WUB

STUDY OF WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS AT BAITUL
AMAN HOUSING SOCIETY, ADABAR, DHAKA

The thesis submitted to the department of civil engineering, World
University of Bangladesh, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for
the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering.

Submitted by:
ABM SAIFUL ISLAM
(Reg. No: WUB 10/06/14/372)

MD. MURAD AHMED
(Reg. No: WUB 10/10/42/1250)

RAJANIKANTO SANYAL
(Reg. No: WUB 10/10/42/1247)

Supervisor
SM TANVIR FAYSAL ALAM CHOWDHOURY

Lecturer

Department of Civil Engineering
World University of Bangladesh

March 06, 2014

Contents
Page No.

Table of Content

I

List of Tables

III

List of Figures

III

List of Plate

III

List of Maps

III

Letter of Transmittal

IV

Declaration

V

Certificate

VI

Acknowledgement

VII

Abstract

VIII

Chapter - 1: Introduction

1

1.1

Background

1

1.2

Objectives of the study

2

1.3

Methodology

2

Chapter – 2: Literature Review

3

2.1

General

3

2.2

History of Water Supply system of Dhaka City

3

2.2.1

Water Supply History in Bangladesh

5

2.2.2

Historical background of Dhaka Water Production
and Supply System

5

2.2.3

Goals and Objectives of Dhaka WASA

8

2.2.4

Development Trend of Water Supply Programs

9

2.2.5

Existing Capacity of Dhaka WASA

10

2.2.6

Water Supply Capacity and Performance

10

2.2.7

Future Plan

12

2.3

Water-waste Portrait of Kolkata City

13

2.4

Rapid evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India

15

2.5

Planning for water supply projects in Kolkata, India

17

2.6

Review of Kolkata Water Profile

18

Chapter - 3: Methodology, Data Collection and Analysis

21

3.1

Introduction

21

3.2

Methodology of the Study

21

3.2.1

Study Area

21

3.2.2

Profile of the Study Area

25

3.3
3.4

3.5

3.6

3.2.2.1

Topographic and Geographic Condition of the Study Area

25

3.2.2.2

Development of Settlement in the Study Area

25

3.2.2.3

Overall Utilities and Amenities of the Study Area

26

Data Collection

28

3.3.1

29

Demographic Situation

Analysis of Water Demand

30

3.4.1

Water Demand of Dhaka City

30

3.4.2

Water Demand of the Study Area

33

3.4.3

Calculation of Water Demand

35

Analysis of Shortcomings

38

3.5.1

Analysis of System loss in DWASA

38

3.5.2

Shortcomings in the Study Area

39

Analysis of Questionnaire Survey Data

41

Chapter - 4: Conclusion and Recommendations

44

5.1

Conclusion

44

5.2

Recommendations

44

Reference

46

List of Tables
Table 2.1: Water Supply System of Dhaka WASA

11

Table 2.2: Development projects taken by Dhaka WASA by
sub-sector and by fiscal year

12

Table 3.1: Various Utilities and Amenities in the study area

27

Table 3.2: Population Trend of the Study Area

29

Table 3.3: Water Demand details of Dhaka city according to the
population in different categories

31

Table 3.4: Water production scenario of DWASA

33

Table 3.5: Water shortfall scenario of DWASA

33

Table 3.6 Water supply demand of the study area

33

Table 3.7: Water Production capacity of Tube Wells in BAHS

34

Table 3.8: Compare Population with available water source

36

Table 3.9: Compare Population with available water source

37

Table 3.10: Year Wise System Loss

38

List of Figures
Figure 3.1: Population Growth of the Study Area

30

Figure 3.2: Coverage area map and production details

31

Figure 3.3: System Loss in Different Financial Year

39

Figure 3.4: Daily water supply demand, production and shortfalls of the study area

39

List of Plate
Plate 3.1:

Baitul Aman Housing Pump House at Road 16

27

Plate 3.2:

The meter that determines the amount of supplied water (m3)

28

Plate 3.3:

Water supply determination meter attached pump

28

List of Maps
Map 2.1:

Catchments areas of Dhaka WASA

07

Map 3.1:

Catchments areas of Dhaka WASA

22

Map 3.2:

Jurisdiction of Dhaka WASA

23

Map 3.3:

Baitul aman Housing Society, Adabar, Dhaka

24

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Date: 06-03-2014
To
SM Tanvir Faysal Alam Chowdhury
Lecturer
Department of Civil Engineering
World University of Bangladesh
House- 3/A, Road-4
Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205.
Subject: Submission of Project Paper.
Dear Sir,
We are pleased to submit here with the project paper on “Study of Water Supply
Systems at Baitul Aman Housing Society, Adabar, Dhaka”. It is great pleasure for
us to work on such an important topic under your guidance. This project work was
done as per instructions and according to the requirements of the World University of
Bangladesh.
We attempted our best to develop the project work and we appreciate for your kind
painstaking effort to quite us. We assure you all kind of assistance in interpreting any
part of the thesis paper whenever necessary.
Sincerely yours,
ABM SAIFUL ISLAM (ID: WUB 10/06/14/372)
MD. MURAD AHMED (ID: WUB 10/10/42/1250)
RAJANI KANTA SANYAL (ID: WUB 10/10/42/1247)

DECLARATION
This thesis contains no material which has been accepted for the award of any other
degree of diploma in any institution and to the best of my knowledge and belief, the
project paper contains no material previously published or written by another person,
except where due reference has been made in the text of the thesis.

ABM Saiful Islam (ID: WUB 10/06/14/372)
Md. Murad Ahmed (ID: WUB 10/10/42/1250)
Rajani Kanta Sanyal (ID: WUB 10/10/42/1247)

Date: March 06, 2014

WUB

Department of Civil Engineering
WORLD UNIVERSITY OF BANGLADEH (WUB)

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that ABM Saiful Islam (ID: WUB 10/06/14/372), Md. Murad Ahmed
(ID: WUB 10/10/42/1250) and Rajani Kanta Sanyal (ID: WUB 10/10/42/1247) of the
thesis entitled “Study of Water Supply Systems at Baitul Aman Housing Society,
Adabar, Dhaka”. This thesis or part thereof has not been the basis for the award of
any degree, diploma or associated with any other similar title.
I am forwarding this thesis to be examined for the degree of Bachelor of Science in
Civil Engineering in the Department of Civil Engineering, World University of
Bangladesh (WUB). The data presented in the thesis are genuine and original. ABM
Saiful Islam, Md. Murad Ahmed and Rajani Kanta Sanyal have fulfilled all the
requirements according to the rules of the University for Submission of a thesis for the
degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering.
Supervisor

SM Tanvir Faysal Alam Chowdhoury
Lecturer
Department of Civil Engineering
World University of Bangladesh

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
All parses are for the Almighty Allah, the most merciful and beneficent, who has
enable us to complete this project and thesis.
We wish to express our profound gratitude and sincere appreciation to our respected
supervisor S.M. Tanvir Faysal Alam Chawdhury, Lecturer of the Departrnent of Civil
Engineering of the World University of Bangladesh, for his continuous guidance,
dynamic supervision, invaluable suggestion and unfailing enthusiasm throughout the
process of completing the project. His noble guidance and advice in every segment for
the preparation of completion of this work carry a most pleasant experience in these
lives of the authors, which imbued with ever ending remembrance of his great
contribution.
We would further like to thank all from the Department of Civil Engineering, World
University of Bangladesh, staffs for their help. We exceptionally express our deepest
gratitude and thanks to Prof. A.F.M. Rauf, Advisor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Prof. (Asso) Engr. Rabindra Ranjan Saha, PEng., Head, Department of Civil
Engineering, and Md. Sekandar Ali, Associate Professor, Department of Civil
Engineering, for their continuous inspiration and suggestion during the project period.
The hospitality we receive from the staff of the World University of Bangladesh
during the project work is also greatly acknowledged. The authors are also very
grateful to Mr. Md. Shahidul Hassan, former Chief Engineer of LGED and Syed
Shahriar Amin for their constant inspiration in conducting this study possible.
Our thanks are also to our friends all around the world. Last but not least, we want to
show our gratitude towards our beloved parents, brothers and sisters for constant
encouragement and support towards our work to me.

The Authors

ABSTRACT

About 29% of the population of Bangladesh lives in the urban areas. The present rapid
urbanization trend (over 3%) indicates that by 2030 total number of urban population will
be 60 million and by 2045. Over 50% urban population is concentrating in 4 big cities
while rest of urban population live in around 500 medium and small towns. Dhaka is the
single one city in Bangladesh accommodating incomparable figure of urban population.
According to the population projection of Dhaka Metropoilitan Development Plan
(DMDP, 1997), the population of Dhaka Mega City will be 15.57 million by the year
2015. City authorities and service provide agencies are under immense pressure to
accommodate growing demands in utilities and other services. For example, water supply
does not meet up growing demands in this city, the shortage of water supply in Dhaka city
in 2011 was around 90 million liter per day1. Water supply problem in some newly
developed areas and some areas of old city is becoming acute because the existing
facilities of Dhaka WASA cannot keep pace with the growing demands for safe
water supply.
The study of water supply system of Baitul Aman Housing Society is an effort identifying
water supply situation, demand and capacity of Dhaka WASA. The trend of population
growth, existing demand and supply, capacity of Dhaka WASA and future plan have been
studied and presented in this study report. This small housing society served under a single
sub-unit Lalmatia Zonal Office of Dhaka WASA have been selected for this study.
The shortage of safe water supply in Baitul Aman Housing Society is increasing day by
day. The present population of the area has been found out by collecting population
statistics from BBS and the Ward Councilors within this area and a population density
map has been produced. The present short fall in water supply facilities has been estimated
on the basis of this population survey. The remedial measures of water supply system at
Baitul Aman Housing Society are also discussed in this study.

Chapter – 1
Introduction
1.1 Background
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organizations, community
endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes. Irrigation is covered
separately. In 2010, about 85% of the global population (6.74 billion people) had access to piped
water supply through house connections or to an improved water source through other means than
house, including standpipes, water kiosks, spring supplies and protected wells. However, about
14% (884 million people) did not have access to an improved water source and had to use
unprotected wells or springs, canals, lakes or rivers for their water needs. Water supply in
Bangladesh is characterized by a number of achievements and challenges. The share of the
population with access to an improved water source was estimated at 98% in 2004.
Whether most of the people are under water resource but the reality is, in urban areas, only
23% dwelling has access piped water inside the dwelling and another 8% has piped water
supply outside the dwellings. The scenario of Dhaka city is nearly similar as the country,
characterized by a number of achievements and challenges.
Water supply problem in some newly developed areas and some areas of old city is
becoming acute because the existing facilities of Dhaka WASA cannot keep pace with the
growing demands for safe water supply. Both quantity of water produced and water
distribution facilities are inadequate to serve the present population of the city. The
scarcity of safe water supply is already being experienced by the city dwellers. The
magnitude of the problem is greater during the extreme dry and hot season. This is due to
the fact that during this period the yield of the tube wells decreases and conversely the
demand for water increases. From Dhaka WASA and other population report it has seen
that in 2011 population of the Dhaka City has already exceeded 15 million and the total
requirement of water is more than 2240 million liter. The present production is about 2180
Million liter. So, there is a big gap of over 60 million liter per day in between the demand
and production in 2011 that is increasing over years. The shortage of water supply is acute
in old town and newly developed areas. This study is an effort to assess the water demand
and supply situation of newly developed area in Dhaka city.
The Housing society named located and served under a single sub-unit under Lalmatia Zonal
Office of Dhaka WASA have been selected for this study. The housing society named Baitul

Aman Housing Society is located at the south-western outskirt of Mohammadpur and
Adabar area. Acronym of the study area, to be used in this report, is BA&PCSHS.
The scarcity of safe water supply is already being experienced by the city dwellers. The
magnitude of the problem is greater during the extreme dry and hot season. This is due to the
fact that during this period the yield of the tubewells decreases and conversely the demand
for water increases. This study attempts examines the demand, production, capacity and plan
of Dhaka WASA for the study area thoroughly and make possible recommendations to
overcome the problems.
1.2 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are as follows:
i)

To evaluate the present water demand in the studied area.

ii)

To estimating the future demand, system loss and to provide the principal facts thus
DWASA can be able to make sure of supply of pure drinking water in the study areas.

iii)

To assess the shortcomings and draw effective recommendations.

1.3

Methodology of the Study

The facts and findings analyzed in this study were obtained from both primary and
secondary data collected from different type of information sources. Most information was
collected from secondary sources. Primary information collected through interview
method. Informants are categorized to cover all sort of stakeholders; consumers or
inhabitants of the study area, technical persons deployed in the sub-unit like; Assistant
Engineer, Sub-Assistant Engineer, Pump Driver, meter reader and personnel from Dhaka
WASA headquarter like; SE and XEN, other technical personnel from LGED and some
other agencies like BWP.

Chapter – 2
Literature Review
2.1 General
Throughout history, people have devised systems to make getting and using water more
convenient. Early Rome had indoor plumbing, meaning a system of aqueducts and pipes
that terminated in homes and at public wells and fountains for people to use. In ancient
Peru, the Nazca people employed a system of interconnected wells and an underground
watercourse known as puquios. In Spain and Spanish America, a community operated
watercourse known as an acequia, combined with a simple sand filtration system, provided
potable water. Beginning in the Roman era a water wheel device known as a noria
supplied water to aqueducts and other water distribution systems in major cities in Europe
and the Middle East.
Tap water is the essential component of "indoor plumbing", which has existed since
antiquity but was available to very few people until the second half of the 19th century,
when it began to propagate in what are now the developed countries. It became common
in many regions during the 20th century, and is now lacking only among the poor,
especially in developing countries. London water supply infrastructure developed over
many centuries from early mediaeval conduits, through major 19th century treatment
works built in response to cholera threats, to modern large scale reservoirs. Water towers
appeared around the late 19th century, as building height rose, and steam, electric and
diesel-powered water pumps became available.
Water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh is characterized by a number of achievements
and challenges. In urban areas, access is broken down as follows: 23% piped inside
dwelling, 8% piped outside dwelling and 68% tubewells. In rural areas the breakdown is:
less than 0.6% piped inside and outside dwelling, 96% tubewells, 1% dug wells and more
than 2% ponds, lakes and rivers. The pressure is mounting most in Dhaka city due to its
highest urbanization growth. A combination of economic, social and political factors
has created a high growth rate in Dhaka and its environs. As a result , the capacity
of the Urban infrastructure has been strained to the limit, with population growth
outpacing the development of the physical and social facilities .
2.2 History of Water Supply system of Dhaka city

Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organizations,
community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
Irrigation is covered separately. In 2010, about 85% of the global population (6.74 billion
people) had access to piped water supply through house connections or to an improved
water source through other means than house, including standpipes, water kiosks, spring
supplies and protected wells. However, about 14% (884 million people) did not have
access to an improved water source and had to use unprotected wells or springs, canals,
lakes or rivers for their water needs11.
Before discussing the history, it is better to review the meaning of water supply related
terms like; plumbing, tap water etc. Plumbing is the system of pipes, drains fittings,
valves, valve assemblies, and devices installed in a building for the distribution of water
for drinking, heating and washing, and the removal of waterborne wastes, and the skilled
trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures in such systems. Tap water is
water supplied to a tap (valve) inside the household or workplace, replacing the manual
carrying of water from sources outside the building. Its uses include drinking, washing,
cooking, and the flushing of toilets. Tap water is the essential component of "indoor
plumbing", which has existed since antiquity but was available to very few people until
the second half of the 19th century, when it began to propagate in what are now the
developed countries. It became common in many regions during the 20th century, and is
now lacking only among the poor, especially in developing countries11.
Throughout history, people have devised systems to make getting and using water more
convenient. Early Rome had indoor plumbing, meaning a system of aqueducts and pipes
that terminated in homes and at public wells and fountains for people to use. In ancient
Peru, the Nazca people employed a system of interconnected wells and an underground
watercourse known as puquios.
In Spain and Spanish America, a community operated watercourse known as an acequia,
combined with a simple sand filtration system, provided potable water.
Beginning in the Roman era a water wheel device known as a noria supplied water to
aqueducts and other water distribution systems in major cities in Europe and the Middle
East.
London water supply infrastructure developed over many centuries from early mediaeval
conduits, through major 19th century treatment works built in response to cholera threats,
to modern large scale reservoirs. Water towers appeared around the late 19th century, as

building height rose, and steam, electric and diesel-powered water pumps became
available. As skyscrapers appeared, they needed rooftop water towers12.
During the beginning of the 21st Century, especially in areas of urban and suburban
population centers, traditional centralized infrastructure have not been able to supply
sufficient quantities of water to keep up with growing demand. Among several options
that have been managed are the extensive use of desalination technology, this is especially
prevalent in coastal areas and in "dry" countries like Australia. Decentralization of water
infrastructure has grown extensively as a viable solution including Rainwater harvesting
and Stormwater harvesting where policies are eventually tending towards a more rational
use and sourcing of water incorporation concepts such as "Fit for Purpose".
2.2.1 Water Supply History in Bangladesh
Water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh is characterized by a number of achievements
and challenges. The share of the population with access to an improved water source was
estimated at 98% in 2004, a very high level for a low-income country. Since arsenic was
discovered in Bangladeshi groundwater in 1993, the share of population with access to
safe drinking water had to be adjusted downward. Without taking into account the
presence of arsenic, 99% of the urban population and 97% of the rural population actually
had access to an improved source of water supply according to the Demographic and
Health Survey of 2004, which is an unusually high level of access for a low-income
country. In urban areas, access is broken down as follows: 23% piped inside dwelling, 8%
piped outside dwelling and 68% tubewells. In rural areas the breakdown is: less than 0,6%
piped inside and outside dwelling, 96% tubewells, 1% dug wells and more than 2% ponds,
lakes and rivers12.

2.2.2 Historical Background of Dhaka Water Production & Supply System
At the Beginning of the 16th century, the Mughals, in fact the first, established Dhaka city.
The expansion of Dhaka city was mainly in and around the river Burigunga. The canals
within the mega city Dhaka & the rivers surround the city are acting as natural drainage
system, water reservoir and the river route. These canals are Begunbari khal,
Segunbagicha khal, kallayanpur khal, Dholai khal etc. The surrounding rivers are the
Buriganga, the Shitolakhya, the Balu, the Turag. & the Dhaleshari.

Since 1953 development of the Dhaka city was guided by The Town Improvement Act,
1953. In 1959, a master plan was developed showing an area 320 Sq. km having 5.75 lakh
people, is called first master plan of the mega city Dhaka. After the independence of
Bangladesh in 1971, migration of people to Dhaka city from urban & rural areas were very
high. At the same time the demand for housing, water, electricity & gas increased
tremendously. In this situation the town improvement plans of 1959 failed to meet the
demand and felt for another master plan. On this background another master plan was
developed in 1996, is called 2nd master plan of Dhaka city. In this plan, the estimated area
was 590 Sq. km and population was estimated 100 lakh. But the current population of
Dhaka City is 150 lakh, which is 50 lakh more than the estimated plan.
Actually, the potable drinking water supply was started in Dhaka City in the year 1874,
and that year Nabab Khaja Abdul Ghani established a water treatment plan in Chadnighat
near the bank of the river Buriganga. After that period the piped water was supplied to city
people in the limited way and also sanitation system. Before discussing the history, it is
better to review the meaning of water supply related terms like; plumbing, tap water etc.
Plumbing is the system of pipes, drains fittings, valves, valve assemblies, and devices
installed in a building for the distribution of water for drinking, heating and washing, and
the removal of waterborne wastes, and the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and
plumbing fixtures in such systems. Tap water is water supplied to a tap (valve) inside the
household or workplace, replacing the manual carrying of water from sources outside the
building. Its uses include drinking, washing, cooking, and the flushing of toilets. Tap
water is the essential component of "indoor plumbing", which has existed since antiquity
Company. The city has a history spanning over three centuries and was the capital of
British India from 1773 to 1911. Over the years, Kolkata, which is the capital of West
Bengal, has grown manifold to become one of the biggest cities in the world. Though
Kolkata has a fairly abundant source of surface water close by, the community water
supply system suffers from problems of poor maintenance, inequitable distribution and
poor quality management. Throughout history, people have devised systems to make
getting and using water more convenient. Early Rome had indoor plumbing, meaning a
system of aqueducts and pipes that terminated in homes and at public wells and fountains
for people to use.

Turag River

Tongi Khal

Balu River

Sitalakhya River

Buriganga River

Dhaleswari River

Map: 2.1 Catchments areas of Dhaka WASA
Ref: Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority, “Annual Development Report” Online edition, 20115

After independence government established DPHE (Department of Public Health
Engineering) for rehabilitation of damaged water, drainage & sanitation system for rural
and urban people.
For providing water supply and sewerage facilities to it’s inhabitants in greater extent and
better quality Dhaka WASA (Water Supply & Sewerage Authority) was established in the
year 1963 as an independent organization, under the East Pakistan ordinance XIX. In
1989, the drainage system of Dhaka city also handed over to DWASA from DPHE. Again
in the year 1990, Water, Drainage & Sanitation service of Narayangonj city handed over
to DWASA.
Based on the tremendous geographical expansion and population growth over the last two
decades, DWASA's activities has been reorganized by Dhaka WASA Act, 1996 and
according to this act, DWASA it is operating as a service oriented commercial
organization. Now, the jurisdiction of Dhaka WASA is more than 360 Sq. km and the
population is about 125 million.
At present the service area of DWASA extended to Mirpur and Uttara in the North and to
Narayanganj in the South. For better operation, maintenance and customer care, the total
service area of DWASA is divided into 11 geographic zones, which includes 10 in Dhaka
City and 1 in Narayanganj. There is an office for each zone and this office carries out the
responsibilities of engineering operation as well as revenue activities. So that respected
consumers can obtain all possible services and counseling from one place.
The major responsibilities and functions of DWASA are5:

construction, operation, improvement and maintenance of the necessary
infrastructures for collecting, treating, preserving and supplying potable water to
the public, industries and commercial concerns,

construction, operation, improvement and maintenance of the necessary
infrastructures for collecting, treating and disposing domestic sewerage and
industrial wastes, and

construction, operation, improvement and maintenance of the necessary
infrastructures for drainage facilities of the City.

At present the service area of DWASA extended to Mirpur and Uttara in the North and to
Narayanganj in the South. For better operation, maintenance and customer care, the total

service area of DWASA is divided into 11 geographic zones, which includes 10 in Dhaka
City and 1 in Narayanganj. There is an office for each zone and this office carries out the
responsibilities of engineering operation as well as revenue activities. So that respected
consumers can obtain all possible services and counseling from one place.

2.2.3 Goals and Objectives of Dhaka WASA
The objective of Dhaka WASA is to improve life standards of city dwellers lives in mega
city Dhaka and Narayanganj by supplying safe and potable water and improving sewerage
and drainage system. At present, major responsibilities of Dhaka WASA are as follows:

Construction, Operation, Development and Maintenance of necessary
infrastructure (Deep Tube well, Water Treatment Plant) for supplying safe water to
residential, industrial and commercial clients.

Construction, development and maintenance of sewage treatment and sewerage
system

Construction, development and maintenance of storm sewer lines to remove water
congestion in the city.

2.2.4

Development Trend of Water Supply Programmes

The long range program is divided into 1980-1990, I990-2000 and 2001-2010. This
subdivision of the program is done for the convenience of the analysis. In fact, the
program is a continuous, on going effort to keep pace with population growth and general
development of the project area over 30 years. Project area of the long range program are
(i) up gradation and expansion of the existing water supply facilities in Dhaka and west
Narayanganj (ii) Development of new water supply systems in the outlying communities
of Narayanganj, Tongi, Joydevpur and Savar.
Phase I Program
The Phase I program is characterized by intensive effort to increase water production
capacity and upgrade the existing system to provide 24-hour pressurized service to all
presently developed areas and those fringe where vigorous development is in evidence.
During this period, the water supply development will proceed concurrently in all areas
except Savar, which has, at that time, no population concentration large enough to justify
public facilities.

Phase I program also includes (i) construction of 150 IMGD water treatment plant at
Demra to treat water from Shitalakhya River for supplying water to Dhaka and West
Narayanganj. Eight elevated steel reservoirs each having a capacity of 1 IMGD and
overflow elevation of 140' (MSL Datum) were constructed in this phase. During Phase I, a
vigorous effort should be exerted to increase WASA's revenue by reducing the number of
unrecorded service connections.
Phase II Program
Phase II is generally characterized by the extension of services to newly developed areas.
All presently existing tube wells have to have phased out by the year 2000, and well
supplies will be derived from new, higher capacity tube wells. Construction of primary
and secondary main will continue during the period.
Phase III rogram
Phase III program is a continuation of the Phase II, expansion into newly developed
areas. Water source development will be confined to ground water extraction. Some of
the tube well drilling effort will comprise replacement of wells drilled in Phase I and
early part of Phase II5.

2.2.5 Existing Capacity of Dhaka WASA
(I) Jurisdiction of Dhaka WASA
Till June, 1989, the jurisdiction of Dhaka WASA was limited only to Dhaka metropolitan
area. Later on, Dhaka WASA had the responsibility for supplying water and operating
sewerage system of Narayanganj city in nearly 1990.
At present, megacity Dhaka and Narayanganj are identified as Dhaka WASA service area.
For easy operation, maintenance and providing better public service, Dhaka WASA
service areas have been divided into 11 geographical zones. Among those, 10 zones are
within Dhaka city and one in Narayanganj city. Technical operation, maintenance and
collection of revenue bills, and other related activities are managed by the zonal offices"
As a result, public harassment has reduced significantly and quality of public service has
been improved.
2.2.6 Water Supply Capacity and Performance
(a) Water Production

During the period 2011-2012, Dhaka WASA produced an average of 2180 million liter of
water per day (MLD) by using 615 Deep Tube wells and 4 Water treatment Plants.
Production of water was increased by construction/replacement of 88 Deep Tube wells
during the year. ln addition, further construction and replacement works of more tube
wells are ongoing4.

(b) Water Supply System
Mostly, water supply system of Dhaka WASA is dependent on ground water. During the
fiscal year 2011-2012, Dhaka WASA produced an average of 2180 MLD. 87 percent of
this water is from underground sources and 13 per cent from surface water. Ground water
is abstracted by using a total ot615 Deep Tube wells, Surface water is supplied by treating
water of the river Shitalakhya and Buriganga through 4 Water Treatment Plants.
Table 2.1: Water Supply System of Dhaka WASA
Item

2007-2008

2008-2009

2009-2010

2010-2011

2011-2012

Deep Tube well

490

519

560

586

622

Water Treatment

4

4

4

4

4

1880 MLD

1990 MLD

2150 MLD

2180 MLD

Plant
Water Production

1760 MLD

/day
Water Line

2600 km

2660km

2600 km

2800 km

3040 km

Water Connection

2,56,477

2,74,368

2,86,911

3,02,132

3,10,314

38

38

38

38

38

Roadside Tap

1643

1643

1727

1727

1727

Connection to

1896

1898

1909

1898

1898

Hydrant (active)

Religious
Institutions
Ref: Annual Development Report, 2011, Online edition, Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority4

(II) Achievement in a nutshell

Existing production is 2180 million water per day against the demand of 2240
million water per day,

50 Kilometer new water pipe line was installed last year. Steps have been taken to
replace 52 kilometer water pipe line in different parts of the capital. The work is
planned to be completed by end of this year.

Timely measures taken by WASA through cleaning the drains and box-culverts
have reduced the water congestion in the capital during rainy season.

Customers are now paying their WASA bills through online and SMS through 3
mobile operators.

(III) Ongoing Projects of Dhaka WASA
In 2012-2013 financial year 9 development projects were included in the annual
development program of Dhaka WASA. Among the projects four were investment
projects on water supply, three on sewerage and two projects on drainage system.
a. Investment projects on water supply

Dhaka Water Supply Sector Development Project.

Expansion and Rehabilitation of Water Supply System at Mohammadpur and
saymoli area.

Emergency Rehabilitation and Expansion of Water Supply system Project-II

2.2.7 Future Plan
Development projects taken up to 2011-12
Table: 2.2 Development projects taken by Dhaka WASA by sub-sector and by fiscal year

ITEM
Water Supply
Sewerage
Drainage
Technical
Total
Assistance

2007-2008

6
2
3
2
13

2008-2009

7
2
3
2
14

2009-2010

5
1
3
2
11

2010-2011

5
3
2
2
12

2011-2012

5
3
2
1
11

Ref: Annual Development Report, 2011, Online edition, Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority5

Proposed Projects of Dhaka WASA

Well Field Construction Project at Tetuljhara-Bhakufia Area of Savar Upazilla
(Part-II) with an estimated cost of 521.00 crore for supplying 15 MLD of water.

Construction of Padma (Jashaldia) Water Treatment Plant with and estimated cost
Tk. 3500 crore for supplying 450 MLD of water.

Construction of Khilkhet Water Treatment Plant with an estimated cost of Tk.5200
crore for supplying 450 MLD of water.

Construction of Saidabad Water Treatment Plant (Phase-111) with an estimated
cost Tk. 4000 crore for supplying 450 MLD of water.

Well Field Construction Project at Dhalla-Jamitra are of Singair Upazila (Part-II)
about with an estimated cost Tk. 600 crore for supplying 15 MLD of water.

Preservation of Regulating Pond Adjacent to Kallyanpur Storm Water Pumping
Station (Phase-II) about with an estimated cost Tk. 800 crore.

Land Acquisition Development of Acquisition portion of Hazaribagh, Basistakeik,
Kurmitola, Manda and Bagunbari Khal with an estimated cost 506 crore.

Development of Kuratoli Khal with an estimated cost 1108 crore.

Construction of the Sewerage System (Sewage Collection Networks, Lift Station,
Transmission Mains) and a Treatment Plant for Mirpur Catchment (Dhaka West)
with an estimated cost 2510 crore.

Construction of the Sewerage System (Sewage Collection Networks, Lift Station,
Transmission Mains) and a Treatment Plant for Uttara Catchment (Dhaka north)
about with an estimated cost 1537 crore.

2.3 Water-waste portrait of Kolkata City3
The paper on the water-waste portrait of Kolkata prepared and published by Centre of
Science and Environment based on a base line survey and other secondary documents.
This paper articulate over all water supply situation of Kolkata city addressing formation

of the city, natural water sources, demand and supply of water, surface and ground waters,
water treatment and distribution, taxation along with portraying the sewage situation.
Kolkata is one of the biggest cities in the world; it is also the fourth largest in India in
terms of population. Over the years, Kolkata has grown sporadically and haphazardly, not
conforming to any master plan. Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) occupied 187 sq.
km area that is only 11% of Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) but this main city forms
the nucleus of KMA. Population of KMC in 2005 is 5.4 million. The KMA spreads over
1750 sq. km and reside more than 15 million people in 2001.
2.3.1 Water Sources and Treatment
The River Hooghly is the primary source of surface water for the city. Kolkata is a city
endowed with substantial water resources. It has another river to its east – the Kulti Gong,
28 km away – where the city can drain its wastewater. It has good groundwater reserves
too. The first potable water supply system in the city began operations as early as 1869,
when a 27-MLD slow sand filter plant was installed at Palta some 30 km away, with a
pumping station at Tallah on the Hooghly. In addition, the city has two more water
treatment plants (WTPs), while another two are coming up. Kolkata has rich reserves of
groundwater, available at a depth as little as 3 metre (m) from the surface. Kolkata’s
groundwater occurs in the confined aquifer system, with a clay layer overtopping the two
distinct water-bearing sediments. The first aquifer lies at a depth of 21-25 m and the
second at 41-46 m. At the time of the survey, all 340 borewells in the city were tapping
water from this second layer, which contained good quality water. These wells yielded, on
an average, 90,000 litre per hour, running for about eight hours daily. Kolkata also has
some 6,000 small diameter tubewells yielding about 9 MLD. Groundwater supply.
2.3.2 Demand and Supply
In Kolkata, two agencies jointly run the water management system: the Kolkata Municipal
Water and Sanitation Agency (KMW&SA) and the Municipal Corporation or KMC. The
KMC is in charge of the Kolkata municipal area, while the KMW&SA covers the rest of
the metropolitan area. Estimations of the city’s water demand at the time of the CSE
survey in 2005-06 varied between agencies but the city authorities maintained that
irrespective of differences, about 1,216 million litre a day (MLD) was being supplied
against the daily total demand of 925 MLD. But 35% supplied water is lost by leakage and
as a result actual supply stands on 790 MLD that creates crisis for city dwellers.

2.3.3 Distribution
KMC is covering about 85 percent of the population by piped supply. The water is
supplied through a distribution network of 5,500 km of underground pipelines, supported
by 13 pumping stations in the four zonal mains. Then there are areas that have no pipelines
at all.
2.3.4 Maintaining the Water Supply
The agency does not charge its customers for the water it supplies, only 10 per cent are
billed for water services. Water for domestic consumption is not charged at all, and there
are no individual water meters. As a result The KMC runs in losses. Kolkata Municipal
Corporation (KMC) started levying a water tax on its consumers, to improve its generation
distribution of water with the assurance that it would not be “heavy on the pocket”.
Known as ‘water service charge’, it was based on the ferrule size provided by the civic
body. In fact Kolkata has low cost of water delivery. It also has poor people, who cannot
afford much more. It must ask the rich and water-using population to pay the actual cost. It
needs to ensure that the systems of the future build on this strength.
All in all, the city has the opportunity to showcase a different water-delivery future
sourcing from surface/ground water. It must insist on recharge of its groundwater systems,
it has enough rain and it must build on the strength of its local tanks and lakes, which
allowed it to recharge every monsoon.

2.4 Rapid evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India7
K. Dutta Roy, B. Thakur, T. S. Konar and S. N. Chakrabarty from Kolkata Metropolitan
Water and Sanitation Authority, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology of Kolkata and
Civil Engineering Dept, Jadavpur University of Kolkata have conducted study on ‘Rapid
evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India’ published in the
International Journal titled ‘Drink. Water Engineering Science Discuss in March, 20117.
Mega cities in developing countries are mostly dependent on external funding for
improving the civic infrastructures like water supply. International and sometimes national
agencies stipulate financial justifications for infrastructure funding. Expansion of drinking
water network with external funding therefore requires explicit economic estimates. A
methodology suitable for local condition has been developed in this study. Relevant field
data were collected for estimating the cost of supply. The artificial neural network

technique has been used for cost estimate. The willingness to pay survey has been used for
estimating the benefits. Cost and benefit have been compared with consideration of time
value of money. The risk and uncertainty have been investigated by Monte Carlo’s
simulation and sensitivity analysis.

2.4.1 Cost Analysis
The southern part of the city of Kolkata is serviced by a 120MGD water treatment plant
called Garden Reach Water Works (GRWW). The treated water from the plant is
transported through dedicated lines to a number of booster pumping stations that in turn
serves the consumers’ waternetworks. In total, 2.3 million residents are served through the
present system.
A part of the water from GRWW is directly fed into the consumers’ network. There are
seven existing booster pumping stations and additional two stations have been planned.
The sizes, service areas and operating costs of the booster pumping stations are estimated
from GRWW records. A study has been conducted for assessing the additional quantities
of water that can be supplied from the existing stations by upgrading the system.
2.4.2 Benefit Analysis
Willingness to pay or contingent valuation is a method of estimating the non market value
of environmental amenities such as the value of safe drinking water. These values are
measured based on the willingness to pay of the consumers for improved environment. In
this case, the benefit of the project is assumed as the monetary value of WTP derived from
the survey. The interesting aspect of the contingent valuation method is that it allows to
estimate total value rather than components of that value. The method is appropriate and
well known for valuation of environmental amenities.
2.4.3 Uncertainty
The CBA guidelines generally specify sensitivity analysis for assessing uncertainty (ADB,
1999; Baffoe-Bonnie, 2006; Canada, 2007; Florio, 2006). The main task of sensitivity
analysis is to identify critical parameter dependence on the solution and to determine
systematically the influence of parameter variation on these solutions (Fellin et al., 2005).

2.4.4 Result and Conclusion
The results in this case indicated that consumers were willing to pay for supply of drinking
water. It has been also found that supply up to 20 km from the treatment plant is
economical after which new plants should be considered. The CBA of a water supply
project has almost become mandatory for budget approval. On the other hand, baseline
data for conducting such analysis are scarce in Kolkata.
The methodology proposed here can be further tempered for ANN in GRWWsupply areas
if additional data become available in future. It is expected that the present R2 value of
0.81 would be further improved after more training of the ANN. The methodology has
helped to reduce considerably the effort for a CBA study. It can be also used as a guide for
fixing tariff structure for water supply. The model is affected by the uncertainty associated
with the long term inflation rate of the economy. Therefore the model needs to be
calibrated after a few years for practical use. The study would help to plan for
economically optimal improvement of water supply. It could be also used for estimating
the water tariff structure for the city.
2.5 Planning for water supply projects in Kolkata, India
H. Guha, B. Thakur, T.S. Konar and P.P. Biswas have conducted study on ‘Planning for
Water Supply Projects in Kolkata, India’ published in the International Journal titled
Engineering, Science and Technology in 20118.
The water supply network consists of trunk pipe lines from the treatment plant to booster
stations. These facilities have been financed by the international agencies in Kolkata. The
urban areas are supplied from Garden Reach Water Works (GRWW) and the peri-urban /
rural areas are served by Dakshin Roypur Water works (DRWW). This article explores the
Cost Benefit Analysis CBA of two water supply services namely GRWW and DRWW
networks. Basic Objective of the study was to find out CBA of different water supply
services. This analysis is important for donors like World Bank, Asian Development Bank
and so forth choosing best options for funding in this sector.
International funding agencies like World Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB) etc
insist for CBA before funding a water supply project. Evolutionary algorithm applications
have only made it possible to draw contours up to a distance of more than 50KM from the
treatment plant. It has also provided further insight about the issues related to long term
water resources planning in Kolkata.
The water supply projects in these areas shall not be approved for soft loans in CBA as
stipulated by the international funding agencies because of negative NPV. The water

supply to these areas shall therefore remain costly in future. The evolutionary algorithms
have allowed noting about these issues before the growth of dense settlements.
2.5.1 Methodology
It has three major steps namely cost estimation, benefit estimation and decision rules.
Since the cost and benefits occur at different time periods the time value of money
principle is introduced in the decision rules . The inputs and formulation for the costs and
benefits are not precise in most of the cases. Risk studies with the help of Monte Carlo’s
simulation are usually prescribed in standardized CBA guidelines for exploring the
variability of results or risk of the analysis. The uncertainty is a situation when the levels
of risks are not known. Sensitivity analysis is often used to investigate the uncertainty in a
CBA. The cost of water supply systems are generally categorized to two types namely
capital cost and operating cost. For CBA, the popular approach is to estimate the cost by
means of an existing cost curve or relationship.
2.5.2 Discussions
The present article explores the CBA of two water supply services namely GRWW and
DRWW networks. The GRWW which is an urban water supply network in the southern
side of Kolkata has enough data available for developing a capacity-cost relationship of
the booster stations. Numbers of WTP studies have been also conducted within the
GRWW network for estimating the benefits. Such cost-benefit data have allowed
performing the CBA and estimating the NPV as detailed elsewhere (Dutta-Roy 2010/1)
for the GRWW network. The traditional optimizing tools like LP did not perform
satisfactorily. The optimization of the options which is a necessary part of a CBA could
not be done with the traditional tools alone. The evolutionary algorithm like GA was
necessary for optimizing the water supply network. It may be noted that direct supply from
GRWW and Pujali was economized considerably after optimization of the GRWW
network. The saved water was redirected to stations like Behala, Akra etc for improving
the objective of the network.
DRWW is for supplying water to the peri-urban areas of the southern boundaries of
Kolkata. The traditional CBA method was found to be inadequate because of
unavailability of capacity cost curves.

2.6 Review of Kolkata Water Profile
Centre for Science and Environment an Indian Research based organization conducted
study and prepared water profile of Kolkata city for the organization Rainwater
Harvesting3. This paper basically review present water staus of Kolkata city, its water
supply status, water resources, historical background of water supply in Kolkata, present

infrastructure and short comings in all related areas. The paper addressed also distribution
system, finance, water charges and taxes, water quality and health risks, drinking water
quality of Kolkata city.
Kolkata was founded in the late 1600s by the British settlers who arrived with the East
India Company. The city has a history spanning over three centuries and was the capital of
British India from 1773 to 1911. Over the years, Kolkata, which is the capital of West
Bengal, has grown manifold to become one of the biggest cities in the world. Though
Kolkata has a fairly abundant source of surface water close by, the community water
supply system suffers from problems of poor maintenance, inequitable distribution and
poor quality management. The civic infrastructure of the metropolitan area is not adequate
to cater to the city’s growing population. Unplanned development for the better part of the
city's three centuries of existence has taken its toll. The shortage of funds and low revenue
generation has also affected development work3.
This paper examined all related water sources, institution, infrastructure, operation &
maintenance and other relevant issues that show how the city worn-out delivery network
results in inequitable distribution whether it has access to plenty of water.
2.6.1 History of water supply in Kolkata
Potable water supply began in Kolkata in 1869 with the installation of a slow sand
filtration unit having a capacity of 6 million gallons per day (mgd) at Palta. The plant’s
capacity was raised, in stages, to 32 mgd by 1911. The city expanded rapidly between
1948 and 1966 and had to cater to a huge influx of people for various reasons, including
the Second World War, the infamous Bengal famine, Independence and partition of
Bengal. Large settlements grew on both side of River Hooghly in the Gangetic delta. The
Kolkata Municipal Authority (KMA) looked after the civic needs of a population of more
than 14.6 million, settled over 178,500 hectares. The first water works at Palta for supply
of 27.28 million litres of filtered water every day to a population of 0.4 million was
constructed in 1870 for a community water supply scheme with a supply of 68 litres per
capita per day3.
2.6.2 Present status
According to B K Maiti, Deputy Chief Engineer, Water Supply Dept, KMC, the demand
as on 2004 is around 334 million gallons per day (MGD) and supply from surface and
groundwater source is about 320 MGD with a gap of 10 MGD3.
2.6.3 Distribution system
The most critical aspect of Kolkata’s community water supply is the state of its
distribution system. The number of zonal mains is inadequate and the greater part of the
network has long outlived its natural life and is in an advanced stage of dilapidation.

Major and minor tank leaks are endemic and bursting of major pipes is frequent. These
factors are the principal causes of not only substantial loss of water in transit but also gross
pollution and deterioration in water quality. Construction of Metro railway and other
public utility services has damaged and aggravated the decaying water distribution system
in the city.
2.6.4 Water charges
According to KMC the production cost for 1000 litre of water is about Rs 3.11 and the
selling cost is Rs 3 for domestic purposes as on 2003. The Kolkata Municipal Corporation
Act, 1980, empowers the corporation to impose fees at such rates as would be determined
by the regulations made in this regard for supply of water to premises for domestic
purposes. The KMC decision to impose water fees on 27.31 per cent of the 152,578
holdings in the city as on 31.08.85 is encouraging. This fee at present is charged on
holdings, whose annual valuation is above Rs 2990, so that the economically weaker
section are exempted from paying the tax.
2.6.5 Groundwater quality (CGWB)
The chemical quality of groundwater in the Kolkata area in the depth range of 60-250
mbgl is depicted through isochloride and isoconductance maps (based on the data for the
April 1999 to understand the nature of chemical characteristics of groundwater. From the
isochloride contour map it is seen that in the extreme northern part (North of Shyambazar
area) chloride concentration in groundwater is above 500 mg/l. Similarly in the western
part of Alipur i.e. in Garden Reach and adjacent area, the chloride concentration in
groundwater is above 500 mg/l. In the area lying between Belgachiaand Park Street,
chloride concentration in groundwater is between 250 and 500 mg/l. In Garia-Jadavpur
sector, chloride concentration in groundwater is within 250 mg/l14.

Chapter 3
Methodology
Data Collection and Analysis
3.1 Introduction
The service area of Dhaka WASA covers more than 360 square km with a population of
about 12.5 million. At present the service area of Dhaka WASA extended to Mirpur and
Uttara in the North and to Narayanganj in the South.
For better operation, maintenance, and customer care, the total service area of Dhaka
WASA is divided into 11 geographic zones, which includes 10 in Dhaka City and 1 in
Narayanganj. There is an office for each zone, and this office carries out the
responsibilities of maintenance, and operation as well as revenue activities. So that the
involved consumers can obtain all possible services and counseling from one place. We
invested specific area of Dhaka city (Baitul Aman Housing Society) and collected data
from this area and we also discuss about the system losses and other problems to collect
data.

3.2 Methodology of the Study
The facts and findings analyzed in this study were obtained from both primary and
secondary data collected from different type of information sources. Most information was
collected from secondary sources. Primary information collected through questionnaire
and interview method. Informants are categorized to cover all sort of stakeholders;
consumers or inhabitants of the study area, technical persons deployed in the sub-unit like;

Assistant Engineer, Sub-Assistant Engineer, Pump Driver, meter reader and personnel fro
Dhaka WASA headquarter like; SE and XEN, other technical personnel from LGED and
some other agencies like BWP. Valuable information regarding present and future
capacities, historical evolution of water supply and relevant information have been
collected from some expert and experience persons.
3.2.1 Study Area
The housing society named Baitul Aman Housing Society (BAHS) is served under a single
sub-unit under Lalmatia Zonal Office of Dhaka WASA has been selected for this study. The
BAHS is located at the south-western outskirt of Mohammadpur and Adabar area. BAHS has
selected as the study area based on some valid reasons; fast population growing area, near
built up and under the program of Dhaka WASA.
The Study area is marked in red line in Dhaka City Map.

Figure 3.1: Study Area located in Gooogle Satellite map at Dhaka City
(Source: Google).

Figure 3.2: Study Area Gooogle Satellite map at Baitul Aman Housing (Source:
Google)
Map 3.1: Study Area located in Gooogle Satellite map at Dhaka City (Source: Google).

Map 3.2: Study Area Gooogle Satellite map at Baitul Aman Housing (Source:
Google)

Wate
r
Pum
p

Wate
r
Pum
p
Map: 3.3: Baitul aman Housing Society, Adabar, Dhaka

3.2.2

Profile of the Study Area

3.2.2.1 Topographical and Geological Condition of the study area
Baitul Aman Housing Society is very small area in respect of discussing contour and
geological situation. To understand its geological condition, it is necessary to know the
geological condition of Dhaka city. Dhaka is the Capital of Bangladesh, located
approximately at the center of the country. It is located near the intersection of latitude 23°
42 ' N and longitude 90° 21 ' E1.
Dhaka is situated on the Burigatiga River about eight miles north of its confluence area is
an alluvial plain of with the Dhaleshwari River. The Dhaka the Ganges and their rivers,
with little undulations, surrounded by-rivers and marshes all around, and is quite low and
flat. The city is located at about 93 miles up from the estuary, but the undeveloped area is
only 10’ to 20' above the sea level, although most of the urbanized areas are more than 20'
above the sea. On the other hand, the water level of Buringanga river, the major water
source of Dhaka, is 2.00’ (O.G m) to 6.00' (1.8 m) during the dry season, but when that
rainy season is in full swing, in August to September, it exceeds 20' (6 m) . The period
when the water level exceeds 16.0 (5 m) feet or about two months, all the areas around the
city area submerged under shallow water in the rainy season9.
Dhaka City is located at the southern end of the plateau called "East Balindo plateau" and
is topographically divided into the low level plateaux in the eastern and southern parts of
the city, the high level plateau in the north, the damp low lands around them. On the
border between the low lands and the plateau, there are precipices with relative height of
10 to 16 feet9.
Geologically, the low level plateau is made of flood plain deposits such as silt, sand and
gravel, and the high level plateau consists of old alluvial deposits (mainly clay) while the
damp low lands comprise mashes and delta deposits.
3.2.2.2 Development of Settlement in the Study Area
The history of Dhaka begins with the existence of urbanised settlements in the area that is
now Dhaka dating from the 7th century CE. The city area was ruled by the Buddhist
kingdom of Kamarupa before passing to the control of the Sena dynasty in the 9th century
CE. Dhaka was successively ruled by the Turkish and Afghan governors descending from
the Delhi Sultanate before the arrival of the Mughals in 1608. The city administered by the
British rule durin1 765 to 1947 and transfers the city as provincial capital of Pakistan after

the end of British rule through dividing the Indian sub-continent as tow independent
country India and Pakistan. Dhaka came in to exist as the capital of Bangladesh at 1971
after liberation war.
During this long history, up to British period, the area of Dhaka city (then Dacca town) as
bounded basically in present old Dhaka; bank of Buriganga, Dholaikhal, sutrapur,
armanitola, Palashi and so forth. At that period, very few old settlements found in Adabar
and Mirpur areas that basically treated as outskirt of then Dhaka town. Mahammadpur
along with Lalmatia and Dhanmondi had developed as the residential areas during this
period. A large areas at western side of Mohammadpur that presently developed as various
housing societies; PC Culture housing society, Mohammadi housing society, Baitul Aman
Housing society, Nabodoy Housing atc. were low and wetland at that period.
Areas of all these housing societies were started to develop as residential purposes since
1950. Development process of BAHS was started with its registration process. Baitul
Aman Housing Society was registered on 18 August 1953. During next two decades the
area was not developed. Development works of land filling and road alignments was
started from 1976. Development of settlement through developing plots and constructing
buildings initiated in these areas after 80s that accelerated in high after 90s6.
Total area of the study area is 106 acres. A total of 1630 plots are there having different
sizes. Baitul Aman Housing Society comprises mostly with plots having 5 and 3 kathas in
size, very few plots having the size of 10 kathas6.
3.2.2.3 Overall Utilities and Amenities of the Study Area
The area is served by various government service agencies like; DESCO, WASA, City
Corporation etc. in delivering respective utilities and amenities necessary for settlement.
Following table describes briefly particular service and respective agency plays their
service providing role in the study area:

Table: 3.1: Various Utilities and Amenities in the study area
Utility Service

Responsible Agency

Electricity

Dhaka Electric Supply Company

Water

Dhaka Water Supply and Sanitation Authority

Sewerage

Dhaka Water Supply and Sanitation Authority

Telephone Communication

Bangladesh Telecommunications Company Ltd.
Private Telephone Operators: GP, Robi, etc.

Gas

Titas Gas

Road development and maintenance

Dhaka City Corporation

Ref: Field Survey 20136

Plate: 3.1 Baitul Aman Housing Pump House at Road 16
3.3

Data Collection

Primary data collected from several categories of people through interview. A checklist
has been followed to conduct the interviews. Most of the data used in this study have
collected from secondary sources like official reports, documents and other study reports
those are mentioned in the reference section. MS Office has been used to complete
necessary calculation and report preparation.
A survey was done in the study area of Dhaka city and data collected through the different
pump on daily basis and finally the record data put into the table as excel data, calculation
is shown in the table below:

Plate 3.2: The meter that determines the amount of supplied water (m3)

Plate 3.3: Water supply determination meter attached pump

3.3.1 Demographic Situation
About 29% of the population of Bangladesh lives in urban areas. The present rapid
urbanization trend (over 3%) indicates that by 2045 about half of the country population
(50%) will be live in urban areas. Over 50% urban population is concentrating in 4 big
cities. Dhaka is the single one city in Bangladesh accommodating incomparable figure of
urban population. According to 2001 census, Dhaka Statistical Metropolitan Area (SMA)
accommodates 10.7 million people, which is 37.45% of total urban population of
Bangladesh (BBS, 2001).
According to the population projection of Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan (DMDP,
1997)4, the population of Dhaka Mega City will be 15.57 million by the year 2015. Direct
implication of this rapid urbanization is growing of informal and tiny housing societies
besides big ones. Good examples of this are Janata Housing, Probal Housing, Rafiq
housing etc. have grown within the pocket of Baitul AMan Housing Society. DWASA sub
unit under Lalmatia zone serve BAHS. This sub unit also supplies water to the small housing
societies name; Janata Housing, Probal Housing, Rafiq housing. For convenience of the
assessment, population of small housing societies is considered as the population of Baitul
Aman Housing Society. Following table shows the demographic trend of the study area.
Table: 3.2 Population Trend of the Study Area

2001

Item
Baitul Aman

HH
11688

Population
55573

2011

2013

Population
HH
14351

Population
61708

HH
15752

Population
80788

Housing Society
Source: Census 2001 & 20111

Population increases in the study area during last decade what observes from the table 4.1.
Population increases from 55573 to 61708 that accounts over 11% during the last decade.
Population increases in Baitul Aman Housing Society.

Baitul Aman Housing Society
90000
80000
70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000

Population

Population

2001

2011

Population

HH

Population

HH

Population

0

HH

10000

Population
2013
2014

Figure: 3.1 Population Growth of the Study Area
Ref: Census 2001 & 20111

3.4

Analysis of Water Demand

3.4.1 Water Demand of Dhaka City
Production of both surface (18%) and groundwater (82%) with conjunctive use and supply
of potable water on a round the clock basis in conforming to the country's acceptable
health standards through about 2,500 Km of distribution mains to the domestic,
commercial and institutional entities within its service area of about 400 sq km and
services provided to the population of about 10 million
Ensure proper operation and maintenance of the total water supply system including 465
DTW, three SWTP one at Saidabad, other at Chandni-ghat and one at Narayanganj. About
60% of the DTW are installed with standby generators and almost 100% DTW are
equipped with chlorination facilities.
In case of any emergency breakdown disrupting the supply due to technical or any other
reasons, organize supply of water to meet the demand of the consumers at a specific rates
by using the tank lorries belonged by DWASA through the respective MODS Zones and
Field maintenance Division of DWASA.

Figure 3.2: Coverage area map and production details
Source: DWASA
The figure presents the daily supplied amount of water in different zones of Dhaka. The
coverage areas under DWASA divided into different zones and the supply of water
counted individually and according to the area demand, water supplying quantity varies
and it is recorded individually and then the final data has been collected
Table 3.3: Water Demand details of Dhaka city according to the population in
different categories
2010

2015

2020

2025

Population in D WAS A area

10,290,000

12,32000 0

14,610,00 0

17,190,000

Served by DWASA (90%)

Q ,270000

1109000 0

13,150,00 0

15,470,000

Slum population (15%)

1 ,540000

1,850,000

2,190,000

2,580,000

Served by DWASA excl slum

7,730000

9,240,000

10,960,00 0

12,890,000

Water Demand

- Residential

1/c/d

140

130

120

110

-Slum
Commercial''!

1/c/d
%

35
12%

40
15%

45
17%

50
20%

ML/d

1,290

1,4 SO

1,680

1,880

%

35%

25%

25%

25%

Ml/d

1,980

1,970

2,240

2,510

ndustrial
Total
Unaccounted

for

water
Total water demand
Source: Dhaka WASA

Poor people, mostly living in the slum areas, are being neglected. They are more deprived
of laving access to potable water. The study reveals that 31.43 percent households in
Dhaka city do not have access to piped connection and they have to rely on NGO or other
sources (standpipe).
Despite little consumption, they have to pay more than middle-income or high- income
group people. The study finds that a poor household (whose total household income is less
than 10000 BDT) has to spend 500 BDT per month for 30 1/p/d while a middle-income or
high-income group family (whose total household income is more than 10000 BDT) has to
pay 400 BDT/month for water supply of 45-50 1/p/d or more. Poor people have to buy
additional water to maintain their daily activities. This extra cost of water hinders to
improve the livelihood status of them.
Despite dominance of uncontaminated groundwater in DWASA water supply system, the
user-end water quality exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) prescribed drinking
water permissible limit due to poor maintenance. The current study found that about 22.86
percent city dwellers could not use the DWASA supply for drinking purpose due to bad
smell and have to rely on bottled or jar water that is of dubious quality. On the other hand,
66 percent of the consumers boil DWASA supplied water for drinking purpose and they
have to boil the water at least for half an hour to make it potable. Among them, at least 50
percent also use water filter to ensure maximum safety.

Table 3.4: Water production scenario of DWASA

Source

Production

MLD

% of

Source wise

No of

Ground

Capacity
1948.3

1831.20

Capacity
93.99

production
87.22

SWTP
560

water
Surface

299.17

256.30

85.67

12.28

4

water
Total

2247.47

2087.5

179.66

99.50

564

Source: DWASA

Table 3.5: Water shortfall scenario of DWASA
Year

Population
(million)

Water demand (mid)

2005

10.06

1999

Shortfall
(mid)
comparison
with present
water supply
499

2010

12.27

2485

985

2015

14.93

3050

1550

2020

18.04

3686

2186

2025

21.63

4419

2919

Source: DWASA

3.4.2 Water Demand of the Study Area
As per Dhaka WASA and DPHE, water consumption standard is 150 liter per person per
day. According to the standard, water consumption demand of BAHS is as follows:
Table: 3.6 Water supply demand of the study area
Per day per person

Water Consumption Demand

demand (Liter)

(Million Liter)

55573

150

8.34

2011

61708

150

9.26

2013

80788

150

12.12

Year

Population

2001

Ref: Field Survey, 20136

As per the standard found from Dhaka WASA and DPHE every person require 150 liter of
water for domestic use. Based on total population and per capita water requirement a total
of 8.34 million liter water was require in 2001 that has increased near another million in
2011 that stands on 9.26 million liter water per day to serve Baitul Aman Housing Society
properly.

Water Production and supply capacity in BAHS
For easy operation, maintenance and providing better public service, Dhaka WASA
service areas have been divided in to 11 zones. Lalmatia zone is one of the 11 zones.
BAHS is located under Lalmatia Zone. A sub-unit under Lalmatia zone administers
operates and maintains the production and supply of water to Baitul Aman Housing
Society11.
(I) Water Production
Dhaka WASA has established 3 deep tube wells / pumps in road no 10, 16 and 07 for
producing and supplying water to BAHS. Depth of the tube wells are ranging from 450
feet to 600 feet. Diameter of the pipes of deep tube wells are 6 inches and 8 inches. All
these three tube wells are submersible in nature and operated manually.
(II) Production capacity of these deep tube wells are as follows:
Table: 3.7: Water Production capacity of Tube Wells in BAHS
Per minute
Tube well
Located at road no. 10
Located at road no. 16
Located at road no. 07
Total

production in
liter
2800
2100
500
3510

Per day production

Per day production in

Time in Hours

(Million Liter)

24
24
24
24

4.032
3.024
0.72
7.776

Ref: Field Survey, 20136

Per day water production in the sub-unit established in BAHS area has the heist capacity
to produce and supply 7.776 million liter water per day. On the other hand per day water
requirement found 9.26 million liter in this area. With using Dhaka WASA’s highest

capacity in this zone, BAHS area suffers water shortage of 1.484 million liter daily in
2011. The shortage increases every year until further initiative taken by the Dhaka WASA.
(III) Water Supply Capacity
All existing water mains have been classified as primary, secondary or tertiary, depending
on their size and function. Primary mains ranging in diameter 8" to 18" bring water from
the source to a maximum of 2000 ft. of any point in the housing area. Most of the houses
should locate within 800 ft. from a primary main. They are generally, but not always
looped to provide circulation. Most mains of 3 inch in diameter and larger that are not
designed as primary mains constitute the secondary system. Tertiary water mains are those
mains which serve only a few houses. The distribution between secondary and tertiary is
not always clear. In general any mains less than 3" in diameter is always classified as
tertiary.
The existing mains of BAHS are 6 and 8 inch in most areas to interconnect tube wells.
Gate valves are located at the street corners and at elevated storage tanks locations where
their use is anticipated to isolate any area experiencing a break in the line. Connection
lines to households are ranging from three fourth (3/4) inches to 3 inches. Exact diameters
of the connection lines are ¾, 1, 1.2, 2 and 3 inches. In some areas the distribution system
consists of locally made A.C. pipe and old locally made mild steel pipe.

4.4.3 Calculation of Water Demand
The degree of freedom calculation presents that from the collected data put into the table
and then solve to find out the degree of freedom , that shows how the supplied available
water the existing people of any area. It is actually the relation between the population and
the water source. Here the collected data table has been shown below with the collected
data from the invested areas:
Using the given theorem of degree of freedom, putting the values from the Data table we
get,

Table 3.8: Compare Population with available water source
No. of Water
Source ,X
7
6
25
17
12
13
26
23
3
11
4
5
23
15
30

Population, Y

X2

Y2

XY

510
10000
120000
2500
5500
130000
100000
12500
15200
12000
2500
5000
25500
20000
1800

49
36
625
289
144
169
676
529
9
121
16
25
529
225
900

260100
100000000
1.44E+10
6250000
30250000
1.69E+10
1E+10
156250000
231040000
144000000
6250000
25000000
650250000
400000000
324000000

3570
60000
3000000
42500
66000
1690000
2600000
287500
45600
132000
10000
25000
586500
300000
540000

12
8
42
1002

500
10000
28000
50000

144
64
1764
1004004

6000
80000
1176000
50100000

Rupnagar
Mirpur-1
Kallyanpur
Korail

200
19
110
94

30000
12000
30000
35000

40000
361
12100
8836

Agargoan
Adabor
Mahammadpur
Sum

6
70
20
1803

8000
10500
12000
705210

36
4900
400
1076951

250000
100000000
784000000
250000000
0
900000000
144000000
900000000
122500000
0
64000000
110250000
144000000
5.0245E+10

Slum Name
Agargoan
Kawran Bazar
Karail
Bosila
Begunbari
Bhasantek
Kallyanpur
Kaderiabad
Diabari
Bhoran
Abdullahpur
Malibagh
Shialbari
Duaripara
Muktijoddha
Abason
Rasel Square
Uttara
Pallabi
Pallabi

6000000
228000
3300000
3290000
48000
735000
240000
74591670

Table 3.9: Compare Population with available water source
Slum Name
Agargoan
Kawran Bazar
Karail
Bosila
Begunbari
Bhasantek

No. of Water
Source ,X
12
24
64
74
30
36

Population, Y

X2

Y2

XY

510
10000
120000
2500
5500
130000

144
576
4096
5476
900
1296

260100
100000000
1440000000
6250000
30250000
1690000000
0
1000000000
0
156250000
231040000
144000000
6250000
25000000
650250000
400000000
324000000

6120
240000
7680000
185000
165000
4680000

250000
100000000
784000000
2500000000
900000000
144000000
900000000
1225000000
64000000
110250000
144000000
5024505010
0

10000
120000
2240000
500000000
15600000
600000
6300000
2625000
112000
126000
168000
98214620

Kallyanpur

34

100000

1156

Kaderiabad
Diabari
Bhoran
Abdullahpur
Malibagh
Shialbari
Duaripara
Muktijoddha
Abason
Rasel Square
Uttara
Pallabi
Pallabi
Rupnagar
Mirpur-1
Kallyanpur
Korail
Agargoan
Adabor
Mahammadpur
Sum

35
50
30
20
15
30
35
45

12500
15200
12000
2500
5000
25500
20000
18000

1225
2500
900
400
225
900
1225
2025

20
12
80
1000
520
50
210
75
14
12
14
2541

500
10000
28000
50000
30000
12000
30000
35000
8000
10500
12000
705210

400
144
6400
1000000
270400
2500
44100
5625
196
144
196
1353149

3400000
437500
760000
360000
50000
75000
765000
700000
810000

3.5

Analysis of Shortcomings

3.5.1 Analysis of System loss in DWASA
System loss comprises of wastage and illegal connection for which the supply cannot
attain the 100 percent. During field survey, it was observed that some landowners maintain
duel connection illegally and sell water to the poorest people at a high rate. They collect
water from the mainline without permission or in contract with the corrupted person of the
supply authority. During the financial year 2002-2003, almost 52 percent system loss was
accounted that indicates very poor management scenario. The situation has been
fluctuating but never come to an admissible limit. Present Government has taken a few
initiatives to lessen system loss in water supply. With this and by the increasing effort of
the DWASA officials, the system loss is gradually decreasing.
Table 3.10: Year Wise System Loss
Financial Year

Percentage (%)

2002-2003

54

2003-2004

49

2004-2005

40

2005-2006

34

2006-2007

35

2007-2008

36

2008-2009

41

2009-2010

36

2010-2011

32

2011-2012

26

2012-2013

23

Figure 3.3: System Loss in Different Financial Year
Source: MIS Finance Report, DWASA

It is an indication that if Government and authority show their willingness to improve
management, the situation becomes well off. In addition, awareness campaign regarding
misuse of water also contributes to the lowering down of the system loss.

3.5.2 Shortcomings in the Study Area
(I) Deficiency in Production Capacity
Analysis shows that per day water production in the sub-unit established in BAHS area
has the highest capacity to produce and supply 7.776 million liter water per day. On the
other hand per day water requirement found 9.26 million liter in this area. Using Dhaka
WASA’s highest capacity in this zone, BAHS area suffers water shortage of 1.484 million
liter daily in 2011. The shortage increases every year until further initiative taken by the
Dhaka WASA.

9.5
9
8.5

2011
8
7.5
7

Per day Water Consumption
Demand (Million Liter)

Per day Water Production
(Million Liter)

Figure: 3.4 Daily water supply demand, production and shortfalls of the study area
Ref: Field Survey, 20136

(II) Deficiency in Equipment and Workforce
The sub-unit under Lalmatia zone of Dhaka WASA operated in the study area comprised
of following technical officer and staffs:
01.

Executive Engineer (XEN)

: 01 person

02.

Assistant Engineer (AE)

: 01 person

03.

Sub Assistant Engineer (SAE)

: 01 person

04.

Inspector

: 03 person

05.

Pump Operator

: 08 person

XEN, AE and SAE are actually serve several sub-units like; BAHS, Adabar,
Mohammadpur etc. Workforce of this sub-unit found not fulfilled properly. As all three
pumps operates 24 hours basis, as a result shifting duty is require for pump operation and
maintenance. In this view, workforce for the post of Sub-Assistant Engineer and Pump
Operator found shortage in this sub-unit.
(III) Elevated Storage
At presents there are no elevated storage tanks throughout the BAHS area. In many areas
the water pressure is too low to fill the tank, even during the low demand periods thus for
the most part they are inoperable. The tanks which cannot be filled at low demand periods
are sometimes filled by direct stand pipe from the well or by diverting water to them by
closing valves in distribution system. Some of existing lines in the study area have been
down under 12 to 14 feet from surface that has created huge maintenance problem.
(IV) Maintenance
In the study area, like some other areas, some of distribution system consists of locally
made A.C. pipe and old locally made mild steel pipe. The maintenance of Lalmatia
division of DWASA finds much of their repair work is on these lines in the study area.
The difficulty in repairing of these old pipes is that the old pipe materials are not available
and the new pipe materials do not match the old pipe. Each repair therefore requires
custom pipe fittings. Since frequent repair is required, they are costly and time consuming.
In other areas mainly in Mohammadpur rehabilitation areas of the distribution system,
there are old, small 1 and 1/2" dia. G.I. pipes which are laid between the two building
rows used as a tertiary distribution system. These lines are under sized and old. Many

leaks are occurring in these lines. However, the study area, as newly developed is free
from such problem.
WASA’s Future Development Program for BAHS
Following development programs are executing from Dhaka WASA to increase the subunit’s production and other capacity minimizing existing loopholes and meeting future
requirements6:
1.

District Metering Area (DMA) system development is going on that financed by
ADB

2.

Incensement of diameter of the pipes of service and connector lines

3.

Increase maintenance workforce

3.6

Analysis of Questionnaire Survey Data
Based on 100 families by surveying at different location in the study area.

For this study a questionnaire survey was conducted in Mohammadpur area for a over 100
families. From that survey, data analyzed in MS Excel.
What time during a day usually water supply is interrupted?

Time of interruption
Morning
Noon
Afternoon
Evening
Night
Total

Percentage (%)
34
35
10
13
2
100

40
35
30
25

Usually

20

demand of water is

15

to

noon

10

very high compared

5

other time so very

0

to

at

Morning

Noon

Afternoon

Evening

Night

often DWASA fails
supply of water.

Do you find any smell or taste problem in supply water?
Comments
Yes
No

Percentage (%)
44
56

Do You find any smell or taste problem in
supply water ?

Yes

44%
56%

No

Some areas pipe lines are old and lickage so this line carry disturb water which is full in
smell or odor. Some areas pipe lines are clean and new so there is no disturb in the supply
water.
Do you drink this water directly?
Comments
Yes
No

Percentage (%)
24
76

Do you drink this directly?
24%

Yes

76%

No

Do you think some of water is wastage by your family?
Comments
Yes
No

Percentage (%)
68
32

Do you think some water is waste by your
family
32%
Yes

68%

No

BAHS areas family
thinks that supply of
DWAS A water
aesthetically
safe
because in this areas
pipe line is clear and
new. Some pipe line
are old and have
lockage so this area’s
water not safe for
drinking.

Have you suffered from water born diseases in last six (6) months?
Comments
Yes
No

Percentage (%)
68
32

Have you suffered from water born diseas in
last six(6) month?

47%

53%

Yes
No

born disease.

Direct drink the
DWASA supply
water causes water
born disease.
Because some
people drink water
directly so they
suffered disease.
And maximum
family drink this
water after boiling
or filtering so they
safe from water

Chapter – 4
Conclusion and Recommendation
4.1 Conclusion
Dhaka city is one of the dense populated city in the world. Like other mega city in South
Asia, Dhaka also faces crisis in meeting basic services in its habitants especially water
supply, drainage, sewerage and traffic services. Crisis, what we feel in our daily life is
measurable, correctable and be removable if proper measures will be taken with proper
governance. This research is a small effort to justify the statement and found
correct. Dhaka WASA has taken initiatives through implementing various projects for
improving its production and supply system of water in Dhaka city. As assumed in the
earlier from experience that water supply problem in some newly developed areas and some
areas of old city is becoming acute because the existing facilities of Dhaka WASA
cannot keep pace with the growing demands. Having initiated many development
projects, Dhaka WASA is still behind from the target. Aware and motivated people
can save huge amount of water collectively. It is expected that Dhaka WASA should
address above concerns immediately.

The analysis and discussions placed in the previous chapters summarizes following
observations as using Dhaka WASA’s highest capacity in this sub-zone, BAHS area
suffers water shortage of 1.484 million liter daily in 2011. The shortage increases every
year until further initiative taken by the Dhaka WASA. Workforce for the post of SubAssistant Engineer and Pump Operator found shortage in this sub-unit. Some of existing
lines in the study area have been down under 12 to 14 feet from surface that has created
huge maintenance problem. The maintenance of the study area founds difficult. The
difficulty in repairing of old pipes in the study area is that the old pipe materials are not
available and the new pipe materials do not match the old pipe.

4.2 Recommendation
Our Earth seems to be unique among the other known celestial bodies. It has water, which
covers three-fourths of its surface and constitutes 60-70 wt % of the living world. Access
to safe water is critical to economy as well as ecosystem. Scarcity of safe water can
directly affect the long-term prospects for sustainable development. Without an adequate
water supply, living organisms may die; industrial production may close down, crop yields
may decline so and so forth. The present study also indicates us some crucial issues; water
crisis, demand supply mismatch and other issues. Major source of water for Dhaka city is
ground water. Ground water level is decreasing fast due to extract in a very high rate.
During dray season ground water level going down as lower as it creates critical problem
supplying water and finally people of Dhaka city suffer. In the coming years the crisis
will be in critical situation. For ensuring water to its habitants round the year and save
ground water, Dhaka should move to use surface water in a greater extent and quantity.
Overall water supply situation of Dhaka WASA and particular situation of Baitul Aman
Housing Society explore some existing and future crisis that need to be address
immediately. This study has articulated following recommendations for concern
authorities as crisis can be minimized in both short and long duration for the study area:
i.

Heavy duty pump should be established in Baitul Aman Housing Society,

ii.

Pipe line should be replace under at least 4 to 5 feet from the surface for ensuring
its safety,

iii.

Regular maintenance of pipe line should be ensured.

iv.

Standby motor should be reserved for this sub-zone.

REFERENCES

1.

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Community Series 2011

2.

Centre of Science and Environment, “Kolkata – The City Water-Waste
Portrait, City Water Excreta Survey, 2005-06”, New Delhi, 2011.
Centre for Science and Environment, “Water Profile of Kolkata City”,
Rainwatewr Harvesting, 2010; web:
www.rainwaterharvesting.org/downloads/edKOLKATA.doc.
Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority, “Annual Development
Report” Online edition, 2011.
Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority, "Management Information
Report", Planning, Evaluation and Monitoring Cell, Feb. 1999.
Field Survey 2013.
K. Dutta Roy, B. Thakur, T. S. Konar and S. N. Chakrabarty, ‘Rapid
evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India’, Drink,
Water Engineering and Science, March, 2010

3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

H. Guha, B. Thakur, T.S. Konar and P.P. Biswas, ‘Planning for Water
Supply Projects in Kolkata, India’, Engineering, Science and Technology,
India, 2011

9.

Rajdhani

Unnayan

Katripakhy

(RAJUK),

“Dhaka

Metropoilitan

Development Plan (DMDP), Dhaka, 1997.
10.

RMP International Ltd. and James H. Montgomery, Consulting Engineers
Inc. “Dhaka Metropolitan Area Water Supply and Wastewater Systems
Long Term Development Plan and Feasibility Study, 6 March 1981.

11.

UNICEF, “Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-water”, 2010 Update,
WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation,
UNICEF.

12.

Wikipedia free encyclopedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_water_supply_and_sanitation

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