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Didactica pianistic ntre Occident i Orient Experien pedagogic magrebian Elena igler1

Educaia are ca obiectiv principal realizarea de progrese prin schimbri calitative conduse contient (cuv nt cheie!pedagogie"# Ea are un caracter permanent i presupune trans$ormarea pe termen lung a $iinei umane# %edagogia este indispensabil n transmiterea culturii& artei& $iind legat str ns de realitatea social& indi$erent de orientarea cultural (cuvinte cheie! occident,orient)# Experiena pedagogic occidental ntr!o ar oriental balanseaza ntre $ormativ i in$ormativ& universal i tradiional& complet ndu!se i mpletindu!se n scopul de a deschide pori spre cunoatere# Piano Pedagogy: Western approach in a Oriental culture Pedagogical experience in Maghreb 'he main ob(ective o$ education is to realize progress through )ualitative changes driven b* sel$!a+areness (,e* +ord ! pedagog*"# Education has a permanent e$$ect and it entangles a long!term trans$ormation# %edagog* is necessar* in ever* culture in order to $acilitate and transmit cultural traits and art to $uture generations& being tied strongl* to societal realit* (-e* +ords . +estern& oriental"# /estern pedagogical experience in a countr* o$ oriental bac-ground needs to $ind the balance bet+een $ormative and in$ormative& universal and traditional& and combine all those elements in a +a* that the* complement each other $or attaining the goal o$ opening doors to deeper -no+ledge $or all the parties involved#

University lecturer at Piano Department from Higher Institute of Music Tunis, Tunisia. Mail:

0rt as an integral component o$ culture has a main role $or societ*& because o$ its cognitive and educational $unctions# 1orm o$ the human conscience& art re$lects the realit* through expressive images& capable to generate and communicate speci$ic emotions# 'he artist transmits sub(ective and ob(ective realit* $acts $acilitated b* their sensations& intuition& a$$ectivit* and their intelligence# 0rt is connected to its contemporar* social realit* and the artists2 (ob is to re$lect it# 'he* re$lect their contemporar* societ* through their +or-& using st*listicall* appropriate characteristics o$ their time# 'he goal o$ this paper is to $ocus on the phenomenon o$ the /estern music implications in the artistic gro+th o$ the 'unisian students o$ oriental culture# 3n m* pedagogical activit* as a piano $acult* at the 4uperior 3nstitute o$ 5usic o$ 4ousse and 'unis ('unisia"& the main challenge has been to train students o$ oriental culture +ith limited -no+ledge o$ /estern music about the art o$ piano interpretation& also to comprehend the vast /estern musical repertoire# 'his dichotom* 6/estern!oriental6 in the educational s*stem represented a big trial not onl* $or the pro$essors $or the /esternized culture& but also $or the students o$ oriental bac-ground# 7o+ could one interpret 8ach& 5ozart& and 8eethoven in their $reshmen *ear o$ college +hen the* don9t even -no+ +here the notes belong on the sta$$: ; 5ost students start pla*ing their instrument in their $reshmen *ear or start the program +ith ver* basic -no+ledge o$ music# 3n /estern culture& the artistic education is $ormal& starting $rom a ver* *oung age and building up to superior levels# 'unisian students on the other hand

5ost students start pla*ing their instrument in their $reshmen *ear or start the program +ith

ver* basic -no+ledge o$ music# 2

have a limited time spent in music colleges to accumulate such vast material# 'he result is that artistic education here is more in$ormal# 'hat deprives the students o$ ac)uiring enough -no+ledge and practice in order to become a good musician +ith good pedagogical s-ills# 0 succinct anal*sis o$ the realit* o$ those institutions regarding the oriental instrument interpretation led to a pertinent conclusion about the e$$icienc* o$ the pedagogical methods that are utilized here# 'here$ore& the results sho+ a big laco$< Development o$ the instrumental techni)ue %oor -no+ledge o$ the piano apparatus 1reedom o$ movement o$ all the components o$ the pianistic apparatus =ontrol o$ the musical thin-ing 'he science o$ sound $ormation %roblems o$ control and memorization in interpretation >ac- o$ -no+ledge o$ the compositional st*les %roblems o$ sel$!control in recitals and exams %roblems o$ concentration 5usic is a universal language# 'he musicians should be able to understand and anal*ze the +or-s the* have to pla* be$ore the* are per$orming them& so that the* can enter and transport their audience into a ne+ dimension# 3n the /estern educational s*stem& ac)uiring -no+ledge and the learning process shouldn9t be a problem& but in a strict oriental environment& +ith limited time& a teacher has onl* ?!@ *ears& during college *ears& to implement all those aspects#

3n this temporal space& the teacher has to surpass all or most o$ all the barriers in interpretation& in order $or the student to be prepared enough $or their $inal recital and be at the level re)uired b* the European standards $or instrumental techni)ue and per$ormance# 3n order to create good piano educators& our e$$orts +ere $ocused on the emotional development o$ the musician& establishing a strong connection bet+een the teacher and the student# Onl* b* getting to -no+ the )ualities o$ each student& their intelligence& motivation& +or- ethic& ph*sical and ps*chological strength& the teacher could help the student choose long term appropriate short period o$ time# 1or the students that didn9t choose to ma(or in instrumental per$ormance& the main ob(ectives +ere geared to+ards improving the musical and technical )ualities in the $ollo+ing directions< 1# 3nstrumental interpretation ;# 1orms& anal*sis and /estern musical st*les A# 4cienti$ic research 1# 3nstrumental interpretation /estern instrumental pedagog* helped and improved the )ualit* o$ musical interpretation o$ oriental students in the $ollo+ing areas< 3nstrumental techni)ue< $reedom o$ bod* movementB -no+ledge and control o$ the components o$ the pianistic apparatusB e)ualit* among sounds through controlled movement o$ each $ingerB controlling the speed and the angle o$ attac- o$ each $ingerB 6breathing techni)ue6 $or the pulsation o$ the attac- at the beginning o$ the phraseB the balance bet+een activating the tip o$ each $inger +hile maintaining complete $reedom in the rest o$ the bod*#

strategies and

ultimatel*& helping the student to reach an acceptable interpretative level in such

'eaching the students ho+ to better anal*ze and become independent the musical context b* $ollo+ing the musical text +ith $idelit*B anal*sis o$ musical phrasesB the $orm o$ the entire +or-B decoding the characters& $eelings& the artistic message o$ the composition# 3$ /estern music is based on strict instrumental techni)ue& the +orld o$ the oriental music revolves around the m*sterious character o$ the human being# 3ts melismatic $lo+s seem to have a $ree& uncontrolled character& though touching the deepest chords in our souls# 3t is because o$ this dichotom* 6cold!+arm6 that allo+ed the teachers and the students o$ /estern music in the 'unisian music colleges to attain unexpected high levels o$ instrumental interpretation# 3n order to improve their techni)ue and their score anal*sis s-ills& the teachers approach +as to assist the students become independent& to thin-& build and be creative on their o+n& +ithout being told ho+ or +hat is the correct approach# 1reshman *ear students started +ith = 5a(or scale over t+o octaves& =zern* Etudes op#@CC and 5inuets b* 0na 5agdalena 8ach# 8* their senior *ear& students +ere per$orming scales in thirds& sixths and octaves& in parallel and contrar* motion& Etudes b* =hopin& Dachmanino$$& sonatas b* 5ozart& 8eethoven& preludes and $ugues b* 8ach& romantic and modern pieces +ith a high level o$ di$$icult*# ;# 1orm& anal*sis and st*les o$ /estern music 'o attain a superior level o$ musical intelligence o$ the /estern culture& students also had to stud* music theor*& sol$eggio and melodic and harmonic dictation& harmon*& counterpoint& +orld music histor*& $orms and music anal*sis& compositional st*les# 'he courses that assisted the students the most to $aster understand and develop the per$ormance s-ills +ere compositional st*les and anal*sis o$ /estern music $orms#

'he necessar* components in order to become a success$ul per$ormer are $ound in the score and in the compositional st*le o$ the score# 'he composer can not o$$er the means o$ interpretation# 'here$ore& the students& +ho alread* developed a certain degree o$ musical intelligence based on the course +or- +e provided& are expected to decode the composer9s intentions and to send the true message to their audience b* becoming directl* involved in the musical act o$ the interpretation# 3n order to teach the true meaning o$ the musical +or-s& the intentions o$ the composer& ho+ to decode the musical message and the technical means utilized& the pedagogical s*stem +as geared in A directions< 1# 'he anal*sis o$ the +or- to the smallest detail ;# %roviding the intellectual training to overcome technical and interpretative di$$iculties A# 'he $unction o$ the entire bod* in the pianistic apparatus 'he lac- o$ time +as compensated b* replacing the real movement +ith the imaginar* movement#A 'his route o$ the in$ormation& $rom intention to action is generall* unconsciousl* done# 'he access to+ard the conscious movement is done through the mental stimulation that precedes the execution o$ the movement# Doland 8arthes said< il y a deux musiques : celle que lon coute, celle qui lon joue. Ces deux musiques sont deux arts diffrents, ont chacun possde sa propre histoire, sa sociologie, son esthtique, son rotique un m!me auteur peut !tre mineur si on lcoute, immense si on le joue "m!me mal) #$

Ereat teachers admit that the $astest +a* to overcome a technical di$$icult* and to memorize it

is to visualize it#

Barthes Roland, Musica Pratica , (LArc, fvrier 1970), in Id. ,Lobvie et lobtus. Essais critiques III , Paris

Seuilcoll. Tel Quel, 1982, P. 231. ( 6'here are ; -inds o$ music< the one +e listen to and the one +e9re pla*ing# 'hose t+o are t+o di$$erent art $orms& each one has its o+n histor*& sociolog*& esthetic and erotic characterB the same composer could be uninteresting i$ +e listen to them& or extraordinar* i$ +e pla* them (even i$ +e pla* them

'he lac- o$ a deep understanding o$ the +or-& o$ the musical anal*sis and o$ technical securit* leads to insecurit* in per$ormance# %s*chological insecurit* could become a true obstacle in transmitting the artistic message# 'he score needs to become one +ith the per$ormer# 'he great pianist and composer Dinu >ipatti once said that i$ *ou love the score& the score +ill love *ou bac-#@ 'he clearer the mind& prepared to (udge ever* move and to understand the score alread* memorized& the $aster and more naturall* the per$ormer can $ocus on listening to their instrument& discovering ne+ sonorities& phrasing& creating a uni$ied artistic image# 3t also allo+s the per$ormer to transcend into a di$$erent& dream!li-e dimension& but +ithout losing contact +ith realit* and still maintain control o$ the per$ormance# 5a-ing music means to create an animated architectural edi$ice& +ith a pro$ound internal li$e& $illed +ith sensations& thoughts& and $eelings that impact the +orld around us# 5usic brings li$e& moves& engages the per$ormer& the instrument and the audience# 3t goes be*ond the simple execution o$ the notes and s*mbols notated on the score# 'hat could be a trap that the per$ormer needs to sta* a+a*# 6%hen listening to a great performer, &e admire that their strong means of communication, of 'uilding the architectural structure of the &or(, their personality, stage presence are defined 'y &hat &e could call it only a fight &ith matter.)F

PASCULESCU-FLORIAN , Carmen, Vocatie si destin Dinu Lipatti, editura Muzicala, Bucuresti, 1986

%itis& 0na B 5inei& 3oana& H *eoria comportamentului pianistic I& editura 4$antul Eheorghe!Jechi& 8ucuresti& 1CCK& pag#1AA# +u,ind un mare pianist admiram faptul ca forta lui de comunicare, de a cladi con-ingator arhitectonica piesei, personalitatea, pre,enta sa scenica sunt degre-ate de ceea ce am putea numi .lupta cu materia .

0s stated above& the pro$essors +or-ed to create per$ormers o$ /estern music +ith a high level o$ di$$icult*# 3t +as not eas*& but the greatest support came $rom the traditional culture& and $rom the 'unisian students9 receptivit* and their innate talent# /e noticed that those incredible per$ormances had not been possible in this combination o$ 6/estern! oriental6& t+o cultures that are completel* di$$erent& i$ the* didn9t have similar levels o$ sensitivit*# 'he novelt* o$ this combination stimulated the individual development and opened unbelievable possibilities to+ard a complex understanding o$ the artistic phenomenon# 'his cultural exchange allo+ed 'unisian students to enter the +orld o$ universal music and the /estern pro$essors to gro+ to appreciate the oriental culture& to -no+ it to a deeper level& and to incorporate it in their class +or-& b* using images and speci$ic analogies# 3$ in the beginning stages& those accomplishments seemed unrealistic& the more +e +or-ed together& the bigger the gro+th in the )ualit* o$ the musical interpretation# A# 4cienti$ic Desearch 'oda*9s +orld is geared to+ard science and advanced technolog*# 'oda*& more than ever& +e use scienti$ic research in all areas# Ever* musician needs to be up to date +ith the latest musical research# 'he topics $or the research $or the $inal papers to graduate $rom college or to obtain master degrees +ere in the $ollo+ing areas< 3nstrumental techni)ue ,no+ledge o$ the instrument

'unisian musical pedagog* ! bet+een realit* and perspective 0nal*sis o$ +ell!-no+n and large scale universal +or-s 4cienti$ic research& together +ith the music courses taught& assisted the 'unisian students to ac)uire the /estern per$ormance material at a superior level& improve their technical abilities and to better understand musical st*les and ideas# 'he ideal per$ormance +ould re)uire the artist to -no+ their instrument& in addition to the master* o$ techni)ue and the deep understanding o$ the +orper$ormed# 5odern pedagog* stresses the importance o$ collaboration bet+een the teacher and student& +hile traditional pedagog* is mostl* teacher directed# 'oda*9s education in 'unisian institutes o$ music $ollo+s the modern model& +here relationship bet+een teacher ! student is based on a continuous partnership# 'he t+o musical cultures& /estern and oriental& do not cancel each other& the* complete each other& opening ne+ doors $or $urther -no+ledge& +hich +ill assist 'unisian musicologists +ith their +or- in the artistic +orld# 3n a countr* li-e 'unisia& +hose music has a pro$ound modal character& +est and east meet& ultimatel* leading to+ards the same goal& '7E >OJE 1OD 5L43=#

8ibliograph*< 80D'7E4& Doland /usica 0ratica & (>20rc& $Mvrier 1CKN"& in 3d# & 1o'-ie et lo'tus. 2ssais critiques 333 & %aris 4euilcoll# 'el Ouel& 1CP;# =OL43QE'& Doger& 0dagogie de lapprentissage ,%u$& %aris&1C@C# ELEQ0DD &7ervM& 0hysiologie humaine ,AR edition de %aradel & 1rance&;NN;# 50D'3EQ44EQ&,arl&0dol$& 1enseignement 8reit-op$& >eipzig&1C@?# QEL70L4 & 7einrich& 1art du piano , editura Jan De Jelde& %aris& 1CK1# %3'34& 0na& 53QE3& 3oana& *eoria comportamentului pianistic& editura 4$antul Eheorghe!Jechi& 8ucuresti& 1CCK# %04=L>E4=L!1>OD30Q&=armen& 5uzicala& 8ucuresti 1CPF# 3ocatie si destin 4inu 1ipatti,editura pianistique crateur &editura