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75

PRODUCT, PROCESS, AND SCHEDTIIEDESIGN

an assembly chart, ao operations p1'ocess chart, and a precedence diagram for this recipe so that someone could fbl1ow the recipe without additional instl'uctions. 2.11 Take the parts 1ist, bill ol materials, route sheet, assembly chart, operations process chart, ancl prececlence diagrarn from Problem 2.10 and give it to another individual unfarniliar $,ith the recipe. Have this inclividual decompose these charts into a written form of the recipe. Examine how close this derivecl recipe is to the original.
SECTION 2.4

2.1.2 A computer recycler sel1s computer enclosures to a computer remanufacturer. To meet monthly expected demand. the remanufactLuer needs 2,000 enclosures. The lecycler utilizes a four-step clisassembly process $.ith scrap rates given as follows: ch- 0.08, cl2: 0.05, r$: 0.05, and d,,:0.03. Hou.'many compLlters mLlst the reclcler receive each month in order to meet the remanufacturer's demand? 2.13 Consider a simple three-step rlanr-rflacturing process as illustratecl in the given figure. Assuraing that den-rand is 1,000 units, what is the required input to meet demanci? You'1l note that the required input is the same if the scrap rates are reversed fot' processes 1 and 3. Assune that the scrap cost is $5 at process 1. S10 at process 2, and lai sclap cost fbr the given system and the system q,here the scrap rates are reversed. Which system would be preferred?
$15 at process 3. The defectlve rates are 3o/0,50/0, and 7ol0, respectively. Compute the to-

U2-

J/a

u?-//a

2.14 Considel Problem

2.13 q,'here, in this case, each process is capable of reu'ork. Given the infolmation in the follor.ing table, what is the input required to satisty a demand of 1,000 units?
Process
1

I)efect Rate
3o/o 5o/o 7o/o

Rerv'ork Rate
60o/o
7 5o/o

2 3

[300/o

Si-rppose that scrap costs a1'e negligible, and re1l'ork costs are S2, $3, and $4, respectivelv. Calcr:late the rev,.ork cost for producing the 1,000 units. r&hal happens to the rework cost if the scrap rates on processes 1 and 3 are reversecli Does this resuil aglee with that of Problem 2.13? 2.L5 Part X reqr-rires machining on a miliing machine (operations A and B are required). Fincl the number of machines required to prochrce J000 parts per week. Assume the company will be operating five clays pel w-eek. 18 hours per dav. The follon'ing infbr-

mation is knoq,-n:
Operaticln Standard Time 3 min 5 rnin

A
Ft

Efficiency 95a 9ia

Reliability
9)o/o
90o/o

Defect Rate
2o/o 5o/a

Note: The milling machine requires tool changes and preventive maintenance after
er..ery

lot of 500 parts. These changes reqr:ire 30 minutes.

/()
Pt:fil O]1e DEF]NING REQLIREMENTS

2.16 Given the figure belorr,, operntiolr 4 represents a ren ork operation ()n parts that fail inspection upon completion of operation 2.
5000 Units

pel year. Se. --: '2.2A Pt"rt A is pr', :_-. u,ith thlee -- . -

Part X rou:::--: year. Parr 1': -

chinelh:1.".,

semblv pr'(,-:.
machine -< r,:-,: Part A anci ---,:

dt:

bacll clxv suming Ihr.: ::--_ a1"e the rec-_-::L

27"

completecl

::

How- rlany units lttlrst the process start v!,ith 5000 nnits?

in order to meet the

reqr-iirecl output of

2.21 Suppose rL.,. .:


are ts,'() \\':.r.

2.17 Given the infirrmation in lrrr>blen-r 2.16 and the infonnation in the talrle belorl',

hovr' many machines are neecled to perltrrm each operation (rouncl r-rp to nearest integer)? Assurne operati()ns 1, 2. ancl 3 run tor 16 hours per ciay, five days per neek. Macl-rine 4 is available for eigl-rt hours per c1av, five clays per v''eek.

5%0. V"hat r.' -. icance clin .'-,-

2.22

the contin,.,. *C<nsirler P: ' .]tas a star-ic..:,-

Operation

Stanclarcl

1 2 3 4

Tinre Elliciency 1009'0 min 3 2 min 95ari 702a/a 5 mln 10 rnin 90on

..

Reliability giak
904/o 90o/o

the numbc:- ,. the scrap :)-:-::-. to be inrl-: -, ..

2.23 During oit. =_:'

9iVo

eration. Tj.-r :.--aIoIs ale Lirli:._- :

Assr,uning that macl'rines 7-3 are parl ()f a declicatecl m:inufacturing ceil. that operation 4 is perfbrn'red bv a generai-purpose machine that is usecl specifically fi>r reu,'ork, zLnd that macl-iines neecled for operation 4 are located s<;mewhere else in the facility. Recomrnend an alternative strateglr lor perftrrming operation .4 (ren'ork), cliscussing specif-ica11v the issues related to -Yor,r1' stratela)' (use numerical results if appiicable).

Ofl lVefllgc. t.: each ol lirc :: - -

shift, dere:::

:-.=

2.24 Suppose i:l:-. .c()mponen:


steps, blal:i,::: spectiveh-. a :

2.18 A palt reqirires three processing

steps on t$'o r-nacirines in the seqr-rence A-B-A. The cle-

- :'
:
:--:

mand for this pa|t is 10,000 r-rnits per 1.ear. The company opelates six clays per u,-er:k, eight hours per c1ay. Given the following performance c1ata, fincl the number of each machine needed to meet the clemand.

semblv,

iinc

componen:,-. -r.lor ancl is i'-.-- . nen[ is req'..::=--

operation }lachine A 1 R 2 A 3
2.19 Given the fg1lowing.
dilce parls X and Y?

Stanclalcl

'rin're EfTiciencl' Reliabilitl' 1089i0 9Ba/,: i n-rin 95a/a %% 3 rr.rin min 9)oi: 90a/o 3

Defects
39'o 5o/o 1a/a

'l'he ciema::..

A, ancl hor. ::--,:

5000 lrnits, : =.:,.

rr,-hat are rhe machine

fiactions for machines A. B, ancl C to proNlachine

2.25

Pafi A is pir. - -. - = ancl B are i.::::l Given the Sur -.- " .

r\Iachine A
Part X standarci time Part Y stanciard time Palt X clefect estimate Part Y defert esLimate
Histc>rical efficiency

0.11 hr 0.10 hr
14,/a

R 0.25 hr' 0.10 hr

\,{acl'rine C 0.1 hr 0.15 hr


3a/o

determinerr-:_-.

2.26 Consider lttr

:---,..

5q'o

8i9/o
95oio

Relizibilit.v lactor Equipn.rent ar.ailabilit-v

1600 hr:/yr

la/c 1a.,0 90a/,t )}a/a 16oo hr,ir.r

3a

the top cor';: The top C0-,;- .cover, of r. -': - ' molded (-i:: .,:,,:
togethel \\'l--- ,, b1y is testec.
..:"

95ak

BiY6

1600 hrr'yr

and trtp

c()i-: --

77

2
part

PRODUCT, PROCESS, AND SCHEDULE DES]GN

x routing is machine A. then B, and then c; 100,000 pafis are to be prodr-rced per year. Part Y routing is machine B, then A, ancl then c; 200,000 pafts are to be produced per year. setup times for pafis X ancl Y afe 20 minllles and 40 minutes, respectively.
2.2O ParlA ls producecl on machine 1 and tiren machine 2. One unit of Part A is assembled 4. Marn,irh threl units of Part ll, which is produced on machine 3, in assembl]'station The as10%. of factor scrap a 2has machine chine t has a scrap factor of 2oa/0, and on produced is c, Paft pafl, Anothet 15%. of factor a scrap sembly process has of comprison subassembly the c and Part 250/0. ol scrap 1.ras a and machine 5

"rtirrut" part A ancl part B are assemblecl at assembl-v station 6 into the completed product. AsEach day, 15,000 units of the completed pioduct ale required to meet demand what each, of factors 3oo/o have scrap 6 station assembly suming ihat machine 3 and for the are the requirements for Parts A, B, and C in orcler to meet the daily demand

cornpleted product? 2.21 Suppose that in Problem 2.2O,each process n'as able to reduce its scrap estimate by w'hat signiflyo. what would t1-re percent change in the requirement for each input be? (Hit'tt: There process? making icance can this have on the process clesigner's decision from or pelspective estimation the fiom either problem, are ts,.o ways of bokil-rg at this perspective') improvement the continuous 2.22 Consider Problems 2.20 and 2.21. Assume for operation 4 that the assembly oPelation has a standard time of four minutes, reliabilitv of 950/0, and efficiency of 9Bo/0. Compute of the number of assembly machines required for each scrap leve1. Vhat is the impact u''ant planner facilities a might the scr.ap percentage on the nllmber of machines? Wh-v to be involved in the requirements definition process? 2.23 Duringone eigl-rt-hour shift, 750 nondefective pafis ale desired from a fabrication operatio;. The standard time for the operation is 15 minutes. Because the machine operand, ators are gnskilled, the actual tin-re it takes to perform the operation is 20 minr-rtes, on average, one-fifth of the parts that begin fabrication are scrapped. Assuming that of each each of the machines usecl for this operation will not be available for one hour required' shift, determine the numbel of machines 2.24 Sr:ppose that a final assembly is produced by assembling tEo components. The first component, component A, is produrced in-house and proceeds through three process 25a/a, resrep;, blanking, forging, and machining, with scrap estimates of 1096, 7)0/0, ar,d final asused in the are tB'o produced, A component ol units tiree nor everl, spectively. component, The second slmbly, and one is set aside to meet spare parts requit'ements. vencomponent B, use<1 excluslvely in the linal assembly, is purchased from an outside compopurchased tI-re of unit One iospection. fai1 2o/o rlor and is inspected upon arrival; nent is required for each final assembly. The final assembly process produces Jo/o scrap' and The demancl for the spare palts of component A and the linal assembly are 1000 component produce to required are of inpr.rt 5000 units, respectiveLy. How- many units A, an<1 how many units must the company buy of component B? 2.25 Pa{tA is produced in machines 1 and 2. Part R is prodr-rced in machines 3 and 4' Pafis A process 6. and R are assembled in n'orkstation 5 to create C. Assembly C is painted in 06 for c, output desired the and operation each fot ges . ., da cfi,. percenta scrap the Given 1. to machine 11 cletermine an equation that can be used to calculate the required input 2.26 Consicler the manufactr:re of a simple remote control, constructe<l of five components;

the top covef, bottom cover, circlrit board, keypad, and battery compartment cover. The top cover is mo1c1ed, which pro<1uces 570 scrap. Labels are painted on the top cover, of which 95% of the completed top covers are acceptable. The keypad is molded (50lo scrap) and palntecl (20lo scrap). T1're top cover and keypad are assembled together with a circuit board purchased from an outside vendor. The current subassemb1! is teste<1, an<1 10o/o faii. As a result, tire circuit boards are scrapped, but t1.re keypad and top cor,er assembly are usecl until a clrcuit board passes. The bottom cover is