of the
instrumentalwitnessesinaffixingtheirsignaturestotheinstrument.Itsonlypurposeisidentification.

45. Cananilliteratemanmakeavalidnotarialwill?YES
Anyspecialsafeguards?
Theprovisionsfortheblindunderarticle808isasafeguardtothetestatorbecauseheislikea
blindtestator.

46. Isitnecessarythattheattestationshouldbereadtohimtwiceifthetestatorisblind.YES

47. Requirementsforavalidholographicwill?
Completelywritten,signedanddatedbythehandofthetestatorhimself.

48. Supposingthatthereare3witnessesinaholographicwill?VALID

49. Supposing the testator used the page in his planner. He did not write the date because there is already a
printeddate?INVALID

50. Shouldthedatewillbecomplete?
Ifthereissubstantialcomplianceitisvalid.

51. Supposingthatthereisnoseparatedatebutthedatewasmentionedinpassing,wouldthatbesufficient?
YES,thedatemaybeplacedanywhere,eveninoneoftheprovisions.
LABRADORvs.CA
The law does not specify a particular location where the date should be placed in the will. The only
requirementsarethatthedatebeinthewillitselfandexecutedinthehandofthetestator.

52. There is no requirement for witnesses, it may happen that the testator is the one who knows the
holographicwill,whatistheguaranteeagainstfraud?
At the time of the probate, a witness must be presented who is familiar with the handwriting of the
testator.

AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

20

53. Whereshouldthetestatorsigntheholographicwill?
Thereisnospecificplace.Itcanbeanywhere.
Isubmitthatthetestatorshouldsigntheendoftheholographicwill.
This can be reduced under Article 812. The law makes the signature as the point of reference in any
additionaldispositions.

July18,2009

1. Article810
HOLOGRAPHICWILL(Article810)
a. entirelywrittenbythehandofthetestator;
b. entirelydatedbythehandofthetestator;and
c. entirelysignedbythehandofthetestator.

NOTE: The law exacts literal compliance with these requirements. HENCE, THE DOCTRINE OF LIBERAL
INTERPRETATIONCANNOTBEAPPLIED.

Nevertheless, the Court held in a case that as a general rule, the date in a holographic will should
includetheday,month,andyearofitsexecution.However,whenthereisnoappearanceoffraud,bad
faith, undue influence and pressure and the authenticity of the will is established and the only issue is
whetherornotthedateFEB./61appearingonthewillisavalidcompliancewithArt.810,probateof
the holographic will should be allowed under the principle of substantial compliance. (In the matter of
IntestateEstateofAndresdeJesusandBibianaRoxasdeJesus,134SCRA245)

Ruleincaseofinsertion,cancellation,erasureoralteration:
TestatormustauthenticatethesamebyhisFULLSIGNATURE.(Article814)

NOTE: In the case of Kalaw vs. Relova (134 SCRA 241), the holographic will in dispute had only one
substantialprovision,whichwasalteredbysubstitutingtheoriginalheirwithanother,butwhichalteration
didnotcarrytherequisiteoffullauthenticationbythefullsignatureofthetestator,theeffectmustbethat
the entire will is voided or revoked for the simple reason that nothing remains in the will after that which
couldremainvalid.

Effectsofwordswrittenbyanotherandinsertedinthewordswrittenbythetestator:(Jurado,page95)
a. If the insertion was made after the execution of the will, but without the consent of the testator, such
insertionisconsideredasnotwritten,becausethevalidityofthewillcannotbedefeatedbythemaliceor
capriceofthirdperson.
b. Iftheinsertionaftertheexecutionofthewillwaswiththeconsentofthetestator,thewillremainsvalid
buttheinsertionisvoid.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

21

c. If the insertion after the execution is validated by the testator by his signature thereon, then the
insertionbecomespartofthewill,andtheentirewillbecomesvoid,becauseoffailuretocomplywiththe
requirementthatitmustbewhollywrittenbythetestator.
d. Iftheinsertionmadebyathirdpersonismadecontemporaneoustotheexecutionofthewill,thenthe
willisvoidbecauseitisnotwrittenentirelybythetestator.

ProbateofHolographicWill
1. If UNCONTESTED, requires that at least 1 witness who knows the handwriting and signature of the
testator explicitly declare that the will and signature are in the handwriting of the testator; if no witness,
experttestimonymayberesortedto.
2. IfCONTESTED,requiresatleast3ofsuchcrediblewitnesses,ifnoneexpertwitness.(Codoyvs.Calugay)

NOTE:Wherethetestatorhimselfpetitionsfortheprobateofhisholographicwillandnocontestisfile,the
factthatheaffirmsthattheholographicwillandthesignatureareinhisownhandwriting,shallbesufficient
evidence thereof. If the holographic will is contested, the burden of disproving the genuineness and due
executionthereofshallbeonthecontestant.

A photostatic or xerox copy of a lost or destroyed holographic will may be admitted because the
authenticityofthehandwritingofthedeceasedcanbedeterminedbytheprobatecourt,ascomparisoncan
bemadewiththestandardwritingsofthetestator.(Rodelasvs.Aranza,119SCRA16)

2. Ifsomeoneusedapageofaplannerwithaprinteddateandwrotethereinhisholographicwill?INVALID

3. Whatisthepurposethataholographicwillmustbeentirelyhandwrittenbythetestator?
Thatistheonlyguarantyofthewillsauthenticitytherebeingnowitnessesandneednottobenotarized

4. Inprobateproceeding,aphotocopyatleastmustbegiventothecourttodeterminethehandwriting.
Oldrule:GANvs.YAP(Jurado,page98)
"the execution and the contents of a lost or destroyed holographic will may not be proved by
the bare testimony of witnesses who have seen and/or read such will. The will itself must be
presented; otherwise, it shall produce no effect. The law regards the document itself as
materialproofofauthenticity."
RODELASvs.ARANZA
a photostatic or xerox copy of a lost or destroyed holographic will may be admitted because
theauthenticityofthehandwritingofthedeceasedcanhedeterminedbytheprobatecourt,as
comparisoncanbemadewiththestandardwritingsofthetestator.

5. WhataretherequirementintheprobateofaHolographicwill?
If UNCONTESTED, requires that at least 1 witness who knows the handwriting and signature of the
testatorexplicitlydeclarethatthewillandsignatureareinthehandwritingofthetestator;ifnowitness,
experttestimonymayberesortedto.
IfCONTESTED,requiresatleast3ofsuchcrediblewitnesses,ifnoneexpertwitness.(Codoyvs.Calugay)
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

22

6. AZOALAvs.SINGSON(Jurado,page100)
TheSCheldthattheruleofthefirstparagraphofArticle811oftheCivilCodeismerelydirectoryandis
notmandatory.
7. CODOYvs.CALUGAY
Inthispetition,thepetitionersaskwhethertheprovisionsofArticle811oftheCivilCodearepermissive
ormandatory.
Thearticleprovides,asarequirementfortheprobateofacontestedholographicwill,thatatleastthree
witnessesexplicitlydeclarethatthesignatureinthewillisthegenuinesignatureofthetestator.
TheSCheld,basedonthelanguageused,thatArticle811oftheCivilCodeismandatory.
The word "shall" in a statute commonly denotes an imperative obligation and is inconsistent with the
idea of discretion and that the presumption is that the word "shall," when used in a statute is
mandatory.

8. DateinaHolographicwillisessential

9. ROXASvs.DEJESUS(Paras,page110)
As a general rule, the date in a holographic will should include the day, month, and year of its
execution.
However, when as in the case at bar, there is no appearance of fraud, bad faith, undue influence and
pressure and the authenticity of the will is established and the only issue is whether or not the date
Feb./61appearingontheholographicwillisavalidcompliancewithArt.810oftheCivilCode,probate
oftheholographicwillshouldbeallowedundertheprincipleofsubstantialcompliance.

10. DeanNavarrospeaking,NodateisrequiredinaNotarialWill.
Isthisalegislativeoversight?
NO,becauseNotarialAcknowledgementisrequired.Justrefertothedateindicatedtherein.

11. IncaseofNotarialwills,itshouldbesubscribedattheendthereofbythetestatorhimself.
IncaseofHolographicwills
Article812,signatureiswrittenafterthelasttestamentarydisposition.
Thelawassumesthatthelastthingyouwillfindisthetestatorssignature

12. Article813Additionaldispositions
Sample
July11,1986
IgiveeverythingtoMarvinSantos.
Sgd:PedroSantos

AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

23

IgiveP10KtoEscolin.

IgivemyHouse&LottoJumamil.

ThedateevenonlyincorporatedinthewillsufficientLabradorCase
Last2dispositionsisinvalid,becauseitisnotdatedandsign.
Ifthelast2aresigneditisvoidbecausenotdated.
Ifthelastdisposition,Jumamil,issignedanddateditvalidateseventhedispositiontoEscolin
Ifitissignedbutnotdatedbutthelastisdatedandsigned,thelawcanreasonablyassumetheallofthe
dispositionsweremadeatthesametime.
IfEscolinisdated,notapplicable.Itisvoid.
IfdatewasplacedaboveEscolinandthesignatureafterJumamil,itisvalid.Itisconsideredanotherwill.
Example:Date
IgiveP10ktoCharlesEscolin.
IgivemyhousetoJumamil
Signature
13. Article814Insertion,cancellation,erasureoralterationinaholographicwill
Thetestatormustauthenticatethesamebyhisfullsignature
Fullsignatureisdeemedtobetheusualcustomarysignature

14. Inalteration,fullsignatureisrequired.Mustitcontainthefullnameandsurname?
No,youshouldonlyuseyourUSUAL,HABITUAL,CUSTOMARYsignature
15. AssumePedroSantoscancelledthenameofMariaSantosandinsertedPedroSantos.Noauthentication.
KALAWvs.RELOVA
Cancellationisnotvalidnoauthentication
Disregardingtheobviouschangeofmindofthetestator
PrincipalRuleinTestamentarySuccession:AscertaintheINTENTIONofthetestatorwhichshouldbethe
principalguidingstar.

16. Thetestatorcansignhisholographicwithhisinitialsbutinalteration,itshouldbehisfullsignature.
Thisislogicalbecauseitiseasiertodoanalterationthantofalsifythewholewill.
Thus,thealterationisaproofthathedidsuchthing.

17. AHolographicWillmaybeintheformofaletter.
Butitmustbecleartheheisconsideringthelettertobehislastwill.

AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

24

18. Rulesregardingthecaseofinsertionsorinterpolationsbythirdpersons(Referto#1)(Jurado,page95)

19. Intrinsicvalidityofawill.
Followthelawofthetestatorsnation;Nationallawofthedecedent
Article815819

20. X, a Spanish citizen but a resident in San Francisco, California, USA, executed a will in Tokyo, Japan. May
such will be probated in the Philippines and his estate in this country distributed in conformity with the
provisionsofthewill?Explainyouranswer.(Jurado,page105)
YES,thewillofXmaybeprobatedinthePhilippinesandhisestateinthiscountrymaybedistributedin
conformitywiththe provisionsofthewill,providedthatsaidwillwasexecutedinaccordancewiththe
formalitiesprescribedbyanyofthefollowinglaws:
(1)ThelawoftheplacewhereXresides(SanFrancisco,CA)domicile;or
(2)Thelawofhisowncountry(Spain)nationallaw;or
(3)TheCivilCodeofthePhilippinesleslocicelebrationis;or
(4) The law of the place where the will was made (Tokyo, Japan). (Arts. 17, par1, 816, Civil Code)
execution

21. CitizenshipofthewitnessinaholographicwillisimmaterialaslongasdomiciledinthePhilippines.

22. XandYarebothFilipinos.TheymadeaJointWillinGermany
WillitbeallowedinthePhilippines?NO

23. AandW,BrazilianCitizenshiponly(AskAmie)

24. XisFil,WisaBrazilianmodel.Filipinovoid.Brazilianvalid.
25. HandWarebothBrazilians.WhileinthePhilippinestheyexecutedajointwill,theirlawallowsit.Possible?
Thereare2views:
(a)VOID,contrarytopublicpolicy
(b)VALID,allowedbytheNCCbecausetheirnationallawallowsit.

26. WhatisaJOINTWILL?(Jurado,page106)
Is defined as a single testamentary instrument which contains the will of two or more persons, jointly
executedbythem,eitherfortheirreciprocalbenefitorforthebenefitofathirdperson.
MUTUALWILLSarewillsexecutedpursuanttoanagreementbetweentwoormorepersonstodispose
oftheirpropertyinaparticularmanner,eachinconsiderationoftheother.
RECIPROCAL WILLS are wills in which the testators name each other as beneficiaries under similar
testamentaryplans.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

25

It is clear from these definitions that a joint will may be either mutual or reciprocal, although it is not
necessarily so, just as mutual or reciprocal wills may be join If they are contained in a single
testamentaryinstrument.

27. HwrotehisWillinfrontandWwroteherattheback
Notajointwill.JointWillrequiresthatthereisonlyonewillandtestament.

28. WhyJointWillnotallowed?
When a will is made jointly or in the same instrument, the spouse who is more aggressive, stronger in
willorcharacteranddominantisliabletodictatethetermsofthewillforhisorherownbenefitorfor
thatorthirdpersonswhomheorshedesirestofavor.
Wherethewillnotonlyjointbutreciprocaleitheroneofthespousesmayhappentobeunscrupulous,
wicked, faithless, or desperate, knowing as he or she does the terms of the will whereby the whole
propertyofthespousesbothconjugal andparaphernalgoestothesurvivor,maybe tempted tokillor
disposeoftheother.

29. WhatdeterminestheIntrinsicValidityofawill?
Nationallawofthetestator.

30. Whyshouldthewitnessesbedomiciledinthecity?(AskAmie)

31. Isitpossiblethataftertheexecutionofthewillthewitnessisnolongerdomiciledhere?
Thedeterminingfactorisatthetimeoftheexecutionofthewill

32. IfyouareinTibetandyouwanttomakeawillinaccordanceofPhilippinelaw,shouldtherebe3witnesses?
Therearetwo(2)views:
(a)Excused
(b)Required(thebetterview)

33. Ifyouareabroad,donotinsistinmakinganotarialwill.Makeaholographicwillinstead.

34. CitizenshipofthewitnessinaHolographicWillisimmaterial.
Provided,heisdomiciledinthePhilippines.

35. Article823three(3)otherwitnesses
Parent,child&spouse=>notgrandparent
COMMENT:Witnessescannotinherit(Paras,page130)
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

26

Observethatthepersonsnamedinthisarticleareincapacitatedtoinherit,butnotincapacitated
aswitnesses.Hence,onlythepartappertainingtothemshouldbeconsideredvoid.

36. If you are one of the 3 witnesses, then you were given a small legacy of P100M, and at the time she was
startingtosignthewill,sumakitandtIyanandrushedtothecomfortroom.Thewillwasnotsignedinyour
presence.
Isthatvalid?NO

37. Witnessstand:Wherewereyouwhileshewassigningthewill?
If there is no Art. 823 the temptation is great. But because of this you will be forced tell the truth
becauseyouarenotallowedtothelegacyanyway.

38. NotaryPublicbeingawitnessyoucannotacknowledgetoyourownself

39. WhatisCODICIL?
Article825
A codicil is a supplement or addition to a wall made after the execution of a will and annexed to be
taken as a part thereof, by which any disposition made in the original will is explained, added to, or
altered.
Acodicil,sinceitreferstoawill,cannotbemadebeforeawill;itisalwaysmadeafter.Ofcourse,even
thecodicilmaylateronberevokedbyanotherwillorcodicil.
Incaseofconflictbetweenawillandacodicil,itisunderstoodthatthelattershouldprevail,itbeingthe
laterexpressionofthetestatorswishes.

40. Article826
Inorderthatacodicilmaybeeffective,itshallbeexecutedasinthecaseofawill.
FormalitiesofCodicils:
Asinthecaseofwills,therecanbe:
1)Notarialorordinarycodicils
2)Holographiccodicils
A notarial will may be revoked by either a notarial or holographic codicil; similarly, a holographic will
mayberevokedbyaholographicornotarialcodicil.
Ifacodicilisnotexecutedwiththeformalitiesofawill,saidcodicilisvoid.
Avalidwillcanneverberevoked,expresslyorimpliedly,byaninvalidcodicil.

41. RABADILLAvs.CA
In simple substitutions, the second heir takes the inheritance in default of the first heir by reason of
incapacity,predeceaseorrenunciation.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

27

In the case under consideration, the provisions of subject Codicil do not provide that should Dr. Jorge
Rabadilladefaultduetopredecease,incapacityorrenunciation,thetestatrix'sneardescendantswould
substitute him. What the Codicil provides is that, should Dr. Jorge Rabadilla or his heirs not fulfill the
conditionsimposedintheCodicil,thepropertyreferredtoshallbeseizedandturnedoverthetestatrix's
neardescendants.

42. Article827.Incorporationbyreference
Thepurposeofthisarticleistoprovideforthosecaseswhenatestatorwishestoincorporatetohiswill
only by reference (i.e., without copying the whole thing) certain documents or papers, especially
inventoriesandbooksofaccounts.
Thereby,thetestatorisabletosavetimeandenergy.
Saiddocsorinventories,whenreferredtoinanotarialwill,donotneedanyattestationclause,because
theattestationclausesofthewillitselfissufficient.

43. Testamentaryprovisionsshouldalwaysbeinthewill

44. REVOCATIONOFWILLSANDTESTAMENTARYDISPOSITIONS

45. RevocabilityofaWill(Paras,page135)
UntilthedeathoftheT,awillisambulatoryandrevocable,sinceafterall,thewillconcernsadisposition
ofpropertiesandrightseffectiveafterdeath
TheheirsdonotacquireanyvestedrighttothedispositioninawilluntilaftertheTsdeath.
Provisions in a will which are ordered to be effected immediately, even during the Ts lifetime, are all
right, provided the proper formalities and requisites are present, but they are not really testamentary
disposition.

46. Variouswaysofrevocation
Article830.
(a)byimplicationoflaw;or
(b)bysomewill,codicil,orotherwritingexecutedasprovidedincaseofwills;or
(c)byburning,tearing,cancelling,orobliteratingthewillwiththeintentionofrevokingit.

47. Article44and50oftheFamilyCode
48. Whenisthereanexpressorimpliedrevocation?
Express:REVOCATORYCLAUSE
Implied:SUBSEQUENTWILLORCODICIL

49. Whatarethephysicalactsofdestruction?
Exclusiveenumeration!Theseareburning,tearing,cancelling,orobliteratingthewill.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

28

50. ThewordCANCELLEDorREVOKEDshouldbewritteninthewillnotonablankpartofthewill.

51. ThereisnoAutomaticRevivalofaWillthathasbeenrevoked.
52. VDA.DeMOLOvs.MOLO
SCheldthattheTestatorwouldchoosetheexecutionofthewillratherthanintestacy

53. PERKESvs.PERKES(Paras,page141)
SCheldthatthewillwasNOTrevokedfortheactoftearingwassubjectivelynotyetcomplete,inasmuch
ashehadintendedtotearupthewillsomemore.

54. AccordingtoDean,thewillislikeHUMPYDUMPY.
Oncethewillistornapart,itcannotbepastedbacktogethertorestorevalidity.

55. Article833.Thecauseofrevocationmustbestatedinthewillitselfbeforeinvokingit.
In relation to Art. 830, this article is one of the aspects of dependant relative revocation, or more
properly,atleastforthepurposeofthisArticle,arevocationmadeunderamistake.

56. REPUBLICATIONANDREVIVALOFWILLS

57. ARTICLE835
Republication is defined as the process of reestablishing a will, which has become useless because it
wasvoid,orhadbeenrevoked.

58. Whatarethewaysofrepublication?
Republicationmaybemadeby:
(a)reexecutionoftheoriginalwill(theoriginalprovisionsareCOPIED)
(b)executionofacodicil(alsoknownasimpliedrepublication).

59. AvoidWillcannotberepublished

60. AWillexpresslyrevokedcannotberevived.Whatistheremedy?
MakeanotherWill.

July25,2009

1. ALLOWANCEANDDISALLOWANCEOFWILLS(PROBATE)
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

29

2. PROBATE
The act of proving before a competent court the due execution of a will by a person possessed of
testamentarycapacity,aswellasapprovalthereofbysaidcourt.

3. Probateismandatory.
Art838nowillshallpassanyrealandpersonalunlessprovenandallowedbycourt
Aslongasthepersondiesleavingalastwill,actionforprobatemustbeeffected.
To protect the interest of the testator. If probate is not mandatory, nobody will make wills anymore
sincetherelativesmayjustdisregardit.Whentestatordies,hecannotcertainlybringhiswilltocourt.

4. Probateisamatterofpublicpolicy.
Arisesfromthefactthatitisamatterofpublicpolicy.Itprotectsnotonlytheinterestofheirsbutalso
theinterestofthetestator(inseeingtoitthathiswillisfollowed).
Successionismerelyanextensionoftherightofownership.Ifyouaretheowner,youhavetherightto
choosewhowillsucceed.

5. Sinceprobateismandatory,itfollowsthatitmustalsobeimprescriptible.
Why? Because if you will subject it to Prescription, you will defeating the mandatory nature of the
proceeding. The law itself then will be the one who will put a limitation to it which is against public
policy

6. ProbateisaSpecialProceeding(Rule75,ROC).
A person in possessionof the will must present it to court w/in 20 days from the time he learns about
thedeathoftheperson(testator).
Dateofhearingispublishedsinceitisaproceedinginrem.Itbindsallpersoneventhosewhodidnot
directlyparticipate.
TheFINALAllowanceisbindingonallpersons.

7. Duringtheprobateofthewill,thereareonly3questionswhichtheprobatecourtcaninquireinto:
a) Capacity(Wasthetestatorcapacitated?)
b) Identity(Isthisthelastwill?)
c) Dueexecution(Weretheformalitiesfollowed?)

The court shld not go beyond, other qns may be resolved on the later part of the proceeding eg
distribution.butgenerallyonlythe3maybeinquiredinto.

Nevertheless,theSCallowssomeexception:NuguidandNepomucenoCases.

NuguidvsNuguid
Testatrix instituted her sister as sole heir and completely omitted her parents. There being preterition, it
ruledthatitwillnullifytheinstitutionofheirs.Soitwastheprobateproper,ordinarilyatthatptitwillnot
bepropertoinqintothevalidityofthewillbutitwasptdoutthatitwillonlybeawasteoftimeifwewillgo
ontotheprobatewhenwealreadyknowthatthewillisineffectivebecofpreterition.

AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

30

NepomucenoCase
Peoplewhoareincapacitatedtodonatetoeachotherisincapacitatedtobeinstitutedasheirs.CAthewill
is valid but this provision in favor of the mistress are void went to SC bec they shld not yet resolve the
intrinsicvalidity.SCCAdidnotcommitanyerror,becitwasplainonitsfacethatthoseprovisionsarenot
valid.

HoweveritissubmittedthattheGeneralruleisstillTRUE.(cap,identityanddueexecution)

8. Aprobatemaybeinitiatedeitherduringthelifetimeofthetestator(antemortem)orafterhisdeath(post
mortem).

advndisadv

a) Antemortem(submittedtobethebetteroption)
Advantages:
WillmaystillbeCORRECTEDsinceTestatorisstillalive.
Thetestatorhimselfwillpersonallyappearandtestifyastotheidentityofhiswillandsignatureeasier
toestablishthevalidityofthewill,errorsmaybecorrected.
Thecourtmaybeallowedtopersonallyexaminetestatorifheisofsoundmind.
Thetestatorespeciallyifhehaschildrenorrelativeswillbeinthepositiontoexplainthewilltohisheirs
therebypreventingpossiblefamilyfeudslateron.

9. Whatwillbetheeffectofallowanceofthewill?
Bindingtoallpersons(inrem)
Art838:Subjecttotherightofappeal,itshallbeCONCLUSIVEastoitsdueexecution.Hence,thecase
willforeverbeclosedastoitsdueexecutionsubjecttoappealwithinreasonabletime.

MercadovsSantos
At the time, the allowance of the will has long attained the character of finality. In this case, 16 mos after
finaljudgemntofallowanceofthewill,acomplaintforforgerywasfiled.Itwasheldthatthisisnolonger
possible.Youcannolongermaintainthiscriminalcasebecausetheprobateofthewillrenderedconclusive
its due execution which means that it was not falsified. Hence, a criminal prosecution for forgery will no
longerprosper.

10. Maythetestatorwhilealivestillrevokewillevenifwillwasalreadypreviousallowedantemortem?
Yes. Testator during his lifetime can revoke it even it was already allowed. Such allowance ante
mortemwillnotpreventtestatorfromrevokingit.
Awillisessentiallyambulatory(essentiallyrevocable).

11. Iftestatorleftbothwillandcodicil,thewillandcodicilneednotbeprobatedsimultaneously.
MacamvGatmaitan

12. RabadillavsCA
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

31

Theprovisionsofthewillmaynotbethesubjectofacompromiseagreementbecausethewillexpresses
the testators intention as to the matter of how his property will be disposed of. A Compromise
agreementcannotdefeattheverypurposeofmakingawill.

13. Article839.GroundsforDisallowingaWill(Art.839)
a) Formalities
b) Insanity
c) Force
d) UndueandImproperPressureandInfluence
e) Fraud
f) IfTestatoractedbymistakeordidnotintendthattheinstrumenthesignedbehiswill

Undueinfluence
Even in the law on contracts, it is difficult to make up a case in annulment of a contract by
undueinfluence.
Aslongasourwillisnotoverpoweredbythewillofanother,thereisnoundueinfluence.

IcasianovsIcasiano
Ifafatherhas4childrenwhoareABCD.HegaveABConlylegitimes,theresttoD.
ThemerefactofinequalityindistributiondoesnotbyitselfproveorshowundueinfluenceJBL
Reyes.
Themainpurposeinmakingawillisbecauseyoudontwantyourheirstoinheritequally.
ifitwasestablishedthatthetestatorwaslivingwithhissonD,stillnoundueinfluence.
Ifitwasestablishedfrthetestimonyofneighborstayomagkamukha,bigyanmokongbulkng
propertymostillnoundueinfluence.
Mereimportuningorpleasdonebyheirtotestatorwillnotamounttoundueinfluence.

RevillavCA(rareinstancethatthereisbothfraudandundueinfluence)
WhileSCsaidinIcasianothatundueinfluenceandfraudaremutuallyrepugnanttoeachother.
Butinthiscsitwastheundueinfluencethatwasusedbythenephewtoconstitutethefraud
totheoldmantosigninthewill.
This case illustrates what greed can do. Moderate your greed. The SC in this case said Heracio
overdidit.
There was undue influence, the total absolute control over the old man, that undue influence
wasinturnusedtopoistthefraudtotheoldmantomakehimsignnotknowingthatitwasa
lastwill.

CaldevCAkatangahan
The will was presented for probate, it is expected that the 3 witnesses will be presented and
eachofthemwentonthewitnessstand,howmanypenswereused?one,yourhonor.(KasoIba
iba ang tinta, hehehe) The court was convince that the will was not actually signed in their
presence.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

32

14. INSTITUTIONOFHEIRS

15. Article840.
Institutionofheirisanactbyvirtueofwhichatestatordesignatesinhiswillthepersonorpersonswho
aretosucceedhiminhispropertyandtransmissiblerightsandobligates.

16. RequisitesforaVALIDinstitution
1)ThewillmustbeEXTRINSICALLYVALID.
2)TheinstitutionmustbevalidINTRINSICALLY.
3)TheinstitutionmustbeEFFECTIVE.

17. Is it possible for a testator to make a will containing only legacies and devisees w/o instituting legitimate
heirs?YES

18. Isitadvisabletoinstituteapersonasheirratherthaninstitutingonlylegaciesanddevisees?
Ifyounamesomebodyasanheir,itwillassureyouthatitwillcovertheentireestate.
Inallprobability,therewillbeafteracquiredproperties.Youwillstillliveandacquirepropertyandin
themeantimefromtimeofexecutionuptotimeofdeathyouwillcontinuetoacquireproperty.
ifyouwillsimplygiveoutbylegaciesanddeviseed,afteracquiredpropertywillnotbeincluded.
Itisadvisabletonameheirssomebodyisinstitutedtoyournetremainder.

19. Indesignatingheirs,legacies,devisees,isitnecessarythatcompletenameandsurnamebeindicated?
Aslongasthereisaneventandcircumstancethatthepersonwillbeidentified,itisvalid.

20. IgivemyestatetotheincumbentPresofAUF.Valid?
YES.Thereisaneventorcircumstancethathisidentitywillbeknown

21. IgivetosomestudentstoAUF.
a. Void.Itisnotpossibletoascertaintheidentityoftheinstitutedheir.
b. Dispositioninfavorofanunknownperson(personaincertia).Themassoftheestatewillbegiventothe
legalheirsinstead.(Art.845)

22. Igivetotheeldestsonofmyfriend,GilbertSosa.hiseldestson,Jhonny.IfthenameoftheeldestsonofGilb
ertisnotJohnnybutArnulfo,isitvalid?YES
Art 844: An error in the name, surname, or circumstances of the heir shall not vitiate the institution
whenitispossible,inanyothermanner,toknowwithcertaintythepersoninstituted.

23. Xhasnocompulsoryheir.EstateisP120,000.
Iherebyinstitute,A,B,C.
A,BandCshallinheritinequalparts(Art846)
a=40k
b=40k
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

33

c=40k
WhatifAisalegitimateson?
a=60k+20k
b=20k
c=20k

Ifsomearecompulsoryheirs,donotapply846directlyotherwiseitwillimpairthelegitime.
24. Examples(sulatsaboardnisir,pakideciphernalngpo)

P120k
xIinstituteasmyheirsA,B,CandD
Awillget=60k
B==30k
remainderwillgotoCandD=ndividedequallytothem
C
D

xABCandD
a==60k
B==30k
C==30k
D=0k

If the testator designates the shares be given to others but nothing to others, If the shares will
cover=thesharesnotindicatedwillreceivenothing.cannotgotoproportionalreductionnobasis
todetermineshareofD

x,ABCandchildrenofD(EFG)

Art847
A
B
C
E
F
G

DandhisChildrensimultaneouslynotsuccessively
D
E
F
G

Aasheirstoofmyestate
Bofmyestate
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

34

A=60k
B=30k
Art851=theremaining30k=intestatesuccession

AandBasSOLEandUniversalHeirproportionalincrease
givethemmunawhatisduetothem
A=60k=6/9=2/3=20k=80knotethattheproportiongivenmustbepreserved
b=30k=3/9=1/3=10k=40k
p90k

ABC
A==60k6/15x120k=48
b==60k6/15x120k=24
c==30k3/15x120k=24
150k

25. InstituteDrPabloMarqueszbechesavedmylifein1965butthetruthisitwasDrJuanOcampowhosaved
him.
WillDrPabloMarquezbetheoneinherit?
No.Art850

26. IgivemyestatetomybrotherBbecheisbrilliantandhandsomelawyer
Applythegenrule,disregardthefalsecause.Themovingfactoristheloveandaffection.

27. ForArt.850toapply,causemustbestatedinthewill.

28. Article856.Preterition
Whoareconsidered?legitimate,illegitimate,illegitimategrandchild(ascendant,descendant)
brotherno
fatheryes
spouseno
adoptedyesconsideredaslegitimate

29. Purposeofthisprovisionpreterition.
Theoriginalconceptofthisissimplyplainoversightofthetestator.Thelawassumesthatifthetestator
could have only remembered, he would not have made the institution of heirs. Simple case of
forgetfulness.
SC Ventura v Ventura 3:2 even if the omission was done intentionally and yet SC said that it is
preteritionandnotasimplecaseofdisinheritance.

30. For the omission to amt to preterition, it must be total and complete will not be given anything Will,
donation,
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

35

testator says, I institute, ABC to 9/10 of my estate my children A and B, C not mentioned the testator
didnotdisposetheentireestateNCCsaysremainderlegalheirthusnopreterition

31. Omissionmustbetotal,absoluteandcomplete

X,hasasonS,saysIgivemyfriendFp10krestofmyestateGasmyheir.
estateis120k
preteritiondidnotgivetoS
S=60k+50K=110K
F=10k
G=
InstitutionofGisVoidthusgiveitalltoS.
voluntaryheirsnullified

120kTOABC
A=
x1998

A B1996
30K 30K

JuradoCwillget30kbyrightofrepresentationtoinstitutionofAwillremainthusAwillget90k
Tolentino when he died in 1998his compulsory heirs but in 1998 the will completely omitted C
being a compulsory heir = must be with preterition in accordance with Art 777 so determine the
compulsoryheirsatthetimeofdeathofthetestatorthatthisispreterition.SothattheinstitutionofA
shallbeannulledthus:theshareswouldbeequal.
A=
C=

iftheinstitutionisnotpreteritionitwillnotbeannulledonlyadjustedastohisright.

32. Article855

a) onlyshldbelimitedonlywiththedescendantwhatifparentsarenotomitted.
b) whatifspouseisalsoomitted

Art855shallbeappliedtoallomissionbutdoesnotapplytopreterition.

2
nd
par:problematicwhythereductionshallbelimitedtothecompulsoryheir?
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

36

Illustration:
X: Illgive(sons)

A B C
wasomitted
1/10
30k 12k 60k=100k

33. Istherepreterition?
YES.ApplyArticle854
Annultheinstitutionjustdividethetotalestateto3

August1,2009

1. SUBSTITUTIONOFHEIRS

2. Article857.
Substitution otherwise referred to as conditional institution is the appointment of another heir so that
hemayenterintotheinheritanceindefaultoftheheiroriginallyinstituted.

3. Whatarethecircumstanceswheresubstitutionoccurs?
RIP=Renunciation,IncapacityandPredecease

4. Whenwillthesubstitutionoftheheirtaketheplace,ifnotexpressedbythetestator?
RIP(Repudiation,Incapacity,orPredecease)
Ifthetestatorexpresslyspecified,itwillbefollowed.

5. Article858.Whatarethekindsofsubstitution?(Jurado,189)
Simple or common is that which takes place when the testator designated one or more persons to
substitute the heir or heirs instituted in case such heir or heirs should die before (predecease) him, or
shouldnotwish(renunciation),orshouldbeincapacitatedtoaccepttheinheritance
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

37

BriefiftherearetwoormorepersonsdesignatedbytheTtosubstituteforonlyoneheir.
Compendiusiftheisonlyonepersondesignatedtosubstitutefortwoormoreheirs
Reciprocal two or more heirs designated mutually to substitute one another. The distribution is in
proportiontotheiraliquotpartoftheirgivenportion.
FideicommissarysubsArticle863MEMORIZE

6. FidecommissarySubsitution
It is an indirect substitution by virtue of which a testator institutes a first heir, and charges him to
preserveandtransmitthewholeorpartoftheinheritancelaterontoasecondheir.
The distinction between a simple substitution is that while in the simple substitution only ONE of the
heirsinherits,inthefidecommissary,BOTHinherit.

7. RequisitesandLimitationsoftheFideicommissarySubstitution?(Paras,page240)
(a)TheremustbeaFIRSTHEIRcalledprimarilyorpreferentiallytotheenjoymentoftheproperty.
(b) There must be an obligation clearly imposed upon him to preserve and transmit to a third person
thewholeorpartoftheinheritance.
(c)ASECONDHEIR
(d)The1
st
and2
nd
heirsmustbeonlyonedegreeapart.

8. BothmustbelivingatthetimeoftheTsdeath.
The first and the second heir must be alive because both the first and the second heirs inherit directly
formthetestator.
Whendoesthisoccur?Fromthemomentofdeath.(Article777ourfavoriteinthissubject)

9. Shouldnotgobeyondonedegreeformtheheiroriginallyinstituted.
Thereweretwoschoolsofthought:
traditionally,onlypersonsasfirstdegreerelativescanqualifyasfiduciarysubstitutes
modern,onedegreemeanstransfer,thefirstandthesecondheirneednotberelatedbyblood
aslongasthereisonlyonetransfer
The SC held in RAMIREZ vs. RAMIREZ that it means relationship, the one degree means relationship,
hencetherecanbeseveraltransfer.
In the light of ARANAS vs. ARANAS there are those who maintain that Ramirez has already been
abandon,buttherehasbeennoabandonment.

10. Assume that X is the testator. In his will, he instituted A as heir to his entire estate but ordering him to
preserveandtransmitthesametohissonB.
Thereisafideicommissarysubstitutionbecausethereisafirstandsecondheir.
Assume that X died in 1990 and lets further assume that A has two children B and C. B has two
childrenDandE.DoesAbecometheowneroftheproperties?
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

38

NO,andhecannotalienatethesame.Heonlyhasrightsofausufruct.SouptowhenwillAhold
theproperty?
IfXhasanexpresswill,wehavetofollowthat.
IfXdidnotspecifytheholdingperioditwillbebyAbutonlyuptotimeofhisdeath.
ThemomentAdiesordecidetotransmitthepropertywillthetotalcompleteownershipgo
toB.
SupposingthatXdiedin1990andBdiedin1992Ahoweverdiedin1995,whatwillhappen?
It will go to D and E only. As of 1990 he already received the right to the property
thereforeitdoesnotmatterthatBdiedaheadofA.

11. There must be an obligation to preserve and transmit. A clear obligation, or by expressly calling it by that
name.

12. CRISOLOGOvs.SINGSON
There is no fideicommissary substitution but simply a simple substitution because the testatrix did not
expresslygaveanobligationnordidshecallitbythatname.

13. PCIBvs.ESCOLIN
Thereisnofideicommissarysubstitutionbecausethereisnoobligationtopreserveandtransmit.
Therewasanimpliedprovisionthatheismakinghishusband/hubby/babesabsoluteowner

14. Assume X is the testator and he designated A as his fiduciary heir. B, the son of A, is fideicommissary
substitute. Testator died in 1990, B died in 1989. Can the heirs of B inherit from A? Do we have a valid
fideicommissarysubs?
NO,BsheircannotinheritbecauseBdiedaheadofX.
NOVALIDfideicommissarysubstitutionaswell.BothA&BmustbelivingatthedeadofX.

CanAinherit?YES
Article868.ThenullityoftheF.S.doesnotprejudicethevalidityoftheinstitutionoftheheirs
firstdesignated;theF.clauseshallsimplybeconsideredasnotwritten.

15. Supposingitstheotherwayaround,canBinherit?
Thereisnoprovision.
Dean submits that B should be allowed to inherit and consider it as Simple Substitution because in
fideicommissary subs the rights of fiduciary subs is merely until his death at the most, the absolute
ownershipwillenduptothe2
nd
heir,henceiftheintentionofthetestatorissuch,thatshouldbegiven
effect.

16. Article870anotherimportantrule!!!
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

39

Generalrule:Maxperiodthatcanprohibitdispositionis20years.
After20years,disregardtheprohibition.
Exception:infideicommissarysubs.
Supposingthatthetestatordiedin1980andsince1980thepropertyhadbeenwithA.Itsnow
2009.Itsalready20years,hestillcannotdispose.YoudontapplyArt.870.

17. AranascaseArticle870wastheissue
Thecaseinvolvesacatholicpriestwhomadeawill.Thespecialgroupofproperties.
TheadministratorisVicentethenephew,ineffectasausufructuary,untilhisdeathoruponrefusal,in
sucheventthesubstitutewillbeoneofthesonsofCarmelo.
TherewasaclaimthatthisprovisionviolatedArt870.
SCheldthatthereisnoviolationofArt870.
Vicenteisnotprohibitedfromalienatingthefruits,neitherthenakedownerarepreventedfrom
disposingtheirnakedownership,thereforevalidprovision.
Becauseofthisruling,somesaidthatabandonednaangRamirez,connection?
Art869,inthiscasethere willbesuccessiveusufruct,theissueof870wastheissueinAranas.
Whenthelawspeaksofonedegreeitstillmeansadegreeofrelationship(sir).

18. AssumethatXisthetestator,IgivemyfarminBulacantomyfriendF,butIgivetheusufructtoAthento
hissonBthentoC,allthreearefor5years
ThisiswhatArticle869speaksof,hencesubjecttolimitationunderArticle863.
Hence,Ccannotbeausucfructbecauseheis2
nd
degree.
OnlyAandBcanbeusufruct.Becauseonlytheywouldsatisfytheonedegreelimitation.

19. CONDITIONALTESTAMENTARYDISPOSITIONSANDTESTAMENTARYDISPOSITIONSWITHATERM

20. VariousKindsofInstitutions:
Theinstitutionofheirmaybemade:
(a)withacondition.(Arts.871877,833834)
(b)withaterm(Arts.878,880,885)
(c)foracertainpurposeorcause(modalinstitution)(Arts.871,882and883)
21. Definitions
Condition future or uncertain event, or a past event unknown to the parties, upon which the
performanceoftheobligationdepends.
Termthedayortimewhenanobligationeitherbecomesdemandableorterminates.
ModalInstitution
(a)whentheinstitutionofanheirismade,foracertainpurposeorcause.(Art.871)
(b)thestatementoftheobjectoftheinstitutionortheapplicationofthepropertyleftbythetestator
orthechargeimposeduponhim.
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

40

(c) modo also signifies every onerous dispositions by which the obligor imposed upon another and
thuslimitedhispromise,suchasdemandingaloaninexchangeforwhattheotherpersonreceive.

22. Testator is given the right to impose certain condition upon the institution of heirs or legacy or device or
evenaperiod,therightofdispositionisanchoredontherightofownership.

23. When it comes to the legitime, he cannot touch that because it is not subject to his diposistion. it is
somethingthelawmandatestobegiventothecompulsoryheirs.

24. Impossiblecondition.InObligationsandContracts,theobligationisvoid.Inwills,theconditionisvoidbut
thewillisvalid.Yousimplydisregardthecondition.
Theheirwouldstillinheritbecausetestatmentarydispositionarebasedintheliberalityofthetestator.
E.g.IgivemyfriendXtheentireestate,onlyifhecanflywithoutmechanicaldevice.Xwillstill
inherit.

25. Article874.Thereisaspecialrule,tocontractmarriage.
Anabsoluteprohibitiontocontractafirstmarriagecanneverbevalidlyimposedbyanyone.
Subsequentmarriagesgenerallycannotbeimposedsubjecttoexceptiondeceasedspouse,ascendants
ofthedeceasedspouse,ascendantsofthedeceasedspouse.

26. COMMENT:(Paras,page267)
TheconditionnottoMarry
(a)Absoluteprohibition
1)tocontractafirstmarriage
2)toremarry
(b)Relativeprohibition
1)tocontractafirstmarriage
2)toremarry
(c) A stopping of a usufruct, allowance, or personal prestation the moment the heir, legatee, or
deviseemarriesorremarries.
Absoluteprohibitiontocontractafirstmarriage
This condition is absolutely void, and may be disregarded or considered not imposed. Reason
forthelaw:Suchaconditioniscontrarytogoodmoralityandpublicpolicy.

Absoluteprohibitiontocontractaremarriage
Gen.Rule:voidbecauseitiscontrarytomoralityandpublicpolicy
Exceptions:valid
(a)whenimposedonthewidoworwidowerbythedeceasedspouse
AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

41

(b) when imposed on the widow or widower by the ascendants or descendants of the
deceasedspouse(nottheascendantsordescendantsofthewidoworwidower)
Reason:justifiedbecauseofsentimentalandeconomicreasons.
Relativeprohibitiontocontractafirstmarriageortoremarry
This relative prohibition (prohibition to marry a particular girl, or at a particular time, or for a
number of years) is valid, UNLESS it becomes so onerous or burdensome (dont marry for 60
years;dontmarryinthePhilippinesorinAsia)thattherelativeprohibitionreallyamountsto
anabsoluteone.

27. When it comes to absolute prohibition to contract marriage 1


st
marriage, but there is one situation which
might be considered an exception, assume that A institute a priest as heir subject to the condition not to
marry,Deansubmitsthatitmustbevalidbecauseheisnotonlyimposinganythingnew.Allheimposeisto
staythesameashewas,thepriestvoluntarilystayedinthestate.Thereforevalid.

28. Igivemariamyentireestatewiththeprohibitionnottomarryuntilshereachestheageof70
Thisisalreadysameasabsolute,hencevoid.

29. Intheillustration,Fcanvalidlyimposesubsequentmarriageprohibition.

30. Assumethetestatorsaid,Igivemywifemyentireestatebutshewillnotmarryagain.Nootherchildren.
Thewife3monthsafterthedeathoftestatorgotmarried,willsheloseeverything?
NO,thelegitimecannotbesubjecttocondition,shewillonlylosethefreeportion.

31. MORENTEvs.DELASANTA(Paras,page263)
Igivemyhubbymyentireestate,butheshallnotmarryanyone
Willthehubbyloseeverythingifshemarries?
NO. The happening of the hubbys remarry should not be considered as the fulfillment of
conditionswhichwouldannulorrevokethedevice.
Thestatementweremereordersandtherewasnoconditionorstatementthatifheshouldnot
complywiththewishesofthetestatrixhewouldlosethedevisegiventohim.
Theconditionshouldhavebeenexpresslyprovided.

32. Article875.Whatisadispositioncaptatoria?
Subjecttoaconditionthattheheirorlegateewillmakeaprovisioninhiswillinfavorofathirdperson
orthetestator.
Thisisprohibitedbecauseittendstomakethemakingofthewillacontractualact.
Notethatthedispositionitself(andnotmerelythecondition)isvoid.

AUFLAWBATCH2MAGICNOTES

42

33. Article876.PotestativeCondition
Isonethefulfillmentofwhichdependspurelyontheheir.
HemustperformitpersonallyAFTERthetestatorsdeath.Nobodyelsemustdoitforhim.

34. Article877.CasualandMixedCondition
CasualConditionifitdependsuponchanceand/oruponthewillofathirdperson.
FulfillmentmaybeeitherBEFOREorAFTERtheTsdeath.
MixedConditionifitdependspartlybothuponthewilloftheheirANDuponchanceand/orthewillofa
thirdperson.
FulfillmentmaybeeitherBEFOREorAFTERtheTsdeath.

35. Supposing the condition is casual or mix, earning a masters degree with in 5 years from the time of the
death. The testator is not aware that the heir has already a masters degree. The condition is deemed
fulfilled.

36. Ifthetestatorisaware,theconditionmuststillbecompliedwithagain,butiftheconditionisinthenature
thatitcannotbefulfilledagainitwillbedeemedfulfilled.

37. If the disposition is subject to a suspensive term, that does not prevent the heir from acquiring the rights.
Only demandability has been suspended by the suspensive term, in the mean time the legal heirs under
Article885.Thereisanirreconcilableconflict,butDeansubmitsthatArticle885shouldalwaysapply.
Article880shouldonlyapplyinthecasewherethereissuspensivecondition,
IfsuspensivetermorperiodArticle885shouldapply.

38. TherewillstillbenoroomfortheapplicationofArt.880ifthelegalheirscannotposttherequiredbond.

39. Institutionsubmodoormodalinstitution.whenisitmodal?
If the testator in naming an heir specifies the object, charges, application then it shall be considered
modal

40. Differfromconditional
Amodeobligatesbutdoesnotsuspends.
Aconditionsuspendsbutdoesnotobligate.

41. IgivetheentirefreeportiontoFmyfriend,buthalfofthe.
Agoodexampleisthecaseofrabadillacase100piculsofsugarimposedbythetestator.

42. RemembertheruleofconstructivefulfillmentunderArticle883
SeetheillustrationsofParas(page293294)
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August08,2009

1. Article886
Legitimeisthatpartofthetestatorspropertywhichhecannotdisposeofbecausethelawhasreserved
itforcertainheirwhoare,therefore,calledthecompulsoryheirs.
Compulsaryheirsarenevercompelledtoacceptthelegitime.Theymayacceptorreject,fornoonecan
compel another to receive a gift or an economic advantage. They are called compulsory only because
thetestatorcannotdisregardthem.
RightofCompletionofLegitim(actionadsupplendamlegitiman)ifsomeheirsaregenuinelyinterested
insecuringthatpartoftheirlatefatherspropertywhichhasbeenreservedforthemintheircapacityas
compulsoryheirs,thentheyshouldexercisethisright.

2. Article887.
Thefollowingarecompulsoryheirs:
(1)Legitimatechildrenanddescendants,withrespecttotheirlegitimateparentsandascendants;
(2) In default of the foregoing, legitimate parents and ascendants, with respect to their legitimate
childrenanddescendants;
(3)Thewidoworwidower;
(4)Acknowledgednaturalchildren,andnaturalchildrenbylegalfiction;
(5)OtherillegitimatechildrenreferredtoinArticle287.

3. Survivorsare:
1legchild&S.S.
4legchildren,S.S.,leg.P&A
legitimategrandparents,illegitamatechildren,andsurvivingspouse.
LegP&A,S.S.
Illegitimatechildren,S.S.
Survivingspouseandillegitimateparents
Anyclasssurvivingalonelegitime

4. Underthefamilycodethelegitimeoftheillegitimatechildrenisofthelegitimeofthelegitimatechild.

5. Assume that x is the decedent has two (2) legitimate children (A & B), Surviving Spouse (W), six (6)
illigitimateChildren(CDEFGH).TheestateisP120k.Whataretheshares?
ApplytheruleinArticle898:
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(1)Givethelegitimesofthelegitimatechildren&ofthesurvivingspouse.
(2)Givethelegitimesoftheillegitimatechildreninproportiontothelegitimeofthelegitimatechildren
IFestateissufficient.
(3)IftheestateisNOTSUFFICIENT,justgivewhateverremainstotheillegitimatechild
Therefore:A=30k&B=30k;W=30k;CDEFGH=30k;thereisnofreeportion
This is so preference is given to satisfy the legitimes of the Legitimate child, while under the
familycodetheyaresupposetogetoftheshareofthelegitimatechild
Inactualpracticetheymustbecontentedwithwhatisleftintheestateofthedeceased.
6. Three(3)legitimatechildren,one(1)adoptedchild,Survivingspouse.Givethelegitime.
Thesurvivingspousewillhavesameshareasthelegitimatechildren.
ThisistherulewhentheSSsurviveswith2ormoreLC

7. TheillegitimateGrandFatherdied,subsequentlyillegitimateFatherdied.IllegitimateSon,S,survive.Canhe
inheritfromtheGF?YES
Article 902. The right of representation is given both to legitimate and illegitimate descendant of
illegitimatechildren.
Anotherexample:AdiedleavinganestateworthP1M.Inhiswill,AgaveX,astranger,P500Kandgave
B (As illegitimate son) his legitime of P500K. But B predeceased A, and leaving C, his illegitimate son.
Howmuch,ifany,canCget?
CinheritsBsshareofP500KinAsestate,byRIGHTOFREPRESENTATION

8. Article903.LegitimeofillegitimateParentsastheOnlycompulsoryheir.
Thewholearticledealswiththeestateofanillegitimatechild.
Theillegitimateparentsareonlysecondarycompulsoryheirsbecausetheyinherittheirlegitimeonlyin
theABSENCEofthelegitimateorillegitimatechildrenordescendantsofthedecedent.

9. Illegitimate parent can inherit from illegitimate child. Illegitimate grandparent cannot inherit from
illegitimatechild.

10. Art.900.Survivingspouseastheonlycompulsoryheir(Paras,page350)
Gen.Rule:Survivingspouse,ifsheistheONLYcompulsoryheir,getsONEHALF.
Exception:Survivingspousegetsonethirdif:
1)themarriagewasinarticulomortis
2)andtheTestatororTestatrixdiedwithinthreemonthsfromtimeofcelebrationofmarriage(applies
onlyifitwasthedeceasedwhowasthepartyindangerofdeathatthetimeofmarriage;ANDifthe
causeofdeathistheSAMEasthesickness,illnessorinjuryexistingatthetimeofthemarriagethe
purposeofthelawistoavoidamarriagepurelyforFINANCIALGAIN)
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Exceptiontoexception:SurvivingspousegetsONEHALFifdespitepresenceofrequirementsunder(2),
the couple had been living previously as H & W (without marriage) for more than five years (Reason:
suspicionoffinancialprofitmotiveismoreorleserasedbecauseofthe5yearperiod)

11. HandWgotmarriedJan1solemnizedatthemanilacathedral.Samedayduringtheirweddingnight,Hdied
duetoheartattack.Hhasnocompulsoryheirs.LegitimeofW?
OnehalfoftheestateofH

12. H and W were married Jan 1. This time the marriage was solemnized in articulo mortis, or married at the
pointofdeath,becauseWwasdying.HtookcareofW.ByFeb14Wwasbackingoodhealth,theyhadsex,
7pm,Hdied,legitimeofW?
OnehalfoftheestateofH

13. Adoption only creates a relation between the adopted and the adopter. Adopted child cannot represent
neithercanheberepresented.