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Unit 26

Translating Yiqtol, Con't
Unit Description:
In this unit we will continue with the questions concerning the meaning and the translation of the
Yiqtol form. We will discover how this form performs in different sentences and how Hebrew is
different from English in this point.

New Words in this Unit

15

Total New Words

390

Unit 26
391

= singular * The expression ‫“ ָכּ ַרת ְבּ ִרית‬he cut a covenant” means “he made a covenant. = masculine Hebrew Transliteration Pronunciation English ‫אָחוֹת‬ ‫ָבּ ָמה‬ ’āhôt ’ahot sister (f. lord.” Unit 26 392 . shoulder.s. and f.Vocabulary Category Nouns Proper Nouns Numbers Verbs m. = feminine b.s. husband (m. owner.s.) ’ah’āb ’ahav Ahab ’ēliyyā́hû ’eliyáhu Elijah ’ĕlîšā‘ ’elisha Elisha bá‘al bá’al Baal ‘eśrîm ’esrim twenty šəlōšîm shəloshim thirty bāhar bahar he chose ‫ָח ָלה‬ hālāh halah ‫ָכּ ַרת‬ ‫ָשׂ ַרף‬ kārat karat he cut (off/down)* śārap saraf he burned f.s.) ‫ַבּ ַעל‬ bá‘al bá’al ‫רוֹע‬ ַ ‫ְז‬ zərốa‘ zəróa ‫ַשׁ ָבּת‬ ‫אַחאָב‬ ְ ‫ֵא ִליָּהוּ‬ ‫ישׁע‬ ָ ‫ֱא ִל‬ ‫ַבּ ַעל‬ ‫ֶע ְשׂ ִרים‬ ‫ְשׁל ִֹשׁים‬ ‫ָבּ ַחר‬ šabbāt shabat sabbath (b. strength (f.) arm. = both m.s. he was sick s.) bāmāh bama high place (f.) he was weak.

Slides from the Unit Unit 26 393 .

Unit 26 394 .

Unit 26 395 .

Unit 26 396 .

Unit 26 397 .

Unit 26 398 .

Unit 26 399 .

” Likewise. it speaks of an action that occurs after (or in the future relative to) something else in its context.e.” “should do. especially in direct speech. e. The uses of the Yiqtol verb in biblical Hebrew come under two main categories: 1. In both cases. which verb or event it occurs after). commands meant to be continually followed. when the Yiqtol form appears in the context of a past tense narrative. This is very similar to the habitual present. The point is that the Yiqtol action happens after something else.e. “He reads the newspaper every morning.” “would do.” “might do.Grammatical Remarks In this unit we continue our study of the Yiqtol verb (the “prefix conjugation”) by examining the common ways in which this verb might be translated in various contexts. the only difference between them is that with the past iterative. the translation is more difficult. However. the Yiqtol form (like other Hebrew verbs) does not have an exact parallel tense in English. It is often seen in proverbial phrases such as. 2.” etc. • General Truth. As discussed in Unit 25. We must look at the context to see which verb or event the Yiqtol verb is posterior to (i. Translating Yiqtol As discussed previously.” “was to do. but also at any point in the past or in the future. In part because Hebrew has fewer verb forms than English. Remember also that Hebrew uses a “relative” verbal system in which each verb form takes its meaning from its relationship to other verbs in its context. “A bribe blinds those who see” (Exodus 23:8). and understand the meaning of the verb accordingly. Habitual Present – Habitual present is used for an action that is repeated over a period of time. the Yiqtol verb may be translated in English with the simple present. the single Hebrew verb form Yiqtol covers the uses of several different English forms. with the simple future tense or as a conditional. Posterior Action – The Yiqtol verb expresses what we call a “posterior” relationship. beginning in the past and extending into the future. Different contexts may require this verb to be translated “could do. This includes the language of the law (Unit 25). • Past Iterative – The Yiqtol form may also be used in the context of a past tense narrative for repeated or continued action in the past (English: “he used to do” or “he would do”). Habitual / Repeated Action –Yiqtol is also used for any habitual or repeated action. i.g. this often means that we can translate a Yiqtol verb. a general truth is true not only in the present. Unit 26 400 . the action occurs and is repeated only in the past.

‫י שׁ ע‬ ‫א ל‬ 4. sabbath Down: 1. Across: 2. Using the Unit 26 vocabulary list. 6. disregard the vowel pointing. 3:13) ‫( ָכּל־ ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ָשׂה ֵא ִליָּהוּ‬1 Kgs. 17:17) ‫יאי ַה ַבּ ַעל‬ ֵ ‫( ָכל־נְ ִב‬2 Kgs. Each square will hold one consonant or vowel letter (mater lectionis). thirty 2. 10:19) ‫( ַבּ ָמּקוֹם ֲא ֶשׁר־יִ ְב ַחר יְ הוָה‬Deut. 3:4) ‫וְ ָה ִעיר ָשׂ ְרפוּ ָב ֵאשׁ וְ ָכל־ ֲא ֶשׁר ָבּהּ‬ (Josh. sister 3. 6:24) Unit 26 401 . the son of the woman became sick (1 Kgs. 16:2) ‫( ֲאנִ י ֶא ְכרֹת ִא ְתּ ָך ְבּ ִרית‬2 Sam.Homework 1. arm 7. 3. Ahab 2. 19:1) ‫דוֹלה‬ ָ ‫( ִכּי ִהיא ַה ָבּ ָמה ַה ְגּ‬1 Kgs. 5. 2. ‫אַחר ַה ְדּ ָב ִרים ָה ֵא ֶלּה ָח ָלה ֶבּן־ ָה ִא ָשּׁה‬ ַ after these things. Elisha 5. owner 6. twenty 4. 1. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English. fill in the crossword puzzle below with the correct Hebrew words. 7.

. ‫ַחנוּ‬ ְ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי ֲאנ‬ . . ‫ֶאת־ ִמי ַה ְמּ ָל ִכים‬ . ‫אַתּם‬ ֶ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי‬ . . Write the appropriate form of the Yiqtol verb ‫ יִ ְשׁ ַלח‬for each subject in the sentences below. ‫( ֶאת־ ִמי ֶא ְשׁ ַלח‬Isa. ‫אַתּ‬ ְ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי‬ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי ַה ְמּ ָלכוֹת‬ . ‫ֳמי‬ ִ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי ָנע‬ ‫אַתּנָה‬ ֵ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי‬ Unit 26 402 . then translate. 6:8) “Whom shall I send?” ‫ֶאת־ ִמי יְ הוָה יִ ְשׁ ַלח‬ Whom shall the LORD send? ‫אַתּה‬ ָ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי‬ .3.

2. The Israelites shall not come near the tent of meeting again. 7. 19:6) ‫ ָבּ ֵאשׁ‬. Write the number of the correct translation after each phrase. 1:10) ‫מוֹעד‬ ֵ ‫( וְ לֹא־ ִי ְק ְרבוּ עוֹד ְבּנֵי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ֶאל־א ֶֹהל‬Num. Unit 26 403 . ‫( ָל ָמּה זֶּה ִתּ ְשׁאַל ִל ְשׁ ִמי‬Jdg. 13:18) ‫( וְ לֹא ִי ְשׁ ְמעוּ‬1 Sam. But they would not listen. We will burn your house with fire. 18:22) ‫וּמ ְל ָח ָמה ֶא ְשׁבּוֹר‬ ִ ‫( וְ ֶק ֶשׁת וְ ֶח ֶרב‬Hos. 12:1) ‫( ֶצ ֶדק ֶצ ֶדק ִתּ ְרדֹּף‬Deut. 16:20) 3 ‫( ִכּי־ ִמי ִי ְשׁפֹּט ֶא ְת־ ַע ְמּ ָך ַהזֶּה ַהגָּדוֹל‬2 Chr. 2:20) 1. 2:25) ‫אָדם ִתּ ְשׁ ְפּטוּ‬ ָ ‫( ִכּי לֹא ְל‬2 Chr.. And bow and sword and war I will break.4.. ‫ית ָך ִנ ְשׂרֹף‬ ְ ‫( ֵבּ‬Jdg. 5. Why do you ask for my name? 4. Justice. paying attention to how the Yiqtol form is translated in each context. For you do not judge for man. 3. justice you shall pursue. For who can govern this great people of yours? 8. 6.

disregard the vowel pointing. 3:4) for it was the great high place ‫וְ ָה ִעיר ָשׂ ְרפוּ ָב ֵאשׁ וְ ָכל־ ֲא ֶשׁר ָבּהּ‬ and they burned the city and everything that was in it (Josh. arm 7. 6:24) Unit 26 404 . 16:2) in the place that the LORD will choose ‫( ֲאנִ י ֶא ְכרֹת ִא ְתּ ָך ְבּ ִרית‬2 Sam. 3.Homework Answers 1. 1. 2. ‫ז‬ ‫א ל‬ ‫ח‬ 4. owner 6. thirty 2. Ahab 2. 10:19) all the prophets of Baal ‫( ַבּ ָמּקוֹם ֲא ֶשׁר־יִ ְב ַחר יְ הוָה‬Deut. Each square will hold one consonant or vowel letter (mater lectionis). sister 3. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English. 7. sabbath Down: 1. 19:1) everything that Elijah did ‫דוֹלה‬ ָ ‫( ִכּי ִהיא ַה ָבּ ָמה ַה ְגּ‬1 Kgs. twenty 4. Using the Unit 26 vocabulary list. ‫שׁ בּ ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ Across: 2. 3:13) I will make a covenant with you ‫( ָכּל־ ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ָשׂה ֵא ִליָּהוּ‬1 Kgs. ‫אַחר ַה ְדּ ָב ִרים ָה ֵא ֶלּה ָח ָלה ֶבּן־ ָה ִא ָשּׁה‬ ַ (1 Kgs. fill in the crossword puzzle below with the correct Hebrew words. ‫ח‬ ‫שׁ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב ע ל‬ 5. the son of the woman became sick ‫יאי ַה ַבּ ַעל‬ ֵ ‫( ָכל־נְ ִב‬2 Kgs. Elisha 5. 17:17) after these things. ‫י שׁ ע‬ ‫שׂ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ 6.

p. Write the appropriate form of the Yiqtol verb ‫ יִ ְשׁ ַלח‬for each subject in the sentences below. 13:18) ‫( וְ לֹא ִי ְשׁ ְמעוּ‬1 Sam. 2:25) ‫אָדם ִתּ ְשׁ ְפּטוּ‬ ָ ‫( ִכּי לֹא ְל‬2 Chr. 12:1) ‫( ֶצ ֶדק ֶצ ֶדק ִתּ ְרדֹּף‬Deut.) send? ‫ֶאת־ ִמי ַה ְמּ ָל ִכים יִ ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬ ‫ַחנוּ נִ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ְ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי ֲאנ‬ ‫אַתּ ִתּ ְשׁ ְל ִחי‬ ְ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי‬ Whom shall the kings send? Whom shall we send? Whom shall you (f. ‫ית ָך ִנ ְשׂרֹף‬ ְ ‫( ֵבּ‬Jdg.3.s.s. paying attention to how the Yiqtol form is translated in each context. ‫( ָל ָמּה זֶּה ִתּ ְשׁאַל ִל ְשׁ ִמי‬Jdg. 16:20) 3 1 2 5 4 ‫( ִכּי־ ִמי ִי ְשׁפֹּט ֶא ְת־ ַע ְמּ ָך ַהזֶּה ַהגָּדוֹל‬2 Chr. 18:22) 8 ‫וּמ ְל ָח ָמה ֶא ְשׁבּוֹר‬ ִ ‫( וְ ֶק ֶשׁת וְ ֶח ֶרב‬Hos.) send? ‫ֳמי ִתּ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ִ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי ָנע‬ ‫אַתּנָה ִתּ ְשׁ ַל ְחנָה‬ ֵ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי‬ Whom shall Naomi send? Whom shall you (f. then translate.) send? ‫ֶאת־ ִמי ַה ְמּ ָלכוֹת ִתּ ְשׁ ַל ְחנָה‬ Whom shall the queens send? ‫אַתּם ִתּ ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬ ֶ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי‬ Whom shall you (m. Write the number of the correct translation after each phrase... 1:10) 7 ‫מוֹעד‬ ֵ ‫( וְ לֹא־ ִי ְק ְרבוּ עוֹד ְבּנֵי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ֶאל־א ֶֹהל‬Num. 2:20) 6 Unit 26 405 . 19:6) ‫ ָבּ ֵאשׁ‬. ‫ֶאת־ ִמי יְ הוָה יִ ְשׁ ַלח‬ Whom shall the LORD send? ‫אַתּה ִתּ ְשׁ ַלח‬ ָ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי‬ Whom shall you (m.p.) send? 4.