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CONTENTS

1.

GENERAL

1.1 1.2

Definition Objectives

2.

BACKGROUND

2.1 2.2 2.3

Engineering and Physical Principles Clasification and Characteristic of Pump Selection Guidelines

3.

DESIGN PARAMETERS

3.1 3.2 3.3

Fluid Characteristics Flow Rate Delivery Pressure

4.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

4.1

Prerequisites 4.1.1 Piping Geometry 4.1.2 Initial Hydraulic Calculations 4.1.2.1 4.1.2.2 4.1.2.3 4.1.2.4 4.1.2.5 4.1.2.6 4.1.2.7 4.1.2.8 Head Static Head Static Section Lift Static Section Head Static Discharge Head Total Static Head Friction Head Velocity Head

4.1.2.9 4.1.2.10 4.1.2.11 4.1.2.12 4.1.2.13 4.1.2.14 4.1.2.15

Entrance and Exit Losses Total Suction Lift Total Suction Head Total Discharge Head Total Head Net Positive Suction Head Hydraulic Horsepower

4.2

Equipment Type Selection 4.2.1 Pump Types and Application 4.2.1.1 Centrifugal Pumps

4.2.1.1.1 4.2.1.1.2 4.2.1.1.3 4.2.1.1.4 4.2.1.1.5 4.2.1.1.6 4.2.1.1.7 4.2.1.1.8 4.2.1.1.9 4.2.1.1.10 4.2.1.1.11 4.2.1.1.12 4.2.1.1.13 4.2.1.1.14 4.2.1.1.15 4.2.1.1.16 4.2.1.1.17 4.2.1.1.18 4.2.1.1.19 4.2.1.1.20 4.2.1.1.21 4.2.1.1.22

General Characteristic Curve System Head Curve Impellers Specific Speed Viscosity Fluid Density Fluid Type Fluid Temperature Fluid Vapor Pressure Net Positive Suction Head Effeciency Suction Pressure Discharge Pressure Differential Pressure Capacity Range Flange Rating Centrifugal Pump Bearings Centrifugal Pump Materials Corrosion Allowance Centrifugal Pump Seals Centrifugal Pumps Drivers

4.2.1.1.23 4.2.1.1.24 4.2.1.1.25 4.2.1.2

Cooling Water For Pumps Centrifugal Pumps Types and Application Centrifugal Pumps Estimating Procedure

Reciprocating Pumps 4.2.1.2.1 4.2.1.2.2 4.2.1.2.3 4.2.1.2.4 4.2.1.2.5 4.2.1.2.6 4.2.1.2.7 4.2.1.2.8 4.2.1.2.9 General Types of Reciprocating Pumps Viscosity Fluid Density Fluid Type Fluid Rate Net Positive Suction Head Maximum Discharge Pressure Design Temperature and Pressure 4.2.1.2.10 4.2.1.2.11 4.2.1.2.12 4.2.1.2.13 Reciprocating Pump Materials Reciprocating Pumps Drivers Cooling Water for Pumps Reciprocating Pump EstimatingProcedure

4.2.1.3 4.2.1.4

Metering Pump Rotary Pumps 4.2.1.4.1 4.2.1.4.2 4.2.1.4.3 4.2.1.4.4 4.2.1.4.5 4.2.1.4.6 4.2.1.4.7 4.2.1.4.8 4.2.1.4.9 4.2.1.4.10 4.2.1.4.11 General Viscosity Fluid Density Fluid Type Fluid Temperature Flow Rate Net Positive Suction Head Rotary Pump Discharge Differential Pressure Rotary Pump Drivers Rotary Pump Estimating Procedure

4.3

Calculations 4.3.1 Centrifugal Pump

4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 4.3.7 4.4 4.5 Result Checklist

Reciprocating Pump Metering Pump Rotary Pump Series and Parallel Operation Pipeline Pumps Pump Sparing

5.

REFERENCES

6.

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

6.1 6.2

Definitions Abbreviations

APPENDIX I - FIGURES AND TABLES APPENDIX II - EXAMPLE CALCULATION APPENDIX III- DATA SHEET Figure No.

Types of Pumps

Horizontal General Purpose Pump Frame Mounted (ANSI)

3A

Locator Chart - Horizontal Pump (ANSI) (Low Flow Range)

3B

Locator Chart - Horizontal Pump (ANSI) (High Flow Range)

Centreline Mount API-610 Single-Stage, General Purpose Pump

5A

Locator Chart - Single-Stage Pump - API-610 (High Flow, Range)

5B

Locator Chart - Single-Stage Pump - API-610 (High Flow, Low Head)

Centreline Mount API Type, Two-Stage Pumps

Locator Chart - Two-Stage, Radially-Split Pumps

Centreline Mount API-610, Double Suction Pumps

9A

Locator Chart: Double Suction, Radially-Split Pump (Medium Flow Range)

9B

Locator Chart: Double Suction, Radially-Split Pump (High Flow Range)

10

Single-Stage, Double Suction, Double-Valute Pump

11A

Locator Chart: Horizontally-Split, Single-stage, Double Suction, DoubleValute Pump 1200 RPM)

11B

Locator Chart: Horizontally-Split, Single-stage, Double Suction, DoubleValute Pump 1800 RPM)

11C

Locator Chart: Horizontally-Split, Single-stage, Double Suction, DoubleValute Pump 3600 RPM)

12

Vertical Inline Pump (Type 6)

13

Locator Chart: Vertical Inline Pump (3600 RPM)

14

Vertical Sump Pump (Type 7)

15A

Locator Chart: Vertical Sump Pump (3600 RPM)

15B

Locator Chart: Vertical Sump Pump (High Flow Range 3600 RPM)

16

Vertical Turbine Wet Pit Pump (Type 8)

17

Vertical Turbine Canned Pump (Type 9)

18

Locator Chart: Canned and Wet Pit Pump

19

Horizontally-Split, Multistage Pump (Type 10)

20

Locator Chart: Horizontally-Split, Multiplex Pump (3600 RPM)

21

Locator Chart: Horizontal Plunger Pump

22

Locator Chart: Vertical Plunger Pump

23

Plunger Pump BHP for Flow vs P

24

Sea Water Lift Pumps Weight Versus Capacity

25

Water Injection Pumps Weight Versus Capacity

26

Pump Selection Guide

27

Centrifugal Pump Characteristic Curve

30

Centrifugal Pump Characteristic Curve

31

Steep-Rise and Steady-Rise Head/Capacity Curves

32

Flat Head/Capacity Curve

33

Drooping Head/Capacity Curve

34

Non-Overloading Impeller Curve

35

System Head Curve

36

Sytem Friction Curve

37

System Head Curve Superimposed on Pump Head/Capacity Curve

38

Centrifugal Pump Impellers - Closed

39

Centrifugal Pump Impellers - Open

40

Double-Suction Impeller

41

Recommended Maximum Operating Speeds for Single-Suction Pumps

42

Recommended Maximum Operating Speeds for Double-Suction Pumps

43

Specific-Speed Relationships

44

Specific Speed, Head versus Capacity

45

Upper Limits Specific Speed

46

Performance Correction Chart for Viscous Liquids

47

Centrifugal Pump Coverage - 60 Cycle Speeds

48

Centrifugal Pump Coverage - 50 Cycle Speeds

49

Inline Pump Coverage - 60 Cycle Speeds

50

Inline Pump Coverage - 50 Cycle Speeds

51

Avarage Characteristic Curve for Centrifugal Pumps

52

Antifriction Bearings

53

Sleeve Bearings

54

Kingsbury-Type Thrust Bearing

55

Gas (Steam) Reciprocating Pump

56

Horizontal, Single-Acting Plunger Power Pump

57

Vertical, Single-Acting Plunger Power Pump

58

Horizontal, Double-Acting Piston Plunger Power Pump

59

Metering Pumps

60-67

Rotary Pumps

68

Centrifugal Pump Data Sheet

69

Reciprocating Pump Data Sheet

70

Series and Parallel Operation

71

Unstable Curves

Table No.

Capacity Factors for Pump Speed

II

Weight for Various Pump Types, lbs

III

Pump Motor Weight - Horizontal and Vertical

IV

Dimensions for General Purpose (ANSI Standard) Pumps, Type 1

Dimension for API Single-stage, Pedestal-Mount Pumps, Type 2

VI

Dimensions for Skid-Mounted, Two-Stage Process Pumps and Drivers, Type 3

VII

Dimensions for Skid-Mounted, Double-Suction Process Pumps and Drivers, Type 4

VIII

Dimension for Horizontally-Split, Double-Suction Pump, Type 5

IX

Dimension for Vertical Inline Pump, Type 6

Weights and Demensions for High Speed Sundyne Inline Pump

XI

Vertical Sump Pump Dimensions, Type 7

XII

Vertical Turbine Bowl Weight and Demensions (Wet Pit and Canned Type), Types 8 and 9

XIII

Vertical Turbine Wet Pit Package Head Weights and Sizes, Type 8

XIV

Vertical Turbine Canned Pump Weight and Sizes, Type 9

XV

Vertical Solid Shaft Motor Weights and Demensions for Vertical Turbine Pumps, Types 8 and 9

XVI

Dimensions for Skid-Mounted, Multiplex, Horizontally-Split Process Pumps and Drives, Type 10

XVII

Plunger Pump Weights and Demensions

XVIII

Rotary Pump Weights and Demensions

XIX

Diesel-Drive Fire Pumps Weights and Demensions

XX

Water Injection Pumps Weights and Demensions

XXI

Pump Selection and Application Table

XXII

Minimum Continous Capacity Rating 60 Cycle Speed (3550 RPM)

XXIII

Cooling Water Requirements for Pumps

XXIV

Suction Line Liquid Acceleration Head, ft., for Simplex Pump at 60 Strokes/min

XXV

Maximum Allowable Differential Pressure

APPENDIX II - EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS

1.

GENERAL

Proper selection of pumping equipment is essential to the efficient and affective opreration of partically all process facilities.

1.1

Definition

This Design Manual is intended as a partical guide to assist in the proper selection of pumping system. It includes selection and calculation procedures for various types of pumps usually found on process facilities, but does not include details of pump design or pressure drop calculations in pipe.

1.2

Objectives

The objectives of this Design Manual are as follows :

a. Provide guidance in selecting the proper pump for an application.

b. Provide guidance for specifying pumps after the type has been selected.

2.

BACKGROUND

2.1

Engineering and Physical Principles

Pumps are machines which provide the energy required to transfer liquids from one point to another. Due to the incompressibility of liquids, which holds true for all pratical purposes, all energy imparted to a liquid by the pumping action tends to put it in motion.

Pumps may be devided into two general classifications : Centrifugal (kinetic) and positive displacement types. See Figure 1, "Types of Pumps".

Under the kinetic classification, energy (usually rotational) is continuously added to

increase the liquid velocities within the machine (pump) to values in excess of those occurring at the discharge such that subsequent velocity reduction within or beyond the pump produces a pressure increase. Under the positive displacement classification, energy is periodically added to the liquid by application of force to one or more moveable boundaries of any desired number of enclosed liquid containing volumes resulting in direct increase in pressure up to the value required to move the fluid through the valves or ports into the discharge line.

Pump theory fall, principally, under the engineering dicipline of fluids mechanics of incompressible flow. Most practical design is based on a one-dimensional approximation, which neglects all secondary motions and treats the main flow on the basis of available flow areas and conduit wall direction. When this leads to obvious errors, correction factors (such as the slip factor) are intoduced.

The user of pump will not normally wish to go deeply into the design, but he can profit from familiarity with pump theory by being able to establish the rotative speed and main dimensions of an optimally designed pump. This knwoledge will help him to evaluate the offers of various manufactures. In addition, the ability to ascertain reasonably accurate efficienties for the required pumps, without the manufacturer's offer, is advantageous.

2.2

Classification and Characteristic of Pump

The pump is classified into the following categories in therms of its functional characteristic :

Centrifugal pump Pump Displacement type pump Rotary pump Reciprocating pump

(1)

Centrifugal pump

This type of pump pressurizes liquid by means of centrifugal force on its impeller, and is widely used in industry. Figure 1 A shows head and flow rate characteristics (H>Q. characteristic) of the centrifugal pumps.

(2)

Displacement types pumps

Free from influence of pump differential pressure (discharge pressure-suction pressure), pumps discharge a given and constant flow rate and are devided into two categories, reciprocating pumps and rotary pumps. Figure 1 B shows the characteristics of pump differential pressure and flow rate.

(a) Reciprocating pumps

This type of pump pressurizes or discharger liquids by means of reciprocating motion of a piston or a plunger.

(b)

Rotary pumps

This type of pump pressurizes or discharger liquids by means of rotary motion of a gear, a screw or a vane.

Table 1 A shows the characteristics of centrifugal, rotary and reciprocating pumps.

2.3

Selection Guidelines

(1)

Comparing the price of pumps based on the same flow rates, centrifugal pumps are most economical and preferable. For a small flow rate (below 1 - 2 m3/hr (= 4.4 to 8.8 GPM) or high differential

(2)

pressure, reciprocating pumps are preferable in many cases.

(3)

For applications with viscous liquids, rotary pumps are generally used.

Remark :

The applicable range of centrifugal pumps to viscous liquids is, in general, below 100 cP. (In some cases, applicable to about 300 cP). Cautions should be taken because pump

performance tends to decrease for viscous liquids of above 10 cP.

3.

DESIGN PARAMETERS

The parameters required for the designing a pumping system may be devided into three main categories.

a. Fluid characteristics b. Flow rate, GPM c. Delivery pressure, feet or psig

3.1

Fluid Characteristics

The most important fluid characteristics required for proper pump selection are :

a. The chemical identity of the pumped fluid b. Viscosity at pumping temperature, cp (centipoise) c. Specific grafity of the liquid at the pumping temperature

d. Vapor pressure of the liquid measured at the pumping temperature and bubble point pressure at section temperature for multicomponent liquids, feet absolute or psia.

3.2

Flow Rate

Flow rate is measure of the volume of liquid required to be handle by the pump in a

given length of time. In America, is the standard is U.S. gallons per minute. Usually, the flow rate required of the pump is definitely known. It must supply fluid to a process at a given rate or it must pump out of a tank at a given rate, etc. Common pratice specifies two types of flow rates : normal flow rate and rated flow rate. Normal flow rate refers to the flow that the pump will handle under usual operating conditions. Rated flow rate is the flow the pump will develop at the guaranteed operating point (guaranteed by the pump manufacturer) at the rated pressure, speed, suction pressure and specific gravity.

3.3

Delivery Pressure

This is the pressure required at the point to which liquid is being delivered for example, it could be a pressure vessel, a pipeline tie-in, suction inlet of another pump, or open (atmospheric) discharge.

4.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

4.1

Prerequisites

The designated location on the process facility where the pump is to be installed, as well as piping geometry, is required before final pump selection can be specified. Most pumps used on process facilities are of non standard dimensions: different pump manufacturers will offer different size pumps for the same duty. And, since space on production facility is always limited, space restrictions must be considered in the selection process. The fore going considerations also apply when more than one pump (sparing) is to be used to perform the same function.

4.1.1 Piping Geometry

Piping geometry must be known so that system performance (pressure drop) can be accurately predicted. This applies to suction piping as well as discharge piping. In order to predict system performance, the following piping geometry variables must be known.

a.

Equivalent length and diameter of suction and discharge piping, including valves and fittings.

b.

Elevation changes in suction and discharge piping

4.1.2 Initial Hydraulic Calculations

The initial hydraulic calculations are performed using the design parameters. The results of these calculations, regardless of the type of pump to be considered, represent a logical starting point for the pump selection. Pertinent factors relative to the hydraulics of the system are discussed in subsequent paragraphs.

4.1.2.1Head

The head, measured in feet, is the height of a fluid column required to produce the gauge pressure at the bottom of the column. Equal pressures created by two different fluids require different heads. "Head" and "pressure" are interchangeable terms as long as they are expressed in their correct units. To convert from one to the other, use :

Liquiq head, ft = 2.31 x (different pressure, psi) liquid specific gravity Equation 1 4.1.2.2Static head

In pump application, the height of a column of liquid acting on the pump suction or discharge is often termed the static head on the inlet or outlet, and is expressed as a measurement of the liquid in feet.

4.1.2.3Static suction lift

This is the vertical distance, in feet, from the liquid supply level to the pump centerline, the pump being above the supply level. Horizontal runs are not considered as part of the static suction lift, so far as lift is concerned.

4.1.2.4Static suction head

When the pump is below the liquid supply level, a static suction head exists. It is the vertical distance, in feet, between the liquid supply level and the pump centerline.

4.1.2.5Static discharge head

This is the vertical distance, in feet, from the pump centerline to the point of free delivery of the liquid.

4.1.2.6Total static head

Total static head on a pump is the vertical distance, in feet, between the supply level and the discharge level of the liquid being handled.

4.1.2.7Friction head

Measured in feet of the liquid handled, this is the equivalent head needed to overcome the resistance of the pipe, valves and fittings in the pumping system. Friction head exists on both the suction and discharge sides of the pump, and varies with the liquid flow rate, pipe size, interior conditions of the pipe, type of pipe, and nature of the liquid being handled.

4.1.2.8Velocity head

Liquid moving through a pipe at any velocity process kinetic energy due to its movement. Velocity head is the distance through which the liquid must fall to acquire a given velocity, and is found from : hv = V2/2g

Equation 2

Where :

hv = Velocity head, ft of liquid

V = Liquid velocity, ft per sec. g = Acceleration due to gravity = 32.2 ft per sec2

4.1.2.9Entrance and exit losses

As with liquid flowing through a pipe, a frictional loss occurs when a liquid enters a pipe from a free or submerged source of supply, or discharges to similar region. The loss accuring at the pipe inlet is termed the entrance loss, while that the outlet is the exit loss. In each case, the loss reduces the velocity head at the velocity head at the point being considered and is expressed in feet of liquid.

4.1.2.10

Total suction lift

Suction lift exists when the total suction head at the pump datum is below atmospheric pressure with the flow source vented to atmosphere. Total suction lift is the sum of static suction lift, the suction friction head, and the entrance loss in the suction pipe minus the suction velocity head, expressed in feet.

4.1.2.11

Total suction head

Total suction head is the static suction head at pump datum plus the suction velocity head, expressed in feet. Note that a vacum in the suction line is a negative static head and is algebraically added to the velocity head of the system.

4.1.2.12

Total discharge head

This is the sum of the static discharge head at pump datum and the discharge velocity head expressed in feet.

4.1.2.13

Total head

This is the sum of the suction lift and the discharge head, expressed in feet. When there is a positive suction head, the total head on the pump is the difference between the discharge and suction head.

4.1.2.14

Net positive suction head

The net positive suction head (NPSH), expressed in feet, is probably the most critical factor in pumping system. Adequate NPSH is essential, whether in centrifugal, rotary or reciprocating pumps.

Marginal or inadequate NPSH will cause cavitation, the formation and rapid collapse of vapor bubbles in a fluid system. This occurs at the point of lowest pressure in the system, such as the pump impeller entrance. Collapsing bubbles place an extra load on pump parts and can cause erosion of impeller vanes. Often cavitation is occuring before its sysptoms become evident. Factors that indicate cavitation are increased noise, loss of discharge head, and reduced fluid flow. Two expressions for NPSH are used in the pump industry : available NPSH (NPSHA) and required NPSH (NPSHR)

a. Available NPSH (NPSHA)

This is a function of the system, its suction head or lift, friction head, and the vapor pressure of the liquid being handled at the pumping temperature. Depending on job conditions, the available NPSH can be altered to suit the required by the pump for satisfactory operation, if changes can be made in the piping, level of liquid supply, etc. Thus, by altering the physical arrangement of an installation, it is possible to control one phase of available NPSH. But the vapor pressure of the liquid cannot be changed without increasing or decreasing the

temperature of the liquid, and this is not always feasible. Hence, vapor pressure may be a limiting factor to easy alteration of the available NPSH.

NPSHA may be calculated as follows :

NPSHA = hp + hs - hf - hvpa

Equation 3

Where :

hp =

Absolute pressure on the surface of the liquid where the pump takes suction, expressed in feet of liquid. In an open system, hp equals atmospheric pressure, ha, expressed in feet absolute.

hs =

Static elevation of the liquid above the datum point of the pump expressed in feet. If the liquid level is below the pump datum, hs is a negative value. If the level of the liquid can vary, the NPSH calculation should always use a conservative value such as low liquid level in a vessel.

hf =

Friction and entrance head losses in the suction piping, expressed in feet. If suction piping is not used, hf = 0

hvpa =

Vapor pressure (or bubble point pressure) of the fluid at the pumping temperature expressed in feet of liquid absolute.

b. Required NPSH (NPSHR)

This is a function of pump design, varying with the capacity and speed of any given pump. Thus, while the available NPSH is easily calculated for a given set of conditions, the required NPSH for a particular pump must be obtained from the manufacturer who determines it by actual testing of a geometrically similar pump.

If NPSHR is particularly critical for the pump application being considered, an NPSH test can be specified for the actual pump being furnished.

For a propely designed pumping system :

NPSHA < NPSHR + F

Where F is a factor for each type of pump.

For most centrifugal and rotary pump applications, should be adequate.

F = 2-5 ft of water

4.1.2.15

Hydraulic horsepower

Hydraulic horsepower is the force required to change a liquid from one elevation, pressure and velocity to another elevation, pressure and velocity in a given time. Hydraulic horsepower for any liquid can be calculated using the following equations :

(Centrifugal Terminology)

(GPM) (Total Head) (SG) Hydraulic HP for any liquid = 3960 Equation 4 (Reciprocating Terminology)

(GPM) (psi) Hydraulic HP = 1714 Equation 4A

Where :

GPM = Gallons per minute

S.G. = Specific gravity of the liquid

4.2

Equipment Type Selection

While all pumps perform basically the same function, one type is better-suited to a particular application than another. Determining the type of pump to use for a particular application is the heart of the pump selection process and is discussed in this section. Table I to XX an Figures 2 to 25 give the dimensions and weights of different types of pumping units. These figures and tables (located in Appendix I) will be referenced in the appropriate pump type descriptions.

4.2.1 Pumps types and application

Most pumps can be classified into two major categories for selection purposes positive displacement and centrifugal (kinetic) pumps. These two calssifications are subdivided : see Figure 1. Figure 26 and Table XXI offer a guide for the preliminary selection of the most effecient type of pump for a particular application. After selecting a pump from this guide, a detailed analysis is prepared on the basis of information presented in the following subsections.

4.2.1.1Centrifugal (kinetic) pumps 4.2.1.1.1 General Centrifugal pumps comprise that very wide class of pumps which pump liquids or generate pressure by virtue of the rotary motion of one or several impellers. The impeller(s) force the liquid into a rotary motion by an impelling action, while the pump casing directs the liquid to the impeller and leads it away under a higher pressure. Because centrifugal pumps contain no valves, their flow is uniform and, for all practical purpose, devoid of pulsations.

Since this type of pump operates by converting velocity head to static head, a pump impeller operating at a fixed speed will develop the same theoretical head in feet of fluid flowing regardless of the density of the fluid. A wide range of heads can be handled. The maximum head (in feet of fluid) that a centrifugal pump can develop is determined primarily by the pump speed (rpm), impeller diameter, and number of impellers in series (stages).

Factor bearing on the appropriateness of a centrifugal pump are discussed in subsequent paragraphs.

4.2.1.1.2

Characteristic curve

The performance of a centrifugal pump can conveniently by expressed by its characteristic curve. See Figures 27 to 30. The characteristic curve shows the relationship between the total head, pump capacity, brake horsepower, effeciency, and NPSHR for a particular pump with a given impeller diameter operating at a given speed. Every centrifugal pump must operate at one point on its characteristic curve, i,e. for a given capacity or gpm. There will be one definite total head, one definite NPSHR. This point of required capacity, total head, etc. is known as the operating point. Refinements in impeller design and the impeller blade angle primarily affect on the developed head. Multistage pumps are available which will develop very high heads up to 5000 ft abd up to 1200 gpm. Since this is equivalent to 1000 - 2000 psig, the centrifugal pump finds wide use because of its versatility. The performance and hence, the characteristic curve of a pump with a given impeller design can be changed by changing the impeller tip speed in either of two ways : (1) change the diameter of the impeller and (2) change the speed of rotation of the impeller. Characteristic curves can take one of four typical shapes.

a. Steep rise head/capacity curve, see Figure 31. b. Steady rise head/capacity curve, see Figure 31. c. Flat head/capacity curve, see Figure 32. d. Drooping head/capacity curve, see Figure 33.

Pumps with drooping characteristic curve should be avoided because of their unstable operating characteristics. Centrifugal pumps with steep rise and steady rise curves are most commonly used because of specific advantages. Since the head varies markedly with a change in capacity, precise flow control can be maintained with this type of curve, a requirement for most process work. The rising curve is a stable curve : i.e., for every head only one corresponding capacity occurs along the entire length of the curve. Rising curves have non-overloading tendencies : i.e., as flow increases, horsepower increases but by smaller amounts than other pump curves. The steeper the rising curve, the more non-loading it is. See Figure 34.

Unfortunately, there is no clearcut distinction between these characteristic curves. However, as a rule of thumb, curves that show 150% increase in head between the capacities of peak efficiency and shutoff are called steep rising curves, those showing a 10 - 25% increase are called steady rising curves, and those with no more than 10% increase are called flat curves.

4.2.1.1.3

System head curve

Graphical plots of the conditions in a proposed or existing pumping system can be major aids system analysis and pump selection. Such a plot is the system head curve.

A system head curve (Figure 35) is obtained by combining the system friction curve with a plot of the static head and any pressure difference in the system. A system friction curve is a curve is a plot of head versus capacity of a piping system (Figure 36). Superimposing the pump characteristic curve on the system head curve gives the point at which a particular pump will operate in the system for which the curve is plotted (Figure 37). Changing the resistance of a given piping system by partially closing a valve or making some other alteration changes the slope of the system head curve. Partially closing a valve in the dichange line produces the artificial system head curve shown in figure 37, shifting the operating point to higher head but lower

capacity. Opening a valve wider has the opposite effect.

To maintain a pump at its proper operating range on its characteristic curve when significant changes during operation are anticipated, an automatic control system should be designed into the pumping system consisting of a control valve in the discharge piping. Under no condition should a manual valve be utilized for performing this function.

4.2.1.1.4

Impellers

The impellers is the heart of the centrifugal pump. It rotates the mass of liquid and the peripheral speed of its vane tips determines the head, or the working pressure, of the pump. The type of impeller also determines the shape of the pump characteristic curve.

The shape or the form of the vanes (the curved walls that separate the various liquid passage within the impeller) divide the impellers into several distinctive types. (See Figure 38,39 & 40).

a. The straight vane impeller b. The francis vane impeller c. The mixed-flow impeller d. The propeller or axial flow impeller

For offshore applications, the straight vane and the mixed-flow impellers are the ones generally used. The straight vane impeller is used on most horizontal pumps whereas the mixed-flow impeller is used on vertical turbine pumps. Impellers are further classified as single-suction or double-suction, depending on whether the liquid enters the impeller eye on one side of the impeller only or on both sides of the impeller (Figure 40). As a rule, pumps with double-suction impellers require less NPSH than pumps with singlesuction impellers operating at the same conditions (Figure 41 & 42). Pump impellers can also be classified as open or closed. Open impellers (Figure 39) are specified when pumping liquids that contain solid material capable of

clogging a closed impeller.

Usually, pump casings are fabricated to accommodate different sizes (i.e., diameter) of impeller. This increase flexibility by allowing "various pumps" to function in the same housing. Which each impeller having its particular characteristic curve. As a rule when purchasing pumps, the required pressure and flow characteristics are sought with midrange impellers. Neither the largest nor smallest size impellers are purchased, but the one inbetween. This allows for future modifications when smaller or larger impeller may be required.

4.2.1.1.5

Specific speed (Ns)

An index of pump type, specific speed is determined from the capacity and head that are obtained at the point of maximum effeciency. It determines the general profile or shape the impeller. Specific speed is the speed, in revolutions per minute, at which an impeller would run if reduced in sixe to deliver 1 gpm against a total head of 1 foot. In practice, specific speed is used to relate the three main parameters (GPM, head and rpm) to the performance of the pump. Specific speed can be calculatedas follows : (rpm) Q Ns = H0.75

Equation 5

Where :

= Gallons per minute

= Feet of liquid per stage

rpm = Revolution per minute

Impellers for high heads usually have low specific speeds : impellers for low heads usually have high specific speeds.

Figure 43 gives the general relationships between impeller shape, efficiency, and capacity. It also shows that each impeller design has a specific speed range for which it is best adapted. These ranges are approximate, without clearcut dimensions between them.

Basically, specific speed is a design tool, but may be used in the pump selection process to :

a. Find the best effeciency for a given impeller design, see Figure 43.

b. Obtain an approximate guide as to suction conditions the pump will be able to handle, see Figure 45.

c.

Determine the "ideal" specific speed for a given pump with head and capacity at the point of best effeciency (Figure 44). This value of the upper limit of specific speed can be compared to the actual specific speed of the pump being considered to see how close the pump approaches the "ideal".

4.2.1.1.6

Viscosity

Suitably designed centrifugal pumps can satisfactorily handle liquid containing solid, dirt, grit and corrosive compounds. Through fluids with viscosities up to 20,000 SSU (4400 centistokes) can be handled, 3000 SSU (650 centistokes) is usually practical limitation from an economical, operating standpoint. At higher viscocities the capacity and head generated by the pump are reduced considerably and, at the same time, the power requirements of the pump increases appreciably.

Viscosities below 5 centistokes (50 SSU) have little effect on pump head, effeciency, or capacity. Above this value, effeciency begins to decline. Above about 30 centistokes (140 SSU), the capacity and head are affected. Figure 46 can be used to correct this variables for the effect of fluid viscosity at

pumping temperature.

Given the desired capacity and head of the viscous liquid to be pumped, and the viscosity and specific gravity at the pumping temperature. Figure 46 can be used to find the approximate equivalent capacity and head when pumping water. For example, to determine the equivalent water conditions for a pump required to deliver 750 gpm at 100 feet total head of a liquid having a viscosity of 1000 SSU and a specific temperature, proceed as follows. gravity of 0.90 at the pumping

Enter Figure 46 with 750 gpm (horizontal axis), go up vertically to a 100 feet head, then over horizontally to 1000 SSU, and then up to the correction factores. Read Cn (effeciency correction factor) equals 0.635, CH (capacity correction factor) equals 0.95, CH (head correction factor at 1.0 x QNW water capacity at which maximum effeciency is obtained) equals 0.92. To get the equivalent water capacity, divide the viscous capacity (750 gpm) by the capacity correction factor (0.95) getting 790 gpm, to get the equivalent water head, divide the viscous head (100 feet) by the head correction factor (0.92) getting 109 feet. Select a pump for a water capacity of 790 gpm at 109 feet head. The selection should be at or close to the maximum effeciency point for water performance. If the pump selected has an effeciency on water of 81% at 790 gpm, then the effeciency for the viscous liquid will be 81 multiplied by the effeciency correction factor 0.635 giving a resulting viscous effeciency of 51.5%. The brake horsepower for pumping the viscous liquid can be determined using the equation given in 4.2.1.1.22. Using 750 gpm, 100 feet head, specific gravity 0.9, and pump effeciency 0.515, a brake horsepower of 33.1 is obtained.

The same procedure is used for determining the viscous conditions when the water performance of the pump is known, except that the correction factors (CQ and CH) are multiplied by the water gpm and head. A complete explanation of the use of Figure 46 is given in the Hydraulic Institute Standards, pages 111 to 115, Reference 10.

4.2.1.1.7

Fluid density

A centrifugal pump operating at a fixed speed will develop the same theoretical head in feet of fluid flowing regardless of the density of the fluid. However, the density of a fluid determines the pressure develope. Thus, a pump producing a 500 psi differential with a 0.5 specific gravity material, will develop a differential of 1000 psi with a 1.0 specific gravity fluid. The driver size will vary indirect proportion to the specific gravity.

To convert from head in feet to pressure in psi, the following equation can be used :

2.31 (pressure, psi) Head, ft = liquid specific gravity (from Equation 1)

4.2.1.1.8

Fluid type

The effect of solids in the fluid is important, these solids should be specified as to type, amount and size, if known. Pump seals may require an additional clean fluid for flushing. Special pump materials may be required to combat erosion. A special design of impeller may be necessary to handle large particles if they are a required part of the fluid otherwise they can be prevented from entering the pump section by suitable strainers.

Many stream contain corrosive sulphur (and other chemical) compounds. Usually, only finished distillate products, steam condensate, etc., may be classified as non-corrosive. In order to select the proper materials of construction and an adequate flushing liquid, complete information about the pumped liquid is required.

The approximate percentage of total sulphur in the stream to be pumped is usually available or can readily be determined. Also, if SO2, H2S, chlorides, or other corrosive substance are known to be present, they should be identified and the approximate percentage given, if available.

If the startup fluid will be different from the normal fluid, the pump casing design pressure and/or driver horsepower may have to be increased. For example, water or diesel is often used as the startup fluid for light hydrocarbon pumps which will cause higher discharge pressures during startup than with the design fluid.

4.2.1.1.9

Fluid temperature

Temperature, besides its effect on fluid viscosity and expansion (or contraction), will also affect choise of materials, pump types, pump seals and water cooling. The mechanical strenght of carbon steel begins to deteriorate beyond 650oF. In-line pumps should not be considered for use at fluid temperatures above 350oF fluid which freezes at ambient temperature must be flushed out of pump at shutdown or kept in liquid state by suitable jacketing. Above 500oF, bearing, stuffing box jackets and pump supports should be water-cooled. Packing should be considered for cold water service.

4.2.1.1.10

Fluid vapor pressure

Suction head above vessel pressure is developed by the relative elevation between the vessel and pump. Liquid flowing from a vessel at its boiling or bubble point will require sufficient static head to provide the entire required NPSH. The vapor pressure of liquid in production separator will normally be at its bubble point and, in such cases, the pressure in the vessel at the liquid level can be used as the vapor pressure of the liquid. Where this is not the case, the vapor pressure of the liquid must be determined from appropriate vapor pressure or fugacity charts.

4.2.1.1.11

Net positive suction head

Average minimum "require" NPSH values for most centrifugal pumping

conditions are shown in Figures 47 through 50. These values can be met by most vendors without extra pump costs or low efficiency selections. At high capacities requiring large pumps, NPSH requirements may rise sharply, particularly when other limitations of high head or high temperature limit availability of designs.

Available NPSH is usually specified for the normal pumps conditions with minimum vessel level. Where pumps may operate at flows above design points (as may occur under level control changes), special allowance, should be made beforehand to meet the increase in the required pump NPSH. Such as the installation of a control valve on the dicharge line to regulate the flow to its correct operating range.

Figure 51 gives the average percentage change in the required NPSH for centrifugal pumps with flow change.

In instances where costs or other considerations result in available NPSH below normal pump requirements, it is necessary to provide a special pump, usually at some penalty in cost or efficiency, or both. These special pump requirements are usually met by one of the following alternatives :

a. One or two vendors may have standard pump with lower than average NPSH requirement.

b. An oversize pump may be required at extra pump cost. An oversized impeller usually has a larger impeller eye. This reduces the velocity entering the impeller and increase the static pressure, thus improving NPSH requirements. A lower efficiency may add to driver and utilities cost.

c. It may be necessary to use a vertical can pump with a flooded suction. NPSH requirements down to one foot at the inlet flange can be obtained in this manner. These pumps are usually multistage and

may be substantially higher in cost than one stage pumps. Accurate specification of the available NPSH can reduce pumps costs if even a slightly higher value than one foot can be designated.

d. A double-suction, double-volute pump may be required.

When low values of available NPSH must be specified for centrifugal pumps, extra pump costs become an important consideration. Special attention should be given to the equipment elevation sand layout with respect to length and size of suction piping and number of fittings used. Maximum flow that can occur during operation should be considered in determining NPSH conditions for the following possibilities :

(1)Pump operating beyond design capacity due to swings in control range, etc.

(2)Two (or more) pumps operating on a suction line sized for one pump normal operation.

(3)Operation at maximum possible pump capacity where two (or more) pumps are normally operating in parallel and one pump fails (such as pipeline service).

4.2.1.1.12

Efficiency

Efficiencies of centrifugal pumps vary from about 20% for low capacity (20 gpm) pumps to 70-80% for high capacity (500 gpm pumps). Extremely large capacity pumps (several thousand gpm) may have efficiencies up to nearly 90%. The rate operating point of a pump should be to the right of the maximum efficiency point on the head capacity curve. The normal operating point should be on or to the left of the maximum efficiency point of the curve.

4.2.1.1.13

Suction pressure

The minimum suction pressure (at the pump centerline) is obtained by subtracting the maximum frictional pressure drop in the suction system from the sum of the vessel pressure and the static head of liquid. Static head is calculated by subtracting the pump impeller elevation from the low liquid level shutdown switch elevation.

Except for pumps pulling from vacuum equipment, pump suction pressure should not be much, if any, below atmospheric pressure. At reduced pressures, air leakage and/or vaporization of disolved gases may cause trouble. Recommended minimum suction pressure is 12 psia. This is applicable for such cases as pulling from tankage through long suction lines.

Suction strainers are used to prevent solid particles from clogging the pump impeller and restricting flow through the pump. Suction strainers are classified as temporary strainers and permanent strainers.

a. Temporary strainers are used during startup operations to remove any foreign matter left in the suction line during fabrication and installation. These usually cone-shaped strainers fit directly into the suction line and are held in place by a pair of pipe flanges. Temporary strainers should have a free area of 300% of the pipe internal cross-sectional area.

b. Permanent suction strainers in pump suction are not usually used. If needed, however, these strainers should be installed in the suction lines. These strainers should be, preferably, of the duplex-basket type which permits one strainer to be in operation while the other is being cleaned. Switching from one strainer to the other is usually done automatically with some form of alarm signaling when the switching operation takes place. These strainers should have a free area in the range of 300 to 700% of the pipe internal cross-sectional

area.

If a suction strainer is used, decrease suction pressure by 1 psia or by the calculated strainer, P, whichever is greater.

Maximum suction pressure is used in determining the maximum discharge pressure of the pump. It is obtained by adding the set pressure of the safety valve (if any) on the vessel from which the pump takes suction to the maximum static head of liquid on the suction side. In computing the static head, use the high liquid shutdown level in the vessel. Pipe friction is not considered here since the maximum suction condition is assumed to occur when the flow through the flow through the pump has been stopped by a downstream blockage.

4.2.1.1.14

Discharge pressure

The discharge pressure is the sum of :

a. Delivery pressure which may be determined by a pressure control valve and/or another vessel, or delivery location.

b. Friction losses in the discharge piping.

c. Elevation differences between the pump centerline and the point of discharge.

In certain cases, a control valve is installed in the pump discharge piping in order to control the flow from the pump. The set point of the control valve determines the pressure against which the pump will operate, this in turn will determine the flow from the pump. The changes in flow from the pump, due to changes in control valve set points, should be determined over a normal maximum and minimum range. This changes the system head curve and will be explained later when pump characteristic curves are discussed.

The maximum discharge pressure is used to determine the minimum Hydrostatic pressure and casing design, is the sum of the maximum suction pressure and the maximum defferential pressure. The maximum differential pressure usually occurs at zero flow (shutoff) and is obtained from the manufactures's characteristics curve. The pressure for the largest impeller that may be installed should be used to accomodate future requirements.

4.2.1.1.15

Differential pressure (total pressure)

The differential pressure is the difference between the normal suction and discharge pressures. When expressed as feet of fluid flowing at pumping temperatures, it is usually referred to as net differential head or total head. Differential pressure and the required flow rate define a condition point on the pump characteristic curve : these two parameters are used in the final pump selection process.

4.2.1.1.16

Capacity range

Figures 47 through 50 show the normal capacity range for various types of centrifugal pumps in two different speed ranges, 3550 rpm (Figures 47 and 49) and 2950 rpm (Figures 48 and 50). These values correspond to motor full-load speeds available with power at 60 and 50 cycles, respectively. Most applications call for these speed ranges. Lower speed are for low or medium head and high capacity requirements, and for special abbrasive slurries or corrosive liquids. Low capacity,

approximately 20 gpm, centrifugal pump applications may require special recirculation provisions in the in the process design to maintain a minimum flow through the pump. Because of practical considerations in impeller construction, the smallest available process type centrifugal pumps are rated at about 50 pgm (maximum effeciency ponit).

In general, centrifugal pumps should not be operated continuously at

flows less then approximately 20% of the best effesiency flow rating of the pump because overheating of the pump and reduction of sealand bearing life may result. The normal rating for the pump is the capacity corresponding to the maximum effeciency point. Table XXII lists minimum continuous capacity rating which should be maintained by continuous recirculation, if the required process flow conditions are of lower magnitude.

Care must be exercised in the design of any recirculation system to ensure that the recirculated flow does not increase the temperature of pump suction enough to cause insufficient NPSH. For the low head pumps that can operate at 1750 or 1450 rpm, the normal and minimum continuous capacities listed in Table XXII are reduced by 50%.

4.2.1.1.17

Flange ratings

The design temperature and pressure set the pressure rating requirements for the suction and discharge flanges. The suction flange is usually specific for the same rating as the discharge flange, except in the case of some multistage pumps. If a flange of lower rating will satisfy the maximum suction pressure and temperature condition and the casing hydrostatic test (1.5 x design pressure at ambient conditions), the lower flange rating may be used. Some heavy duty pumps are not available with less than 300 psi flanges.

4.2.1.1.18

Centrifugal pump bearings

The function of bearings in centrifugal pumps is to keep the shaft or rotor in correct alignment with the stationary parts under the action of radial and transverse loads. Those that give radial positioning to the rotor are known as line bearings, while those that locate the rotor axially are called thrust bearings. In most applications the thrust bearings actually serve both as thrust and radial bearings.

The most common antifriction bearings used on centrifugal pumps are the various types of ball bearing (Figure 52). Ball bearings are are used as both line thrust bearings. Roller bearings are used less often, although the spherical roller bearing is used frequently for large shaft sizes for which there is a limited choice of ball bearings. As most roller bearing are suitable only for radial loads, their use on centrifugal pumps tends to be limited to applications in which they are not required to carry a combined radial and thrust load. Most centrifugal pums for process service are presently supplied with oil-lubricated bearings.

Although replaced by the antifriction bearing in most designs, the plain cylindrical journal or sleeve bearing still has a large field of application (Figure 53). Journal bearings are used as both line and thrust bearings (moderate axial loads). Journal bearings are oil-lubricated and usually used under the following conditions :

a. For certain small pumps used strictly for pumping clear liquids. The liquid pumped acts as the lubricant for the bearing. b. For large, heavy-duty pumps with shaft diameter of such properties that the necessary antifriction bearings are not commonly available.

For thrust loads and linear speeds far in excess of those suitable for the ordinary straight collar thrust bearings, a Kingsbury-type thrust bearing is used (Figure 54). As the cost of the Kingsbury thrust bearing is relatively high. Their use may be warranted only for extreme thrust conditions.

4.2.1.1.19

Centrifugal pump materials

An excellent guide to material selection is contained in API standard 610, Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery services, Section 2.11 and Appendix E, and also in the Hydraulic Institute Standard offer some materials recommended by vendors as equal or superior to those listed for a particular service should be considered.

4.2.1.1.20

Corrosion allowance

The corrosion allowance for the pump casing must be specified for each pumping service. The minimum for offshore service is 0.125 inches.

4.2.1.1.21

Centrifugal pump seals

For hydrocarbon service mechanical seals are specified. For nonflammable, chemically-inactive liquids (such as water), it is usually more economical to specify packing. Some situations may call for double seals or tandem seals or special flushing arrangements. Contact the mechanical systems engineer or your local seal expert for multiple seal application assistance.

Centrifugal pump seal piping arrangements are cutomarily specified by API plan number. Refer to API Standard 610 (Reference 1) for shaft seal guidelines and plan drawings.

4.2.1.1.22

Centrifugal pump drivers

Centrifugal pumps are usually driven by electric motors. Large pumps are sometimes driven by reciprocating engines or turbines when the power requirement is not compatible with the electric power source.

Parameters needed to determine the work required of a pump, are the total dynamic head, the flow rate in gallons per minute or barrels per hour, and the density or specific gravity. Theoretical horsepower of a pump is usually called the hydraulic horsepower. See 4.1.1 for calculation of hydraulic horsepower.

The actual or brake horsepower (BHP) of a pump is greater than the

hydraulic horsepower by the amount of the losses incurred in the pump through friction, leakage, etc.

Hydraulic HP Brake HP = Pump Eff.*

GPM x P = 1715 x Pump Eff.

GPM x H x S = 3960 x Eff.

* Efficiencies used in equations in this section are expressed as decimals.

BHP should be checked for all operating conditions to make sure the maximum BHP is obtained. For example, during startup , a more dense fluid may be used (water in a light hydrocarbon pump) or the pump may be used as a common spare on a service involving a more dense fluid.

An overall efficiency is used in applying the pump efficiency to the horsepower formula which reflects hydraulic leakage, and mechanical losses. Efficiencies for various types of centrifugal pumps are shown in Figure 47 and 48. Efficiencies for inline pumps can be taken the same as single-stage, over hung pumps.

Induction type electric motors, normally used as pump drivers, are made in a range of sizes from fractional HP to over 10,000 HP. The range from 1 - 600 HP covers most centrifugal pump services. For electric motor selection.

Consideration must be given to the additional horse-power requirement of the pump at the open flow or run out point on the performance curve. This point is always beyond the best efficiency point for the pump. This applies equally to electric motors and other drivers.

Reciprocating engines are available from 3 to 1000 or more horsepower. They may be used to drive pumps when electricity is not available. For selection of drivers, our design manual. "Prime Mover PR - DM 005.09".

4.2.1.1.23

Cooling water for pumps

Many process pumps require cooling water when pumping relatively high temperature (over 350oF) liquids and when operating at high speeds and pressures. While cooling water may be either fresh or salt water, fresh water is preferred (though normally unavailable offshore). Cooling water may be applied to bearing, stuffing boxes, glands, and pedestals.

Centrifugal pumps handling hydrocarbons in hot services may require cooling water for bearings, stuffing box jackets, and casing suppoers. These services are usually piped in series for pumps with one bearing bracket and in two parallel streams for pumps with two bearing brackets. Table XXIII gives approximate requirements per pump.

4.2.1.1.24

Centrifugal pump types and application

Centrifugal pumps may be categorized into various types according to their physical configuration. The following is a list of centrifugal pump types and typical applications for each.

a. General Purpose (ANSI Standard) - Type 1

These horizontal, end-suction, frame-mounted pumps are use for general processing and transfer service at fluid temperatures below about 350oF. They provide flows to 1,200 GPM and heads to 600 ft. Their design is the back pull-out type for easy maintenance and their dimensions are per ANSI B-123 for process industry pumps. They may use either packing or mechanical seals and are available in a wide variety of metallurgy from cast iron to exotic alloys. Normal operating speed is 3,600 rpm with some of the largest pumps limited to 1,800 rpm.

Figure 2 illustrates the frame-mounted, general purpose horizontal

pump. Figures 3A and 3B are the locator charts for the general purpose horizontal pump. Table IV tabulates the dimensional data for these pumps.

b. API 610 Single-Stage Pedestal Mount - Type 2

The pedestal or centerline mounting of these pumps versus case or frame mounting type pumps offer operational and maintenance advantages for higher temperature application from 350oF and higher (such as hot oil at 600oF). Suction can be either end or top type. Cases are normally carbon steel with steel or 316 SS impellers. Applications are normally for hydrocarbons in the low-to moderate flow and moderate head ranges. Normal operating speed is 3,600 rpm with largest pumps limited to 1,800 rpm.

Figure 4 illustrates the API 610 single-stage, pedestal-mount pump. Figures 5A and 5B are the locator Charts for this pump type. Table V tabulates the dimensional data for these pumps.

c. Horizontal, Radially - Split, Two - Stage Process Pumps- Type 3

These pumps are designed for heads to 1,800 ft and flows to 4,500 GPM at 3,600 rpm. They have been used to pump crude oil, sea water, gasoline and other hydrocarbons.

The pumps are required to be between-bearing design. Bearing housings may be air or water-cooled.

Figure 6 illustrates a horizontal, radially-split "Type 3" pump. Figure 7 illustrates the locator chart for this type of pump. Table VI tabulates dimensions for this pump type.

d. Horizontal, Radially-Split, Double - Suction, API Process Pumps Type 4

These pumps are designed for heads to 1,400 ft and flows to 10,000 GPM at 3,600 rpm. They have been used to pump crude oil, water, condensate, gasoline, and other hydrocarbons.

The pumps are required to be between-bearing design. Bearing housings may be air or water cooled.

Figure 8 illustrates a horizontal, radially-split pump. Figures 9A and 9B are locator charts for these pumps. Table VII tabulates dimensions for this type of pump.

e. Axially Split, Double-Suction - Type 5

These high-flow, low-head pumps are typically used for high rate water circulating or crude transfer at low heads, although data are presented for some 3,600 rpm units with heads 1,100 ft at flows to 6,000 GPM. The primary range is from 5,000 to 20,000 GPM at 200 to 500 ft. Bronze and cast iron cases up to 250 psig DWP are used for water and carbon steel is used for hydrocarbon service. Steel cases are rated to 2,000 psig DWP. Normal operating speeds are 1,800 with the largest units limited to 1,200 rpm and a few to 900 rpm. Some 3,600 rpm units are available as discussed above. All data presented are for the dual-volute design which minimizes radial forces on shafts and seals.

Figure 10 illustrates the horizontally-split, double-suction type of pump. Figures 11A, B, C are the locator charts for these pumps. Table VIII tabulates the dimensions for these pumps.

f. Vertical Inline Pumps - Type 6

Inline centrifugal pumps are commonly used for small pressure differential applications and relatively low rates. A single-stage pump

is employed with the process piping and the motor driver vertical to the pump.

Inline pumps are generally limited for the head allowed by a singlestage impeller or for the motor driver mounted vertically. Units up to 400 BHP may be inline, but normally are at 60 to 100 hp maximum.

Their space saving feature for offshore installation applications is recommended.

A special inline pump, Sundyne , operates at very high rpm to produce substantial differential pressures. The efficiency is low but the space savings can be substantial with this selection.

Figure 12 illustrates this vertical pump type. Figurre 13 is the locator chart for these pumps. Table IX tabulates dimensional data for these pumps. Table X lists weight and dimensionals data for the Sundyne type high speed inline pump.

g. Vertical Sump Pump - Type 7

These pumps are used for wet-pit applications such as pump out, transfer or booster duties in the low head, and low-to-moderate flow ranges. Waste water, oil and condensate sumps are typical offshore applications. These pumps usually do not require either packing or mechanical seals for atmospheric sump applications. The normal speed is 1,800 rpm with some smaller units at 3,600 rpm for medium head (to 300 ft.). Casing material is usually cast iron. Basic weight data is presented for pumps in a five foot deep sump with additions for deeper sumps. The pumps mount directly through the sump cover.

Figure 14 illustrates these vertical sump pumps. Figures 15A and 15B are the locator charts for these pumps. Table XI tabulates

dimensions for these pumps.

h. Vertical Turbine Pumps - Types 8 and 9

Vertical turbine pumps are multi-stage high head, high lift units covering a wide flow range from 100 GPM to over 30,000 GPM. The wet pit turbine pump is used for lift applications such as seawater and firewaterm, however, the submersible variation of the turbine pump is sometimes used offshore for below 50 horse power and because it eliminates long shaft lengths. The canned-turbine pump is well-suited for high head, low NPSH applications such as condensate drums, the vertical configuration minimizes above deck space. The canned-turbine pump is a wet-pit turbine unit with the pumping end encased in a pressure vessel. The high pressure design of canned pumps can be used to 1,500 GPM at 3,500 ft head and design working pressures to 3000 psig. For lower design pressures to 300 psig, the larges capacities to 30,000 GPM can be provided. Operating speeds range from 900 to 3,600 rpm depending upon capacity range.

Figure 16 and 17 illustrates these types of pumps. Figure 18 is the locator chart for these pumps. Tables XII, XIII, XIV and XV tabulate weight and dimensional data for these pumps.

i. Axially Split, Multi-Stage Pumps - Type 10

These pumps are designed for the mid to high-pressure range and have been used to pressures of 3,500 psig. Optimum performance is gained within speeds of 2,900 to 8,000 rpm. Higher speeds may be used with a special design. Application experience for this pump includes crude oil, oilfield brine, water flood, boiler feed water, and gasoline.

For speeds exceeding 4,000 rpm, an external lube oil system is

recommended. This requires a large skid for the pump and driver or a separate skid to handle all the lube oil system components.

Fan-cooled bearing housings are utilized for some available bearing designs. Other bearing designs utilize bearing housings with water or product cooling. Still another bearing design utilizes a forced-feed, lubricating oil system for cooling. Figure 19 illustrates this pumps. Figure 20 is the locator chart for these pumps. Table XVI tabulates dimensional data for these pumps.

4.2.1.1.25

Centrifugal pump estimating procedure (locator charts)

Centrifugal pump weight and dimensional data are correlated by generalized performance maps called "locator Charts" for each class of pump. See Figures 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18 and 20. The only data required to obtain weight and dimensions are GPM, head, and pump speed. By plotting thr GPM and head on a locator chart, the horsepower is read directly along with a code letter which determines pump weight and sizes. See Table I to XVI.

The locator charts are based upon a nominal pump speed of 3600 rpm for all pump types. Flow and head requirements for pump speeds other than 3600 rpm may be converted to the equivalent 3600 rpm conditions using the factors given in Table I :

The locator charts are used in the following manner.

a. Convert required head and flow to equivalents at 3,600 rpm using capacity multiplier factor from Table I.

b. Plot this point on the locator chart and head horsepower by interpolation. This is horsepower required at 3,600 rpm.

c. Calculate horsepower at actual speed using BHP multiplier from Table I.

d. Read weight from Table II for pump type and region from locator chart on which head and flow data point are located.

e. Read dimensions from the size chart for the particular pump type. In some cases, sizes are different for various horsepowers within a region and are shown as such. For this purpose, the tabulated horsepower is the 3,600 rpm equivalent.

f. Calculate total weight by adding the motor weight from Table III to pump, baseplate, and coupling. The dimensions in step 'e' include an allowance for the motor.

Although all locator charts are based upon 3,600 rpm, pumps in some regions may have a maximum speed limitation and cannot actually be applied at 3,600 rpm. This situation is flagged by notes on the charts and does not affect the estimation procedure.

As an example, select a vertical, inline pump for 500 GPM of 0.8 specific gravity condensate at 50 psi differential. Use an 1,800 rpm pump.

a. Head = 50 psi x 2.31 x 1/0.8 = 144 ft (at 1,800 rpm) Head multiplier from Table I = 4.0

Head at 3,600 rpm = 144 x 4.0 = 576 ft. GPM multiplier from Table I = 2.0 GPM at 3,600 rpm = 500 x 2.0 = 1,000 GPM

b. On Figure 13 for vertical, inline pumps (Type 6), plot the point 1,000 GPM at 576 ft. Interpolate BHP as just over 240 Hp at 3,600 rpm.

c. BHP multiplier from Table I = 0.125, BHP at 1,800 rpm = 240 x 0.125

= 30 BHP This is BHP at 1.0 s.g. actual BHP at 0.8 s.g. = 30 x 0.8 = 28 BHP. Use a 30 Hp motor at 1,800 rpm.

d. The required flow and head are in Region "D" of the locator chart. Read weight from Table II for Region "D" of pump type 6. Pump weight is 600 lbs.

e. From size Table IX for pump type 6, diameter x height = 2.5 ft x 6 ft.

f. From Table III, read weight for 30 Hp, 1,800 rpm motor as 480 lbs.

Total pump unit = 600 lbs (pump) + 480 lbs (motor) = 1,080 lbs total

4.2.1.2Reciprocating pumps

4.2.1.2.1

General

The reciprocating type pump is very seldom specified

in new designs.

Centrifugal pumps are preferred and should be used except in the very few instances where other types are necessary.

Special circumstances which may favor reciprocating pumps include the following :

a. High viscosity fluid above 3000 SSU.

b. Relatively low capacities (3 to 20 GPM) at high heads.

c.

Intermittent services, such as pump out or glycol, where a range of fluids must be handled, cost are faroable, and sufficient NPSH is available.

d. Sludge and slurry services.

e. Simple pumping services having a wide range of discharge pressures or flow rates.

Reciprocating pumps give pulsating flow, develop high shutoff or stalling pressure, are constant capacity pumps when motor driven, and are subject to cavitation at low NPSH conditions. Packing leakage is a cosideration as mechanical type seals are not applicable to reciprocating rods or plungers.

The two types of reciprocating pumps normally used (excluding proportioning) are :

a. Direct-acting gas pumps (simplex or duplex) (piston or plunger) - A simplex pump has one piston or plunger whereas a duplex pump has 2 pistons or plungers. See reference 13, pages 3 - 6.

b. Power pumps motor or turbine drive (simplex or multiple cylinder) (usually plunger).

4.2.1.2.2

Types of reciprocating pumps

a. Direct-acting gas pump

This type of pump consists of a gas cylinder end inline with the liquid cylinder end, with a straight rod connection between the gas piston and the pump piston or plungers.

Direct-acting gas pumps are either simplex or duplex. The duplex units are normally used for the large capacities.

Diredt-acting gas pumps can be used for variable capacity operation by using a control valve to regulate the gas supply to the pump. See Figure 55.

In general, direct-acting gas pumps are used in low-flow, high-head operations where installation of an engine is undesirable and electrical power is not available. Normally, steam, air, or natural gas at 100 - 200 psig provides the motive force. This is very inefficient as only the pressure energy of the gas is utilized.

b. Power pump

Power pump are reciprocating pumps driven by a motor, turbine or engine through gearing to a crankshaft, connecting rod, and crosshead to the final piston(s) or plunger(s). The liquid ends of the lower pressure, higher capacity units are similar to duplex, double-acting gas pumps. Higher pressure units are usually single-acting plunger pumps. The more common types use three (triplex) plungers. With three or more plungers, flow pulsation is substantially reduced relative to single or dual-plunger pumps.

These pumps are quite efficient and can develop very high pressures up to 3,000 psig. Plunger types are used for high pressures which require that the stuffing box packing as full-plunger size.

Power pumps are expensive and are rarely justified when centrifugal pumps can be used. See Figure 56, 57, and 58.

4.2.1.2.3

Viscosity

A mechanical efficeincy correction factor of 90% should be used for power pumps handling water. Efficiency will decrease with increased viscosity and shorter stroke lengths.

4.2.1.2.4

Fluid density

The differential pressure generated is independent of fluid density and depends only on how much force is experted on the piston. Thus, if the

pump will develop a differential of 500 psi with a 1.0 specific gravity fluis, it will do the same with a 0.5 specific gravity fluid. The head (in feet), of course, will double in this case with no change in capacity.

4.2.1.2.5

Fluid type

Reciprocating pumps can be used for oil, glycol, and slurry services. It is important to specify the type, amount and size of the solids, if known. A slurry is defined as a stream containing more than 0.05 lb/gallon of solids.

4.2.1.2.6

Flow rate

The liquid cylinder diameter, length of the piston ( or plunger ) stroke, and number of strokes per minute establish the capacity per cylinder. With a power pump, capacity control is usually obtained by recirculating excess flow to the suction. Size the pump for the maximum required flow.

4.2.1.2.7

Net positive suction head

The suction pipe velocity and line length must be analyzed to assure that available NPSH is sufficient with the pulsating flow persent at the reciprocating pump suction stabilizer may be required.

Suction line flow with a simplex pump changes from no flow to 100% within approximately 10% of the suction stroke after reversal of the piston or plunger travel. The liquid in the suction line be accelerate in about 0.1 second when a pump is operating at 60 strokes per minute.

Allowances for acceleration head (in feet) for simplex pumps handling low viscosity fluids are given in Table XXIV. These are based on a review of test and empirical data developed by reciprocating pump suppliers.

Power pump normally operate at higher speed than gas pumps and with

higher valve velocities (due to limited valve area), higher valve spring loads (for fast action), and resulting higher NPSH requirements (as well as increasing suction line acceleration head with rpm increase).

Summarizing NPSH requirements for reciprocating pumps, it is evident that oversize, short suction lines are important for low NPSH conditions. Providing adequate NPSH is necessary to prevent erratic operation of reciprocating gas pumps when vaporization occurs (speeding up of the pump, short stroking, and failure to pump any liquid).

4.2.1.2.8

Maximum discharge pressure

The maximum discharge pressure for direct-acting gas pumps is a function of the size of the gas cylinder and the maximum gas pressure : (Gas Cyl. Dia.)2 Max P Fluid = (Fluid Cyl. Dia)
2

Max Gas Pressure Equation 7

Gas cylinder diameters are specified for standard sizes; therefore, liquid and pressures of 130 to 150% of operating differential pressure can be expected at shutoff conditions. The maximum P for the fluid is added to the maximum suction pressure to obtain the fluid and design pressure. A relief valve is always used on the discharge of a positive displacement pump to prevent overpressure.

4.2.1.2.9

Design temperature and pressure

Use the same criteria as for centrfugal pumps except that a discharge relief valve limits the required design pressure.

4.2.1.2.10

Reciprocating pump materials

The fluid end materials of constraction are presented in API 674.

4.2.1.2.11

Reciprocating pump drivers

Reciprocating pumps are usually electric motor-driven. Gas-driven or reciprocating engine-driven pumps are sometimes used when reliable electric power is not available. The brake horsepower for a reciprocating pump is as follows :

GPM x P (psi) Brake Horsepower = 1715 x 9 x Mech. Eff.

(Eq.6)

As a general rule, the normal pump speed should be more than 85% of the rated speed.

4.2.1.2.12

Cooling water for pump

The following rates are approximate : Up to 250oF : 1 GPM (1/2 GPM for each packing gland) Above 250oF : 5-9 GPM (+ 2 add 1 for each stuffing box jacket).

4.2.1.2.13

Reciprocating pump estimating procedure (locator charts)

Reciprocating pump (plunger pump) weight, dimensional data, and horsepower can be estimated using locator charts, Figures 21, 22, and 23, and sizing chart, Table XVII.

The charts are used in the following way :

a. For a given flow in GPM and a given discharge pressure in psig, use Figures 21 and 22 to obtain the given code designation.

b. With the code designation from Figure 21 or 22, go to Table XVII determine rpm, pump weight, and skid dimensions, and wether a horizontal or vertical pump.

c.

For the given flow in GPM and given discharge pressure in psig, use Figure 23 to determine brake horsepower.

d. With the horsepower determined in step c. and the rpm from step b., use Table III to determine the pump motor weight.

4.2.1.3Metering pumps

Metering pumps (see Figure 59) are adjus table volume, low-capacity (up to 10 GPM) reciprocating pumps. They can be either manually or automatically adjusted to suit desired flow conditions. Adjustment in the crank throw will vary the length of stroke to obtain different capacity settings.

Pump sizes are available from a franction of a gallon per hour to approximately 10 GPM. The pump connections and valves are small and are subject to plugging or valve sticking if handling large particles in the liquid.

Diaphragm-type matering pumps are available where stuffing box loss would be serious or dangerous. The diaphragm is flexed by the action of liquid (oil) stroke, powered plunger. These pumps are higher in cost than plunger type matering pumps but are very commonly selected because there is no product leakage.

Metering pumps are usually electric-motor-driven, but air or process gas can be used. Design criteria for a metering pump can be considered the same as for a reciprocating pump except as modified below,

Capacity variation normally is by manual adjustment of the stroke. Controls are available for :

a. Automatic adjustment of stroke b. Remote, manual adjustment of the stroke

The pulsating flow from the metering pump normally precludes use of conventional flow indicators or meters. When necessary to calibrate, or recheck settings, a smalll-gauge pot, or pots, should be installed a head of the pump suction.

A common application of metering pumps is the injection of treating chemical solutions to wellstream flow lines, or directly to pipelines. They should be used for clean services to avoid plugging and valve sticking. NPSH requirements of metering pumps sre in order of 15 ft minimum. Short, oversizes suction lines are also important for low NPSH services. Efficiency is normally about 20%. The efficiency is low enough that viscosity effects can be ignored.

4.2.1.4Rotary pumps

4.2.1.4.1

General

Rotary pumps, as a class, normally refer to positive displacement pumps with rotating pumping elements such as gears, screws, vanes, and lobes. See Figures 60 to 67.

Rotary pumps are available over a range of 1-5000 GPM and differential pressures to 700 pounds. They are normally limited to services, such as heavy fuel oil, lube oil, grease, and asphalt, that are too viscous to be handled economically by centrifugal or other type pumps. Rotary pumps hadling liquids below 20 centistrokes may have excessive wear and internal leakage. This wear, due to inadequate lubricating properties of the liquid, is particularly serious in those design having internal bearings, internal timing gear or where one internal element drivers another pumping element. Rotary pumps obviously are less suitable for handling hard or abrasive solids.

All rotary pumps involve close clearances of the running parts. Thus, seizure in high temperature service and galling when alloy materials are required for corrosion can present problems. Another disadvantage with services requiring external bearings is that most designs require four stuffing boxes per pump.

4.2.1.4.2

Viscosity

A rotary pump can handle a wide range of fluid viscosity. Below 20 centistrokes, excessive wear may result due to inadequate lubricating properties.

Several pump suppliers claim to be handling materials of over 1,000,000 SSU. In general, they contend that the pump will perform, provided the material will flow into the pumping elements. Special designs of pump inlet passages, including large top inlet connections, have been developed. Oversize pumps are normally used at low speed to minimize velocity increase of the fluid entering the pumping elements.

Viscosity has a large effect on differential pressure and pump efficiency, as discussed later.

4.2.1.4.3

Fluid density

Unlike centrifugal pumps, the P generated is independent of fluid density and depends only on how much torque the motor can develop. A change in gravity from 1.0 to 0.5 at the same capacity will result in the same P but will double the head.

4.2.1.4.4

Fluid type

Because the rotary pump requires close internal clearances, solids in the fluid will cause rapid erosion. Thus, the pump should normally be specified for clean service. Dirty service should be discussed with the pump

manufacturers.

4.2.1.4.5

Fluid temperature Close internal clearances and temperatures above 350F must be checked to determine if seizure or galling of the internals is a possibility with the application under consideration.

4.2.1.4.6

Flow rate

Positive displacement pump capacity may be varied by the following methods : (1) bypass control, (2) variable speed drive, or (3) adjustable capacity (for which a limited number of designs are available).

4.2.1.4.7

Net positive suction head

NPSH requirements of rotary pumps are low, five feet is considered sufficient for all capacities. Rotary pumps in viscous service can handle some vapor but lose capacity accordingly and may become very noisy, particularly at high differential pressures.

4.2.1.4.8

Rotary pump discharge

Maximum shutoff pressure, or stalling pressure, depends on the available torque from the driver. This pressure is usually sufficienly high that liquid relief valves are installed to prevent excessive pressure. Most rotary pumps can be obtained with built in relief valves which bypass from pump discharge to pump suction. These are for very short time protection against full shutoff, otherwise overheating will result. Separate liquid relief valves are preffered, piped back to the suction liquid vessel.

4.2.1.4.9

Differential pressure (total pressure)

Differential pressure varies with pump designs but most manufactures limit

the pressure in low viscosity services due to excessive leakage and rapid wear. Table XXV list the maximum allowable differential pressures permitted by suppliers. These values apply to pumps handling liquids with good lubricating properties at discharge pressure to over 1000 psi.

4.2.1.4.10

Rotary pump drivers

Rotary pumps are ussually driven by electric motors. Large pumps are sometimes driven by reciprocating engines or turbines when the power requirement is not compatible with the electric power source. Smaller pumps may be driven by engines if electricity is not available.

Rotary pump losses primarily consist of leakage from high pressure to low pressure areas, fluid friction, and packing losses. Leakage decreases with increase in viscosity, whereas friction loss increases with viscosity. Maximum efficiency is in the large of 1000 to 3000 SSU. Efficiency improves with increase in pressure as the losses do not increase in proportion to the overall pumping horsepower.

4.2.1.4.11

Rotary pump estimating procedure

Rotary pump weights and dimension can be approximated using Table XVIII. For a given horsepower Table XVIII gives the pump dimension including motor size and the approximate weight of the unit.

4.3

Calculations

4.3.1

Centrifugal pump

The following procedure should be used in carrying out the calculations for a centrifugal pump.

Step 1 Gather design parameters.

Step 2 Correct liquid properties, if necessary.

Step 3 Determine pipe pressure losses using fluid flow, TPE design manual, PR - DM - 008.

Step 4 Calculate the total suction head.

hTSH = hp - ha + hs - hf Equation 8 Where :

hTSH

= Total suction head, ft.

hp

= Absolute pressure in suction source (e.g. a vessel), ft.

ha

Atmospheric pressure, ft

hs

=Static suction head, ft. If liquid level is below pump datum elevatio, use (-)

hf

=Friction head loss in suction piping, ft. including entrance losses.

Note : If hTSH is negative, this represents a suction lift condition.

Step 5 Calculate the total discharge head.

hTDH = hp - ha + hv Equation 9

Where :

hTDH

= Total discharge head, ft

hp = Absolute pressure at pump discharge, ft.

ha

= Atmospheric pressure, ft.

hv

= Discharge velocity head

V = 2g where, V = Velocity in discharge piping, ft per sec.

Step 6 Calculate the total head

hT = hTDH - hTSH Equation 9

Where :

hT

= Total head, ft.

hTDH

= Total discharge head, ft.

hTSH

= Total suction head, ft.

Step 7 Calculate the NPSHA

The net positive suction head available (NPSHA) above vapor pressure to move and accelerate the fluid into the impeller inlet may be calculate as follows :

NPSHA = hp + hs - hf - hvpa Equation 11

Where :

NPSHA = Net Positive Suction Head Available, ft.

hp

=Absolute pressure at the surface of the liquid within the vessel from

which the pump takes suction, ft. In open system, hp equals atmospheric pressure, ha, ft.

hs

= Static elevation of the liquid above the datum point of the pump, ft.If the liquid level is below the pump datum, hs is negative.

hf

=Friction head loss in suction pipe, ft, including entrance losses.

hvpa = Vapor pressure of the fluid at the pumping temperature, ft. absolute.

Note : If a pump takes its suction from a source where the absolute pressur on the surface of the liquid is eq equivalent to the vapor presur, the NPSHA is the difference in elevation between the liquid level and the datum, minus the entrance and friction losses in the suction piping. This condition is frequently encountered on offshore production platforms where pumps take suction from the oil and gas separators.

Step 8 Calculate the brake horsepower.

The horsepower to be supplied to the pump using a particular driver is calculated as follows :

GPM x hT x SG BHP = 3960 x Eff. (from Eq. 6)

Where :

GPM = Gallons per minute

hT = Total head of pump, ft.

Eff. = Pump efficiency.

Step 9 Select paticular pump

Using manufacturer's pump performance curves (see Figures 27, 28, 29 and 30), select a particular pump that conforms as closely as possible to the GPM, total head, and efficiency required. Various curves from several manufacturers may have to be reviewed before the correct pump is selected. However, the procedure is very simple, using the performance curves available.

After selecting the pump of a particular size and model from the manufactures pump performance curve, go to the characteristic head capacity curve for this particular pump to verify the performance. Again, these characteristic curves must be obtained from the particular pump manufacturer.

Step 10 Consult pump vendor

Discuss the chosen pump with its vendor to obtain further recommendations and to check the calculation and selection procedure.

Step 11 Complete pump data sheet : see Figure 68

4.3.2

Reciprocating pump

Step 1 Gather design parameters

Step 2 Calculate liquid properties, if necessary

Step 3 Determine pipe pressure losses using fluid flow, TPE design manual, PR - DM - 008.

Step 4 Calculate the total suction head (same as for centrifugal pump).

Step 5 Calculate the total discharge head (same as for centrifugal pump).

Step 6 Calculate the total head (same as for centrifugal pump).

Step 7 Calculate the NPSHA

The expression for calculating the NPSH for a reciprocating pump is simillar to the one used for calculating the NPSH of a centrifugal pump (Equation 3), with the exception that an additional term called the Acceleration Head must be included in the expression to calculate the NPSH for the reciprocating pump. The Acceleration Head is the force required to accelerate the fluid in the suction line.

The NPSHA for a reciprocating pump may be obtained using the following :

NPSHA = hp + hs - hf - hvpa - hacc

Where :

hacc = Acceleration head, ft = LVC gk

Where :

= Lenght of pipe, ft.

= Velocity of the fluid in the suction pipe, ft. per sec.

= 0.20 simplex double-acting pump. Hydraulic Institutes Standards, Ref. 10, page 252.

All other terms, as defined in 4.3.1, Step 4 for centrifugal pump.

Step 8 Calculate brake horsepower

GPM x psi BHP = 1715 x Eff.

Where :

psi = Total head, poundsper square inch. Other terms as in 4.3.1, Step 5 for centrifugal pump.

Note : For converting head in feet to psi for subtitution above equation, use the following :

in the

ht x S.G. Head in psi = 2.31 Where :

ht = Total head, ft.

S.G. = Specific gravity of liquid

Step 9 Select particular pump

Using pump manufactures' literature and catalogue select the pump for the conditions obtained in the foregoing calculations. If possible, avoid selecting the largest piston or plunger size for the pump case.

Step 10 Consult pump vendor

Discuss pump selection with its vendor for further recommendations and as a check of the selection procedure. Step 11 Prepare pump data sheet : See figure 69

4.3.3

Metering pump

Since metering pumps, or, controlled volume pumps, are simply very accurate positive displacement devices usually of the plunger or diaphragm type, the procedure used for Reciprocating Pump Calculation may also be used for this type of pump. Again, careful consultation with pump vendor is hyghly recommended.

4.3.4

Rotary pump

Step 1 Gather design parameters

Step 2 Calculate liquid properties, if necessary

Step 3 Determine pipe pressure losses using fluid flow, TPE design manual, PR - DM - 008.

Step 4 Calculate the total suction lift or head, same as for centrifugal pump, see 4.3.2, step 1.

Step 5 Calculate the total discharge head, same as for centrifugal pump, see 4.3.2, Step 2.

Step 6 Calculate the total head, same as for centrifugal pump, see 4.3.2, step 4.

Step 7 Calculate the NPSHA, same as for centrifugal pump, see 4.3.2, step 4.

Step 8 Calculate the brake horsepower, same as for reciprocating pump, see 4.3.3, Step 5.

Step 9 Select particular pump, same as for reciprocating pump, see 4.3.3.6.

Step 10 Consult pump vendor, same as for reciprocating pump, see 4.3.3.7.

Step 11 Complete pump data sheet

4.3.5

Series and parallel operation (all types)

All the pumps mentioned in this Design Manual are capable of operating in series or parallel combinations. However, on process facilities, centrifugal pumps are the types most frequently found operating in these modes. In parallel, the flow capacity at any given head are added and, in series, the heads at any given capacity are added. A multistage pump is, in reality, a series arrangement of singlestage units (see Figure 70). Parallel operation is most effective with duplicate pumps. Pumps do not have to be duplicated, however, and don't even have to have the same shutoff capacity. When pumps are operating in parallel, it is imperative that their performance curves rise steadily to shutoff. A dropping curve gives two possible points of operation : pumps may jump back and forth between the two points, causing surging (see Figure 71).

Adding heads in series operations introduces one minor error. It is assumed that liquids are non compressible. Normally, this is true for all practical proposes, but, in some high pressure pumps, compressibility must be taken into account. Normally, however, compressibility can be ignored and, except in pressures over 3000 psig, the pump may be engineered on the bassis of noncompressibility. Examples of centrifugal pumps operating in series and/or parallel combinations are : a booster pump is used in series with oil transfer and water injection pumps to improve NPSHA, and in parallel operation (without the booster pump) to handle high volume and make system operations more flexible. See Pump Application Engineering, Reference 11, pages 110 to 123. Before attemoting to match pumps for operation in series and/or in parallel, consult the pump vendor.

4.3.6

Pipeline pumps

One of the most important pumping systems on the process is that of

pumping the produced fluid, usually long distances (saveral miles). The pumps used for this function are usually called oil shipping pumps, oil transfer pump, or export pumps. Because production shutdown is very undesirable, these pumps are usually operated in series or parallel with an extra pump or pumps included in the pumping system as standby. The pump combinations depend on the required flow rates, pressures, and reserve capacity, and are usually designated as two 100% pumps, three 50% pumps, four 33% pumps, etc. The steps in designing a shipping pump system are as follows :

a. Obtain a drawing of the pipeline route for both the subsea and land portions of the line. Note all "hills" (high points), "valley" (low points), and ridges along the route and the physical dimensions.

b. Determine the length of the pipeline from the plat form to the point of discharge onshore (for offshore production).

c.

Calculate teh friction head loss along the pipeline. Plot the hydraulic gradient for the line, showing how the friction head loss varies along the line.

d. Ensure that all sections of the pipeline are below the hydraulic grade line, especially those sections further away from the pump, i.e. those sections where the line pressures are smaller. This will prevent regions of excessive low pressures where the liquid in the line may vaporize and hamper the pumping operations by restricting flow. The initial height of the hydraulic gradient will depend on the inlet pressure to the pipeline which, in turn, depends on the pump discharge pressure.

e. Prepare a system friction curve and a system head curve for the pumping systems. See Figure 35 and 36.

f.

Calculate the system horsepower.

g. Determine the number of required pumps (series or parallel). As a starting point, the following equation could be used.

System horsepower No. of pump = Driver horsepower

h. Select

commercially

available

pump

or

pumps

and

generate

representative curves for series and/or parallel operations. See Figure 66.

i.

Superimpose pump characteristic curve on system head curve to obtain pump operating point. See Figure 37. Continue this operation until a suitable pump combination is attained.

j.

Contact

pump

manufacturer's

representative to discuss

further

refinements of the selection procedure.

4.3.7

Pump sparing

Each pumping installation should be evaluated from both safety and economic standpoints to determine if a spare is needed. Pumps which require a production shutdown for pump repair generally justify spares. Pumps required for safety, such as fire pumps, should generally also be spared.

4.4

Result

The following result should be obtained from this Design Manual.

a. The differential pressure required by the pump to deliver the required capacity. b. The type of required pump.

c.

The hydraulic horsepower and approximate brake horsepower.

d. The approximate size and weight of the pump and driver.

4.5

Checklist

The required pump data sheet, in association with the following factors, will form a comprehensive checklist against which the pump selection procedure can be compered :

a. Range of impeller diameters, inches b. Range of maximum capacities, GPM c. Range of heads achievable, ft of liquid pumped d. Capacity range is within range of highest efficiency e. Range of efficiencies, percent f. Capacity at maximum efficiency g. Maximum head at maximum efficiency h. Range of speed, rpm i. Range of BHP requirements j. Limits of recommended flow rate range k. Range of NPSHR, ft or water l. Range of shutoff head

5.

REFERENCES

1. 2. 3.

"Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Services," API Standard 610. "Special Purpose Gear Units for Refinery Services," API Standard 613. "Combustion Gas Turbines for General Refinery Services," API Standard 616.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

"Speacial Purpse Couplings for Refinery Services," API Standard 671. "Positive Displacement Pumps - Reciprocating," API Standard 674. "Positive Displacement Pumps - Controlled Volume," API Standard 675. "Positive Displacement Pumps - Rotary," API Standard 676 "Specifications for Horizontal, End Suction Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Processing", ANSI B73.1

9.

"Specifications for Vertical In-Line Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Prcessing", ANSI B73.2

10. 11.

Hydraulic Institute Standards, 14th Edition, 1983. Pump Application Engineering, Tyler G. Hicks and Theodore W. Edwards, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1971

12.

Fundamentals and Application of Centrifugal Pumps for the Practicing Engineer, Alfred Benaroya, Petroleum Publishing Company, 1978

13.

Pump Hanbook, I. J. Karassik and W. C. Krutzsch, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976

14. 15. 16. 17.

Cameron Hydraulic Data, Ingersoll-Rand Company, 16th Edition, 1979 "Prime Mover Design Manual", PR-DM-005.09 "Fluid Flow", PR-DM-008 "Material Selection", PR-DM-010

6.

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

6.1

Definitions

Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH). The net positive suction head is a statement of the minimum suction conditions required to prevent cavitation in a pump. It is the total suction head, less the vapor pressure of the liquid at the pumping temperature, required to get the liquid into the impleller of the pump.

Split-Case Pump. A split-case pump is one in which the casing of the pump is axially or radially-split or divided into two or more parts.

Simplex Pump. This refers to a positive displacement pump with one piston or plunger.

Duplex Pump. This refers to a positive displacement pump with two pistons or plungers.

6.2

Abbreviations

BHP = CH Cn CQ Cyl. Dia. Eff. g = = = = = = =

Brake horsepower Head correction factor (Fig. 46) Efficiency correction factor (Fig. 46) Capacity correction factor (Fig. 46) Cylinder Diameter, feet Efficiency Acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft. per sec. Gallons per minute Head per stage, ft. Atmospheric pressure, ft. acceleration head, ft. Friction head loss, ft. Absolute pressure, ft. Hydraulic horsepower Static head, ft. Totaawhead, ft. Total discharge head, ft. Total suction head, ft. Velocity head, ft. Vapor pressure, ft. absolute Length, feet

GPM = H ha hacc hf hp HP hs ht hTDH hTSH hv hvpa L = = = = = = = = = = = = =

NPSHA = Net positive suction head available NPSHR = Net positive suction head required Ns Q QHW = = = Specific speed, rpm Flow rate, GPM Water capacity at which maximum efficiency is obtained (Figure 46). Revolutions per minute Liquid specific gravity, dimensionless Liquid velocity, ft per second

RPM = S.G. V = =

APPENDIX I FIGURES AND TABLES

Figure 56 HORIZONTAL, SINGLE-ACTING PLUNGER POWER PUMP

TABLE I CAPACITY FACTOR FOR PUMP SPEED

1. 3,600 rpm Base Speed

Head GPM Required Speed, rpm Multiplier 3,600 1.0 1.0 3,000 1.44 1.2 1,800 4.0 2.0 1,500 5.76 2.4 1,200 27.0 3.0 1,000 13.0 3.6

BHP Multiplier 1.0 0.579 0.125 0.072 0.012 0.021

Multiplier

2. 1,800 rpm Base Speed

Head Required Speed, rpm 3,600 3,000 1,800 1,500 1,200 1,000

GPM

BHP Multiplier 0.25 0.5 0.36 0.6 1.0 1.0 1.44 1.2 2.25 1.5 3.24 1.8

Multiplier 8.0 4.63 1.0 0.579 0.296 0.171

Multiplier

3. 1,200 rpm Base Speed

Head Required Speed, rpm 3,600 3,000 1,800 1,500 1,200 1,000

GPM

BHP Multiplier 0.11 0.3 0.16 0.4 0.44 0.7 0.64 0.8 1.00 1.0 1.44 1.2

Multiplier 27.0 15.63 3.375 1.953 1.000 0.579

Multiplier

TABLE II

WEIGHTS FOR VARIOUS PUMP TYPES, LBS Region on Locator Chart Pump Type

1 2 (Note 1) (Note 1) 200 400 600 1,100 600 800 1,000 2,300 2,200 3,000 3,400 -

6 7 (Note 2) (Note 3) 250 350 450 600 500 600 700 400 550 900 -

A B C D E F G H I J K L Region on Locator Chart 8&9 (Note 3) A B C D E F G H I J K L Notes : 1. 2.

1,600 2,100 2,600 2,300 3,100 3,800 -

2,400 3,900 2,800 4,600 3,300 6,900 6,100 6,000 4,600 6,000 9,100 7,800 12,500 10,000 12,800 1,500 2,500 3,800 7,400

10

2,800 3,700 4,600 5,400 6,400 7,500 8,700 9,800 12,600 15,600 -

Double-bearing construction; deduct 20 % for single-bearing construction. Weights depend on sump depth; add weight for sumps over 5 ft per Note 2 of Table XI.

3.

Weights depend on number of stages and setting depth; refer to deatils of pump types 8 and 9 and selection procedure for Vertical-Turbine Pump, example problem (Section 4.2.1.1.25).

TABLE III

PUMP MOTOR WEIGHTS - HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL ( Note 1) RPM (Note 2) Motor Hp 3,600 3,000 1,800 1,500 1,200 1,000

3 5 10 20 30 50 75 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 700 1,000 1,750 (Note 1)

100 100 220 350 480 730 1,020 1,280 1,900 1,900 1,900 2,200 2,200 2,550 3,600 4,500 4,500 6,300 8,800

100 125 220 350 500 700 1,030 1,400 1,500 2,050 2,800 3,250 -

100 100 220 350 480 730 1,020 1,280 1,900 1,900 1,900 2,200

100 125 220 350 500 700

200 240 350 480 730 1,020

130 200 370 460 640 1,050 1,430 1,950 2,150 2,900 3,600 4,500

1,100 1,450 1,600 2,000 3,000 3,520

1,280 1,680 1,900 1,900 2,180 4,500 -

2,200 2,550 4,600 4,600 5,400 6,500 10,500

4,300 5,000 5,000 -

4,500 5,800 5,800

5,800 6,500 8,800 17,500

Notes : 1.

Motors above solid line are X-P, TEFC low voltage (600 V max). Motors below solid line are totally-enclosed, tube cooled, high voltage (5,000 V max).

2.

Weights for 50 Hz speeds (3000, 1500, 1000) are for European designs.

TABLE IV

DIMENSIONS FOR GENERAL PURPOSE (ANSI STANDARD) PUMPS - TYPE 1

Hp Range

L x W x H, ft Region A

to 10 Balance

3.3 x 1.0 x 1.3 3.8 x 1.3 x 1.3

Region B

to 30 Balance

4.3 x 1.3 x 1.8 4.8 x 1.5 x 1.8

Region C

All Hp

5.0 x 1.5 x 2.3

Region D to 600 Balance 5.4 x 2.2 x 3.0 6.2 x 2.2 x 3.1

Note : This table to be used in conjunction with Figures 3A and 3B, which specify the Regions A, B, C, D indicating flows and coressponding heads at a specified speed.

TABLE V

DIMENSIONS FOR API SINGLE-STAGE PEDESTAL-MOUNT PUMP - TYPE 2

Hp Range

L x W x H, ft Region A

to 10 Balance

4.0 x 1.9 x 2.0 5.2 x 2.1 x 2.3

Region B

All

5.7 x 2.6 x 2.6

Region C

All

6.5 x 2.6 x 2.5

Region D & E All 7.4 x 2.9 x 2.8

Region F All 8.0 x 3.8 x 4.3

Region G to 2,400 to 4,000 Balance 11.0 x 3.5 x 5.0 11.0 x 4.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 4.5 x 7.0

Note :

This table to be used in conjunction with Figures 5A and 5B, which specify the Regions A, B, C, D, E, F, and G indicating flows and corresponding heads at a specified speed.

TABLE VI

DIMENSIONS FOR SKID-MOUNTED TWO-STAGE PROCESS PUMPS AND DRIVERS-TYPE 3

Single or Double Bearing Group A Construction Single Double B Single Double C Single Double D Single Double E Single Motor Hp Width, ft 25-50 25-50 50-125 50-125 100-250 100-250 100-250 100-250 250-300 400-450 Double 250-350 400-450 F Double 350 400-600 3.0 2.4 3.0 2.4 3.0 2.6 3.0 2.6 3.4 4.3 3.4 4.3 3.4 4.3 Overall Dimensions Length, ft 6.1 6.1 6.7 7.1 7.2 8.0 7.2 7.6 7.8 9.9 8.3 10.3 8.3 10.3 Height, ft 2.7 2.3 2.7 2.4 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.4 2.9 5.6 2.9 5.6 2.9 5.6

Note :

This table to be used in conjunction with Figure 7 which specifies Groups A, B, C, D, E and F indicating flows and corresponding heads at a specified speed.

TABLE VII

DIMENSIONS FOR SKID-MOUNTED DOUBLE-SUCTION PROCESS PUMPS AND DRIVERS - TYPE 4

Single or Double Bearing Group A Construction Single Motor Hp Width, ft 60-75 100-250 Double 60-75 100-250 B Single 100-200 250-350 Double 100-200 250-350 C Single 300-350 400-450 Double 300-350 400-900 D Double 900-1,000 1,250-2,000 D Double 250-350 400-700 E Single Double F Double 100-250 100-250 300-350 400-1,000 1,250 G Double Note : 1,250-1,750 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 5.5 5.5 3.5 4.3 3.7 4.7 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.4 3.8 5.5 5.5 5.5 6.4 Overall Dimensions Length, ft 6.6 7.8 7.5 8.6 7.5 7.8 9.7 9.9 8.0 10.1 8.3 10.4 11.3 12.3 9.8 10.8 8.1 8.2 9.8 11.9 12.9 13.4 Height, ft 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 3.0 3.0 4.6 4.6 3.0 5.6 3.2 5.6 5.6 7.6 4.3 5.6 3.7 3.7 4.7 5.6 7.6 7.6

This table to be used in conjunction with Figure 9A and 9B which specify Groups A, B, C, D, E, F and G indicating flows and corresponding heads at specified speeds.

TABLE VIII

DIMENSIONS FOR HORIZONTALLY-SPLIT, DOUBLE-SUCTION PUMP - TYPE 5

1,200 RPM L x W x H, ft Hp Range Region A

3,600 RPM L x W x H, ft Hp Range Region I

to 75 Balance

7.5 x 3.8 x 3.7 8.5 x 3.8 x 3.8 Region B

to 100 Balance

6.6 x 2.3 x 2.5 6.7 x 2.9 x 2.5 Region J 6.8 x 3.5 x 2.5

All Hp

8.6 x 3.9 x 4.3 to 100 to 350 Balance Region C

7.9 x 3.5 x 2.5 10.0x 3.5 x 5.0 Region K

to 350 to 700

9.2 x 4.8 x 4.9 11.3 x 4.8 x 5.0 Region D

to 400 to 700 to 1,000 Balance

8.2 x 3.0 x 3.5 9.9 x 3.5 x 5.0 9.9 x 4.0 x 5.0 10.9 x 4.5 x 7.0 Region L to 1,000 Balance 10.4 x 4.2 x 5.0 13.4 x 4.5 x 7.0

to 800 to 1,000 1,800 RPM Hp Range to 300 Balance

11.3 x 5.3 x 5.0 12.3 x 4.5 x 7.0 L x W x H, ft Region E 8.4 x 3.6 x 3.0 10.6 x 3.6 x 5.0 Region F

Note : This table to be used in conjunction with Figures 11A, 11B and 11C which specify Region A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L indicating flows and corresponding heads at a specific speed.

to 350 Balance

9.3 x 5.0 x 3.0 11.3 x 5.0 x 5.0 Region G

to 1,000 to 1,500

13.0 x 5.0 x 5.0 14.0 x 5.0 x 7.0 Region H

to 1,750 Balance

13.8 x 5.7 x 7.0 15.8 x 5.7 x 9.0

TABLE IX

DIMENSIONS FOR VERTICAL INLINE PUMP - TYPE 6

Height Region A B C D Face to Face, ft 1.5 2.0 2.0 2.5 Including Motor, ft 4.5 5.0 6.2 6.0

Note :

This table to be used in conjunction with Figure 13 which specifies Regions A, B, C and D indicating flows and corresponding heads at a specified speed.

TABLE X

WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS FOR HIGH SPEED SUNDYNE INLINE PUMPS

Dimensions Model 1.8'x(0.8'+2.0' to 2.5') 802 322 Motor 2.2'x(1.1'+2.0' to 3.5') 801

Wt. lbs. Dry Flow Wet Gear Motor Gpm Head End lbs. lbs. 120 200 260 110 500 (50 Hp) 40 3,000 200 800 260 110 (15 Hp min) 200 to 500 lbs 350 700 490 270

Total Kips 0.8 0.6 to 0.8

75 Hp max 1,100 lbs 1.8 max

311 3.5'x(4.7' + Motor) 331

75 5,800 400 2,200

200 Hp max 490 300 2,000 lbs

2.8

220 5,800 200 - 400 Hp 2.8 to 400 4,000 490 270 2,000 to 4,500 5.3

TABLE XI

VERTICAL SUMP PUMP DIMENSIONS TYPE 7

Region A B C D E F

Minimum Sump Diameter with Float, ft 1.7 1.7 1.7 2.1 2.5 3.8

Wt Addition Pump Length, ft (Note 1) A B C D E F to 240 Hp to 400 Hp Balance 7.83 8.50 9.60 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.83 8.17 lbs / ft (Note 2) 30 30 30 80 80 200 200 200

Notes :

1. Length based on 5 ft sump depth; length includes motor. 2. For each foot of sump depth over 5 ft, add this weight to weight from Table II. 3. This table to be used in conjunction with Figures 15A and 15B which specify regions A, B, C, D, E and F indicating flows and corresponding heads at a specified speed.

TABLE XII

VERTICAL TURBINE BOWL WIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS (WET PIT AND CANNED TYPE) TYPES 8 AND 9

Region on Locator Weight,lbs Length, ft Add per Stage 0.33 0.50 0.75 1.0 1.0 1.0 3.5 4.0 5.0 2.0 2.0 2.5

Chart First Stage Add per Stage First Stage A B C D E F G H I 30 60 130 200 350 600 1,300 2,200 3,500 20 40 70 130 200 400 800 1,400 2,400 1.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 2.5

Note :

This table to be used in conjuction with Figure 18 which specifies regions A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H and I indicating flows and corresponding heads at specified speeds.

TABLE XIII

VERTICAL TURBINE WET PIT PACKAGE HEAD WEIGHTS AND SIZES TYPE 8

Size GPM Head Wt, lbs Diameter x H, ft (Note 1) Column Wt/ft, lbs

600 2,200 5,500 9,000 14,000 20,000 32,000

350 600 900 1,300 1,700 2,700 3,300

1.5 x 2.7 2.0 x 3.3 3.5 x 4.0 2.8 x 4.6 3.0 x 5.0 3.5 x 6.0 4.0 x 7.0 60 80 95

10 20 40

120

Notes :

1. Does not include motor height.

TABLE XIV

VERTICAL CANNED PUMP WEIGHT AND SIZES TYPE 9

Can OD, RPM Region GPM Inches (Note 1)

Wt Head plus Add per ft 1 ft can, lbs of can, lbs

Head Height and Length (Note 2)

3,600 3,600 3,600

D C B

1,500 1,500 750

20 18 14

1,300 1,200 760

80 3.0 x 3.0 70 3.0 x 3.0 55 3.0 x 2.5

1,800 1,800 1,800 1,800 1,800 1,800

F E E D C B

7,000 4,500 3,200 2,000 1,000 500

36 30 24 20 16 12

4,100 3,000 2,000 1,300 900 600

143 3.7 x 4.0 120 3.7 x 4.0 95 3.3 x 3.0 80 3.0 x 3.0 60 3.0 x 2.5 44 3.0 x 2.5

1,200 1,200 1,200 1,200 1,200 1,200

G G F F E E

12,000 8,000 9,000 4,000 2,500 1,500

48 42 42 30 24 20

7,300 5,400 5,400 2,800 1,700 1,300

192 167 167 120 3.7 x 4.0 95 3.3 x 3.0 80 3.0 x 3.0

Notes

1. Based on 3 ft/sec velocity in can, including bowls. 2. Length is suction flange to discharge flange dimension. 3. This table to be used in conjuction with Figure 18 which specifies Regions A, B, C, D, E, F and G indicating flow and corresponding heads

at a specified speed.

TABLE XV

VERTICAL SOLID SHAFT MOTOR WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS FOR VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS TYPE 8 AND 9

RPM 1200 1800 3600 Motor Weight Dimen. Hp lbs Dimen. Weight Dimen. Weight

Ft lbs Ft lbs Ft Ht x Dia Ht x Dia Ht x Dia 600 volts and below 5 10 20 30 50 75 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 200 280 475 650 950 1,230 1,230 1,795 1,795 2,195 3,020 2.3 x 1.1 2.6 x 1.3 2.8 x 1.5 3.4 x 1.8 3.6 x 1.9 4.0 x 2.2 4.0 x 2.2 4.5 x 2.5 4.5 x 2.5 4.8 x 2.5 5.2 x 2.5

200 2.3 x 1.5 280 2.6 x 1.3 475 2.8 x 1.5 650 3.4 x 1.8 950 3.6 x 1.9 1,230 4.0 x 2.2 1,795 2,195 3,020 4.5 x 2.5 4.8 x 2.5 5.2 x 2.5

200 280 475 650 950

2.3 x 1.1 2.6 x 1.3 2.8 x 1.5 3.4 x 1.8 3.8 x 1.9

2,195 3,020

4.8 x 2.5 5.2 x 2.5

2300 volts 250 300 350 400 500 3,820 4,040 5,380 5,380 5,810 5.1 x 2.3 5.4 x 2.3 5.8 x 2.8 5.8 x 2.8 6.1 x 2.8 3,820 4,040 4,040 5,380 5,810 5.1 x 2.3 5.4 x 2.3 5.4 x 2.3 5.8 x 2.8 6.1 x 2.8 3,820 4,040 4,040 5,380 5,810 5.1 x 2.3 5.4 x 2.3 5.4 x 2.3 5.8 x 2.8 6.1 x 2.8

700 9,250 7.0H x 4.7 x 4.2 9,250 7.0H x 4.7 x 4.2 9,250 7.0H x 4.7 x 4.2 1,000 10,100 7.4H x 4.7 x 4.2 10,100 7.4H x 4.7 x 4.2 10,100 7.4H x 4.7 x 4.2 Note : Based on high thrust, P base, TEFC and explosion-proof motors.

TABLE XVI

DIMENSIONS FOR SKID-MOUNTED , MULTIPLEX, HORIZONTALLY-SPLIT PROCESS PUMPS AND DRIVERS - TYPE 10

Motor Group A Hp 150 - 350 400 - 450 B 300 - 500 400 - 600 C 350 400 - 700 D-1 D-2 E-1 400 - 1,000 400 - 1,000 900 - 1,000 1,250 - 2,000 E-2 900 - 1,000 1,250 - 2,000 F-1 600 - 1,000 1,250 - 2,000 F-2 G 1,250 - 1,750 1,250 - 2,000 2,250 - 3,000 H 1,250 - 2,000 2,250 - 3,000 I 2,000 2,250 - 3,000 J 1,750 - 2,000 2,250 - 4,000 Width, ft

Overal Dimensions Length, ft 3.4 4.3 3.4 4.3 3.4 4.3 4.8 4.8 4.8 5.3 4.8 5.3 4.8 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.8 5.3 5.8 5.3 5.8 5.3 5.8 Height, ft 9.6 11.7 10.4 12.5 11.0 13.1 13.9 12.1 13.2 14.1 12.7 13.7 14.2 15.2 14.6 15.1 17.1 13.6 15.6 14.6 16.6 15.6 17.6 2.8 5.5 2.8 5.5 2.8 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 7.5 5.5 7.5 5.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 10.0 7.5 10.0 7.5 10.0 7.5 10.0

Notes :

This table to be used in conjunction with Figure 20 which specifies Groups A, B, C, D-1, D-2, E-1, E-2, F-1, F-2, G, H, I and J indicating flows and corresponding heads and .... ......... ... .. specified speed.

TABLE XVII

PLUNGER PUMP WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS

Type Horizontal " " " " " " " " Vertical " " " "

Size Code Rpm Weight, Kips L x W H, ft A 300 B C D E F G H I J K L M N 380 " 550 1.5 450 4.0 320 320 0.9 " " " " " " " 9.0 2.5 x 3.3 x 1.3 1.0 1.5 1.2 2.4 4.0 5.0 5.8 " 2.8 x 4.2 x 1.8 " 3.7 x 4.5 x 2.0 3.7 x 4.5 x 2.0 4.3 x 6.0 x 2.5 " 5.5 x 6.2 x 2.3 6.2 x 2.3 x 3.9 2.4 7.8 x 2.3 x 4.9

9.3 x 2.3 x 5.8 6.8 9.7 16.7 x 2.1 x 5.5 20.2 x 2.1 x 5.5

Note :

This table to be used in conjuction with Figures 21, 22 and 23 which specify size codes, flows and corresponding heads, and brake horsepower.

TABLE XVIII

ROTARY PUMP WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS

Horsepower

Size, With Motor, ft

Approximate Weight, Kips

0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 15.0 30.0 60.0

1.3' x 3.1' x 0.8' 1.3' x 3.1' x 0.8' 1.3' x 3.1' x 0.8' 1.7' x 3.9' x 0.8' 1.7' x 3.9' x 0.9' 1.8' x 5.0' x 1.0' 2.0' x 5.5' x 1.2'

0.2 0.25 0.3 0.55 0.70 1.1 1.45

Capacity of a rotary pump is a function of flow rate, pressure differential, and viscosity. Maximum operating pressures of 500 psi are available from vendors. For estimating purposes, assume an efficiency of 0.5 to estimate BHP and weights.

TABLE XIX

DIESEL-DRIVE FIRE PUMPS WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS

Capacity Source USGpm

Dry Weight, Operating _P, psi Kips Weight, Kips Size

A B C

3,000 1,200 2,500

150 180 210

13.2 5.3 14.7

15.4 6.3

16' x 5' x 7' 11.7' x 4' x 6'

A - North Sea quote, diesel drive B - Persian Gulf, diesel drive C - North Sea, electric drive 600 Hp each

TABLE XX

WATER INJECTION PUMPS WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS

Capacity USGpm

Weight, Kips _p, psi Pump Driver Gear Total Dimensions

1,100 4,500 2,017 2,700 1,500 3,000 1,050 3,800

8.0 30.9

28.0 17.8

4.0

40.0

5' x 24' 4.3' x 17' Stratfjord B* Beryl 'A'** Heather***

- 48.7 61.0 34.0

5' x 26.4' 6' x 27.6'

* ** ***

13.8 KVA motor, no gearbox, speed at 3,600 rpm 8 stage pump 11 KVA motor, 3,000 to 4,000 rpm gear, speed at 4,000 rpm, 12 stage pump Union Oil Heather, 6,000 rpm driver pump

Note :

This table to be used in conjuction with Figure 25 which specifies weight versus capacity.

TABLE XXI

PUMP SELECTION AND APPLICATION

CAPACITY RANGE GPM CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS : (1) Vertical Inline 20 to 1,200 15 to 700 FEET

HEAD RANGE APPLICATION

General processing and transfer service at temperatures below 350oF. Minimum space

application. (2) End-Suction, Frame-Mounted processing and transto 1,200 (3) Horizontal, Single-Stage the low to Tangential-Suction between and moderate Bearings (4) Horizontal, Multi-Stage sea to 1,500 to 1,500 water, gasoline and other hydrocarbons and also in waterflood operations. (5) Horizontal Barrel (Double Cage) As required As required for service to 4,500 (6) Vertical Can 20 to pumpfor service to 10,000 55 to Used principally for high pressure waterflood application. Pump speed may approach 7500 rpm. Used principally for improving available NPSH when 10,000 200 200 200 heads ranges. Used to pump crude oil, to to moderate flow 100 to 700 fer service at temperatures below 350oF. 40 Hydrocarbons in 35 30 General

50,000 hydrocarbon

2,000

ing

bubble

point

mixtures. usually encased vessel. (7) Vertical Turbine 100 to 30,000 (8) Submersible shaft to 30,000 to 880 100 10 10 to 880 Used

Pumping

and

in

pressure

Used for lift application such as sea water and fire water. to eliminate long

lengths. Same application as vertical turbine.

TABLE XXI

(Continued)

MAXIMUM FLOW GPM POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS : Reciprocating (1) Diaphragm controlled 10 PSI

MAXIMUM HEAD APPLICATION

3,500

Used

mainly

in

volume applications as a metering pump.

(2) Plunger

25

7,500

Used primarilly as glycol pumps, condensate pumps

and drilling mud pumps.

(3) Piston

600

750

Same as above.

Rotary (1) Gear 600 400 Used to transfer recovered oil from a drain separator to a process oil/water separator. Also used as diesel transfer pump and in high viscosity applications.

Notes :

(1) Centrifugal pumps normally operate in the range of 1150 to 3600 rpm.

(2) For reciprocating pumps, the recommended rpm is a function of stroke length (inches). See Hydraulic Institute Standards, 14th Edition, 1983, page 238 ( Reference 10 ).

(3) For reciprocating pumps handling liquids with vicosities above 300 SSU at pumping temperature, the speeds are normally reduced to a percent of the basic speed. See Hydraulic Institute Standards, 14th Edition, 1983, page 238 (Reference 10). TABLE XXII

MINIMUM COMTINUOUS CAPACITY RATING 60 CYCLE SPEED (3550 RPM)

Minimum Continuous Normal Rating Capacity Rating Head Range To 100 100 - 350 350 - 650 650 - 1100 400 - 1200 1200 - 5500 To 75 75 - 250 250 - 450 450 - 775 250 - 850 850 - 3800 Pump Type 1 stage 1 stage 2 stage 2 stage Multistage Multistage 1 stage 1 stage 2 stage 2 stage Multistage Multistage GPM 10 15 30 40 15 40 10 15 25 30 10 30 of Pump GPM 60 75 - 100 150 160 50 100 - 120 50 60 - 80 120 130 40 80 - 100

TABLE XXIII

COOLING WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR PUMPS

Pumps Up to 350oF 350o - 500oF Above 500oF

To 1000 GPM

Over 1000 GPM

0 GPM 2 GPM 3 GPM

0 4 6

Note: Add 0.5 GPM per stuffing box for the packing glands for packed pumps.

TABLE XXIV

SUCTION LINE LIQUID ACCELERATION HEAD, FT, FOR SIMPLEX PUMP AT 60 STROKES/MIN.

Average Suction Line Velocity, Fps 0.5 1.0 2.0 25 1.7 3.3 6.5

Suction Line Length, ft 50 3.3 6.5 13.0 75 5.0 9.8 19.5 100 6.5 13.0 26.0

(1) Use 40% of above values for duplex steam pumps, duplex and triplex power pumps. (2) Multiply above factors by ratio of actual strokes per minute divided by 60. (3) For power pumps multiply above factors by ratio of actual rpm divided by 30. (4) Length of line is actual feet, not equivalent length. (5) The above acceleration head is added to NPSH required by the pump. (6) The NPSH requirement for a reciprocating pump, covering pressure loss from the inlet flange to the cylinder, is primarily determined by the liquid velocity through the suction valve, the weight of the valve, and the spring loading on the valve. (7) 12 ft NPSH allowance for a reciprocating gas pump is desirable. (8) 8 ft to 10 ft NPSH is sufficient with some slower speed pumps. (9) Special close clearance simplex pumps are avaiable when some vaporization on the suction side may be expected.

TABLE XXV

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURES

Viscosity Centistrokes 2 2 - 15 15 - 70 Over 100

Max. Allowable Differential Pressure, psi 100 200 300 500

APPENDIX II EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS

EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS

1.

DESIGN PARAMETERS

Estimate the differential head, hydraulic horsepower, and the available NPSH for the following pump service :

Service :

Hydrocarbon feed Molecular Weight Flow rate, GPM @ 60oF Sp. Gr. @ 60oF Pumping Temp, oF Viscosity, cp 110 0.09 167

48

0.539

Suction Conditions :

Pressure, Psia 185 Elev. - bottom of tank 7 ft above pump suction centerline Line loss - not over 0.5 ft liquid/100 ft pipe

Discharge Conditions :

Tower pressure, psia

500

Feed elev. - 19th tray (2-ft spacing) Control - FRC with valve (10 psi drop) Resistance - 2 exchangers with 5 psi drop each in series Line Loss - Not over 2 ft/100 ft pipe

2.

CALCULATING CORRECTED PROPERTIES

S.G. @ 110Of = 0.500 FROM NGPSA Page 16 - 20 Density = 0.500 x 8.33 = 4.17 lb/gal

PSI = 4.17 (feet of fluid) = 0.217 x ( feet of fluid) 19.25

0.539 GPM @ 110oF = 167 x 0.500 = 180

Dynamic viscosity, u = 0.09 Cp

0.09 Kinematic viscosity = 0.500 = 0.18 Centistokes

3.

FRICTION LOSS

Determine the suction pipe size using Fluid Flow, PR - DM - 008.

From Cameron Hydraulic Data for 180 GPM and a limiting pressure drop of 0.5 feet liquid/100 ft of pipe, we get the following : (using 0.6 lowset kinematic viscosity shown).

For 40-inch pipe (Cameron pg. 3 - 58) :

hf = 17.4 feet/1000 ft or 1.74 feet/100 ft

For 6-inch pipe (Cameron pg. 3 - 60) :hf = 2.26 feet/1000 ft or 0.226 feet/100 ft

For 8-inch pipe (Cameron pg. 3 - 62) :

hf = 0.59 feet/1000 ft or 0.059 feet/100 ft

Use the 6-inch pipe closer to the limiting pressure drop given (0.5).

Now determine the equivalent length of straight pipe :

For 6-in. pipe, p. 10-13 of GPSA or 3-120 of Cameron.

Fitting Contraction 90-degree welding elbow Gate-valve, wide open St. Pipe

Equivalent Length, ft No. 10 6.5 4.2

Ft* 1 4 1 10 26 4 80 120

Some idea of layout is necessary. Numbers here are assumed for illustration.

120 Friction Drop = hf = 100 x 0.26 = 0.312 ft

4.

PUMP SUCTION HEAD

hTSH = hp - ha - hs - hf

(Eq. 8)

Where :

185 x 2.31 hp = 0.5 ha = 34 feet hs = 7 feet hf = 0.312 feet hTSH = 855 - 34 + 7 - 0.312 hTSH = 828 feet or 180 psi = 855 feet

DISCHARGE CALCULATIONS :

Assume 10 ft for skirt and tower bottom section. Assume pump mounted 2 ft above grade.

FRICTION LOSS :

Determine the dischaege pipe size using Fluid Flow, PR - DM - 008. From Cameron Hydraulic Data for 180 GPM and a limiting pressure drop of 2 feet liquid/100 ft of pipe, we get the following (using 0.6 lowset kinematic viscosity shown) :

For 3-inch pipe (Cameron pg. 3 - 54) : hf = 69 feet/1000 ft or 69 feet/100 ft

For 4-inch pipe (Cameron pg. 3 - 58) : hf = 17.4 feet/1000 ft or 1.74 feet/100 ft

For 6-inch pipe (Cameron pg. 3 - 60) : hf = 2.26 feet/1000 ft or 0.226 ft/100 ft

Use the 4-inch pipe closer to the limiting pressure drop of 2 ft/100 ft. Determine the equivalent length of straight pipe for 4-inch pipe, pg. 10 - 13 of NGPSA or 3 - 120, Cameron.

Fitting Elbows Tees, branch St. Pipe Expansion

Equivalent Length, ft 6.5 28 21 6 39 2 56 1 21

No.

Ft*

120

236

236 Friction Drop = hf = 100 x 1.74 = 4.1, say 4 feet

Control Valve Pressure Drop

2.31 (pressure, psi) hf = liquid specific gravity (Eq. 1)

2.31 x 10 hf = 0.5 = 46.2 ft.

Exchangers Pressure Drop

2.31 (pressure, psi) hf = liquid specific gravity (Eq.1)

2.31 x 5 hf = 2 0.5 = 46.2 ft

Total friction drop = 2(46.2) + 4 = 96.4 feet

5.

PUMP DISCHARGE HEAD :

hTDH = hp - ha + hs + hv + hf

(Eq. 9)

Where :

2.31 x 500 hp = 0.5 ha = 34 feet hf = 96.4 feet hv = negligible hs = 46 feet hTDH = 2310 - 34 + 96.4 + 46 hTDH = 2418 feet or 524 psi = 2310 feet

6.

PUMP DIFFERENTIAL HEAD : (Total Head)

hT = hTDH - hTSH hT = 2418 - 828 hT = 1590 feet or 344 psi Allow 10% additional hT = 1.1 x 1590 = 1749 ft or 380 psi

(Eq. 10)

7.

NPSHA

The mixture in the tank is at its bubble point. The minimum NPSH available is simply the elevation difference between the vessel and the centerline of the pump suction, minus friction loss.

NPSHA = hp + hs - hf - hvpa

(Eq. 11)

Where :

hp = hvpa . . . . . Bubble point liquid. NPSHA = 7 - 0.312 NPSHA = 6.7 feet

8.

HYDRAULIC HORSEPOWER :

GPM x hT x S.G. HP = 3960 (Eq. 4)

180 x 1749 x 0.5 HP = 3960

HP = 39.75 (40 horsepower)

9.

Use Figure 26 ("Pump Selection Guide") and the following pump operating conditions :

hT = 1749 feet Q = 180 GPM

To make a preliminary pump selection :

With 180 GPM point on the abscissa of Figure 26 and an hT of 1749 ft on the ordinate, the required pump falls on the borderline between a multi-stage centrifugal pump and a reciprocating pump.

Multi-Stage Centrifugal Pump :

From locator chart, Figure 20, it is seen that for the required pump operating conditions a multi-stage centrifugal pump is not wellsuited for this particular pump because of the relatively low flow rate required.

Reciprocating Pump :

From Locator Chart, Figure 21, and the operating conditions ( 180 GPM and 350 psi ), it is seen that the required pump falls within the F region (size code) of the chart, which indicates a triplex plunger pump. Pump may be slightly oversize, being capable of 600 psig total head at 180 GPM (with suitable driver) according to Figure 21. From Table XVII, "Plunger Pump Weight and Dimensions", using Size Code F, we obtain the following for this pump.

Speed Pump Weight Type of Pump Size (skid)

300 RPM

4.0 kips Horizontal 3.7 ft L x 4.5 ft W x 2.0 ft H.

Approximate Data on the Electric Motor Driver :

Horsepower Speed Weight

50 Hp (Figure 23) 900 to 1800 RPM (Speed reduction required) 700 to 1100 lbs (Table III)

10.

To complete the pump selection process, the engineers should consult the pump manufacturer's representative for the specific model pump. Because this application falls on the borderline between multi-stage centrifugal pump and reciprocating pump, a carefull review of available multi-stage centrifugal pumps may reveal a suitable centrifugal pump at less cost than a reciprocating pump.

11

Complete pump data sheet ( Figure 69 ).

APPENDIX III DATA SHEET