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Wireless Communications
Principles and Practice
2
nd
Edition
T.S. Rappapor
Chapter 3:
The Cellular Concept
System Design Fundamentals
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Adjacent channel interference: interference from adjacent in
frequency
to the desired signal.
Imperfect receiver filters allow nearby frequencies to leak into the
passband
Performance degrade seriously due to near-far effect.

Adjacent channel interference can be minimized through careful
filtering and channel assignment.
Keep the frequency separation between each channel in a given cell as
large as possible
A channel separation greater than six is needed to bring the adjacent
channel interference to an acceptable level.
Adjacent channel interference
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The Cellular Concept

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19-cell reuse example (N=19)
Figure 3.2 Method of locating co-channel cells in a cellular system. In this example, N = 19 (i.e., I = 3,
j = 2). (Adapted from [Oet83] IEEE.)
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Smaller N is greater capacity
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Handoffs the basics
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Umbrella Cells



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Co-channel cells for 7-cell reuse
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Cochannel Interference Ratio

=
=
N1
1 k
k
I
S
I
S
From Fig. 3.5
2 n 5 - Path loss exponent depend upon the terrain environment
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q
) q ( 6
1
R
D
S
I
S
n
n
6
1 k
n
k
= =
|
.
|

\
|
=

=

Worst Case With Omni Directional Antenna


n n n
n
) R D ( 2 D 2 ) R D ( 2
R
I
S

+ + +
=
n n n
) 1 q ( 2 q 2 ) 1 q ( 2
1
I
S

+ + +
=
q = 4.6 for a normal 7-cell cellular Pattern


S/I = 54.3 or 17.3 dB
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Cells are split to add channels
Receive power at the old and new cells:
Pr ~ P
to
R
-n
Pr ~ P
tn(
R/2)
-n
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P
P
1 t
2 t
=
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Cell Splitting increases capacity
Example
R
Original cell radiusR = 1 km
Micro cell radiusR = 0.5 km

Each BS has N
bs
=60 channels

Number of channels
a) Wihout microcels
5x60=300 ch.
b) With lettered microcels
(5+6)x60=660 ch.
b) If orijinal BS replaced by
microcels
(5+12)x60=1020 ch.
3 km
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Sectoring improves S/I
D+R
D
4 4 4 4
4
0.7) (q q
1
0.7R) (D D
R
I
S

+ +
=
+ +
=
4
4
4
0.7) (q
0.7R) (D
R
I
S
+ =
+
=

Three-Sector Case:
Six-Sector Case:
For q=4.6 , S/I = 285 or 24.5 dB For q=4.6 , S/I = 785 or 29dB
Worst case, without sectoring
n n n
1) 2(q 2q 1) 2(q
1
I
S

+ + +
=
For q=4.6, S/I = 54.3 or 17.3 dB
Penalty: ncreasing hand-off; decreasing trunking efficiency.
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Sectoring improves S/I
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In-building deployment is the
next great growth phase
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The Zone Cell Concept

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Zone Cell Concept