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# DOKUZ EYLUL UNIVERTSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

## EXPERIMENT 1 HALF-WAVE & FULL-WAVE RECTIFICATION

Std. No. Name & Surname: 1_________ __________________ 2_________ __________________ 3_________ __________________

## Group No :_____________ Submitted to :_____________ Date : 14.03.2013

Spring, 2013

OBJECTIVE To calculate, draw, and measure the DC output voltages of half-wave and full-wave rectifier circuits.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED (2) 2.2 k (1) 3.3 k (4) Silicon Diodes RESUME OF THEORY The primary function of half-wave and full-wave rectification systems is establish a DC level from a sinusoidal input signal that has zero average (DC) level. The half-wave voltage signal of Fig. .1.1 normally established by a network with a single diode has an average or equivalent DC voltage level equal to 31.8% of the peak voltage Vm. That is,

(1.1) The full-wave rectified signal of Fig..1.2 has twice the average or DC level of the half-wave signal, or 63.6% of the peak value Vm. That is,

(1.2) For large sinusoidal inputs (Vm VT) the forward-biased transition voltage of a diode can be ignored. However, for situations when the peak value of the sinusoidal signal is not that much greater than VT, VT can have a noticeable effect on VDC.

## Figure 1.1 Half-wave rectified signal.

Figure 1.2 Full-wave rectified signal. In rectification systems the peak inverse voltage (PIV) or Zener breakdown voltage parameter must be considered carefully. The PIV voltage is the maximum reverse-bias voltage that a diode can handle before entering the Zener breakdown region. For typical single-diode half-wave rectification systems, the required PIV level is equal to the peak value of the applied sinusoidal signal. For the four-diode full-wave bridge rectification system, the required PIV level is again the peak value, but for a two-diode center- tapped configuration, it is twice the peak value of the applied signal.

PROCEDURE Part 1. Threshold Voltage Choose one of the four silicon diodes you received and determine the diode-checking capability of the DMM or a curve tracer. the threshold voltage, VT, using

VT = Part 2. Half-Wave Rectification a. Construct the circuit of Fig.1.3 using the chosen diode of Part 1. Record the measured value of the resistance. Set the function generator to a 1000-Hz 8-V p-p sinusoidal voltage using the oscilloscope.

## Figure 1.3 Half-wave rectifier.

b. The sinusoidal input (e) of Fig. 1.3 has been plotted on the screen of Fig.1.4. Determine the chosen vertical and horizontal sensitivities. Note that the horizontal axis is the 0 V line.

Figure 1.4 Vertical sensitivity = Horizontal sensitivity = c. Using the threshold voltage of Part 1, determine the theoretical output voltage vo for the circuit of Fig..1.3 and sketch the waveform on Fig.1.4 for one full cycle using the same sensitivities employed in Part 2(b). Indicate the maximum and minimum values on the output waveform. d. Using the oscilloscope with the AC-GND-DC coupling switch in the DC position, obtain the voltage vo and sketch the waveform on Fig.5. Before viewing vo be sure to set the vo = 0 V line using the GND position of the coupling switch. Use the same sensitivities as in Part 2(b).

Figure 1.5 How do the results of Parts 2(c) and 2(d) compare?

e. Calculate the DC level of the half-wave rectified signal of part 2(d). Assume the positive pulse of the waveform is equal to one- half the period of the input waveform when using Eq. 1.

## VDC (calculated) = -----

f. Measure the DC level of va using the DC scale of the DMM and find the percent difference between the measured value and the calculated value of Part 2(e) using the following equation:

## VDC (measured) (% Difference) =

g. Switch the AC-GND-DC coupling switch to the AC position. What is the effect on the output signal vo? Does it appear that the area under the curve above the zero axis equals the area under the curve below the zero axis? Discuss the effect of the AC position on waveforms that have an average value over one full cycle.

h. Reverse the diode of Fig.1. 3 and sketch the output waveform obtained using the oscilloscope on Fig.1.6. Be sure the coupling switch is in the DC position and the vo = 0 V line is preset using the GND position. Include the maximum and minimum voltage levels on the plot as determined using the chosen vertical sensitivity.

Figure 1.6 i. Calculate and measure the DC level of the resulting waveform of Fig. 1.6. Insert the proper sign for the polarity of VDC as defined by Fig. 1.3. Assume the positive pulse of the waveform is equal to one-half the period of the input waveform when using Eq.1.

## VDC (calculated) = VDC (measured) =

Part 3. Half-Wave Rectification (continued) a. Construct the network of Fig.1.7. Record the measured value of the resistor R.

Figure 1.7 b. Using the threshold voltage of Part 1 determine the theoretical output voltage vo for Fig.1.7 and sketch the waveform on Fig.1.8 for one full cycle using the same sensitivities employed in Part 2(b). Indicate the maximum and minimum values on the output waveform.

Figure 1.8 c. Using the oscilloscope with the coupling switch in the DC position obtain the voltage vo and sketch the waveform on Fig. 1.9. Before viewing vo be sure to set the vo = 0 V line using the GND posmon of the coupling switch. Use the same sensitivities as in Part 3(b).

Figure 1.9 6

## How do the results of Parts 3(b) and 3(c) compare?

d. What is the most noticeable difference between the waveform of Fig.1.9 and that obtained in Part 2(h)? Why did the difference occur?

e. Calculate the DC level of the waveform of Fig. 1.9 using the following equation:

VDC (calculated) = f. Measure the output DC voltage with the DC scale of the DMM and calculate the percent using the same equation appearing in Part 2(f). difference

VDC ( measured) = (% Difference) = Part 4. Full-Wave Rectification (Bridge Configuration) a. Construct the full-wave bridge rectifier of Fig. 1.10. Be sure that the diodes are inserted correctly and that the grounding is as shown. If unsure, ask your instructor to check your setup. Record the measured value of the resistor R.

Figure 1.10

b. Calculate the peak value of the secondary voltage using the measured value (Vpeak = 1.414 Vrms).

Vpeak (calculated) = c. Using the VT of Part 1 for each diode sketch the expected output waveform vo on Fig. 1.11. Choose a vertical and horizontal sensitivity based on the amplitude of supply voltage. Consult your oscilloscope to obtain a list of possibilities. Reco:rd your choice for each below.

Figure 1.11 Vertical sensitivity = Horizontal sensitivity = d. Using the oscilloscope with the coupling switch in the DC position ob- tain the waveform for vo and record on Fig.1.12. Use the same sensitivities employed in Part 4(c) and be sure to preset the vo = 0 V line using the GND position of the coupling switch. Label the maximum and minimum values of the waveform using the chosen vertical sensitivity.

Figure 1.12 8

e. Determine

## the DC level of the full-wave rectified waveform of Fig. 1.12.

VDC (calculated) = f. Measure the DC level of the output waveform using the DMM and calculate difference between the measured and calculated values. the percent

VDC (measured) = (% Difference) = g. Replace diodes D3 and D4 by 2.2 k resistors and forecast the appearance of the output voltage vo including the effects of VT for each diode. Sketch the waveform on Fig.1.13 and label the magnitude of the maximum and minimum values. Record your choice of sensitivities below.

## Figure 1.13 Vertical sensitivity = Horizontal sensitivity =

h. Using the oscilloscope, obtain the waveform for vo and reproduce on Fig. 1.14 indicating the maximum and minimum values. Use the same sensitivities as determined in Part 4(g). 9

## i. Calculate the DC level of the waveform of Fig.1.14.

VDC (calculated) = j. Measure the DC level of the output voltage using the DMM and calculate the percent difference.

VDC (measured) = (% Difference) = k. What was the major effect of replacing the two diodes with resistors?

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