This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

Memorandum

103882

**Assessment of Closure Coefficients for CompressibleFlow Turbulence Models
**

P. G. Huang, P. Bradshaw, and T. J. Coakley

(NASA-TM-I03882) ASSESSMENT CLOSURE COEFFICIENTS FOR COMPRESSIBLE-FLOW TURBULENCE (NASA) 15 p G3/34 OF MODELS N93-25247

Uncles

0158519

October

1992

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

.

California 94035-1000 . Huang. California P.NASATechnical Memorandum 103882 Assessment of Closure Coefficients for CompressibleFlow Turbulence Models P. Moffett Field. Bradshaw. Stanford University. California T. Eloret Institute. Coakley. Palo Alto. G. California October 1992 tUASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center Moffett Field. Palo Alto. J. Ames Research Center.

.

o index defined in equation (11) index defined in equation (11) production of kinetic energy turbulence Prandtl number heat flux heat flux at the wall for k for e for ¢ a¢ T TW Pk Prt q qw k/e. dimensionless normal turbulence energy dissipation Van Karman constant coordinate D dl d2 k l M Mr m n constant defined in equation (18) constant defined in equation (19) constant defined in equation (20) turbulence kinetic energy index defined in equation (11) free-stream Mach number #t vt vw Van Karman constant for temperature turbulence viscosity kinematic turbulence viscosity kinematic turbulence viscosity at the wall density density at the wall turbulence Prandtl number turbulence turbulence Prandtl number Prandtl number P pw ak o'_ UTl a. _. dimensionless transformed frictional velocity shear stress vertical distance from the wall Ury/vw."_':=_":_.-""'_'_' =-_ _ PRE@EDtNG PhGE BLANK NOT FILMED .NOMENCLATURE R Reo A aw 2cpTw / Prt Reynolds number thickness temperature temperature velocity transformed based on the momentum qtv / 7"w " Bq C C1 cp eel Ce2 c. turbulence time scale wall shear stress generalized turbulence length-scale variable ¢ oJ iii _=:_'-: "fi.. Cl c2 sound speed based on the wall temperature heat transfer parameter wall-law parameter sublayer parameter specific heat turbulence model constant for e turbulence model constant for e turbulence model constant turbulence model constant turbulence model constant (A 2 + R) 1/2 T U at the wall velocity velocity Y y+ E Uc/Ur.

.

for n = 0. models developed for incompressible flows have been extended to compressible flows with little or no modification when mass-weighted dependent variables are used. Models designed to reduce the density-gradient effect to an insignificant level are proposed." the model coefficients must actually be functions of density gradients.PrtU2/(2Cp) (3) (4) = lln y+ + C . The Van Driest transformed velocity.sin-l(A)] and equations (8) (3) and (9) where R = 2cpTw/Prt. Our investigation centers on the "dissipation-transport" equation and its role in predicting the compressible law of the wall. is defined by Uc = foU(p-_)l/2dU Substituting (7) into equation P/Pw = Tw/T (8) yields A+U Uc = Rl/2[sin-l(_) . recommended from a data fit by Bradshaw (1977). It can be seen that the calculated velocity profiles exhibit a steeper gradient than the expected value of 1/n.2 + 95M 2 + 30. Uc. The coefficient C1 is necessary here because. It is shown that to satisfy the compressible "law of the wall.7Bq + 226B 2 (7) Calculations of high-Mach-number turbulent flows have become a major challenge in computational fluid dynamics in recent years. This behavior was also observed in a Reynolds-stressmodel calculation based on a low-Reynolds-number aT/au = -q/[pCp(Vw/p)l/2t_Ty] (2) Assuming r = Vw. The computations were obtained from the Navier-Stokes calculations of a Mach 5 flow over an insulated flat plate. with reference to the extension of these models to compressible flow.PrtUqw/(Cp'rw) U + = Uc/Ur . Two versions of low-Reynolds-number k . Traditionally. the k-w model yields the best performance. or some other equation implying a length scale for the turbulence. 000. C1 = 1 INTRODUC_ON C = 5. is used in "two-equation" eddy-viscosity transport models and in full Reynolds-stress transport models. 1977). OU/Oy = ('rw/p)l/2/_y (1) where Mr = Ur/aw and Bq = qw/(pwcpUrTw). Among the models investigated. It should be noted that the Van Driest compressible law of the wall has been shown to accurately represent experimental boundary-layer velocity profiles covering a wide range of Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers (Fernhoh and Finley. although it is not completely free from errors associated with density terms.41. equations (1) and (2) do not apply in the viscous sublayer region.SUMMARY A critical assessment is made of the closure co- efficients used for turbulence length scale in existing models of the transport equation. (4)). strictly. Figure 1 shows computed velocity profiles at Re 0 = 10. This equation. The magnitude of the errors that result from neglecting this dependence on density varies with the variable used to specify the length scale. where Prt is the turbulent Prandtl number and is equal to _/t¢ T. The quantities Ur and y+ are defined with respect to the physical properties at the wall as Ur ---(7w/pw)1/2 and (5) (6) y+ = yUT/vw The coefficients C l and C are assumed to have the following forms. transformed using equation (9). integration of (1) and (2) yields the temperature and velocity profiles T = C1Tw . A = qw/rw and D = (A 2 + R)I/2. 1980). The Van Driest compressible law of the wall is derived from inner-layer similarity arguments that lead to the "mixing-length" formulas for velocity and temperature (Bradshaw. Also shown is a line representing the compressible law of the wall (eq.e models were used: Chien (1982) and Launder and Sharma (1974).

G. attention is focused on the inner where -fie = r/p = rw/p.r models. Col and c_2. c_z = o'.3 in local equil_rium. 1990) and with a Reynolds-stress model (Viegas. to Dr. The derivation of this relation is similar to that for the incompressible case. a unique relation must exist between _. such as the k . Launder and Shima. where #t is the turbulent viscosity and. Viegas and Mr. are turbulent Prandtl numbers and ¢. I989). c.1. a new variable. J. Marvin and Dr. We are grateful to Mr.versionof the Launder-Reece-Rodi modelCLaunder et al. i Figure 2 shows that at M = 0. t + m c2 =/cE2 + m layer of a constant-pressure boundary layer. Rubesin for their review of the current manttseript.17. In the standard format of a high-Reynolds-number two-equation model.¢ model (Aupoix. The constant c_. Cl and c2 are dimensionless coefficients and are related to the corresponding coefficients of the original e-equation. J. This project is supported by NASA grant NCC 2-610-SI._l = 1.17 to give a better fit to the incompressible law of the wall. respectively. 4) = pnkmel (I1) Equation (11) allows the construction of a variety of length-scale equations by the proper choice of n. and to Mr. both with the k.92. further calculations were performed that were based on the standard high. is defined in relation to the dissipation of the turbulence energy. A constant value of c_l is generally chosen by computer optimization. can be written as 0 (#t and O__(pt Od_) = clppk¢ _ C2t_ _ Ok_ = pPk- (12) (13) for k where o'k and a¢.e model.e model coupled with compresslble-wall-functlon treatments (Viegas and Rubesin. the calculation displays an earlier Hse of the profile in the log-law region. To eliminate the uncertainties associated with the low-Reynoldsnumber parts of the models. To ensure that the plot of U + against In y+ has IThe 1. In equation (13). 1990).0q to satisfy -_"_/k = 0._ = 1 and a_ = The value ofo-. Rubesin for his suggestion of the form of ¢ in equation (I1). respectively.92.8 in order to provide a better fit of the decay law of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The above results clearly indicate that standard turbuIence models do not accurately predict boundary layers at high Mach numbers. m.. 2Experimental evidence has suggested that the correction function for the wake region is nearly the same function of the empirically chosen Reynolds number as at low speeds. model coefficients are 1. c_2 is adjusted to 1. ¢. The velocity profile is governed by (15) (16) o ou (10) _yy (pt-b-ffy) --0 In the standard k . J. and since the defect occurs with both the k-e and the Reynolds-stress models it appears that the trouble lies in the e-equation. and I. Pk is the generation term • /OU_2 = vt(-_y ] Pk = -rgi_ 7 (14) ASSESSMENT OF CLOSURE COEFFICIENTS In this section.3 to 1.o. the transport equations for k and _. private communication). a slope of 1/_ in the logarithmic region. Huang.44.. R. but at M = 5. in the newer two-equation models. J.09. 1985. where convective transport is negligible and the eddy-viscosity hypothesis is formally applied. W. c_ m 0. but with the following density effects taken into account. is defined as 9t = e_pk2/e. is altered from 1. Shang (Wright R & D Center) for their encouragement. c_2 = 1. e. M. 1975. The excessive slope of the velocity profile has also been observed by other investigators. and the other coefficients. is fixed at 0.. for a k . To discuss the problem in a general manner. and k . R. M. First. the predicted profile follows the Coles law of the wall. according to cl = lc.e two-equation model. 2 It should be noted that the displacement of the profiles between the two caIculations is the result of differences in the treatment of the viscous wall region and is not relevant to the present discussion. in this region the usual . Reynolds-number version of the k . W.

As shown in figure 7. private communication) displays only a mild increase of 1/_¢. -1.97 1990) d3/l 2 0. By substituting these assumptions into equation (13) and performing some mathematical manipulations.63 0. Finally.. The magnitude of the densitygradient terms associated with d I to d 3 can be obtained by assuming that equations (3) and (4) are valid in the range y + = 30 to 1000 at the Reynolds number of Table 1. models. Figure 4 shows the calculated density-gradient terms obtained using the k .13 0. and Wilcox. This ratio is shown in figure 5.) # (l/p)O/Oy(vt. as shown in table 1. The temperature profile is given by equation (3). one can obtain " 1/2 the calculation in figure 1. the k . The value can be as high as 1... Table 1 lists the coefficients d 1 to d 3 for different turbulence models.47 d2/l 2 0. The velocities at two boundaries are given. because the assumption in this region is that e = Pk = -W_(OU/Oy). = . This can be accomplished either with small values of dl. also Wilcox and Traci.. Figures 6(a) and 6(b) show the calculated velocity profiles for the k .). is a constant. The boundfor k and ¢ are estimated = (pn-3l/2-rn'r31/2+m/cr_/2)/ (c2.. These profiles agree with the behavior of a shown in figure 5. the density can no longer be factored out of the diffusion terms: O/Oy(lzt.= 6/k) model of Wilcox (1988. because -_--_/k = constant and r = "rw = -pu---_. (y/p)Op/Oy.06 0. 31t appears that c_ is a better under candidate the to adjust than a.w model._y ._ y202p 2 + u3t. the value of c 1 required in the e-equation drops to 50% of its original value at y+ = 1000. the second term on the right-hand side of equation (171 must be negligible compared to unity.¢u)l..w (¢. The density-gradient terms are shown in figure 3 for M = 5 and an insulated wall.J tYOPx2] + u27_y ] ] (17) from k = 1/2 and ¢ (...e k -.68 0..33 0.• model to the expected law-of-thewall profile. and d3 or with small density-gradient terms.• and k .70 One obvious way to predict the correct Van Driest law-of-the-wall profile is to incorporate the densitygradient terms directly into the coefficient C1. to try. one fixed at the free-stream condition and the other calculated (rw/p)/c from the law of the wall (eq.• model. in contrast. (12). These results should be compared with those of figure 3.44. Coefficients terms Model k . Second. respectively. (10).Cl) 1 [dlp-_y yOp = 1 + -_ where dl=n-m-21+312+2ml-2nl+cl_k 3 0". 1976.6 in the k .4 ary conditions ._l + ct __ d 3 = (n-m-31)(n-m-3lL (19) 3 o'¢ 1 2 2)- 2ct_kk (20/ It can be seen that in order to extend the models for incompressible flows to compressible flows without having to adjust the closure coefficients. and (y2 /p21 (Op/Oy)2. _ (18) d2 = n . This is because the coefficients dl to d3 associated with density-gradient terms are all relatively small in the k . in which the profiles were obtained under the assumption that the compressible law of the wall has been satisfied. written in the equation (17) is derived assumption that tr. and (13) have been solved between y+ _ 50 and y+ _ 1000 for a Mach 5 flow over an insulated wall.41) to the calculated _¢. with the free-stream temperature given at 15°C.3 This is done by an iterative procedure and has been found to return the k . D. (4)). The square root of the right-hand side of equation (17) can be viewed as the ratio of the theoretical t¢ (= 0. . the dissipation relation r = U3/gy is replaced by e = (Tw/p)3/E/tcy.w k-w k'_The form POSSIBLE REMEDIES associated with density-gradient 2 a n 0 0 0 0 (r (13) m 0 --2 -1 1 = k/e) will 1 1 2 1 -1 dl/12 2.e model.m . C.o._ because r r-equation of equation (Speziale lead et al.56 2.incompressible assumption of Ok/Oy = 0 is replaced by Opk/Oy = O. Equations (3). It can be seen clearly that the density effects at the Reynolds number of the computation are not negligible and have to be taken into account in order to correctly predict the law-of-the-wall behavior.19 -0.(y2 /p)O2p/Oy2.48 0. This is too drastic a change to be acceptable.18 -0. d2.

Calculations have demonstrated that these models do indeed reduce the density effects to insignificant and k . Wilcox. Huang. 1990. vol.. Turbulent Shear Layers. J.Another feasible remedy is to find a new model that will make d 1. and Traci. Centre D'etudes et de Recherches de Toulouse. and Shima.: Application of the Energy-Dissipation Model of Turbulence to the Calculation of Flow near a Spinning Disk. vol. !982. Letters in Heat and Mass Transfer..25 makes both d 1 and d2 equal to zero.. and Rodi.v _ model. 1974. J. R. R.w model appears to be more attractive than the k-e model at high Mach numbers. D. 27. AIAA Paper 76-351. 33-54. D. 36/5005. no. N. P. 1989. 9. vol.c5/6/k levels: 0. Assuming n = 0and m = -1. at y+ = 1000. Y. Viegas. H. Fluid Mech.: Reassessment of the Scale-Determining A!AA CONCLUSIONS The present study has shown that the extension of incompressible turbulence models to compressible flow requires density corrections to the closure coefficients in order to satisfy the law of the wall (logarithmic law in Van Driest transformed coordinates). at least in boundary-layer flow. 1976..32. REFERENCES Equation for Advanced Turbulence Models. Abid. Reece. E. because the coefficients of the unwanted density-gradient terms are smaller. W. Launder.. pp. vol. vol. G. such as dl and d 2 = 0. 1980. Further investigation of the proposed models in other flows is under way.i990. C. 13!9-1325. Equation (17) provides a way to estimate the error in boundary layer calculations.: A Complete Model of Turbulence. 1985. E. Fluid Mech.: Progress in the Development of a Reynolds-Stress Turbulence Closure. M. B. 1977. 1990. On the other hand. 11. AIAA Paper 90-1481. because Cl (acb/ak) is a known value obtainable from the solution satisfying d l and d 2 equal to zero. W. Spezia!e. vol. Since this is not a meaningful solution. Rapport Final No. the solution l = 5/6 and cl(a¢/ak) = 0. R. AGARD-AG-253. AIAA J. Launder. and Rubesin.. Bradshaw. 131-138.. pp. M. 1988. 1975. P. 537-566. Wilcox.: A Critical Evaluation of Two-Equation Models for Near Wall Turbulence.: Second-Moment Closure for the Near-Wall Sublayer: Development and Application. I.: Modeling Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Flows with Second-Moment Closure. 4 ..: Compressible Ann.15% for k . J.. B. the requirement for d 1 and d 2 to equal zero will lead to a k . C. J. E. Femholz.. B.: Etude de Modeles de Turbulence en Ecoulement Hypersonique. B. 68. Stanford University. AIAA J. B. and Finley.v. 1299-1310. pp. Annual Research Briefs . Jan. 10. C. AIAA Paper 85-0180. E. Center for Turbulence Research. and d3 all zero. 33-38. substituting equation (15) into equations (18) through (20) gives the solution n = m = I = 0. G.. Rev.._ models. J.: On the Use of Wall-Function as Boundary Conditions for TwoDimensional Separated Compressible Flows. P. Aupoix. d 2. no.: Predictions of Channel Boundary-Layer Flows with a Low-Reynolds-Number Turbulence Model. pp. J. H. Unfortunately. A length-scale transport equation can be devised to minimize the density effects and has proved successful. pp. G.. The k . 1.. 1990.: A Critical Commentary on Mean Flow Data for Two-Dimensional Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers. 26. respectively. Chien. These models give rise to an additional constraint on the relation between a k and a4. if one assumes n = 0 and m = -l. Launder. and Sharma.43% and 0. and Anderson. C. it seems best to choose a model that will allow two leading coefficients to equal zero. 20. pp.

./'__ = .01. I ._ // jJ jJ I I I l I IIIJ I I i i I till J t I t i till - 0 1 10 y+ 10 2 10 3 Figure 1.._ 20 -- K = 0.ill / ° I _ 25 Launder and Sharma's Chien's k-E model k-_ model 1" /. i ...Mach = 5./'_ -- .11.S j J / _ 10 5 _.. . ..I- i - ::3 o15 _ - Integrate to the Wall _.../ ._....CS. .. Transformed velocity profiles obtained by low-Reynolds number k- e models.. Insulated 30 .. ...//. I Wall i i i i ../ t... Navier-Stokes ._ j.'. calculations...41 line /oj.

obtained by the high-Reynolds number k .0 0// 0 f- © o / o/ / / + o w o/ 20 m Wall Function 0 o.1 profile profile 15 I I !. Calculated.Insulated wall Re{} .10000 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 [] Calculated._ model with compressible functions./ 0 m Coles composite Mach --5 Coles composite Mach =0. I I I i I I I I I .. Transformed velocity profiles calculations. Mach = 0.1 Mach . Navier-Stokes 6 .5. I 102 y+ Figure wall 2.

6 m (y2/p)a2p/ay2 . _ I 600 y+ .. .2 i 0 m . . I 200 ... (y2/p2)(ap/ay) 2 0.8 I wall (ylp)aplay 0. . . .. T 1000 Figure 3. . Insulated 0. Density related terms calculated from the Van Driest compressible law of the wall. . I . 0 _ . I 400 .M = 5. .4 B 0. . . i I I 800 .

. I .. • .. .. 0 -!..... Insulated wall 1... I 800 ..--_'" 0..... 0.. .. Density related terms obtained by the k . ! 200 1000 y+ Figure 4.. 0 .-. ...M = 5.4 ////_""- . ..... I 600 .. t i . ... 0..0 ' I (y/p)ap/ay 0... I 400 ..E model. ......2 ///'/-'_--......6 (y2/p)a2p/c]y2 (y2/p2)(ap/ay)2 / // /.... ....-._. ...8 .

. 1. j I 200 _ . .i . I 600 ! . I 1000 y+ Figure 5.0 0.8 ' ' ' ' I ' ' ' ' I ' ' ' ' I ' ' ' ' I ' ' ' ' I.8 0 i I . . Insulated wall 1.6 k-E model k-e) model 1.. I 400 .41) to the calculated to. . .M = 5. . 9 . Ratio of the theoretical _ (= 0. . . I 800 .

. .. i ....1 _/_.. 10 ...-t = J l i I J_ I 10 3 y+ .e m'odel.. Mach=0.) I I I _ i t I 102 . / 18 _ 16 " ((../ / ! :3 2O 2_ _ . ' ' _ ' ''1 law of the wall / 24 .././ _ 18 16 - (b) I I I J I I I 102 I . Transformed (b) k .... 26 I I i .1 / / / i ::3 0 / 20 7_/'.w model. _ f l i J i i I 10 3 y+ Figure 6.- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I - 26 law of the wall 24 " - z Mach = 5 / /-- ! 22 + Q . 22 + Mach = 5 Mach = 0...-. velocity profiles obtained from simple eouette flow equations. (a) k .

Mach = 5 and insulated wall ! ' ' I ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' I m 0. .5 ! I . .8 ' profile.c model. I 10 3 - y+ Figure 7.C1 ' 0.6 0. Modified Cl distribution of the k . . . . . 11 .7 0 ¢3 0. . I 10 2 l . . .

AUTHOR(S) of Closure Coefficients Models for Compressible-Flow 505-59-53 P.103882 111. Coakley 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMEIS) AND P. Huang (Eloret Institute. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Unclassified N-SN 7540-01-280-5500 Unclassified Standard Prescribed Form by AN_.0z -o188 including the time for reviewing instructions. Models designed to reduce the density-gradient effect to an insignificant level are proposed. CA). Computational 19.. searching existing data |ources. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. Bradshaw (Stanford II.I 298 (Rev. Among the models investigated. fluid dynamics SECURITY CLASSIFICATI(_N OF ABSTRACT 14 18.. Ames Research (415)604-6156 STATEMENT Center.Unlimited 34 200 words) Subject Category 13. Arlington.. NUMBER OF PAGES Turbulence modeling. Directorate for information Operations _md Reports. University. and T. Headquarters and BudgeL Form Approved oM8No. Technical Memorandum 5. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE 20.REPORT Public reporting burden gathellng and maintaining Co. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ADDRESS(ES) Ames Research Center Moffett Field. J. although it is not completely free from errors associated with density terms. VA 22202-4302. 0C 20503 for this collection of information is estimated to average t hour the data needed." the model coefficients must actually be functions of density gradients. Suite DOCUMENTATION PAGE per response. Washington. CA94035-!000 i 12=.Rldr z39-1e 2-89) .lection of information. REPORT DATE 3. Palo Alto. CA 94035-1000 A-9!212 ig. PRICE CODE A02 17. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED October 4. It is shown that to "law of the wall. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT ilS. AB'STRACT (Maximum A critical assessment is made of the closure coefficients used for turbulence length scale in existing of the transport equation. Compressible flow. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Point of Contact: P. and completing and revlewlng the collection including suggestions for reducing Ibis burden.. Davis Highway. FUNDING NUMBERS Assessment Turbulence 8. . DISTRIBUTION CODE Unclassified -. DISTRIBUT ON/AVAILABILITY 12b. G. the k-to model yields the best performance. to Washington 1204. MS 229-1. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER NASA TM. Huang. with reference to the extension of these models to compressible satisfy the compressible The magnitude of the errors that result from neglecting this dependence models flow. DC 20546-0001 10. end to the Office of Management 1. Palo Alto. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 1992 . 1215 Jefferson Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188). SUBJECT TERMS 15. 14. Sendcomments regarding this burden estimete or any other lmpect of this Services. on density varies with the variable used to specify the length scale. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) ANDADORESS(ES) National Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington. G. CA). Mof_tt Field. of information.

- [Jochen Frohlich] Large Eddy Simulation Turbulente(BookZZ.org)
- Journal of Computational Physics Volume 228 issue 22 2009 [doi 10.1016%2Fj.jcp.2008.12.024] A. VirГ©; B. Knaepen -- On discretization errors and subgrid scale model implementations in large eddy simula
- Ada 252075
- 1466592222_sanet.me
- 1466592222_sanet.me.pdf
- Maxwell3D
- CompleteMaxwell3D_V15
- Lecture 1 TGS2015A New Theory Turbulence CLiu June 2015N
- Softarchive.net Tim33ur0pe18M4y2015
- Ch1
- 31295007589244
- 18804
- [000008]
- 30
- Ada 320740
- 183-200
- IFM_WebAppendixD2011
- Aerodynamics 2 Summary
- Chapter-Fans and Blowers
- AIAA_2014-0243
- Chapter-Fans and Blowers
- AIAA-57287-905
- AIAA-2009-3522
- jsc02
- Jameson Lodato 2014

- 18 Popescu
- Shigenori Seki- Intersecting D4-branes Model of Holographic QCD and Tachyon Condensation
- Dimensional Analysis
- Report of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
- Random Matrix Theory and Financial Correlations
- Optimised Space Vector Switching Sequences for Multilevel Inverters
- Stylianou_ModelingSpeechBasedOnHarmonicPlusNoiseModels_Springer05
- 10.1.1.2.5255
- A Passive Localization Algorithm and Its Accuracy
- ME2353 Finite Elementes Important Question Bank
- 09_1
- ST7201-Finite Element Method
- PREDICTION OF AERODYNAMICSCHARACTERISTICS AND AIRLOADS OF A GENERICGEOMETRY WING
- Analytical MA
- EMTP simul(23)
- v3n4a04_rate Transient Analysis for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Gas Reservoirs Using the Tds Technique
- Lecture 4 DFT
- Final Cobem 2007
- 0006121v2
- 2_Velocity-Adaptation of Spatio-temporal Receptive Fields for Direct Recognition of Activities_ an Experimental Study_2002
- Univariate Time Series Analysis
- Mtechsyl_sampleQR06
- emd2
- M103T1-2-3S2012 (1)
- Unit9 PDEs
- Arun Etal Iros2012
- scilab7
- 0011201v1
- Andreev_1

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd