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CONTENTS

CHAPTER PARTICULARS PAGE NO.


Preface I
Project personnel Ii
Experts Wing iii
Executive Summary 1-14
I Introduction I
1.1 Profile of Project Proponent and Background I-1
1.2 Genesis and Objectives of project I-3
Brief description of nature, size, location of project
1.3 I-4
and its importance to the region and country
1.4 Status & Stages of Clearances I-11

II Project Details II
2.1 General description of project II-1
2.2 Project details II-24
2.3 Details of mining II-34
2.4 Mineral Beneficiation II-50
2.5 Pellet Plant II-56

Baseline data - Description of baseline status of


III environment, anticipated impacts and proposed III
mitigation measures
3.1 Air Environment III-1
3.1.1 Baseline Status III-1
3.1.2 Anticipated Impacts III-19
3.1.3 Proposed Mitigation Measures III-34
3.2 Noise Environment III-37
3.2.1 Baseline Status III-37
3.2.3 Anticipated Impacts III-39
3.2.4 Proposed Mitigation Measures III-41
3.3 Water Environment III-43
3.3.1 Baseline Status III-43
3.3.2 Anticipated Impacts III-46
3.3.3 Proposed Mitigation Measures III-47
3.4 Land Environment III-56
3.4.1 Baseline Status III-56
3.4.2 Anticipated Impacts III-59
3.4.3 Proposed Mitigation Measures III-61

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


CHAPTER PARTICULARS PAGE NO.
3.5 Biological Environment III-70
3.5.1 Baseline Status III-71
3.5.2 Anticipated Impacts III-82
3.5.3 Proposed Mitigation Measures III-84
3.6 Socio-economic Environment III-92
3.6.1 Baseline Status III-92
3.6.2 Anticipated Impacts III-115
3.6.3 Proposed Mitigation Measures III-115
3.7 Occupational Health Environment III-119
3.7.1 Baseline status III-119
3.7.2 Anticipated Impacts III-121
3.7.3 Mitigative measures III-121

IV Additional studies IV
4.1 Public consultation during EIA studies IV-1
4.2 People perception during Public Hearing IV-1
4.3 Risk Assessment and Disaster Management Plan IV-2

Environmental Management Plan and Post Project


V V
Monitoring Programme
5.1 Administrative and Technical Set-up V-1
5.2 Important records to be maintained by EMC V-3
5.3 Implementation V-3
5.4 Environmental Plan of the mine area V-4
5.5 Suggested Environmental Monitoring Programme V-5
5.6 Cost of Environmental Control Measures V-6

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


LIST OF PLATES

No. Particulars Page No.


I.1 Activities of NMDC in India I-2
II.1 Mine Lease Sketch II-2
II.2 Land-Use Plan of Core zone II-3
II.3 Block Flow diagram of Slime Beneficiation Plant II-9
II.4 Plan View of Slime Beneficiation Plant II-10
II.5 Schematic flow diagram of Pelletization process II-16
II.6 Schematic flow diagram of BHQ Beneficiation process II-18
II.7a&B Location Map of DIOM mine site II-19- II-20
II.8 Surface Plan of DIOM site II-22
II.9 – II.10 Composite Geological Plans II-22a&b
II.11 a-b Conceptual Mining Plan of North & South blocks II25 & II26
II.12 Mining Process flow II-51
II.13 Material Balance of OCSL plant II-52
II.14 Man Power Organization chart II-53
III.1 Donimalai Iron Ore mine & Its environs III-2
III.2 Windrose (Winter 2005) III-4
III.3 a& b Seasonal Windroses for Winter & Summer III-6 & 7
Location Map of Ambient air, Dustfall, Noise level monitoring
III.4 III-11
stations (Core Zone )
Location Map of Ambient air, Dustfall, Noise level monitoring
III.5 III-12
stations (Buffer zone )
III.6 – III.7 Isopleths for Environmental pollutants III-31 & 32
III.8 Location Map of Water & Soil quality monitoring stations III-44
III.9 Lay-out Plan of Oxidation Pond III-49
III.10 Lay-out Plan of Check dams III-52
III.11 Lay-out Plan of Retaining walls III-52
III.12 Pie – chart III-57
III.13 Land use map (GIS Cartography) III-58
III.14 Reclamation plan of mined out Pit III-66
Biological stabilization of Waste dumps and Road side
III.15 III-68
Plantation
III.16 Existing Green belt development Plan in DIOM III-69
IV.1 Disaster Information flow IV-12
IV.2 Response Mechanism – onsite Emergency Plan IV-13
V.1 Organization set-up of NMDC at DIOM V-2
V.2 Environmental Plan of DIOM M.L.A V-8

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


LIST OF TABLES

Table. No. Particulars Page No.


2.1 Land use pattern of Core Zone II-1
2.2 Abstract of Balance Iron ore reserves II-4
2.3 Production Programme II-23
2.4 Salient features of Narihalla dam / reservoir II-29
2.5 Bench-wise Balance Mineable reserves II-32
2.6 – 2.7 Chemical composition of Ore & slime II-33
2.8 Drilling Programme II-35 & II-36
2.9 Detailed Calculations for Fleet of Blast hole drills II-41
2.10 Requirement of blast Hole drills II-44
2.11 Requirement of Excavators II-46
2.12 Requirement of dumpers II-47
2.13 HEM equipment required II-50
2.14 – 2.16 Water balance & requirements II-54 & II-57
2.17 Major equipment involved (Pellet Plant) II-58
3.1 Micrometeorological data for the period 2003-05 III-3
3.2 Abstract of micro-meteorological data III-5
3.3 Ambient air quality monitoring stations III-10
3.4 Abstract of Ambient air quality data III-13 – III-18
3.5 Dustfall status III-20
3.6 Fugitive & Non-fugitive dust emission during mining III-21
3.7 Air quality Model applicability III-25
3.8 Mean meteorology III-29
3.9 Dispersion Co-efficient III-30
3.10 SO2 & SPM of nearby villages (WORST scenario) III-33
3.11 Fugitive dust emission control measures at DIOM III-36
3.12 Abstract of Noise Level data (Core & Buffer Zones) III-38 & III-39
3.13 Anticipated Noise level by mining equipment III-39
3.14 PPV values III-41
3.15 Limit values of PPV III-41
3.16 Details of Reclamation plan III-67
3.17 Green belt development Plan III-68
3.18 Eco-systems of Core & buffer zones III-73
Density, Diversity, Dominance & Evenness of Flora in
3.19 III-79
core & buffer zone
3.20 Demographic details III-94

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


LIST OF TABLES (CONTD.,)

Table.
Particulars Page No.
No.
Occupation of Population and Work forces of the buffer
3.21 III-98
zones
3.22 Land Use data of Sandur taluk III-100
3.23 Educational facilities available in study area III-103
3.24 Medical facilities in the study area III-107
3.25 Infrastructure facilities within the study III-113
Socio – economic development activities in nearby
3.26 III-117
villages by NMDC
3.27a&b Disease of Sandur Taluk III-120
4.1 Peoples perception regarding the project IV-1
4.2 Hazard Potential of various mining operations IV-3
5.1 Suggested Environmental monitoring programme V-5
5.2 Cost details of Environmental works V-7

ENCLOSURES
Appendix
I Approved Terms of Reference
II Mining Plan – IBM Approval letter
III Correspondence to CWLW
Permission letter to abstract water from Narihalla
IV
reservoir
EC letter for existing 4.0MTPA production and
V
status of Compliance

Annexures
Ambient Air Quality data for Post Monsoon, Winter &
I
Summer seasons
Water quality data for Monsoon, Post Monsoon,
II
Winter & Summer season
III Soil quality data
IV Flora & Fauna data

Photo Documentation

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


FOREWORD

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) & Environmental Management Plan


is recognized as an important tool for integrating the objectives of the
environmental management with the requirements of economic growth
and social development. The purpose of an EIA / EMP is to evaluate the
beneficial and adverse effect of a proposed developmental activity.

National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC) Ltd, Government of


India Undertaking proposed for production capacity enhancement of 7.0
MTPA along with Pellet plant and BHQ beneficiation plant at Donimalai
Iron Ore Mine (DIOM), Bellary district, Karnataka state. Accordingly, the
task of preparation of Environmental Impact Assessment & Environment
Management Plan has been entrusted to M/s. Richardson & Cruddas
(1972) Ltd., Government of India Undertaking, has Environmental
Engineering Laboratory recognized by Central Pollution Control Board
(CPCB) / Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF).

This Environmental Impact Assessment report presents baseline data for


Winter`07-08 (Dec.07–Feb.08) & Summer`08 (Mar-May`08) covering
ambient air, noise, water, land, biological and socio-economic components
of environment with a view to identify, predict, and evaluate the potential
impacts due to the proposed production capacity enhancement at DIOM.
A Environmental Management Plan has also been delineated.

The co-operation and assistance rendered by the NMDC officials and


DIOM project authorities in the preparation of report are gratefully
acknowledged.

20.08.2008 (E.BALAKRISHNAIAH)
Place: Chennai Unit Incharge

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


ii

Project Personnel

Experience
Name Qualification Designation
(Years)
Mr. M.K. Singh B.E. (Civil) Managing Director 28
B.Tech. (Civil), M.E. (Env.
Engg.) Incharge
Mr. E. Balakrishnaiah 15
Env. Engg & Projects
Lead EMS Auditor (ISO 14001)
Mr. P. Subburam M.Sc. Senior Analyst 13
Mr. M.N. Anil Kumar B.Sc., EMS & ISO 14000 Senior Analyst 13
Mr. S.K. Mishra B.Sc. Jr. Analyst 12
Mr. V. Arun Kumar Dip. Chem. Tech., D.C.P.I.C. Jr. Engineer 8
Mr. R. Elangeswaran B.E.M. Jr. Engineer 8
Mr. B. Karunakaran Dip. Chem. Tech. Jr. Engineer 8
Mr. K.S. Harinath M.Tech (Env.) Env. Engineer 8
Mr. M. Venumadhav M.Tech. (Civil) Project Engineer 7
Dip. Chem. Tech.,
Mr. B. Senthil Kumar Jr. Engineer 8
B.S.Engg.(Ind.tech)
Mr. M. Pushparajan Dip. Chem. Tech. Jr. Engineer 8
Mr. R. Vel Murugan M.Sc. Jr. Analyst 7
Mr. M. Prabu M.Sc. (Env. Sci.) Site Analyst 3
Mr. Prasath B.Tech(Chemi) Site Engineer 5
Mr. Prathap M.Sc Site Analyst 5
Mr. K. Vijayakumar B.Sc Site Analyst 5
Mr. K. Seetharaman B.E.M. Site Analyst 5
Mr. Chandru M.Sc. Site Analyst 5
Mr. Annamalai B.Sc. Site Analyst 4
Mr. Soundara Pandian B.Sc Site Analyst 3
Mr. S. Ravichandran M.A., Dip. Multi. & Web System Analyst 13

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

EXPERT WING

Name Field of Expertise


Mr.E.Balakrishnaiah Project Co-ordination
Prediction & Modelling studies & Project Co-
Dr.B.Kotiah
ordination
Dr.V.Ram Mohan Impact Assessment studies
Prof.K.B.Reddy Flora & Fauna studies
Mr.T.V.Rajan Water / Wastewater Treatablity studies
Mr.M.Jeevanandham Hydrogeo-chemistry / Ground water Modelling
Disaster Management Plan & Risk Assessment
Dr.Koshi
studies
Socio-economic survey & Analysis,
Dr.C.SathishKumar Co-ordination in Social Welfare programmes &
public hearing meetings

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.0 INTRODUCTION

National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC) Limited is incorporated in 1958,


a fully owned public enterprise under the administrative control of the Ministry of
Steel, Govt. of India is the single largest iron ore producer and exporter in the country
with present capacity of about 30 million tones of iron ore per annum.

Currently, NMDC is carrying out iron ore mining operations at three highly
mechanized mines, viz., Bailadila Deposit 14 / 11C, Bailadila Dep.5,10/11A
(Chhattisgarh state) and Donimalai Iron Ore mines (Karnataka state) which are
awarded ISO 9001:2000 & ISO 14001:2004 EMS certification.

Taking into account the iron ore demand for current global scenario of steel, NMDC
is gearing itself to enhance its ore production capacity through opening up of new
mines at Dep-11B in Bailadila region of Chhattisgarh state and Kumaraswamy and
Donimalai sector of Karnataka State and building up additional capacities in the
existing mines.

Donimalai Iron Ore Mine (DIOM) initially started with target production capacity of
4.0 MTPA with adequate / optimum infrastructural facilities and mining
equipment. However, due to favorable market scenario and to meet the domestic
demand, NMDC proposes for production up to 7.0 MTPA from existing mines along
with slime beneficiation plant & pellet plant of 1.2 MTPA production capacities,
BHQ processing plant of 1.8 MTPA in order to achieve zero waste mining concept.

The Mining plan was approved by Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM), Nagpur vide their
letter no. MP/BLR/FE-217-SZ dated 18.8.2008August’2008. The Forest clearance
was accorded by MoEF, GOI New Delhi vides letter no. 8-107/91-FC dated 4.2.97.

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2.0 PROJECT DETAILS
2.1 Location and Accessibility
Donimalai Iron ore mine of NMDC ltd, is located in Sandur Taluk, Bellary district,
Karnataka state between 15o2,0” and 15o6,30” Latitude, 76o36,0” and 76o 38,30”
longitude and falls in the Survey of India Topo sheet no. 57 A/12.
DIOM is located at a distance of about 325 Km due north of Bangalore city and is
accessible by road and rail. The nearest rail-head is Toranagallu on Hubli-Guntakal
division of South Central Railway and is at a distance of 26 Km from Donimalai. The
area is also approachable by all weather roads from Sandur which is about 10 km
NW of Donimalai Township. Sandur, the taluk head quarter, lies on Bellary-Hospet
state highway. The district head quarter, Bellary is 58 Km NE and Hospet is about
40 Km NW of DIOM.
2.2 Salient features of mine site and its surroundings
* Altitude : 900-1150 m above MSL
* Longitude : 76o36,0” and 76o38,30” E
* Latitude : 15o2,0” and 15o6,30”N
* Maximum day temperature, °C : 42
* Minimum day temperature, °C : 18
* Maximum relative humidity, % : 86
* Minimum relative humidity, % : 41
* Annual rainfall : 416-865 mm
* Mine lease area : 608.0 Ha
* Topography : Hillock, undulating
* Nearest Highway : NH – 63 (7.8 Km)
* Nearest railway station : Toranagllu (28 km)
* Nearest city : Bellary (38 km)
* Nearest Airport : M/s Jindal South West (18 km)
* Nearest village : Narasingapura (3.5 km)
* Minerable reserves : 28.60 Million tons (as on 01.04.2008)
* Rate of mining : 884 tons/ hour
* Life of mine : 4-5 years
* Mining methodology : Open cast Mechanized Method
* Explosives : 36 Tons / week (Max.)
* Water requirement : 25866 m3/day
* Manpower : 1600
* Ore: waste ratio : 1 : 0.78 (average)
* Screening category : A (as per EIA notification, 2006)
* Nearest Reserve forest : Donimalai RF (With in mine lease)
* Nearest sanctuary : None within 10 km radius
* Nearest national park : None within 10 km radius
* Historical places : Kumaraswamy Temple (9.0 Kms)
* Water bodies : Narihalla ram (6.0 km)

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2.3 Mineral Reserves

The geological reserves of iron ore

Deposit Reserves (MT) Deposit Reserves(MT)

South Block North Block


Deposit. 1 & 1A 10.18 2E Deposit
Beyond MM – 9.43 3E Deposit 2.68
Cross Section
Sub Total 19.61 2W Deposit 0.80
3W Deposit 5.32
Sub Total 8.80
Grand Total 28.37

2.4 Year-wise production of iron ore and wastes.

Year Production (million tones)


Waste striping Ratio
ROM Waste
4.11.2008-31.3.09 3.0 2.2 0.73
2009-10 7.0 5.05 0.72
2010-11 7.0 5.192 0.74
2011-12 4.726 2.5 0.53
Total 21.726 14.942 0.69

2.5 Land use pattern of Mine Site

Sl.No. Area in Ha
1. Mining 180.00
2. Haulage Roads 18.60
3. For Buildings, Plants & Check dams 6.50
4. Pellet plant 21.4
5. BHQ / BHJ beneficiation plant 7.0
6. Land to be used for future Waste dumps 44.90
7. Area Afforested 85.00
8 Area used for Tailing dam 10.00
9 Degraded Forest 189.60
9. Rocky area 45.00
Total 608.00

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2.6 Mining Process
Mining will be done by open cast mechanized method. Both ore and waste will be
worked systematically by forming benches of 12 meters height and width not less
than 30-40 meters’, sloping about 45° from the horizontal. The mine will continue
to exploit the deposit by using blast hole drills, Hydraulic excavators and heavy
duty rear tipping dumpers as major mining equipments. The waste will be removed
by Hydraulic Excavator and loaded with front end wheel loader into 14 tones self
propelled tippers. Wherever the ore is friable and soft in nature and the intrusion
being very soft, it can be excavated directly by hydraulic excavator methods.
Drilling and blasting operations would be undertaken only where BHQ is encountered
and any thickly laminated portion of ore body at the contacts. Drilling up to 13.6 m
will be carried by DTH drillers. Blasting will be carried by conventional explosives
like ANFO and Slurry explosives. The requirement of explosives will be around 36t /
week.The ore excavated from the reef section will be loaded into 14 tone tippers
for onward movement to beneficiation plant. The beneficiated ore followed by
Pelletisation. The BHQ with low Fe grade is further subjected by BHQ beneficiation
plant.

2.7 Site Services:


There are well equipped site service facilities existing in the mines and the ore
processing sits and such they will cater the demand of the increased production of
7.0 MTPA.
1. well quipped workshops for heavy earth moving machinery etc.,
2. electrical repair shops & stores for maintenance and repair components
and spares
3. Central control rooms for supervising / controlling OCSL plant
operations.
4. well laid and equipped office building for officers, staff and workmen
5. power supply sub station
6. Magazine for safe storage of explosives as per the statutory
requirements.

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2.7.1 Water requirement / supply of the project

The total water requirement of the combined DIOPM for both domestic and
industrial use is as follows.

WATER BALANCE OF DONIMALAI IRON ORE MINE

Sl. Requirement Effluent Quantity


Particulars
No. (m3/day) (m3/day)

1. Domestic requirement – Donimalai 1500 805


Township
2. Drinking water requirement at 150 ---
Donimalai Loading Plant area.
3. Drinking water requirement at 150
Screening Plant area
4. Sprinkling and dust suppression at Hill 986 -
top, including Crushing Plant
Fresh water requirement at Screening
5. 7000
plant including accounting for leakages
Fresh water requirement at
6 5280 9928
Pelletization plant
Fresh water requirement at BHQ
7 10800
beneficiation plant

Total 25866 9928

2.8 Employment Potential

The existing total manpower is 1594. Since NMDC has adopted the multi skilling
policy, no additional manpower is required to be recruited for augmented
production capacity of ROM.

Sl. No. Designation No.


1 Mining & beneficiation 1214
2 Pellet plant 230
3 BHQ beneficiation plant 150
Total 1594

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3.0 BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS

3.1 Climate and Micrometeorology:

The study area geographically characterized as semi-arid region


The maximum and minimum average temperature of the study are 37°C
and 18°C respectively
The predominant wind directions and wind velocity during different
seasons as per IMD are:

WINTER SUMMER
Wind Wind Calm % Wind Wind Calm %
Direction velocity Direction velocity
(KMPH) (KMPH)
SE <1.0 – 22.4 6.94 NW 1.2 – 20.8 0.0

Highest humidity during winter (93.9%) and lowest humidity during


summer (47.9%)

3.2 Ambient Air Quality


Ambient air quality in the study area is follows

SPM ( g/m3) RPM( g/m3) SO2 ( g/m3) NOx ( g/m3) CO ( g/m3)


Winter`07- 08
76 - 405 32 - 148 4.1 – 6.5 6.7- 21.3 <114.5
Summer`08
68 - 410 28 - 148 5.1- 18.4 6.7 – 21.5 <114.5
The values are found to be within the stipulated limits for core & buffer zones.

3.3 Noise Environment


Buffer zone : Noise level during all seasons, daytime & night time leq were found
to be in the range of 46.8 – 54.1 dB(A) and 41.1 – 47.4 dB(A) respectively. The
noise levels were found to be well within the prescribed norms for ambient noise
levels (GSR 1063 (E), 1993.
Core zone: Noise levels during all seasons, daytime & night time leq were found to
be in the range of 58 – 83.8 dB(A) and 54 – 70.5. Work zone noise levels were
compared with "Standards" for industrial workers prescribed by DGMS, vide their
circular no:18 (Tech), of 1975 and it is observed that the noise levels were well
within the permissible limit of 90 dB(A) for a duration of 8 hour exposure period.

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3.4 Water Environment

Only Narihalla a perennial water body exists within the study area
There are two ephemeral irrigation water tanks
There are about 294 bore wells for drinking as well as irrigation
purposes.
Ground water quality is with in the permissible limits of IS:10500,1991
for drinking purpose.

Ground water
At all locations, pH values were in the range of 7.20 – 8.26 during monsoon season,
7.14 – 8.24 during post monsoon season, 7.22 – 8.20 during winter season and 7.14
– 8.24 during summer season with agreeable colour, taste and odour. Chloride and
Sulphate values were in the range of 12 - 544 mg/l and 4 -152 mg/l during
monsoon season, 14-558 mg/l and 4-124 mg/l during post monsoon season, 16 -
588 mg/l and 4-144 mg/l during winter season and 18 - 602 mg/l and 8-124 mg/l
during summer season. Hardness values were in the range of 40 – 580 mg/l during
winter season, 42 - 540 mg/l during post monsoon season, 48 - 540 mg/ l during
winter season and 52 - 640 mg/l during summer season. Fluoride values were
found to the maximum concentration of 0.60 mg/l. Iron value was found to be a
maximum extent of 0.54 mg/l, which is well within the permissible limit of 1.00
mg/l.
At all locations, oil and grease, phenolic compounds, cyanides, sulphides and
insecticides were found to be absent and all heavy metal except iron values were
found to be below the detection limit.. The maximum total coliforms were found
to be 10 MPN/100 ml. While comparing with IS: 10500 – 1991 norms, all values
except total coli forms were found to be well within the limits.
Overall, it can be concluded that the ground water quality is good and suitable for
domestic and irrigation purposes.

There is no impact on ground water environment since no abstraction of water


from ground water sources is envisaged in this project.

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Surface water
pH values were found to be in the range of 7.44 – 7.88 during monsoon season 7.24 –
7.88 during post monsoon season, 7.30 – 7.78 during winter season and 7.26 –
7.88.during summer season. At all locations Oil & Grease, Phenols, Cyanides,
Sulphides and insecticides were found to be absent and most of the heavy metal
values were found to be below the detectable limits.
However, the concentration of iron is also well within the permissible limit of 3.0
mg/l. Also, low BOD/COD values and marginally high DO content at these locations
indicate that the natural restoration of water quality is maintained.

3.5 Soil characteristics


All soils under study are neutral in terms of pH.
Soils in core and buffer zones are deficient in nutrient content.
Exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) values of all soils are high.
Soil texture ranges sandy clay to sandy loam.
At all locations, pH ranges from 7.04 to 7.27. The sand content of the soil ranges
between 23.0 and 68.0 %. Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus are found to be in
the range of 328.0– 514 Kg/Ha, 106 – 161 Kg/Ha and 3.2 – 6.7 Kg/Ha respectively.
Organic Carbon was found to be in the range of 2.5 – 3.8%.

3.6 Biological environment


The core zone is almost bare except for the growth of thorny bushes
and dwarfed herbs. The soils support only sparse vegetation of open
shrubs of grasses and zerophytes.
The buffer zone is characterized by crop lands and sporadic patches of
vegetative cover.
None of the flora either in core zone or buffer zone can be classified as
rare or endangered plant species.
The fauna does not include any major wildlife animal as recorded in the
study area. Other species do not cover any endangered animals.

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3.7 Socio-Economic Environment
The total population in the study is of 10 km radius around the mine
site is 80006 spread over 27 villages. The overall population density is
96 persons per sq.km. The entire population falls under rural category.
Of the population in the study area, nearly 9.92 % belong to scheduled
caste (SC), 17.07 % Scheduled tribe (ST) and the rest belong to other
categories.
The socio-economic conditions in general are typical of living standards
slightly below poverty line in the rural area. The villages in the study
area are provided with basic infrastructure facilities like roads,
transport, schools, power and water supply. A primary health centre
exists in taluk head quarter.
The literacy rate is about 39.55 % as against national average of 52
percent. The livelihood is primarily dependent on the agriculture
produce.

4.0 PROJECT IMPACTS AND MITIGATING MEASURES


4.1 Identification of Impacts
Sr. Environment Impact areas
No. Adverse Beneficial
Physico- Core zone land use --
chemical Core zone land form --
1. Surface water quality --
Ambient air quality --
Noise and ground vibration --
Biological Removal of terrestrial vegetation --
cover of the forest area falling
within the core zone
2.
Temporary disturbance of --
habitations / migratory routes of
fauna.
Human Health and safety Infrastructure
3. Employment
opportunity
4. Aesthetics Landscape of the core zone --

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4.2 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS
4.2.1 Impact on air environment
An increase of SPM and SO2 to an extent of 48.2 and 24 g/m3 occurs
within the core zone.
An increase of 13.2 g/m3 of SPM occurs in Ranjitpura village during
winter conditions. An increase of 23.2 g/m3 of SO2 occurs in
Ranjithpura village during Summer conditions
The SPM, SO2 and NOx concentrations in ambient air during operational
phase of the mine will be within the ambient air quality standards
under normal conditions and may slightly increase under worst
conditions.

4.2.2 Impact on Noise Environment


The noise generated by the mining activity is dissipated within the core zone.
Since, the mining and allied activities will take place only during day time, the
increase in noise levels will be only during day time. Noise levels in the work zone
varies from 88 to 90 dB(A), except during blasting, which is carried out after the
end of working shifts, personal exposure is less than 90 dB(A), because operators
sit in closed cabins.

Noise contribution from work zone to the nearby buffer zone villages will be
insignificant because (a) at 1 to 2 km distance contribution level is in the range of
30-32 dB(A) and (b) the villages are situated at lower level, whereas mining is
carried out on hill top. Ranjitpura which is near the loading point may likely
subject to noise levels which would like to be 55-60 dB(A). The development of
green belts will further reduce noise in both core zone and buffer zones. Vibration
due to blasting does not exercise any impact on all types of structures both in core
zone and buffer zone.

4.2.3 Impact on water environment


A surface water withdrawal of 15938 m3 / day for mine water supply will
have little impact on water resources of the buffer zone.
Improvement of ground water potential will be expected due to the
creation of mine pits as water storage bodies.

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Excess storm water from mining and waste dump areas is the major
source of surface water pollution with excess turbidity and soluble iron
(Fe+2). However this can be avoided by collection of storm water
through garland drains and treatment in settling pits before being
discharged.
4.2.4 Impact on biological environment
The entire vegetation will disappear in areas where mining, dumping of
waste rock, overburden, road formation and infrastructural facilities.
Settleable dust pollution is a major threat to vegetation in the M.L.
area and near by surroundings, which impairs photosynthesis of grass
and shrubs. However, the loss will be more than compensated by
compensatory afforestation and also green belt development planned in
and around the mine, which will rather increase the green cover and
vegetation diversity.
The fauna in the vicinity of the mine is restricted to common small
species. All these will be displaced from mine area and form new
habitations away from mine site.

4.2.5 Impact on topography and landscape


The pits created by ore mining will lower the topography by 20 to 30 m
at various places.
A permanent localized landscape alteration will occur.
Change in topography and landscape will have appreciable impact on
drainage and aesthetics which require the environmental management
plan.
4.2.6 Impact on Socio-economic environment:
A positive impact on civic amenities such as network of roads, telephone
facilities, educational facilities and health care facilities etc.
About 1600 people get employment directly and 4000-5000 people
indirectly.
Per capita income in the nearby villages may slightly increased due to
employment and trading activities.

11/14
4.2.7 Impact on drainage pattern
Natural drainage channels (gullies) maybe subjected to some degree of
adverse impact due to formation/enlargement of quarries and dumps.
Soil erosion may likely occur in core zone area, which dictates the
implementation of Environmental Management Plan (EMP)

4.3 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN


4.3.1 Land Management
The land management measures cover optimum land use, calendar plan for the
excavation for open cost mining, mine bench planning, storage and preservation of
top soil, over burden dump formation, mine road formations, soil erosion control,
biological stabilization of waste dumps, land restoration etc.

4.4.2 Water pollution control measures


Check dams and gully-checks are proposed across the nallas / streams
draining the mine area for arresting the suspended particles of ore and
run-off from the mine.
Garland drains along the toe of the waste dump for guiding the wash off
and minimizing the silting into the natural water courses.
The mine benches will be properly designed to drain the rainwater
falling in the mine area.
Retaining wall is proposed to prevent sidling of dump material and wash
off.
Treatment of sanitary waste by Oxidation pond
Treatment of repair workshop effluent by oil and grease trap before use
for plantation.

4.4.3 Air pollution control measures


Dust suppression system for dump site; haul roads, material transfer
points at crushing & screening plant and Pelletisation plant by water
sprinkling.
Dust extraction system for crushing and screening plant.

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Source emission control using bag filters for crushing and screening
plant and Electrostatic precipitators for Pelletisation plant
Transportation of ore by trucks covered with tarpaulin.
Wet drilling of blast holes and permitting of blasting in daytime and
during calm period i.e. low wind.
Biological stabilization of dumpsite to prevent dust emission due to
wind erosion.

4.4.4 Noise Pollution control measures


Development of green belt in and around the service buildings and
crushing and screening plant and Pelletisation plant
Development of the green belt all along the periphery of the mine site.
The crusher and screening plant which are sources of high noise levels
shall be provided enclosures.
Regularly maintenance of machinery and drills.
Speed governors shall be fitted in the hauling tracks plying in the mine
area.
Speed breakers shall be erected on the ore transportation roads.

4.4.5 Occupational health and safety management


Provision of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities to mine
workers at the mine site.
Provision of personal protection devices to workers
Periodical health check-ups to workers and near by villagers. The health
check-ups include tests of blood pressure (BP), lung function tests and
chest symptoms such as cough, sputum, breathlessness on exertion ,
chest pain etc.
A budget of 4.0 lakhs for procurement of additional safety appliances
and 4.0 lakhs as recurring cost per annum will be provided for
occupational health and safety management.

4.4.6 Socio-economic development


Regarding socio-economic development of near by villages, the mining
management will provide infrastructural facilities, school level
education, informal adult education, sanitation, vocational training,

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and small business opportunities etc to the local population. A
budgetary provision of 4.0 lakh per annum is provided for this purpose.

4.4.7.1 Year-wise green belt development


Area already afforested: 197.50 ha
Year of No. of sapling to Area to be covered
S.No.
Plantation be planted in Hectare
1 2006-2007 15000 24.6
2 2007-2008 15000 24.6
3 2008-2009 15000 24.5
4 2009-2010 15000 18.0
5 2010-2011 15000 21.2
Total 75000 112.9

5.0 RISK ANALYSIS ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT


Major risks involved in mining operations include:

1) Blasting Operations
2) Mine pit damage duet to excess rain
3) Slope failures in the mine pit
4) Accidents due to improper operation and mobility of mining equipment.
5) Surface fire
6) Storage of explosives.

These will be assessed in terms of risk analysis and appropriate measures


will be exercised

5.1 IMPLEMENTATION OF EMP

Routine monitoring and implementation of various measures such as slope failure,


land erosion, drainage, blasting effects, re-vegetation and green belt
development, air quality monitoring, water quality monitoring, occupational
health and safety, socio-economic development, etc should be viewed as an
integral part of the environmental management plan.

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CHAPTER – I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Profile of Project proponent & Background

National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC), an enterprise of Government


of India, incorporated on November 15, 1958, is engaged in the activities of
exploring, developing and exploiting mineral resources of the country other than
coal, oil, natural gas and atomic minerals. As iron ore export received major
thrust, NMDC developed a number of iron ore mines and has contributed
significantly to the country’s growth through mining of valuable minerals like iron
ore and diamonds, while at the same time opening up remote areas during the
course of its mining operations.

India’s single largest iron ore producer and exporter, presently producing iron ore
from 3 fully mechanized mines, viz., Bailadila Deposit 14 / 11C, Bailadila
Dep.5,10/11A (Chhattisgarh state) and Donimalai Iron Ore mines (Karnataka state)
which are awarded ISO 9001:2000 , ISO14001:2004 EMS certification.

Operating the only mechanized diamond mine in the country at Panna (Madhya
Pradesh state). Strong back up of an ISO 9001 certified R&D centre, which has
been declared as the Centre of Excellence in the field of Mineral processing by the
Expert group of UNIDO. NMDC has made valuable and substantial contribution to
the national efforts in the mineral sector during the last four decades and has been
recently accorded the status of Schedule – A Public Sector Company. The company
has been categorized by the Dept. of Public enterprises as Mini Ratna – I public
sector enterprise.

The story of NMDC is woven around the dreamy hills and the deep jungle land of
Bastar in Chhattisgarh, known as Dandakaranya from the epic periods. The Bailadila
Iron ore range The hump of an OX in the local dialect was remote, inaccessible and
replete with wild life. The range contains 1200 millions tons of high grade iron ore
distributed in 14 deposits. The entire area was brought to the mainstream of
civilization by the spectacular effort of NMDC by opening up of mines. Today
Bailadila is a name to reckon within the world iron ore market, development of
high value minerals like gold, diamond etc. as joint ventures in some of the African
countries. NMDC activities in India includes is presented in Plate I.1.

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Plate - I.1 NMDC Activities in India

N.M.D.C Activities in India

Arki Lime Stone


Panna Diamond Mine

Lalapur Silica Sand


Delhi

Kolkatta

Raipur

Mumbai Bhubaneshwar
NISP
Hyderabad Bailadila Iron Ore - Dep 14 & 11C
R&D Visakhapatnam Bailadila Iron Ore - Dep 10, 11A & 5
NMDC Bailadila Iron Ore - Dep 11B
Donimalai Iron Ore Project UPFO
Head office
Anantpur Diamond P.L
Kumaraswamy Iron Ore Project
Kalyandurg Diamond R.P
Sandur Gold R.P Bangalore
Chitradurga Gold R.P Chennai

INDEX
Regional Offices
Under Production

Under Construction
Under Investigation

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1.2 Genesis and Objectives of the project

In view of more industrialization, the demand of iron ore has increased


substantially in the recent past. In order to bridge this substantial gap
(about 30 lakh tonnes in 2005) between the demand and supply from DIOM,
NMDC has planned for an integrated production up to 7 MTPA from
Donimalai mines. This production can be achieved with the available
facilities and equipment by marginal modification and addition if required.

The processed ore is dispatched by road and rail for domestic consumers and
through Chennai Port to Foreign countries.

GSI estimated total iron ore reserves in Donimalai belt found to be around
149.24 MT out of which only 110.20 MT of ore is mineable in two blocks
namely North and South. These two blocks are sub-divided into six ore
bodies/ sectors viz. I and IA falling in South-block: 2E, 2W, 3E & 3W in
North block and extraction of ore is being carried out from 5 sectors only
because of the reason the reserves in 2E sector were exhausted and void is
being back-filled by the waste rocks from other sectors. The balance iron
ore and waste rock reserves as on 1.4.2005 are 31.75 MT and 20.30 MT
respectively which will be extracted in the proposed production
enhancement programme.

NMDC’s Donimalai Iron Ore Project commenced production from the year
1977. It consists of two iron ore deposits, namely Donimalai and
Kumaraswamy. NMDC is currently operating Donimalai deposit while
Kumaraswamy deposit is in the process of development. The screening plant
in Donimalai operates on wet circuit almost throughout the year to meet the
product quality requirement desired by the consumers. The tailings thus
produced are impounded in a pond created by constructing a dam. Current
inventory of tailings in the pond is about 6 million tons. Another 16 million
tons is likely to be generated during the lifetime of mines. On the other
hand, the holding capacity of the pond can be stretched to only 13 million
tons by increasing the height of dam/dyke to a maximum upto 675m. The

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rate of generation of the slime being 0.7 MTPA, the tailing pond is likely to
get filled up within next 10 years.

Under the above circumstances, NMDC intend to evacuate the slimes from
the pond to make room for fresh arising of slime, beneficiate the same to
produce a rich concentrate and pelletise the concentrate to make it saleable.

In order to achieve Zero Waste concept, DIOM is contemplating low grade


beneficiation plant of capacity 300 TPH (1.8 MTPA). This will ensure recovery
iron mineral from low grade BHJ / BHQ.

1.3 Brief description of nature, size, location of project and its


importance to the region and country

1.3.1 Nature of project

Mining of mineral ore by highly mechanized method from a mining area of


180 Ha.

Salient features

Mine Highly mechanized


Capacity 4 MTPA (ROM)
Ore mined till 31.03.2006 87.41 MT
Balance Reserves as on 01.04.2008 28.60 MT
Balance life of mine 4-5 years
Finished products are Lump ore & Fine ore

Exploratory drilling is in progress and the additional reserves may enhance


the life of the mine by another 10 years.

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Location

Survey of India Topo-sheet No.57A/12


Latitude 15o 00’ 05” North to 15o 00’ 50”
North
Longitude 76o 34’ 15” East to 76o 36’ 20” East
Taluk Sandur
District Bellary
State Karnataka (Bellary Forest division, Sandur range, SB block)
Nearest Railway station Torangallu (26 Km)
Loading station Ranjitpura
Nearest Town Sandur, Bellary district

Slime Beneficiation plant

The proposed slime beneficiation plant is required to produce about 1.203


million tons per annum (MTPA) of upgraded concentrate considering the
capacity envisaged for pellet plant as well as the qualities of feed slimes
and the products achievable by high intensity / gradient magnetic
separation, as outlined in the beneficiation test report provided by NMDC.
For determination of annual feed slime quantity and plant throughput rate
to enable to attain the above target, following assumptions have been
made:

Annual requirement of pellet feed concentrate, million tons- 1.203


No.of working days per year - 300
No. of working shifts per day - 3
No. of working hours per shift - 8
Overall plant availability, % - 90
Overall plant utilization, % - 92
Yield in upgraded concentrate, % - 60

Based on the above assumptions, the effective annual working hours work
out to be about 6000. Accordingly, the annual and average hourly through
put rates are estimated at about 1.203 MTPA and 340 tons per hour (tph)
respectively.

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Pellet plant

Since inception of mining and wet processing of iron ore from the deposits
of Donimalai region, a significant quantity of slime has been generated and
deposited off in the existing tailings pond. This tailing pond is likely to be
filled up within next ten years. Aiming at the utilization of the iron values
from slime reclaimed from the existing tailings pond, thereby creating fro
its further disposal without encroaching upon fresh lands, NMDC now intends
to install a pelletizing plant with slime beneficiation facilities at DIOM. The
concentrate produced from slime beneficiation plant, will be totally used in
the Pelletisation plant for production of BF grade pellets.

The proposed pellet plant will be installed in a single module to produce 1.2
million tons of BF grade pellets per year. The pellet production rate will be
about 170 tons per hour (tph) considering 7200 effective hours of operation
per year. Imported coal from Australia / China / Indonesia will be used as
main fuel for induration supplemented by oil to the extent of 25 percent.

Low Grade Beneficiation plant (BHQ / BHJ)

NMDC proposed to install a beneficiation plant of capacity 1.8 MT to treat


low grade ore (BHJ / BHQ). The conceptual flow chart includes crushing in
two stages followed by a close circuit grinding with high frequency vibrating
screens along with High Pressure Grinding Rolls. This is followed by Pre-
concentration (hydro cyclones) and medium Intensity Magnetic separation
followed by concentration by High Gradient Magnetic Separation to get a
product of 0.6 MTPA for a feed of 1.8 MTPA with purity of min. 65%.

1.3.2 Size of the Iron ore mine, Beneficiation plant, Pellet plant, Low
grade beneficiation plant seeking environmental clearance are as
follows.

Enhancement of iron ore mining from 4 MTPA to 7 MTPA

Slime beneficiation plant / Pellet plant - 1.2 MTPA is 1.203 MTPA


with existing facilities

Low grade beneficiation plant - 1.8 MTPA

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1.3.3 Importance of the project

Donimalai Iron ore mine, NMDC ltd, is located in Sandur Taluk, Bellary
district, Karnataka state between 15o 2,0” and 15o 6,30” Latitude, 76o 36,0”
and 76o 38,30” longitude and falls in the Survey of India Topo sheet no. 57
A/12.

The area was originally surveyed and mapped by New bold in 1840 and Bruce
Foote in 1895. LL. Former carried out the local regional mapping in 1940
and the same was remapped by M.S Venkataram and NVBS Dutta of GSI in
1946 – 1947. Development of the Iron ore deposits for export was given high
priority by the Government of India during the course of various Five Year
plans as Iron ore was capable of providing substantial foreign exchange
earning after meeting the domestic demand. Thus, DIOM was started
initially with target production of 4.0 MTPA with adequate / optimum
infrastructural facilities and mining equipment. However, due to favorable
market scenario, to meet the domestic demand, NMDC proposes for
production up to 7.0 MTPA from DIOM mines. M/s. NMDC has adopted a
corporate policy in tune with environmental conservation and thus planned
to achieve a balance between conservation of resources and sustained
development of iron ore.

Reason for enhancement of balance reserves

The balance reserves of Donimalai Iron Ore mine have been calculated of
the order of 26.66 MT as on 01.04.2006. But with advance of time, some
deviations (enhancement) of balance reserves have been observed during
exploitation of ores in different blocks of the deposit. The balance reserves
have been augmented on the basis of old exploration data, records, GSI
report, and reconciliation of reserves in respect of actual face line as on
01.04.2008. Thus, the balance reserves have been re-estimated to the tune
of 31.66 MT as on 01.04.2008. The various reasons for enhancement of
balance reserves are as below:

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1. South Block

As on 01.04.2006 the balance reserves of South Block were 10.48 MT and as


on 01.04.2008 it has been recalculated of the order of 11.03 MT. The
enhancement of balance reserves is due to the following reasons:

a. The excess reserves have been recalculated on the basis of actual


“Face Line” marked in the slice plan / Grade plan.
b. Dilution of sub-grade ore from different benches keeping in view the
Mineral Conservation point.
c. Some “Waste” areas marked in the cross sections/slice plans / Grade
plans have been turned out as feedable ore.
d. A substantial quantity of “Float ore” has been recovered from beyond
stripping limit as also from within stripping limit.

2. BMMXS

As on 01.04.2006 the balance reserves of BMMXS were 8.26 MT and as on


01.04.2008 it has been recalculated of the order of 10.78 MT. The
enhancement of balance reserves is due to the following reasons:

a. Earlier the balance reserves have been calculated up to 981 MB. But
as on 01.04.2008 the excess reserves have been recalculated up to
909 MB as per GSI report.
b. A substantial quantity of “Float ore” has been recovered from the
deposit.

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3. North Block

A. 2W Deposit

As on 01.04.2006 the balance reserves of 2W Deposit were 1.20 MT and as


on 01.04.2008 it has been recalculated of the order of 1.07 MT. The
enhancement of balance reserves is due to the following reasons:

a. Excavation of ore beyond stripping limit.


b. Dilution of sub-grade ore with high-grade ore keeping in view the
mineral Conservation policy.
c. The waste, which was mentioned in the earlier exploration report /
slice plan / grade plan, has been turned out as “Ore”.

B. 3W Deposit

As on 01.04.2006 the balance reserves of 3W Deposit were 5.23 MT and


as on 01.04.2008 it has been recalculated of the order of 6.08 MT on
the basis of old exploration data.

C. 3E Deposit

As on 01.04.2006 the balance reserves of 3E Deposit were 1.49 MT and


as on 01.04.2008 it has been recalculated of the order of 2.69 MT. The
enhancement of balance reserves is due to the following reasons:

a. Exploitation of Ore beyond the stripping limit.


b. Excavation of Ore below 957 MB. Earlier the reserves have been
calculated up to 957 MB only.

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Table 1.1 shows the balance reserves as on 01.04.2006 and 01.04.2008


deposit wise:
Table 1.1 Balance Reserves in DIOM
Balance Recalcula
Balance
Excavation Reserves ted
Reserves
Deposit during “should Balance Remarks
as on
06-07 be” as on as on
01.04.06
01.04.08 01.04.08
Enhancement is due to
South marking actual face
10.48 MT 14.11 LT 9.07 MT 11.03 MT
Block line, dilution of sub-
grade, float ore etc.
Enhancement is due to
reserves calculation
BMMXS 8.26 MT 13.16 LT 6.94 MT 10.78 MT upto 909 MB, dilution
of sub-grade, float ore
etc.
Enhancement is due to
excavation beyond
2W 1.20 MT 18.71 LT -0.67 MT 1.07 MT stripping limit,
dilution of sub-grade
etc.
Enhancement is due to
3W 5.23 MT 0.28 LT 5.20 MT 6.08 MT available old
exploration data.
Enhancement is due to
excavation beyond
3E 1.49 MT 8.69 LT 0.62 MT 2.69 MT stripping limit, below
957 MB, dilution of
sub-grade ore etc.
CPSTP 0.00 2.00 LT -0.20 MT 0.00
Total 26.66 MT 56.95 LT 20.96 MT 31.66 MT

However after taking into consideration of production programme during the


year 2007-08 and 2008-09 (upto 3.11.2008), the balance mineable reserves
as on 4.11.2008 are as follows:

Mineable reserve
Deposit Fe% UNFC
(in million tonnes)
South Block 7.54 68.19 (111)
Upto MM Cross section 5.47 66.97 (111)
C&D 3.18 66.26 (111)
North Block
3E 1.98 65.11 (111)
3W 3.75 64.11 (111)
Total 21.92 66.63

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1.4 Status and stages of regulatory clearances

Donimalai Iron ore Mine is accredited with


ISO 9001: 2000 (Quality Management System)
ISO 14001: 2004 (Environment Management System)

MoEF, GOI letter No.8-107/91-FC dated 4.02.1997 accorded approval under


Section – 2 of the Forest (Conservation) Act for diversion of 608 ha of forest
land for renewal of Mining lease for Mining of Iron Ore in favor of M/s
National Mineral Development Corporation Limited.

1. Under Secretary, Government of Karnataka vide GOK No.FEE.17-


FEM.90 Bangalore dated 28.7.1999conveyed Government approval to
Compiler state Gazette to publish the Government order and send the
order to PCCF and others for diversion of 608 ha of Forest Land at
Donimalai forests of Sandur in favor of M/s National Mineral
development Corporation Limited for the purpose of RML No. 839 for
extraction of Iron Ore.

2. Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Bangalore vide letter No.A-


5(B-1) MNG.CR.11/84-85(11) dated 17.9.1999 conveyed his approval
to Conservator of Forests, Bellary circle to execute the agreement for
diversion of 608 ha of Forest land at Donimalai Forests of Sandur in
favour of NMDC Ltd. for renewal of Mining Lease No. 839.

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3. KSPCB Karnataka accorded Consent for existing / discharge of sewage


and trade effluents under section 25/26 of the Water (Prevention and
Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 vide Consent No. KSPCB/WPC/SEO-
4/EO/DEO/AEO/06-07/162 dated 06-07-2007 and consent for
operation of the Plant under Section 21 of the Air (Prevention and
Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 vide Consent No. KSPCB/ SEO-
4/APC/EO/DEO/AEO/06-07/157 dated 06-07-2007 both consents are
valid till 30-06-2008.

5. KSPCB, Bangalore accorded the consent for the establishment and


Clearance from Water and Air Pollution for the expansion from 4MTPA
to 7 MTPA to the Donimalai Iron Ore Mine and Kumaraswamy Iron Ore
Mine as an Integrated Mining Complex vide letter no. KSPCB/CFE-
CELL/DEO-6/AEO-1/NMDC/EIA/2001-2002/374 dated 08-02-2002.

6. Mining Lease valid up to 3rd November, 2008 (Ref:DMG Letter No.DMG


/ MLS / 72AML87 / 1802 dated 05-05-2003)

7. Applied for renewal of Mining Lease vide Letter


No. NMDC/DNM/REN.ML-DIOM/2007 dated 26-09-2007 to Director,
Departments of Mines and Geology, no49, Khanij Bhawan, Bangalore-
560001.

8. Forest Clearance letter No. 8-107/91-FC dated 04-02-1997 validity is


up to 3rd November, 2008.

9. Applied for renewal vide DNM/HRD/EMC/G-4(8)/2007 dated 10-10-


2007 (received in office of CCF on 23-10-2007) to the Chief
Conservator of Forests (Nodal Officer), Bangalore.

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CHAPTER II

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

2.1 General description of the project

2.1.1 Project profile

Iron ore mine

The operating Donimalai Iron Ore Mine (DIOM) is one of the three
mechanized iron ore projects developed by NMDC. The mine was opened in
1967 and mechanized operations commissioned in 1977. The Donimalai iron
ore deposit occurs in the Sandur belt and is being exploited by NMDC Ltd/
with an annual production target of 4.0 million tonnes. NMDC proposes for
enhanced production up to 7.0 MTPA from Donimalai Iron Ore mine to keep
pace with the increasing demand of iron ore within India poised to become a
developed country and also to export to foreign countries. The mine lease
sketch is shown in Plate II.1.

The Iron ore body extends over a length of about 7.0 km and the ore occurs
on the hilltop between an elevation of 1100m and 900m above MSL. The
surface plan showing contours & topography has been presented in Plate-I.
The strike of the ore body is generally parallel to the trend of hill ranges
and is NNW - SSE in Donimalai. Details of the land use pattern in the mine
area are given in Table 2.1. and land use plan is presented in Plate II.2.

TABLE - 2.1 LAND USE PATTERN OF DIOM


SI.No. Area in Ha
1. Mining 180.00
2. Haulage Roads 18.60
3. For Buildings, Plants & Check dams 6.50
4. Pellet plant 21.4
5. BHQ / BHJ beneficiation plant 7.0
6. Land to be used for future Waste dumps 44.90
7. Area Afforested 85.00
8 Area used for Tailing dam 10.00
9 Degraded Forest 189.60
9. Rocky area 45.00
Total 608.00

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The total iron ore reserves were estimated at 149.24 MT with mineable
reserves of 107.15 MT in six sectors of the deposit. The mineable reserves
are increased to 110.20 MT as on 01.01.2004 due to intensive development
activity to go up to the planned stripping limit. It is reported that a balance
iron ore reserve of 28.37 MT (Table 2.2) and waste rock/overburden
amounting to 19.30 MT is available as on 1.04.2008.

TABLE - 2.2
ABSTRACT OF BALANCE IRON ORE RESERVES
(As on 01.04.2008)

Deposit Reserves In Million Tones


South Block
Deposit 1& 1A 10.18
Beyond MM – Cross Section 9.43
Sub Total 19.61
North Block
2E deposit
3E Deposit 2.68
2W Deposit 0.80
3W Deposit 5.32
Sub Total 8.80
Grand Total 28.37

Balance mineable ore reserves as on 01.04.2008 will be about 25.87 Million


Tones (projected).

Slime Beneficiation plant

The plant capacity, feed and desired product characteristics, plant location
and plant layout, slime beneficiation process, major equipment and
associated facilities are discussed below.

Plant capacity

The proposed slime beneficiation plant is required to produce about 1.203


million tons per annum (MTPA) of upgraded concentrate considering the

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capacity envisaged for pellet plant as well as the qualities of feed slimes
and the products achievable by high intensity / gradient magnetic
separation, as outlined in the beneficiation test report provided by NMDC.
For determination of annual feed slime quantity and plant throughput rate
to enable to attain the above target, following assumptions have been
made:

Annual requirement of pellet feed concentrate, million tons- 1.203


No.of working days per year - 300
No. of working shifts per day - 3
No. of working hours per shift - 8
Overall plant availability, % - 90
Overall plant utilization , % - 92

Yield in upgraded concentrate, % - 60

Based on the above assumptions, the effective annual working hours work
out to be about 6000. Accordingly, the annual and average hourly
throughput rates are estimated at about 2.03 MTPA and 340 tons per hour
(tph) respectively.

Plant feed: The beneficiation plant is envisaged to be fed with the slimes
reclaimed from existing tailings pond. Based on the quality of representative
slime samples indicated in the beneficiation test report, the typical
chemical composition of iron ore slimes from tailings pond could be as
follows:

Plant feed Fe SiO2 Al2O3 P S LOI


Slimes from tailingss 59.40 6.48 4.41 0.053 0.044 3.52
pond

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The physical characteristics of the iron ore slimes considered for designing
the slime beneficiation plant and associated facilities are as follows:

d80 size of the feed, micron - 53

Specific gravity of feed - 3.5


Specific gravity of concentrate - 4.2
Bulk density, tons/cu m - 2.4
Angle of repose, degree - 30-35
Moisture content in slime reclaimed from the pond, %- 5

Concentrate product : The processing system will be designed in


accordance with the required production of pellet feed concentrate at the
rate of 1.203 MTPA.

As established in the test work carried out by NMDC, the quality of


concentrate envisaged to be obtained from slime beneficiation plant could
be as follows:

Feed to Pellet plant Fe SiO2 Al2O3 LOI


Concentrate 59.40 6.48 4.41 3.52

Based on the review of the test data and feeding modality of the plant, the
process flow-sheet has been developed.

Plant location

Taking into consideration the major governing factors such as proximity to


the raw material source (i.e., tailings pond), existing railway track,
available water source etc. as well as clearance from existing HT power
lines and safe distance from nearby village/localities, the proposed slime
beneficiation plant along with the pellet plant and other related facilities is
planned to be located in the area demarcated for the same within NMDC
lease boundary at Donimalai, as shown in Plate II.2. The total land
requirement for the proposed slime beneficiation and pellet making
facilities including other associated units comes out to around 53 acres.

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Process description

To meet the annual requirement of slime feed for production of iron ore
concentrate at desired level, the evacuation of tailings from the pond will
be carried out by NMDC (or by their selected agency) during dry season and
in daylight hours only following their present practice of de-silting the pond
(using backhoe / FEL– tipper truck combination). In order to ensure
uninterrupted supply of feed material as well as in view of the
inaccessibility of tailings dam during monsoon due to muddy layer on its
surface, requisite quantity of reclaimed slimes will be stacked at a suitable
location near the tailings dam from where the requisite quantity of slime
material will be delivered to the plant-head stockpile having capacity to
hold about 2 to 3 days plant feed requirement through tipper trucks.

These try slimes will be fed to a single deck wet vibrating screen on which
water will be sprayed to remove the trash oversize material from the same.
The undersize slime slurry from the trash screen will be pumped to
dewatering / desliming cyclone circuit to remove the excess water and
ultrafines from the same. The underflow of the hydrocycone circuit will be
treated in Wet High Intensity Magnetic Separator (WHIMS) / High Gradient
Magnetic Separator (HGMS), from where three different products will be
obtained, namely magnetic concentrate, middlings and non-magnetic tails.
The total magnetic fraction along with a pre-determined quantity (about
40%) of the middlings will be pumped together as the final concentrate to
achieve a better yield of around 60% and the desired grade in terms of
alumina content not exceeding 1.8%. The final concentrate will be treated
in a concentrate thickener to increase the pulp density and to make the
feed amenable for filtration. The filter cake produced after filtration will be
delivered to a covered concentrate stockpile. The composite tails will
comprise of the total non-magnetic fraction and balance middlings and the
overflow of desliming / dewatering hydrocyclone circuit for treatment in a
tailings thickener to recover the reusable water. The filtrate along with the
thickeners overflow will be collected in a water reservoir for recirculation
to the process and the tailings thickener underflow slurry will be disposed

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off as lean tailings. The block flow diagram of Slime beneficiation plant is
given in Plate II.3.

Plant Layout

The slime beneficiation plant will comprise of the following sections:

Plant-head stockpile

Screening, desliming / dewatering section

Concentration section

Stockpiling, reclamation and loading sections

Grinding section (future provision)

MAJOR EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES

The major equipment and facilities for the slime beneficiation plant are
briefly described below. The plan view of the slime beneficiation plant is
presented in Plate II.4.

Plant-head stockpile

The reclaimed slime from the de-silted stacks near tailings pond area will be
delivered to the plant-head stockpile through tipper trucks. This stockpile
will have the capacity to hold 2 to 3 days requirement of slime. These dry
slimes will be fed through front-end loader, ground hopper and belt
conveyor to the screening, desliming / dewatering section.

Screening, desliming / dewatering section

Trash screen: The dry slimes will be fed to a wet vibrating screen of size
2100 x 4800 mm with deck opening of 0.2 mm (65#) for removal of the trash
oversize material from the same. Water will be sprayed on the screen at
high pressure to achieve the desired screening efficiency. The trash material
from the screen will be delivered to a reject stockpile via a belt conveyor.

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Plate - II.3 Slime Beneficiation Plant – Block Flow diagram

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Plate II.4 Plan of Slime Beneficiation Plant

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Desliming / dewatering hydrocyclone circuit: The underflow slurry from the


trash screen will be collected in a sump, from where the same will be
pumped to the desliming / dewatering cyclone circuit. The underflow from
the hydro cyclone circuit will be collected in a slurry-holding tank. The
overflow of the hydro cyclone circuit with low pulp density will be
transferred by gravity to tailings thickener.

Slurry holding tank : The slurry holding tank of dimensions 15 m dia x 15 m


height, will have capacity for holding of about 6 hours feed. It will be
constructed with thick steel plate adequately ribbed with steel section
stiffeners for strength. The tank will be equipped with agitator to keep the
solids in slurry in suspension in the event of outage of concentrator.

Concentration section

Magnetic separator: The pulp from the holding tank at about 40-50 per cent
solids will be pumped to two WHIMS units. The pulp will flow through the
feed pipe into place boxes mounted on twin rotor discs of 3170 mm dia
each, rotating in the magnetic field. Each of two rotors has two
symmetrically disposed feed points located at the leading edges of the
magnetic field. In the influence zone of the magnetic field, the magnetic
particles in the feed will adhere to the grooved plates, whereas the non-
magnetic pulp will pass straight through as tailings.

Before leaving the magnetic field, nay non-magnetics entrapped in the


plates will be washed out by low-pressure wash water and such washings
will form a middling product.

When plate top boxes reach the neutral zone, the magnetic entrapped in
the plates will be washed out with high pressure scour water sprays and the
same will be collected as magnetic concentrate.

The magnetic concentrate, middlings and tailings will be collected by


gravity in three separate steel tanks. The magnetic concentrate and
requisite quantity of the middlings will be pumped together as the final
concentrate for necessary thickening & filtration prior to the treatment for

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pelletisation. Rest of the middlings will be delivered together with non-


magnetic tails for water recovery in the tailings thickener.

Concentrate thickener: The final concentrate obtained after magnetic


separation, will be fed to a concentrate thickener of 12 m . The basic
function of this concentrate thickener is to increase the percent solid in
slurry and prepare a suitable feed for filter.

Belt filter: 16 m long x 3.5 m wide belt-filters will be provided for filtration
of thickened concentrate produced from the concentrate thickener. The
filter will be equipped with filtrate receiver, filtrate pump, vacuum
receiver, vacuum pump, air blower etc. The dewatered concentrate
obtained from the filter will be delivered to the pellet feed fines stockpile
via a belt conveyor.

Concentrate stockpile: The concentrate stockpile will be of covered


construction. A motorized traveling tripper will be provided for distribution
of filter cake over the stockpile having capacity to hold about 2 to 3 days
production of pellet feed concentrate.

Concentrate stockpile: The concentrate stockpile will be of covered


construction. A motorized traveling tripper will be provided for distribution
of filter cake over the stockpile having capacity to hold about 2 to 3 days
production of pellet feed concentrate.

Tailings thickener: All the tailings slurry will be treated in the tailings
thickener of 15 m dia. for recovery of usable water. Thickeners complete
will requisite pumping systems for overflow and underflow will be provided.

The clarified water (overflow of the concentrate and tailings thickener and
filtrate from the filter) containing a maximum of 100 ppm suspended solids
will be collected in a separate storage reservoir for recycling to the process.

Tailings disposal: The lean tailings obtained as tailings thickener underflow


slurry will be disposed off to an identified area in the existing tailings pond
at Donimalai. It is envisaged that an earthen partition dyke will be

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constructed within the tailings dam to make space to accommodate the lean
tailings. A suitable area for the purpose will be finalized in consultation with
NMDC at an appropriate stage.

Pellet Plant

Quantity and source of slime

The slime generated from the existing ore processing plants in the Donimalai
region would constitute the feed to the proposed beneficiation plant.

Taking into account the capacity envisaged for the pellet plant, about 1.203
million tons of concentrate, on dry and net basis would be required every
year. To produce this quantity of concentrate, annual plant throughput
works out to about 2.03 million tons (dry and net) considering 60 percent
yield. Accordingly, the plant will be rated for 340 tph based on 6000 hours
of operation per year.

It is also conceived that the reclamation of slime from the pond will be
carried out using front-end loaders / backhoe – tippers truck combination
following NMDC’s present practice of desilting the pond. This will be carried
out during dry season and in daylight hours only. The slime reclaimed shall
be stacked at a suitable location within plant boundary and then delivered
to the plant-heat stockpile through tippers of appropriate size. Battery limit
of the proposed pellet plant with slime beneficiation facilities has been
considered from this plant-head stockpile inside the plant boundary.

Pellet Plant capacity

One of the prime factors for selection of plant capacity is the raw material
resources. It is gathered that the quantity of slime accumulated in the pond
is of the order of 6 million tons. Additionally, fresh generation of slime
amounts to about 0.7 million tons every year, which is envisaged to be
delivered to existing tailings pond. It has also been indicated by NMDC that
some quantity of iron ore fines could be made available when slime from
the pond falls short of requirement.

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The raw material availability as indicated above is not conducive to sustain


operation of large capacity pellet plant. At the same time, there is an
urgency of evacuation of tailings from the pond. Hence, Pellet plant
capacity of 1.2 MTPY is suggested to ensure about 15 to 20 years of
operation.

Pellet making technology

The pellet making process mainly comprises of grinding of raw materials,


proportioning, mixing, balling, induration of green balls. Provision for size
reduction of pellet feed concentrate is kept in the form of High Pressure
Grinding Roll (HPGR) to achieve appropriate size for pelletisation and to
improve the blaine number of the same.

Induration machine is the critical one among these and it involves thermal
treatment of green balls in stages, namely (a) drying, (b) pre-heating, (c)
induration / curing and (d) cooling.

Grate-kiln: A grate-kiln comprises of three separate thermal units, namely


straight grate, rotary kiln and annular cooler used for carrying out three
phases of indurations of pellets. The green balls are dried and preheated on
the chain grate from at about 300oC and 300oC to 1300/1350oC using hot air
from the cooler for combustion of fuel. Cooling of the hot pellets from the
rotary kilns is carried out with ambient air blown over the pellets into the
cooler. The grate kiln system is used for indurating a variety of ore such as
magnetite, hematite, mixture of magnetite and hematite etc.

Selection of indurating machine

The shaft furnace is already ruled out for reasons stated earlier. In the
grate-kiln, the transfer of as yet unindurated pellets from grate to kiln and
the type of ‘spiral rolling’ motion it undergoes inside the kiln, makes the
pellet more prone to breakage which results in larger recycle load. Pellets
are relatively at a position of rest in different thermal zones, once laid on
the straight grate.

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Keeping in view the availability of relatively small capacity plant in the


market and to enable adoption of coal as main fuel, which is a relatively
cheaper option, the grate-kiln-indurations-furnace based pellet plant of 1.2
MTPY capacity is proposed.

Coal as fuel

Fuel is required in pellet plant for drying of iron ore prior to grinding and
heat hardening green pellets in the indurating machine. Coal is used as fuel.
Low ash high calorific value (> 6,000 kcal per kg) envisaged to be used as
fuel will be imported from Australia, China or Indonesia to Chennai port.
The coal unloaded form ship at the port will be transported by rail to
Donimalai considering one ship load. The same will be delivered to the coal
stockpile inside plant premises by road. The capacity of this stockyard will
be about 41,600 ton capable of holding about 300 days’ requirement of the
plant. Coal from the ground stock pile will be reclaimed by front-end loader
in the similar fashion as lime stone / bentonite and delivered to the coal
bin. Coal will be pulverized in a separate pulveriser.

Disposal of tailings from slime beneficiation plant

It has been already pointed out that about 60 per cent of reclaimed slimes
are expected to be recovered in the process of beneficiation. Accordingly,
quantity of accumulated tailings will get reduced and space for new arising
of tailings will increase.

It is envisaged that a portion of existing tailings pond will be separated out


constructing an earthen dyke and will be earmarked for disposal of lean
tailings. A schematic process flow diagram is given in Plate II.5.

BHQ Beneficiation Plant

Instead of dumping low grade iron ores such as BHQ / BHJ, NMDC proposed
to treat the same by installing Low grade beneficiation plant at DIOM.
During the time, as the technology improved and market introduced High
Gradinet Magnetic Separators (HGMS) which can treat fine particles with

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Plate II.5 Pellet Plant – Schematic process

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feeble magnetic properties like hematite etc. for processing finely


disseminated Badde specular haematite ores such as BHQ/ BHJ etc. The
conceptual flow chart (enclosed) includes crushing in two stages followed by
a close circuit grinding with high frequency vibrating screens along with
High Pressure Grinding Rolls. This is followed by Pre- concentration (hydro
cyclones) and medium Intensity Magnetic separation followed by
concentration by High Gradient Magnetic Separation to get a product of 0.6
MTPA for a feed of 1.8 MTPA with purity of min. 65%.

The project cost is estimated to be around Rs.180 cr. This includes technology,
Design and Engineering, Plant and machinery, civil structure, instrumentation,
logistics, power, water silos, etc. In view of the above to treat 1.80 MTPA BHJ
lumpy ore with advanced technology including fine grinding and fine particle
processing to get pellet grade concentrate is estimated to be around Rs.180 Cr.
A schematic flow diagram is presented in Plate II.6.

Location and Accessibility

The Donimalai Iron ore deposit with a mining lease area of 608 Ha forms a
part of Narasinghapura village Panchayat in Sandur Taluk of Bellary district,
Karnataka state. This deposit lies towards SE part of the Bellary - Hospet
range. The district headquarters, Bellary, is 58 Km NE and Hospet is 40 km
NW of DIOM. Donimalai Iron Ore Mine lies between the latitudes 15° 02’00”
N to 15° 06’30” N and the longitudes 76° 36’00” E to 76° 38’30”E. The area
falls in the Survey of India Topo Sheet 57A/12. The Bellary - Hospet region is
one of the four major known concentrations of high grade Hematite in India.

The Donimalai Iron Ore mine in Bellary district of Karnataka is about 325 Km
due north of Bangalore. The nearest railway station is Toranagallu on the
Hubli-Guntakal meter / broad-gauge section of South-Central Railways, and
is 26 Km away from Donimalai. The ore loading station for Donimalai mine is
at Ranjitpura on Broad Gauge in the Hubli Division of South-Western
Railways. The major part of production is being supplied to domestic
industries and balance iron ore is exported through Chennai outer harbour.
The location map of DIOM site is presented in Plate II.7(a) & (b).

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Plate - II.6 BHQ Beneficiation Plant – Schematic Process

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Plate - II.7(a) Location Map of Donimalai Iron Ore Mine, Bellary district

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Plate - II.7(b) Location Map of Donimalai Iron Ore Mine

Topography

Donimalai deposits are situated on the southern half of the eastern range of
hills flanking Sandur valley. This area comprises a series of hills flanking
Sandur valley. This area comprises a series of hills and valleys. Sandur valley
with a length of about 40 kms and a width of 4.5 kms is surrounded by a long
range of hills on eastern and western flanks giving an elliptical shape to the
valley with its long axis running NNW-SSE. The two ranges of hills close-in
towards the southern end. A small stream viz., Narihalla flows through the
valley.

The iron ore deposits of Donimalai occur at the top of the ridges running
NNW-SSE and rising to an elevation of 900 to 1100 m above MSL. The top of
the range forms a gently sloping undulating plateau varying in width from
100 to 300 mts. The thickness of the soil cover over the ore body is almost
negligible.

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Good amount of vegetation on the hills with moderate to thick forest growth
is found in the valley area. The surface plan of the mine site is presented in
Plate II.8.

Geology

The Donimalai deposit forms a part of Bellary – Hospet range of hills which
in turn is a component of Sandur schist belt. It is a highly deformed green
stone belt made up mainly of metabasalts intercalated with minor
sediments and a spectacular development of Iron formation. Shelf–facies
sediments are confined to the margins and are marked by the presence of
intercalated bands of quartzite, quartz-schist alternating with metabasalts
and amphibolites. These are the lowest formations in the green schist
sequence resting on an older basement of gnessies. Limestone and
manganese are common and are not found in the formation higher up in the
sequence. The strike of the ore body is generally parallel to the trend of the
hill ranges i.e. NNW-SSE. Donimalai deposits form a part of SE limb of
Sandur synclinorium and extend over a length of about 7 Km. striking NNW-
SSE following the general strike of the country rock with beds dipping 70°
towards ENE to vertical.

In Donimalai, meta-volcanics are exposed in the valley portions, which are


overlain by shaly formation with tuff bands. The banded iron formation
overlies the meta-volcanics and shaly formation. All these formations are
intruded by dolerites profusely. Laterites, mainly resulting from the
weathering of the shales and soft ores are confined to the surface to a
depth of about 4 to 5 meters only and also to the fissures and joint planes.
The shales which are deeply weathered are more phyllitic in nature and
generally exhibit foliation or fracture cleavage near the contact of the ore,
but tend to become massive away from the contact. Depending on the
proximity to ore and degree of enrichment with iron, they are hard or soft.

The iron ore deposits in the Donimalai range are associated with the
precambrian Dharwar rocks. In Donimalai range, the banded hematitic

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Plate II.8 Surface Plan

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jaspers are more prominent on the western and northern parts forming long
and narrow ridges. Their continuity has been cut by deep gorges in between.

The BHJ are compact and banded, exhibiting structural folds at places and
intersecting joint patterns. Some dolerite and epidiorite dykes are noticed
on the flanks of the range intruding into the BHJ and shales, but the ore
body does not show its presence anywhere. Iron ore is believed to have
originated from the BHJ by leaching of silica and enrichment of iron oxide
by meteoric agencies like other similar deposits in the country.

The thickness of soil cover on ore body is negligible and varies from 0 to
0.5 m. occupying depressions flanking hills and mounds on the flat top of
the range. The composite geological plan and cross section are presented in
Plates II.9 & II.10.

Year –wise production of Ore and Waste

The year wise proposed production programme period-wise, is given in


Table 2.3.

Table – 2.3 Production Programme


Production (million tonnes)
Year Waste striping Ratio
ROM Waste
4.11.2008-31.3.09 3.0 2.2 0.73
2009-10 7.0 5.05 0.72
2010-11 7.0 5.192 0.74
2011-12 4.726 2.5 0.53
Total 21.726 14.942 0.69

2.1.3 Mine Closure Plan

Donimalai mine has been started in 1977 and extracted a mineable reserve
of about 78.45 MT upto 1st April 2005. Although, the mining activities may
last for 4 to 5 years to extract the balance reserve of 31.75 MT, but they are
liable to leave long lasting impacts on the landscape, ecology and on local
inhabitants. The objective of mine closure plan is aimed at restoration /
reclamation of disturbed area, which should be acceptable to local
community as well as regulatory authority.

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Mine closure is not something that happens at the end of a mine`s life
rather mine closure is an ongoing series of activities starting from the
planning stage of a mine and ending with a suitably restored site that can be
returned to the community/ state government, leasor.

The mine closure is planned in two phases

a. The first phase/progressive site-specific closure plan includes the various


activities to be implemented over the life of the mine. The required
time table for these is given in detail in the EMP / Project report itself.
The required fund – capital and Revenue, is also given under different
heads in the EMP/ project report.

b. This second plan may undergo and incorporate changes depending upon
the actual site condition during implementation, legal & social
requirements in future, availability of additional mineral reserves etc. As
such a detailed closure plan will be prepared 3 years before the actual
closure time of the mine. This plan is the culmination of the activities
given under progressive plan. A conceptual mining plan for both North &
South blocks are presented in Plates II.11(a) & (b).

2.2 Project details

2.2.1 Layout Plan

The major components of the project includes mining area, haulage roads,
statutory buildings, check dams, afforest ration, Tailing dams, Crushing &
Screening plants (Slime beneficiation plant), Pellet plants & BHQ / BHJ
processing plant.

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Plate II.11 a

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Plate II.11b

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2.2. Salient features of the project and its surroundings

* Altitude : 900-1150 m above MSL


* Longitude : 76o36,0” and 76o 38,30” E
* Latitude : 15o2,0” and 15o6,30”N
* Maximum day temperature, °C : 42
* Minimum day temperature, °C : 18
* Maximum relative humidity, % : 86
* Minimum relative humidity, % : 41
* Annual rainfall : 416-865 mm
* Mine lease area : 608.0 Ha
* Topography : Hillock, undulating
* Nearest Highway : NH – 63 (7.8 Km)
* Nearest railway station : Toranagllu (28 km)
* Nearest city : Bellary (38 km)
* Nearest Airport : M/s Jindal South West (18 km)
* Nearest village : Narasingapura (3.5 km)
* Mineable reserves : 28.60 Million tons (as on 01.04.08)
* Rate of mining : 884 tons/ hour
* Life of mine : 4-5 years
* Mining methodology : Open cast Mechanized Method
* Explosives : 36 Tons / week (Max.)
* Water requirement : 25866 m3/day
* Manpower : 1600
* Ore: waste ratio : 1 : 0.78 (average)
* Screening category : A (as per EIA notification, 2006)
* Nearest Reserve forest : Donimalai RF (With in mine lease)
* Nearest sanctuary : None within 10 km radius
* Nearest national park : None within 10 km radius
* Historical places : Kumaraswamy Temple (9.0 Kms)
* Water bodies : Narihalla dam (6.0 km)

2.2.3 Physiography & Drainage

The Donimalai iron ore deposit is situated on the southern half of the
eastern range of hills flanking Sandur valley. This area comprises a series of
hills and valleys. Sandur valley with a length of about 40 Km and a width of
4.5 Km is surrounded by a long range of hills on eastern and western flanks
giving an elliptical shape to the valley with its long axis running NNW-SSE.
The two ranges of hills close in towards the southern end. A small stream
viz. Narihalla flows through the valley.

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The Iron ore deposits of Donimalai occur at the top of the ridges running
NNW-SSE and rising to about 1100 m above MSL. The top of the hill ranges
forms a gently sloping, undulating plateau varying in width from 100m to
300 m. The thickness of the soil covering the ore body is almost negligible
varying from 0.0 to 0.50 m.

Present operating Donimalai Iron ore mine area is devoid of any river system.
However, the site is drained by local streams to join the Narihalla in the
western part and Kaniganahalla in the eastern side, which is ultimately
emerging in the downstream side of Tungabhadra. The only important river in
the district is Tungabhadra and its tributaries namely the Hagari and Chikka-
Hagari, which are flowing outside the study area. The flow of Tungabhadra
river and Narihalla nallah is regulated by respective dam authorities and flow
quantities are very meager in summer season.

The Narihalla reservoir with a water spread area of 8 sq. Km and storage
capacity of 22.94 million cubic meters (Table – 2.3) which is in the buffer
zone, caters the water requirement of Donimalai project both for domestic and
industrial use and additionally it is a source of water supply to domestic and
irrigation use for some villages in the close vicinity.

Besides the Narihalla reservoir, Rajapur and Ubbalagandi tanks are the minor
surface water bodies in the buffer zone area. These ponds/ tanks are with a
small storage capacity and is being harnessed mostly for irrigation purpose.
These ponds/tanks are recipient of the mine effluent during the monsoon period.

Vegetation on the hills with moderate to thick forest growth is found in the
valley areas. The central part of the Sandur valley is covered with red loamy
soil. The inhabitants of the surrounding villages of Bhujanganagar,
Narasingapura, Taranagar, Gangalapur Ranjitpura, Ubbalagandi, etc. are
mostly agriculturists. Agriculture is confined to the low lying / valley region
only due to some moderate ground water potential and surface water
availability Maize, groundnut, ragi, sunflower, onion and jowar are the main
crops in the valley.

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TABLE – 2.4 : SALIENT FEATURES OF NARI HALLA DAM / RESERVOIR


1. Name of Project Narihalla
2. River Basin Krishna
3. Name of Stream/ sub-basin Narihalla/ Tungabhadra
4. Location
a. Nearby village/town Taranagar
b. Taluk Sandur
c. District Bellary
d. latitude 150 - 07’ - 0’’ N
e. Longitude 700 - 36’ - 0” E
5. Catchment area ( Sq.Km ) 427
6. Yield ( Tmc ) 57.73
7. Storage (Mcum )
a. Gross 22.94
b.Live 20.87
c.Dead` 2.07
8. Planned Utilisation ( Mcum )
a. Withdrawals by canals 20.46
b. Reservoir losses 5.00
c. Gross utilisation 25.46
9.Irrigable Area 1512 Ha
10. Submersion
a. Area (ha) 249
b. Village affected (Nos.) Nil
c. Population affected ( Nos.) Nil
11. Dam
a. Type Earth
b. Height ( Mtrs) 30.92
c. Length ( Mtrs) 295
d. MWL ( Mtrs ) 542.45
e. FRL ( Mtrs ) 542.45
f. MDDL ( M trs ) 537.03
12. Spillway
a. Location Central
b. Length ( Mtrs ) 55.40
c. Flood Lift ( Mtrs ) 6.10
d. Discharging capacity ( Cumecs) 1238
e. Gates 5 Nos. (9.14x6.10) Vertical Crest Gates
13. Canals
Right Bank Canal 5.23
a. Length ( Km ) 0.23
b.Capacity ( Cumecs ) 347
c. Area ( ha )
Left Bank Canal
a. Length ( Km ) 9.0
b.Capacity ( Cumecs ) 0.72
c. Area ( ha ) 1165

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Narihalla Reservoir

2.2.4 Geological reserves of Ore and Waste

On the basis of the exploration data, the following reserves were estimated
prior to the commencement of mining operations in October 1977:

(In million tones)


Deposit Proved Reserved Mineable Reserves
South Block
Ore Body A 46.99 43.17
Ore Body 1A 12.10 7.82
Ore Body B 4.42 2.15
Ore Body C 4.66 2.95
Ore Body D 4.18 1.92
North Block
2E Deposit 15.21 10.72
2W deposit 18.94 12.16
3E Deposit 35.99 21.03
3W Deposit 6.74 5.23
Total 149.24 107.15
The mineable reserves are worked out on the basis of 55% cut off grade of Fe
content. The proved reserve of 149.24 million tones & Mineable reserve of

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107.15 million tones is given in the approved mining plan. The mineable
reserves increased to 110.20 million tones on 01-04-2004, are due to
intensive development activity to go up to the planned stripping limit of the
benches under production, keeping in view mineral conservation and scientific
development of the mine, in North & South Blocks. In South block, the ore
body contacts are well exposed by extensive waste mining on either side of
the deposit (Eastern & Western side).

In North Block deposits, sub grade material mined is being suitable blended
with the high-grade ore of south Block deposit to increase the life of the
deposit. The existing deposits are thoroughly examined for developing further
benches.The balance mineable reserves, deposit wise as on 01.04.2008 were
as follows:

Mineable Mineable
reserve reserve
Deposit Fe% UNFC Fe% UNFC
(in million (in million
tones) tones)
South Block North Block
Upto MM Cross section 11.03 67.97 (111) 2E (111)

BMM Section A & B 6.35 66.55 (111) 2W 1.07 63.23 (111)


C&D 4.43 66.07 (111) 3E 2.70 64.73 (111)
9.85 3W 6.08 63.2 (111)
Total 31.66 66.07% 9.85

GSI estimated the total reserves of ROM were found to be 149.24 million
tons. Out of total reserves of 149.24 million tons only 110.20 million tons of
ore is mineable in two blocks namely North and South. The two blocks are
divided into six ore bodies viz.1 and 1A falling in the South block and 2E,2W,
3E and 3W in the North block from where mining of iron ore is carried out.
The balance ore and waste rock reserves as on 01-01-2008 are 28.37 MT and
19.30 MT respectively (Table –2.5).

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


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TABLE – 2.5 BENCH-WISE BALANCE MINEABLE RESERVES


(as on 01.04.2008)

Ore Types Incidence Grade


Deposit & Total Lump StripR
Waste
Bench MHLO SLO Reserve Rec.% atio
HO 2 FO 5 BD 6 Fe% Si% Al% P%
3 4
SOUTH BLOCK

SB-1005 0 81758

SB-993 0 0 ----

SB-981 0 1048254 ----

SB-969 6122 28568 63258 83664 22446 204059 34.3 64.5 3.3 2.50 0.065 1235663 6.06

SB-957 13746 64150 142046 187868 50404 458214 34.0 65.5 2.4 2.10 0.060 1505921 3.29

SB-945 14958 74790 209413 373952 74790 747904 33.0 67.8 1.1 0.80 0.065 1654471 2.21

SB-933 51032 127581 714452 1479937 178613 2551615 31.4 68.3 0.8 0.60 0.050 1450716 0.57

SB-921 65499 196498 916991 1899481 196498 3274967 31.5 68.4 0.7 0.80 0.050 839232 0.26

SB-909 57828 144569 520448 1966136 202396 2891376 30.1 67.9 1.1 1.30 0.040 34560 0.01

TOTAL 209185 636156 2566608 5991037 725148 10128135 31.3 67.98 1.00 0.99 0.049 7850575 0.78

NORTH BLOCK

3E1017 0 1559 9351 15585 4676 31170 25.5 63.5 3.30 2.40 0.04 51700 1.66

3E1005 0 8247 49480 82467 24740 164934 25.0 63.0 3.50 2.50 0.045 218040 1.32

3E-993 0 11314 67885 113142 33943 226284 24.5 62.5 3.60 2.60 0.050 355221 1.57

3E-981 0 21595 129570 215950 64785 431900 27.5 65.0 2.80 2.40 0.075 435744 1.01

3E-969 0 40835 261343 392015 122505 816697 26.0 64.0 3.30 2.20 0.065 681316 0.83

3E-957 0 50624 121497 658108 182245 1012474 25.2 66.0 2.20 1.90 0.060 48900 0.05

Subtotal 0 134173 639126 1477267 432893 2683459 25.8 64.72 2.84 2.17 0.062 1790921 0.67

2W-1029 0 1781 1979 14249 1781 19790 27.8 62.8 3.40 3.40 0.045 28560 1.44

2W-1017 0 19637 17851 124960 16066 178514 27.0 63.0 3.35 3.50 0.060 50731 0.28

2W-1005 0 43085 30775 206193 27698 307750 27.4 63.0 3.60 2.60 0.050 163502 0.53

2W-993 0 44133 32364 203010 14711 294218 26.2 63.5 3.20 3.20 0.060 495714 1.68

Subtotal 0 108635 82969 548412 60256 800272 26.9 63.18 3.39 3.04 0.056 738507 0.92

3W-1029 0 12014 15017 109623 13515 150169 30.8 60.7 4.50 5.97 0.034 162956 1.09

3W-1017 0 53689 76698 575238 61359 766984 31.6 60.6 5.00 4.64 0.025 292125 0.38

3W-1005 0 149278 182451 1144464 182451 1658644 29.4 63.3 4.08 3.09 0.024 215003 0.13

3W-993 0 140000 175000 1277500 157500 1750000 30.2 63.7 3.90 2.62 0.028 630000 0.36

3W-981 0 80000 90000 750000 80000 1000000 28.2 65.70 2.93 1.54 0.023 150000 0.15

Subtotal 434980 539166 3856826 494825 5325797 29.8 63.42 3.95 2.95 0.026 1450084 0.27

TOTAL 0 677789 1261262 5882504 987974 8809528 28.3 63.79 3.56 2.72 0.039 3979512 0.45

BEYOND MM CROSS SECTION

A&B 116909 526092 1812096 2922736 467638 5845471 33.5 66.55 2.11 1.33 0.035 6012339 1.03

C&D 538554 502651 646265 1651566 251325 3590361 35.1 66.07 2.37 1.55 0.037 3322753 0.93

Subtotal 655464 1028743 2458361 4574302 718963 9435832 34.1 66.37 2.21 1.41 0.036 9335092 0.99

S.B + MMXS + N.B

TOTAL 864649 2342688 6286231 16447843 2432084 28373495 31.3 66.14 2.20 1.67 0.042 21165179 0.75

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


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2.2.5 Chemical Composition of Ore & Slime

The chemical composition of the ore available in different ore bodies are
furnished in the Table 2.6.
Table – 2.6 Chemical composition of Ore
(In million tones)
Deposit Grade (Fe %)
South Block
Ore Body A 67.6
Ore Body 1A 65.2
Ore Body B 65.1
Ore Body C 64.1
Ore Body D 66.1
North Block
2E Deposit 64.1
2W deposit 63.1
3E Deposit 64.6
3W Deposit 63.2
Total 65.3

Characteristics of slime from tailing pond which is a feed to pellet plant is


presented in the Table 2.7.
Table – 2.7 Chemical Composition of Slime
Sl. No. Chemical Composition Avaliablity (%)
1 Fe 59.40
2 SiO2 6.48
3 Al2O3 4.41
4 P 0.053
5 S 0.044
6 LOI 3.52

The physical characteristics of the iron ore slimes considered for designing
the slime beneficiation plant and associated facilities are as follows:

d80 size of the feed, micron - 53


Specific gravity of feed - 3.5
Specific gravity of concentrate - 4.2
Bulk density, tons/cu m - 2.4
Angle of repose, degree - 30-35
Moisture content in slime reclaimed from the pond, % - 5

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2.3 Details of Mining process

2.3.1 Exploration & Reserves

The detailed investigation of the area was taken up by GSI in close


collaboration with NMDC Ltd. During 1965 to 1968 and subsequently by
NMDC Ltd. From 1968 onwards. GSI and NMDC Ltd. Mapped 2.25 sq.km area
and 1.37 sq.km area respectively on 1:1000 scales. Prior to the project
planning 7336 mts. Of core drilling by GSI and 12256 mts of core drilling by
NMDC was done at 50 x 50 mts. Grid interval. Thus total of 19592 mts of
core drilling was done apart from driving 10 numbers of adits totaling 1234
mtrs in length and sinking of 295 deep pits and 556 shallow pits. Based on
the above exploration data, mining plans were prepared.

The summary of bore holes drilled is given below:

GSI NMDC
No. of holes Meterage No. of holes Meterage
South Block 55 4856 61 4929
2E Deposit 17 712 22 967
2W Deposit 9 393 63 1838
3E Deposit 17 1172 43 2405
3W Deposit 4 203 59 2117
Total 102 7336 248 12256

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Geological plan on scale of 1:5000, showing ore outcrops, bore hole


locations and cross-section lines etc. is placed in Plate II.8.

Future programme of exploration

Though adequate core drilling was done during explorations stage for
delineation of ore body & estimation of reserve, but since the ore reserves
are depleting fast and reducing the life of mine, study of geology of SB, 2W
& 3E deposits from the point of view of mineral conservation indicates
possibility of getting additional reserves below ultimate pit limit. Therefore,
it is proposed to take up some additional core drilling programme in the
below mentioned deposits. The envisaged drilling programme are give in
Table 2.8.

Table – 2.8 (a) Drilling Programme


NORTH BLOCK: 3E DEPOSIT
Cross
BH No. Inclination Meterage Location
Section
D-6 1 Vertical 50 957 RL
D-5 2 Vertical 50 957 RL
D-4 3 Vertical 70 957 RL
N-1 4 Vertical 50 981 RL
N-2 5 40 – 50° 50 981 RL
N-3 6 Vertical 50 981 RL
N-4 7 Vertical 50 957 RL
N-4 8 Vertical 50 957 RL
N-5 9 Vertical 50 957 RL
Total 470

Table – 2.8 (b) Drilling Programme


NORTH BLOCK: 2W DEPOSIT
Cross
BH No. Inclination Meterage Location
Section
M-33 PBH-Q-1 Vertical 40 998 RL
M-31 PBH –Q-2 Vertical 40 993 RL
M-27 PBH-Q-3 Vertical 40 993 RL
M-23 PBH-Q-4 Vertical 40 993 RL
M-24 PBH –Q-5 Vertical 40 993 RL
Total 200 Mtrs

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Table – 2.8 (c) Drilling Programme


SOUTH BLOCK & BMMX
Cross BH
Inclination Meterage Location
Section No.
CS-5 1 E-Side/ Vertical 130 981 RL
CS-5 2 E-Side/ Vertical 50 1005 RL
CS-6 3 E-Side/ Vertical 120 969 RL
CS-7 4 E-Side/ Vertical 100 957 RL
CS-7 5 E-Side/ Vertical 50 981 RL
CS-8 6 E-Side/ Vertical 100 957 RL
CS-9 7 E-Side/ Vertical 100 957 RL
CS-11 8 E-Side/ Vertical 100 957 RL
CS-13 9 E-Side/ Vertical 110 945 RL
CS-13 10 45° - 50° East 40 948 RL
Total 900 Mtrs

To know the ore body persistence in BMMX one or two bore holes will be
taken up after completion of exploration work in south bloc.

In view of the complexity of the ore body in respect of 3E-deposit drilling


meterage has to be monitored when BHJ is encountering. Regarding 2W-
deposit, as the ore body is of shallowness, the drilling meterage of each
bore hole has been proposed to average 40 meter depth. The total meterage
of drilling in all the three deposits (SB, 3E & 2W) is about 1570 meters in 24
bore holes.

2.3.2 Characteristics of Ore& Waste rock (Physical)

Av. Sp. Gravity of Ore 3.5


Av. Sp. Gravity of Waste Material 3
Av. Bulk Density of Ore 3
Av. Bulk Density of Waste Material 2.5

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2.3.3 Method of mining

Existing / proposed method of mining with design parameters:

The iron ore deposits of Donimalai occur at the top of the ridges running
NNW-SSE and rising to an elevation of 900 to 1100 m above MSL. The strike
of the ore bodies is generally parallel to the trend of the ranges i.e. SSE and
beds dipping 70° towards ENE to vertical.

The mine is presently being operated by opencast method of mining and


therefore proposed to continue to exploit the deposit by open cast mining
method by using blast hole drills, Hydraulic Excavators and heavy duty rear
tipping trucks as major mining equipment. The deposits will continue to be
worked by system of benches.

2.3.2 Characteristics of Ore & Waste

Avg. Specific Gravity of ore 3.5


Avg. Specific gravity of Waste material 3

Avg. Bulk density of Ore 3


Avg. Bulk density of Waste material 2.5

Mine Design parameters

The parameters considered for the mine design are as below:

Highest point in Lease Hold Area (MRL) 1041

Ground Level in Lease Hold Area (MRL) 600

Highest Bench level of workings (MRL) 1005

Bottom most bench level of workings (MRL) 909

Ultimate Depth of workings (M) 96

Annual Rain fall (mm) 600 – 800

Ultimate pit slope

An ultimate pit slope of 45° is considered

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Haul Roads

It is proposed to develop haul roads by all cut or cut and fill as appropriate
at places. These gradient of haul roads and ramps within the mine is
planned to be maintained at no steeper than 1 in 16. At hair pin bends, the
minimum turning radius of 17.8m is to be considered. A 1% cross gradient is
proposed across the haul roads towards the hill side to allow for rain water
flow. A haul road width of 20 m is considered. This width is arrived based on
the following calculations.

Aspect Specification

Road width Minimum 17.8 m

Drainage 0.7m (on the hill side)

Safety berm 1.5m (on the valley side)

Bench height

Keeping in view, the rated capacity of the mine and matching size of the
excavators, it is desirable to deploy 5.5 cum bucket capacity hydraulic
excavators in the mine. The max. reach height of the bucket for this class of
excavators is 13m. Hence the bench height of 12m would be optimum for
mine operation.

Width of the benches

The matching dumpers for 5.5 cum capacity excavators would be of 85 T (78
metric tons) capacity. Also for total excavation of 12.2 million tons per
annum requiring drilling and blasting, considering the nature of rock to be
drilled and bench height, it is desirable to deploy 150 mm dia hole drills in
the mine. Dozers also would be deployed for preparation / maintenance of
the bench floors. Therefore for safe movement and working of these sizes of
equipment on the mine benches, the operating width of 30-40 m of the
bench would be maintained. The ultimate width of the benches in the
finishing stage would be according to the stable pit slope of the rock type in
the benches.

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Face length

The face length mainly depends upon the frequency of blasting, no. of rows
in a blast, bench height and burden and spacing of the holes. Total length
should be at least two times of actual length of working faces required for
designed capacity so as to ensure that any point of time; the excavators are
not operated just below the drills in operation.

Ore Waste
Required excavation / week 1,40,000 1,03,840
Av. specific gravity of insitu material 3.5 3
Volume / week cu.mt 40,000 34,613
Burden for 1 row (mts) 3.8 4.5
40000 /12/ 3.8/3 34613/12 / 4.5/3
Required face length for 3 rows blast
= 292 = 214
Total face length required (m) 506

Normally weekly blasting with multi rows is planned. Thus 292*2 = 584m of
face length for ore mining would be required. Considering the width of the
ore body along the cross sections, it is proposed to orient the faces oblique
to the cross sections to ensure availability of adequate working face length.

Designed capacity

The mine is in operation since 1977 and is under progress. The mine was
designed to handle 4 million tones of ROM per annum with 25 to 30 years of
life. Till 1995-1996, due to constraint in the market, the project has not
achieved the rated capacity. During 1996-1997, the rated capacity was
achieved due to demand for iron ore in the international and domestic
markets. In the subsequent two years (1998-1999, 1999-2000) again due to
fall in the demand for iron ore, the yearly target was reduced to 2.40 MT.
From 2000-2001 onwards, demand for iron ore has increased and the mine is
able to produce its rated capacity and heading towards achieving + 5.0 MT
per annum. As mineable reserves in 2E deposit were exhausted, mining from
3W deposit, which was developed already, was included from 2004-2005
onwards by opening benches 1029 MRL, 1017 MRL & 1005 MRL.

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


II-40

Scientific mine development, production and environment management are


under continuous process. At present 7 benches in south block and 6
benches in North block are being worked by fully mechanized operation for
ROM & Waste mining. The ore bodies beyond MM Cross Section viz., A&B,
C&D are being developed and worked by hiring machinery for proper
blending of low-grade ore from North Block deposits. In view of the
narrowness of the ore body, deployment of large size mining machinery was
not possible and hence, small mining machineries are hired to work these
ore bodies. The ore excavated is also fed to the crushing plant. The left
over ledges having the grade of 56-58% Fe in 2W (CS-M36 to CS-+ plans for
North block and South block are placed at plates-10 (I to II) respectively.

Mode of working

The area experience a low rain fall with annual average of 600 to 800 mm.
In summer the maximum temperature is around 38°C whereas the
temperature in winter reaches around 15°C. It is therefore assumed that
loss of production will be equivalent to 6 normal days of production due to
bad weather conditions. For optimum utilization of the machinery deployed
in the mine, it is proposed to operate the mine in all the 3 shifts a day for 6
days in a week. The 7th day (weekly day of rest) will be utilized for blasting
operation in the mine and scheduled maintenance of the equipment
deployed. Considering time loss at shift beginning and shift end for
attendance, tea interval etc. net operating hours per year have been
calculated below:

Calendar days in a year 365


Less weekly days of rest 52
Holidays 7
Bad weather days 6
Net operating days/ year 300
Working days/month 25
No. of shifts/day 3
Effective working Hrs. Shift 6
Net operating hrs/year 300*3*6=5400

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Dynamic stockpile

To stockpile ore for blending in future if required and during shut down of
the plant, a dynamic stockpile is considered near the dumper platform of
crushing plant.

Drilling

The rock of be excavated is hard having max, insitu density of 4.5 tons/ cum.
Therefore, keeping in view the size of the primary crusher, rate of excavation
& frequency of movement of the equipment, it is proposed to deploy 150 mm
dia. Diesel operated high pressure Hydraulic top hammer/DTH blast holes
drills having high penetration rate for primary drilling. The detailed
calculations for the fleet of blast hole drills is given in Table 2.9.

Table 2.9 - Requirements of Blast hole drills (150 mm dia.)

S.No. Particulars ROM Waste Total


1 Excavation (Lakh Tonnes) 70.0 52.0 122.0
2 Effective Working days 300 300
3 No. of Production shifts 3.0 3.0
4 Burden (mts.) 3.8 4.5
5 Spacing (mts.) 4.6 5.4
6 Bench height (mts.) 12.0 12.0
7 Sp. Gravity (t /cu.mtrs.) 3.5 3.0
8 Yield / hole (tones) 727.8 874.8
9 Output required / shift (Tonnes) 7777.8 5777.8
10 No. of Holes required / shift 10.7 6.6
11 Sub grade drilling (mtrs.) 0.4 0.4
10% burden
12 Over drilling (mtrs.) for collapse etc. 1.2 1.2
10 % of bench height & sub grade
13 Length of Blast hole (mtrs.) 13.6 13.6
14 Tonnage / mt 53.4 64.2
15 Total drilling required / shift (mtrs.) 145.5 89.9
16 Drilling required / yr. (mtrs.) 130982.6 80948.3 211930.9
17 Rate of drilling (mtrs / hr) 10.0 15.0 11.9
18 Effective working hours / shift 6.0 6.0
19 Progress / drill / shift (mtrs.) 60.0 90.0
20 No. of drills required 2.4 1.0 3.4
21 Availability (%`) 0.7 0.7
22 Effective Utilization (%) 0.8 0.8
23 No. of drills in Fleet 4.3 1.8 6.1

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II-42

In addition, keeping in view the no. of working benches and further


development in the mine, 3 nos. of 112 mm dia. Crawler drills will be
deployed for secondary/toe drilling as and when required.

Dia. Of hole
Type Nos Make H.P.
(mm)

DTH/ Top Hammer Hydraulic


Atlas/TAM
Diesel Engine M/C High 6 150 300
CO/IR
Pressure Blast Hole Drill

DTH/Top Hammer diesel 3 112 IR

2.3.5 Explosives

It is proposed to conduct blasting operation in the mine normally on weekly


day of rest only. Therefore approx. 1.40 lakh tons of ore and 1.04 lakh tons
of waste is required to be blasted every week. As indicated in the Table 2.9
yield/hole in ore and waste works out to 728 tons and 875 tons respectively.
Therefore 192 holes in ore and 119 holes in waste are required to be blasted
every week. Considered powder factor of 6 t/kg of explosives in ore and 8
t/kg of explosives in waste, 36 tones of explosives will be blasted every
week. The charge/holes in ore and waste works out to 121 kg and 109 kg
respectively.

Type of Explosives to be used

It is proposed to use slurry / site mixed slurry / emulsion explosives in mine.

Powder factor

Considering the drilling parameters and type of Explosives to be used,


powder factor in ore and waste would be approx. 6.0 tons/kg and 8.0
tons/kg of explosives respectively.

Storage of explosives

The capacity of explosives magazine is 73.5 tons to store slurry explosives,


cord relays, shock tubes detonators, safety fuse and ordinary detonators.

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


II-43

2.3.6 Blasting pattern

Normally multi row blasting will be adopted by using 15/25 mili second
delays an shock tube detonators. Max. Four tons of explosive will be blasted
in a delay. The charged holes will be fired in a sequence of wedge cut with
delays to ensure adequate free face for each holes. However at times
blasting would be done on the working days also in between 1st and 2nd shift
as and when required.

Secondary blasting of boulders generated during primary blasting is avoided


keeping in view drilling parameters. However at times secondary blasting
would be required for removal of toes if any.

2.3.7 Conceptual Mining Plan

The mine is in operation since 1977 and is under progress. The mine was
designed to handle 4 million tones of ROM per annum with 25 to 30 years of
life. Till 1995-1996, due to constraint in the market, the project has not
achieved the rated capacity. During 1996-1997, the rated capacity was
achieved due to demand for iron ore in the international and domestic
markets. In the subsequent two years (1998-1999, 1999-2000) again due to
fall in the demand for iron ore, the yearly target was reduced to 2.40 MT.
From 2000-2001 onwards, demand for iron ore has increased and the mine is
able to produce its rated capacity and heading towards achieving + 5.0 MT
per annum. As mineable reserves in 2E deposit were exhausted, mining from
3W deposit, which was developed already, was included from 2004-2005
onwards by opening benches 1029 MRL, 1017 MRL & 1005 MRL.

At present 7 benches in south block and 6 benches in North block are being
worked by fully mechanized operation for ROM & Waste mining. The ore
bodies beyond MM Cross Section viz., A&B, C&D are being developed and
worked by hiring machinery for proper blending of low-grade ore from North
Block deposits. In view of the narrowness of the ore body, deployment of
large size mining machinery was not possible and hence, small mining
machineries are hired to work these ore bodies. The ore excavated is also

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


II-44

fed to the crushing plant. The left over ledges having the grade of 56-58% Fe
in 2W (CS-M36 to CS-M28) &3E (CS-N8 to CS-N5) deposits is also being
exploited and blended with higher grade to meet the quality. Further
development works have been taken in south Block in removing the waste to
get more ore body width. Conceptual mine plans for North block and South
block are placed at plates-10 (I to II) respectively.

2.3.8 Extent of Mechanization

Drilling machines

The rock of be excavated is hard having max, insitu density of 4.5 tons/
cum. Therefore, keeping in view the size of the primary crusher, rate of
excavation & frequency of movement of the equipment, it is proposed to
deploy 150 mm dia. diesel operated high pressure Hydraulic top
hammer/DTH blast holes drills having high penetration rate for primary
drilling. The detailed calculations for the fleet of blast hole drills is placed
at Table 2.10.

Table -2.10 Requirements of Blast hole drills (150 mm dia.)

S.No. Particulars ROM Waste Total


1 Excavation (Lakh Tonnes) 70.0 52.0 122.0
2 Effective Working days 300 300
3 No. of Production shifts 3.0 3.0
4 Burden (mts.) 3.8 4.5
5 Spacing (mts.) 4.6 5.4
6 Bench height (mts.) 12.0 12.0
7 Sp. Gravity (t /cu.mtrs.) 3.5 3.0
8 Yield / hole (tones) 727.8 874.8
9 Output required / shift (Tonnes) 7777.8 5777.8
10 No. of Holes required / shift 10.7 6.6
11 Sub grade drilling (mtrs.) 0.4 0.4
10% burden

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


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S.No. Particulars ROM Waste Total


Over drilling (mtrs.) for collapse 1.2 1.2
12
etc.
10 % of bench height & sub grade
13 Length of Blast hole (mtrs.) 13.6 13.6
14 Tonnage / mt 53.4 64.2
Total drilling required / shift 145.5 89.9
15
(mtrs.)
16 Drilling required / yr. (mtrs.) 130982.6 80948.3 211930.9
17 Rate of drilling (mtrs / hr) 10.0 15.0 11.9
18 Effective working hours / shift 6.0 6.0
19 Progress / drill / shift (mtrs.) 60.0 90.0
20 No. of drills required 2.4 1.0 3.4
21 Availability (%`) 0.7 0.7
22 Effective Utilization (%) 0.8 0.8
23 No. of drills in Fleet 4.3 1.8 6.1

In addition, keeping in view the no. of working benches and further


development in the mine, 3 nos. of 112 mm dia. crawler drills will be
deployed for secondary/toe drilling as and when required.

Dia. of
Type Nos hole Make H.P.
(mm)

DTH/ Top Hammer Hydraulic


Atlas/TAM
Diesel Engine M/C High 6 150 300
CO/IR
Pressure Blast Hole Drill

DTH/Top Hammer diesel 3 112 IR

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


II-46

Loading Equipment

Keeping in view the rate of exploitation, rock type, bench height, proper
blend of ore during the excavation stage and minimizing the fleet, it is
proposed to deploy 5.5 cum capacity hydraulic front end excavators. The
detailed calculations for the fleet of excavators are placed at Table 2.11.

Table – 2.11 Requirements of excavators

S.No. Particulars ROM Waste Total

1 Exc. / yr (Tons) 70.0 52.0 122.00

2 Effective no. of days 300.0 300.0

3 No. of production shifts 3.00 3.00

4 Hrs. / Shift 6.00 6.00

5 Bucket capacity (cub. Mtrs.) 5.5.0 5.50

6 Fill factor of the bucket 0.75 0.80

7 Tonnage factor of blasted ore (tones 3.00 2.50


/ cub.mtrs)

8 Bucket capacity (tones) 12.38 11.00

9 Cycle time for one swing of the 40.00 40.00


bucket (seconds)

10 Effective tim in a hour (min.) 50.00 50.00

11 No. of swings per hour 75.00 75.00

12 Tonnage handled /Shovel / hour 928.13 825.00


(Tonnes)

13 Tonnage required per hour (Tonnes) 1296.30 962.96

14 No. of shovels for operation in ore 1.40 1.17

15 Avalability (%) 0.70 0.70

16 No. of shovels in Fleet 2.00 1.67 3.67

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In addition, a wheel mounted front end loader of 5 cu.m. Bucket capacity


will also be deployed for loading of ore from Dynamic stockpile and other
miscellaneous works in the mine.

Bucket capacity
Type Nos Make H.P.
(cu.m)
Hydraulic H-121 (DEMAG)
4 5.5 725/542
Excavator BE-1000
BEML/GMMCO/
Wheel loader 1 5.0 415
LIEBHERR

Haulage and transport equipment

Haulage within the mining lease hold

It is proposed to deploy rear tipping dumpers for transportation of ore &


waste from mine to the crushing plant and waste dumps respectively.
Keeping in view the matching size of dumpers with the excavators, 85 tons
capacity dumpers are considered. The detailed calculations for the fleet of
dumpers are placed at Table 2.12.

Table – 2.12 Requirements of Dumpers

S.No. Particulars ROM Waste Total


1 Exc. / yr (Tons) 70.0 52.0 122.00
2 Effective no. of days 300.0 300.0
3 No. of production shifts 3.00 3.00
4 Hrs. / Shift 6.00 6.00
5 Bucket capacity (cub. Mtrs.) 5.5.0 5.50
6 Fill factor of the bucket 0.75 0.80
7 Tonnage factor 3.0 2.5
8 Haul distance , each way (km) 2.37 0.71
9 Average speed of dumpers (kmph) 25.00 25.00
10 Haul time, one way (min.) 5.69 1.70
11 Time required for loading
a. Time taken for one swing of 30.00 30.00
shovel bucket (sec.)
b. Tonnage capacity of the bucket

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S.No. Particulars ROM Waste Total


capacity in cub.mtrs “fill factor
tonnage factor”
c. No. of swings of shovel bucket 6.30 7.09
for filling up of a dumper
d. Time required for filling up a 3.15 3.55
dumper (min.)
12 Dumper unloading time at the 1.00 1.00
crushing plant / dump yard (min.)
13 Haul time (return) in min. 5.69 1.70
14 Spotting and other delays (min.) 1.00 1.00
15 Total time per cycle (min.) 16.53 8.95
16 Effective time per hour (min.) 50.00 50.0
17 Effective hours per shift 6.00 6.00
18 Working time available / shift 300.0 300.0
(min.)
19 No. of trips / shift by a dumper 18.15 33.51
20 Tonnage / shift by a dumper 1415.82 2613.52
21 Tonnage / hr. by dumper 283.16 522.70
22 Tonnage required to transport / 7777.78 5777.78
shift
23 No. of dumpers required 5.49 2.21 7.70
24 Availability of dumpers 0.75 0.75
25 No. of dumpers in Fleet 7.32 2.95 10.27

Bucket capacity
Type Nos Make H.P.
(cu.m)

Rear Dump truck 11 85 tons BEML/GMMCO 890/850

Transport from mine head to destination

The finished products from the beneficiation plant are transported to the
loading plant by belt conveyor system. There ore is loaded into railway
wagons by mechanical declaimer and loader equipment at Ranjitpura Rly.
Station and transported to Chennai ship yard for export and to domestic
customers.

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Miscellaneous equipment

For development works in the mine, dozing at waste dumps, preparation for
placement of drills and for operation and maintenance of bench floors etc.
crawler mounted dozers will be provided.

For maintenance of haul roads and their gradients, motor graders will be
provided.

For dust suppression on the haul roads and working benches, water
sprinklers will be provided.

For repair and maintenance of field equipment, a wheel mounted mobile


crane will also be required.

Type Nos Size/ Capacity Make H.P.

Straight tilt dozer 7 - BEML/Cat 410

Motor grader 2 - BEML/Cat 285/275

Water sprinkler 4 40,000 lits BEML 635

Wheel mounted crane 3 30/20 T TIL/Volat’s 180

In addition to the above, fuel dowsers, trucks, jeeps, lubricating vans,


explosive vans and other supporting equipment for operation and
maintenance purpose have also to be provided.

A complete list of HEM machinery requires is placed at Table 2.13.

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Table 2.13 HEM equipment required

S.
Description Capacity Numbers
No.

1 DTH / Top Hammer Blast Hole drill 150 mm dia. 6

2 Crawler drill 112 mm dia. 3

3 Hydraulic front End excavator 5.5 cub.mtr 4

4 Wheel Loader 5 cub.mtr 1

5 Rear Tipping Trucks 85T 11

6 Water Sprinkler 40000 ltr. 4

7 Crawler mounted straight Tilt Dozer 410 HP 2

8 Wheel mounted Crane 30 / 20 T 2

2.4 Mineral Beneficiation

The ROM is crushed at crushing plant in two stages to get -75 mm fraction
and the crushed ore is conveyed to the surge pile. At screening plant, the
ore in the screening plant is subjected to wet screening. The ore from the
surge pile is feed to the double deck primary screen (top deck 40mm and
bottom deck 15 mm aperture screens) by means of apron feeders provided
below the surgepile. The material retained at the plant to get the product
in the size range of -30 to +6 mm. The -40 + 15 mm fraction is directly taken
as lump ore. The -15 mm fraction is fed to the secondary screen which is
also a double deck screen with 10/12 mm screen at the top deck and 4/2.8
mm screen at the bottom deck.

The -30 + 10mm fraction obtained after tertiary crushing is also discharged
on to the same conveyor as lump ore and – 10mm fractio is “taken to the
fine ore conveyor. The -4/2.8 mm fraction is fed to the primary spiral
classifier to reclaim the fines up to 65 mesh. The classifier overflow to
retrieve the micro fines upto 200 mesh as fine ore. The cyclone over flow
and the slow speed classified over flow are fed to the thickeners. The

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thickener under flow is discharged to the tailing dam as slimes. The over
flow water from the thickener and tailing dam water are again circulated
for washing the ore. Thus the fractions separated as -40 + 15 mm from
primary screen, -15 + 10/12 mm fraction from secondary screen and -30 + 10
mm fraction from tertiary crusher are conveyed as lump ore to the stockpile
at loading plant. The -10/12 + 4/2.8 mm fraction from secondary secreen, -
10mm fraction from tertiary crusher and the products from primary and
slow speed classifiers are conveyed as fine ore to the loading plant
stockpile. The ore is dispatched through railway wagons by reclaiming the
ore by the bucket wheel declaimer and discharging the ore on to the
conveyors and loaded into the wagons by wagon loader. The schematic
mineral process flow diagram is given in Plate II.12.

Plate II.12 Mineral Process Flow Diagram

Ore from deposit

Crushing Plant

Screening Plant

H2O
Dry Screen Wet Screen

Thickener `A` Thickener


`B`

Loading Plant

Processed Ore
To Despatch

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A material balance of the process system is presented in the Plate II.13.

Plate – II.13 - MATERIAL BALANCE SHEET OF O.C.S.L. PLANT

R.O,M. FROM MINES 1600 T/Hr

PRIMARY CRUSHER

SCALPING SCREEN

500 T/Hr
SECONDARY CRUSHER 1100 T/Hr

1600 T/Hr DOWNHILL


SYSTEM
SURGE
PILE

FEED TO SCREENING PLANT


1000 T/Hr
100%
PRIMARY SCREEN
Dy. GM
(Services /
+30 MM -30 + 15 MM -15 MM
23%, 230 T/Hr 12%, 120 T/Hr 65%, 650 T/Hr
L1
TERTIARY CRUSHER SECONDARY SCREEN

SCREEN
+10 MM -10 + 4 MM -4 MM
5%, 50 T/H 22%, 210 T/Hr 39%, 390 T/Hr
L2 F1 (Over Flow)
14%, 140 T/Hr
-10 MM HIGH SPEED SPIRAL
-30 + 10 MM
5%, 50 T/Hr
20%, 200 T/Hr
F4 +300µm
L3 25%, 250 T/Hr -150µm
DEWATERING SCREEN 3%, 30 T/Hr
+150 µm 22%, 220T/Hr
F2 CYCLONE

L = L1 + L2 + L3 = 37%, 370 T/H


SLOW SPEED CLASSIFIER
F = F1 + F2 + F3 + F4 = 53%, 530 T/H
F3 +100 µ
S = SLIME LOSS = 10%, 100 T/H 7%, 70 T/Hr OVER
F3
FLOW
LUMP FINES SLIME
37%, 3707 53%, 530T F3
10%, 100T
65.5% Fe 65.2% Fe 52 – 56% Fe
(+0.7% Appreciation) (+0.4% Appreciation)
(Recovery - 34%) (Recovery - 56%)

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Manpower

An Agent with the designation of General Manager is incharge of the mining


operations. As per the statutory requirement a First Class Mine Managers
and other required mining personnel have been appointed by the NMDC. The
man power organizational chart is shown in Plate II.14.

One first class mine manager is posted in each production shift. He is


assisted by required number of electrical and mechanical engineers and
mining engineers and also foremen in mining / mechanical / electrical
departments.

Plate II.14

MANPOWER ORGANIZATION CHART

General Manager

Manager Dy.GM Addl. GM Addl. GM Sr. Manager Dy. GM Medical


(IE & MS) (Finance) (Production) (CSR) (Personnel) (Materials) Administrator

Sr. Mgr Chemical Addl. GM Sr. Manager Dy. GM Sr. Manager Manager
(Electrical) Lab (Mining (OCSL (Services / (HRD) (Geology &
Excavation) Plant) Mechanica)l Quality
Control)

Joint CMO
Occupational
No. of Executives : 161 Health Centre

No. of Supervisors/Jr. Officers : 41


No. of Workpersons : 1012
---------
Total 1214
---------

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Water

The total water requirement of the combined DIOM for both domestic and
industrial use has been furnished in Table 2.14. Further the water balance
of DIOM (Screening plant) is shown in Table 2.15.

TABLE – 2.14

WATER BALANCE DETAILS OF DONIMALAI IRON ORE MINE

Effluent
Sl. Requirement
Particulars Quantity
No. (m3/day)
(m3/day)

Domestic requirement – Donimalai


1. 1500 805
Township

Drinking water requirement at


2. 150 ---
Donimalai Loading Plant area.

Drinking water requirement at


3. 150
Screening Plant area

Sprinkling and dust suppression at Hill


4. 986 -
top, including Crushing Plant

Fresh water requirement at Screening


5. 7000 5500
plant including accounting for leakages

Total 9786 6305

TABLE – 2.15
WATER REQUIREMENT AT SCREENING PLANT

S. Requirement Effluent Quantity


Particulars
No. (m3/day) (m3/hr)

1. Primary Screen 3600 2900

2. Secondary Screen 1800 1400

3. Classifier 1600 1200

Total 7000 5500

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Power requirement
Sl.No. Power requirement Existing (KVA) After Expansion (KVA)
1. Mine site
4800 4800
2 Township

Major equipments
S.No. Description Qty.
Single deck high frequency (wet) vibrating screen,
1. 2100mm x 4800 mm and 65 mesh deck oenings 1
1 bank of 4 nos.
2 Dewatering hydrocyclones stage – I,350mm dia. cyclones 1 bank of 24
nos. cyclones
Slurry holding tank with agitator and motorized
3 1
distributor box, 15000 mm x 15000 mm
Wet high intensity magnetic separator (WHIMS)
4 3170 mm rotor dia, complete with rectifier and 2
control unit and all other accessories
Hi-rate thickener, concentrate thickner, 15m dia.
5 1
Tailings thickener, 12m dia.
Concentrate (belt) filter, 3500mm width 16000mm
6 length, equipped with filtrate pump, Vaccuum 2
pump, Vaccum receiver, air blower etc.
Dewatering cyclone feed pump, Stage I, 730 cub
7 2
m/ hr at 20m TDH, 300 mm x 250mm
Dewatering cyclone feed pump, Stage II , 490
8 2
m3/hr at 20m TDH, 250 mm x 200mm
WHIMS feed pum 420m3/ hr at 15m TDH 250mm x
9 2
200m
Concentrate thickner feed pump 630 m/hr at 10 m
10 2
TDH 300mm x 250mm
Concentrate fileter feed pump 270m3/hr at 15
11 2
TDH 200mm x 150mm
12 Filtrate pump 170m3 at 5m TDH 200mm x 150mm 2
Tailings thickener feed pump 930 m3/hr at 10m
13 2
TDH 350 mm X 300mm
Tailings thickner underflow pump 180 m3/hr at
14 2
25m TDH 150 mm x 100mm
Water recirculation pump for beneficiation plant
15 2
1440 m3/hr at 30m TDH 400mm x 350mm
16 Belt scale 2
17 Auto sampler 2
18 Cranes and hoists 1 lot
19 Technological structure 1 lot
20 Pipes and launders 1 lot
21 Plant electrics 1 lot

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2.5 Pellet Plant

Manpower

A preliminary estimate of the manpower to be engaged for the pellet plant


including slime beneficiation and associated facilities has been made to
derive the labour component of manufacturing cost and to indicate the
order of total number of executives and work men required.

S.No. Man power Total Total on Payroll


1. Administration 25 28
2 Work Management 18 20
3 Production Section
1. Slime beneficiation 37 45
2. Pelletization 37 45
3.Stock piling 95 115
4 Maintenance section 56 67
Total 194 230

Water

Water is mainly required in pellet plant for equipment cooling as well as for
process consumption and in a slime beneficiation plant, it is required for
process consumption in various items / equipments.

In addition, water will be consumed for dust suppression of the raw


materials, stock piles, dust abatement at junction houses, fire fighting,
landscaping, greeneries, drinking and sanitary purposes of working personnel
other miscellaneous purposes and also at laboratory, work shop, office etc.,
A break-up of consumer wise water requirements is given in Table 2.16.

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Table 2.16 - Water requirement


Consumption
S.No. Section
(m3/hr)
1 Slime Beneficiation Plant Make –up 154
2 Pellet plant make-up 25
3 Dust suppression system for raw material storage 15
4 Drinking and sanitation for plant, laboratory, work 5
shop, office etc.,
5 Landscaping, greeneries, environmental 10
requirements and miscellaneous including loses
6 Raw water treatment, reserve storage 11
Total 220

Raw water intake requirement for the project would be to be tune of


220 m3/hr.Source of water will be from Narihalla dam which is
approximately 8 km from DIOM.

Power requirements

The estimated power requirements of the plant including utilities and


auxillary facilities are as follows.

Initial requirement
Annual energy consumption - 76 MILLION KWH
15 min. maximum demand (considering 0.95 pf) - 14 MVA
1-min. peak demand - 14 MVA

Future requirement (considering grinding provisions for iorn ore fines)


Annual energy consumption - 128 MILLION KWH
15 min. maximum demand (considering 0.95 pf) - 25 MVA
1-min. peak demand - 26 MVA

Power is proposed to be supplied at 110 kV from Donimalai substation of


Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Ltd. (KPTCL) over single circuit
overhead transmission line to the main receiving and step down substation
(MRSS) for the pellet plant with slime beneficiation and other facilities. The
list of major equipments involved is given in Table 2.17.

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Table -2.17 Major Equipments involved (pellet plant)

S. No. Description Qty.


Slime Improvement
1. Ground hopper 2
2 Feed conveyor 1 lot
3 Roller press with accessories 1
4 Belt conveyor system for inter transfer 1 lot
Additive and binder preparation, proportioning &
mixing
1 Ground hopper, 7 m3 1
2 Surge hopper, 15 m3 1
3 Vibrating feeder 2
4 Metal detection / magnetic separator 1 lot
5 Belt feeder 1
6 Hot air swept pulveriser 1
7 Pneumatic conveying system 1 lot
8 Proportioning bin with requisite compartments for 1 lot
additive and binder besides Iron ore concentrate
9 Belt weigh feeder 1 lot
10 Mixer,300 tph 1
11 Belt conveyor system 1 lot
12 Mixed material bin 1 lot
13 Plough scraper 1 lot
Balling, Induration & cooling
1 Belt feeder 5
2 Balling disc. 6000 mm dia. 40-60 tph 5
3 Double deck roller screen 1
4 Shredder 1
5 Oscillating conveyor 1
6 Wide belt conveyor – 4000 mm 1
7 Travelling grate 4000 mm width 55000 mm long 1
complete with burner system process fans, wid
boxes and other accessories
8 Rotatory kiln – 5000 mm dia. 35000 mm long with 1
accessories
9 Annular cooler – 12500 mm mean dia. 2300mm 1
width with accessories
10 Product pellet screen 1
11 Belt conveyor system 1 lot
Others
Belt scale 1 lot
Automatic sampler cutter 1 lot
Cranes and hoists 1 lot
Bag filter and ESP based dust abatement facilities 1 lot

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CHAPTER III
BASELINE (PRE-PROJECT) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

Preamble

The baseline data generation has been undertaken in respect of Air, Water,
Noise, Land and Socio & Biological environment, of the area has been collected
from State / Central Government departments and also by field monitoring. The
study have been carried out during Winter season`2007-08 (December`2007 -
February`2008) and Summer`08 (March`08 – May`08) seasons within 10km radius
of the mine site. Location map DIOM & its environs is given in Plate III.1.

3.1 Air Environment

3.1.1 Baseline status

Identification of different pollutants, which are expected to be released into


the atmosphere having significant impact on the neighborhood, is an essential
component in impact assessment of the air environment. The existing ambient
air quality status will form the baseline information. The predicted impacts due
to the project will be superimposed to find out the net (final) impacts (post-
project scenario) on environment.

The meteorological data available from earlier studies are collected have been
furnished in Table – 3.1. The wind-rose diagrams have been prepared and
presented in Plate III.2.

Micrometeorology

Methodology

As a part of the study, micrometeorology and micro climatic parameters were


recorded during Post-monsoon, winter & summer seasons by installing a
meteorology station at core zone (TV Relay Centre, Hill Top, DIOM) and data of
wind velocity, wind direction, ambient temperature, relative humidity,
atmospheric pressure and rainfall were recorded at hourly intervals for 24 hours

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Plate III.1

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throughout the monitoring period. Cloud cover data was collected by visual
observations. The abstract of meteorological data are given in Table 3.2. The
seasonal wind rose diagrams for Winter & Summer seasons are presented in Plate

TABLE – 3.1
IMD DATA FOR THE PERIOD 2003- 05 OF DONIMALAI AREA
Wind Velocity (Kmph) Temperature (°C) Relative
Predominant Rainfall
Month & Year Humidity
Max Min Wind Direction Max Min (mm)
(%)
Year 2003
Jan-03 16.9 0.4 SE 35.5 20.1 44 0.0
Feb.03 16.6 0.4 SE 37.3 22.7 42 0.0
Mar.03 17.6 0.4 SSE/SE 39.9 26.3 39 0.0
Apr.03 17.6 <1.0 NW 41.2 26.8 47 57.2
May.03 24.1 0.4 NW/W 43.1 27.8 48 <2
June.03 25.9 4.0 W 42.6 26.2 64 6.6
July.03 27.4 1.7 W 35.9 25.0 71 64.6
Aug.03 22.3 3.2 W 35.9 23.1 71 62.8
Sep.03 21.3 0.4 W/WSW 35.8 19.5 65 45.3
Oct.03 14.8 0.4 NNW/WNW 36.2 18.1 58 145.4
Nov.03 16.9 0.4 SE 35.4 17.9 57 4.4
Dec.03 25.8 0.2 SE 32.8 16.1 51 0.0
Year 2004
Jan.04 16.6 <1.0 ESE 32.2 18.8 49 0.0
Feb.04 15.4 0.2 ESE 34.6 21.6 39 0.0
Mar.03 15.1 <1 ESE 40.4 21.4 34.5 1.1
Apr.04 19.9 <1.0 SW / SSW 42.6 24.2 59 92.9
May.04 19.8 1.0 WSW / SW 40.4 22.8 62 70.5
June.04 29.1 1.2 SW 38.9 22.0 66 60.4
July.04 26.2 1.5 SW / WSW 35.1 18.6 68 57.1
Aug.04 28.4 2.6 WSW 34.1 18.7 68 19.5
Sep.04 18.5 1.2 SW/WNW 36.8 16.4 68 161.5
Oct.04 15.2 0.3 SE / NW 35.7 20.2 61 74.9
Nov.04 13.5 0.3 SE 36.8 16.1 56 0.4
Dec.04 18.7 <1.0 SE 33.4 15.7 56 0.0
Year 2005
Jan.05 16.4 <1.0 SE 32.7 18.0 56 19.9
Feb.05 13.5 <1.0 SE / NE 38.7 19.3 56 0.40
Mar.05 11.8 <1.0 SE 42.5 22.5 56 3.70
Apr.05 22.6 <1.0 NW 41.8 22.1 49 89.6
May.05 39.1 1.2 SW/NW 39.8 21.9 56 69.4
June.05 34.5 1.1 SW 34.8 19.9 66 180.2
July.05 22.3 <1.0 SW 35.2 19.7 68 110.0
Aug.05 20.4 <1.0 SW 34.0 18.5 70 129.6
Sep.05 19.1 <1.0 SW 33.9 22.7 69 110.7
Oct.05 9.6 <1.0 SE 34.7 20.4 71 183.0
Nov.05 10.9 <1.0 NE 31.3 17.1 61 14.6
Dec.05 10.9 <1.0 SE /E 31.5 15.4 59 0

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Plate - III.2 Seasonal Windrose (Winter`05)

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Table – 3.2 Abstract of Meteorological data

Meteorology station : TV Relay Center, Hill Top, Donimalai Iron Ore mine
Post Monsoon Winter`07–08 Summer`08
Climatic conditions 2007 (Dec.07– (Mar– May.08)
(Sep. – Nov.07) Feb.08)
Predominant Wind Direction (from) SE SE NW
Calm Condition (%) 4.7 6.94 0.0
Predominant Prevailing Wind Range
5 -11 5 -11 5 - 11
(Kmph)
Wind Speed (Kmph)
i) Minimum < 1.0 <1.0 1.2
ii) Maximum 22.4 18.8 20.8
Temperature (°C)
i) Minimum 15.0 15.0 21.0
ii) Maximum 30.5 28.5 36.5
Mean Relative Humidity (%)
i) Minimum 38.0 59.0 47.9
ii) Maximum 94.0 93.9 74.5
Total Rainfall (mm) 170.2 13.0 99.2

Data Analysis

Post monsoon season: It was observed that the prevailing wind direction in the
study period was from ESE direction. A maximum wind speed of 22.4 kmph was
recorded. Temperature ranges between 15.0 and 30.5oC and the mean relative
humidity ranges between 38.0% and 94.0%. A total of 17.02 cm of rainfall was
recorded during the study period.

Winter season: It was observed that the prevailing wind direction in the study
period was from ESE direction. A maximum wind speed of 18.8 kmph was
recorded. Temperature ranges between 15.0 and 28.5oC and the mean relative
humidity ranges between 59.0% and 93.9%. A total of 1.3 cm of rainfall was
recorded during the study period.

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Plate III.3 (a) Seasonal Windorose (Winter`07-08)

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Plate III.3 (b) Seasonal Windrose (Summer`07-08)

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III-8

Summer season: It was observed that the prevailing wind direction in the study
period was from SW direction. A maximum wind speed of 20.8 kmph was
recorded. Temperature ranges between 21.0 and 36.5oC and the mean relative
humidity ranges between 47.9% and 74.5%. A total of 9.92 cm of rainfall was
recorded during the study period.

Existing Ambient Air Quality

Methodology for Ambient Air Quality

24 hourly air samples are collected once in a fortnight with Respirable Dust
Sampler at selected locations to monitor ambient air quality with respect to
Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Respirable Particulate Matter (RPM),
Sulphur di-oxide (SO2) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NO2) etc.

SPM

Ambient air laden with suspended particulates enters the Respirable Dust
Sampler (RDS) through the inlet pipe of sampler by means of high flow rate
blower (1.1 to 1.5 m3/min). As the air passes through the cyclone, coarse, non-
respirable dust (size > 10 microns) is separated from the air stream by
centrifugal forces acting on the solid particles. These separated particles fall
through the cyclone’s conical hopper and collect in the sampling bottle placed at
bottom. The fine dust forming the respirable fraction (size <10 microns) of the
Total Suspended Particulates passes through the cyclone and is carried by the air
stream to the Glass Micro fiber Filter Paper. The Respirable Particulate Matter
(RPM) is retained by the filter and the carrier air exhausted from the system
through the blower. The mass concentration (µg/m3) of Suspended Particulate
Matter (non-respirable dust and respirable dust) and Respirable Particulate
Matter in the ambient air is computed by measuring the mass of collected
particulates and the volume of air sampled.

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NO 2

Ambient air is bubbled at the rate of 0.5-1.0 L/min in an Impinger containing a


solution of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Arsenate. The resultant Nitrite Ion is
reacted with Phosphoric acid, Sulphanilamide and N-ethylene diamine di-hydro
chloride to form a colored complex. The absorbance is measured in a
Spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 540 nm. The concentration of NO2 is then
calculated by using standard graph.

SO2

Ambient air is bubbled at the rate of 0.5 -1.0 l/min in an Impinger containing a
scrubbing solution of Sodium - Tetra Chloro Mercurate. The resultant complex
is reacted with P-Rosaniline and Formaldehyde to form colored Para -
Rosaniline methyl sulphuric acid. The absorbance of the solution is measured in
a Spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 560nm. The SO2 is then calculated
from standard graph.

A field laboratory for the purpose of calibration of equipments and


standardization of analytical procedures was established and the samples were
analyzed on the day of sample collection. SPM were monitored on 24 hourly
basis and all gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2 & CO) were monitored on 8 hourly
basis to meet the requirements of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).

The ambient air quality monitoring stations in core and buffer zone are shown in
Plates III.4 & III.5 respectively and the sampling location details are given in Table
- 3.3.

Data Analysis

The abstract of ambient air quality data generated from different locations at
the project area has been furnished in Table – 3.4. The Ambient air quality
data are given in Annexure I.

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TABLE - 3.3

AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS

Sl. Location Distance


Sampling Location Direction
Code (Km)
No

1. Working Bench South Block* DA-1 Core Zone –

2. Working Bench North Block (Deposit-2W)* DA-2 Core Zone –

3. Working Bench North Block (Deposit 3E)* DA-3 Core Zone –

4. Crushing Plant* (10 m) DA-4 Core Zone –

5. Screening Plant* (10 m) DA-5 Core Zone –

6. Loading Plant* (10 m) DA-6 Core Zone –

7. Donimalai Township** DA-7 3.7 SW

8. Narsapur Village** DA-8 3.9 SW

9. Ubbalagandi village** DA-9 5.6 SE

10. Bhujanga Nagar** DA-10 4.8 WNW

11. Taranagar** DA-11 5.5 N

12. Sandur (Krishna Nagar)** DA-12 7.8 WNW

13. Naulati** DA-13 6.2 SE

14. Devagiri** DA-14 7.0 S

* Core zone ** Buffer zone

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III-11

Plate III.4

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-12

Plate III.5.

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-13

TABLE - 3.4(a) ABSTRACT OF AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Season : Post Monsoon`07 Unit: µg/m3

Location / SPM RPM SO2 NO2 CO


Location
Sampling 98 th
98 th
98th
98th
Code Min Max. AM Min Max. AM Min Max. AM Min Max. AM
Stations Per. Per. Per. Per.
CORZONE
Working
<
DA1 Bench, South 168 228 228 195.7 56 66 66 61.3 13.4 15.1 15.1 14.3 16.5 19.9 19.9 18.6
114.5
Block
Working
Bench, North <
DA2 152 196 196 176.2 50 64 64 56.7 12.3 14.8 14.8 13.5 15.6 18.9 18.9 17.6
Block – 114.5
Deposit 2W
Working
Bench, North <
DA3 210 346 346 275.0 69 112 112 84.0 12.8 18.8 18.8 15.8 15.3 20.9 20.9 17.9
Block – 114.5
Deposit 3E
10m away
<
DA4 from Crushing 190 252 252 232.5 60 71 71 65.9 12.7 15.9 15.9 14.2 17.3 20.8 20.8 18.8
114.5
Plant
10m away
from <
DA5 176 216 216 193.2 54 69 69 61.0 12.6 15.5 15.5 14.3 16.9 20.9 20.9 18.5
Screening 114.5
Plant
10m away
<
DA6 from Loading 287 348 348 315.3 88 121 121 108.0 14.0 16.3 16.3 15.1 18.4 21.3 21.3 19.8
114.5
Plant
CPCB Core Zone 500 150 120 120 5000
STANDARDS Buffer Zone 200 100 80 80 2000

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-14

TABLE - 3.4(a) ABSTRACT OF AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA (contd.)

BUFFERZONE
Donimalai <
DA7 78 115 115 99.6 29 38 38 33.6 5.2 7.1 7.1 6.2 7.5 10.3 10.3 8.4
Township 114.5
Narsapur <
DA8 128 204 204 176.0 44 76 76 61.5 13.6 17.8 17.8 15.4 15.1 19.6 19.6 17.8
Village 114.5
Ubbalagandi <
DA9 96 162 162 133.3 85 49 49 43.8 7.3 9.4 9.4 8.5 7.9 12.3 12.3 10.4
Village 114.5
Bhujanga <
DA10 138 224 224 178.3 47 75 75 62.1 12.4 16.8 16.8 14.7 14.5 19.5 19.5 16.8
Nagar Village 114.5
Taranagar <
DA11 151 218 218 185.2 62 75 75 68.1 13.4 17.9 17.9 15.9 16.4 20.3 20.3 18.6
Village 114.5
Sandur – <
DA12 164 256 256 209.1 61 77 77 69.1 12.6 15.9 15.9 14.3 14.2 18.2 18.2 16.6
Krishna Nagar 114.5
<
DA13 Naulati Village 138 224 224 179.1 49 68 68 59.0 6.9 9.4 9.4 8.2 8.1 12.9 12.9 11.0
114.5
Devagiri <
DA14 119 194 194 158.2 42 59 59 50.7 7.2 9.4 9.4 8.1 10.2 13.5 13.5 11.8
Village 114.5
CPCB Core Zone 500 150 120 120 5000
STANDARDS Buffer Zone 200 100 80 80 2000

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-15

TABLE - 3.4(b) ABSTRACT OF AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA


Season : Winter`07 - 08 Unit: µg/m3
Location / SPM RPM SO2 NO2
Location
Sampling 98th 98th 98th 98th CO
Code Min Max. AM Min Max. AM Min Max. AM Min Max. AM
Stations Per. Per. Per. Per.
CORZONE
Working
<
DA1 Bench, South 173 249 249 214.2 51 71 71 62.9 13.3 15.8 15.8 14.8 15.2 18.6 18.6 17.0
114.5
Block
Working
Bench, North <
DA2 169 225 225 200.6 52 64 64 57.4 12.9 14.4 14.4 14.6 14.7 19.1 19.1 16.6
Block – 114.5
Deposit 2W
Working
Bench, North <
DA3 166 405 405 291.9 52 148 148 102.0 7.4 18.0 18.0 12.1 9.0 21.3 21.3 14.8
Block – 114.5
Deposit 3E
10m away
<
DA4 from Crushing 207 270 270 237.9 54 75 75 65.0 12.9 15.2 15.2 15.1 16.1 18.9 18.9 17.6
114.5
Plant
10m away
from <
DA5 231 323 323 289.3 62 81 81 71.9 13.6 16.9 16.9 15.4 17.2 19.6 19.6 18.4
Screening 114.5
Plant
10m away
<
DA6 from Loading 273 343 343 316.8 83 117 117 96.1 14.2 16.8 16.8 15.5 16.9 20.2 20.2 18.6
114.5
Plant

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-16

TABLE - 3.4(b) ABSTRACT OF AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA (contd.,)

BUFFER ZONE
Donimalai <
DA7 76 119 119 97.6 32 46 46 38.5 5.6 7.6 7.6 6.6 6.7 8.7 8.7 7.9
Township 114.5
Narsapur <
DA8 137 224 224 179.8 51 73 73 63.9 12.6 17.3 17.3 15.2 15.1 19.6 19.6 17.4
Village 114.5
Ubbalagandi <
DA9 120 210 210 159.3 35 52 52 45.0 8.1 9.6 9.6 8.7 10.3 12.9 12.9 11.7
Village 114.5
Bhujanga <
DA10 138 249 249 197.5 58 76 76 68.3 12.0 16.6 16.6 14.5 14.6 19.3 19.3 16.8
Nagar Village 114.5
Taranagar <
DA11 176 238 238 206.5 70 88 88 77.9 13.9 18.2 18.2 16.3 15.6 21.5 21.5 18.6
Village 114.5
Sandur – <
DA12 154 262 262 211.6 62 84 84 73.3 14.8 17.6 17.6 15.8 16.2 19.5 19.5 18.0
Krishna Nagar 114.5
Naulati <
DA13 176 256 256 210.3 55 74 74 62.8 6.9 8.8 8.8 7.9 9.4 12.1 12.1 10.8
Village 114.5
Devagiri <
DA14 196 210 210 188.8 46 68 68 57.6 6.5 4.1 4.1 8.0 9.2 12.3 12.3 11.1
Village 114.5
CPCB Core Zone 500 150 120 120 5000
STANDARDS Buffer Zone 200 100 80 80 2000

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-17

TABLE - 3.4(c) ABSTRACT OF AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA


Season : Summer`08 Unit: µg/m 3

Location / SPM RPM SO2 NO2


Location
Sampling 98 th
98 th
98 th
98th CO
Code Min Max. AM Min Max. AM Min Max. AM Min Max. AM
Stations Per. Per. Per. Per.
CORZONE
Working
<
DA1 Bench, South 150 356 356 260.0 51 127 127 90.9 7.2 17.3 17.3 11.7 8.8 20.5 20.5 15.0
114.5
Block
Working
Bench, North <
DA2 155 355 355 257.0 50 132 132 89.5 6.0 17.1 17.1 11.0 7.5 20.7 20.7 13.3
Block – 114.5
Deposit 2W
Working
Bench, North <
DA3 166 405 405 291.9 52 148 148 102.0 7.4 18.0 18.0 12.1 9.0 21.3 21.3 14.8
Block – 114.5
Deposit 3E
10m away
<
DA4 from Crushing 139 350 350 252.7 49 130 130 87.1 6.0 16.3 16.3 10.6 6.8 19.4 19.4 12.4
114.5
Plant
10m away
from <
DA5 134 370 370 268.0 48 135 135 91.7 6.1 17.2 17.2 11.3 6.7 19.7 19.7 13.2
Screening 114.5
Plant
10m away
<
DA6 from Loading 152 410 410 295.7 50 142 142 101.0 7.0 18.4 18.4 12.1 7.9 21.5 21.5 14.0
114.5
Plant

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-18

TABLE - 3.4(c) ABSTRACT OF AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA (Contd.,)

BUFFER ZONE
Donimalai <
DA7 69 108 108 90.5 28 39 39 34.3 5.1 7.7 7.7 6.5 6.7 9.7 9.7 8.3
Township 114.5
Narsapur <
DA8 82 199 199 146.0 38 73 73 56.5 7.6 16.2 16.2 12.3 9.6 18.6 18.6 14.4
Village 114.5
Ubbalagandi <
DA9 68 141 141 108.2 32 48 48 41.0 6.4 9.4 9.4 7.8 7.8 11.2 11.2 9.5
Village 114.5
Bhujanga <
DA10 82 199 199 150.0 37 67 67 52.7 7.3 15.1 15.1 10.8 9.4 17.9 17.9 13.0
Nagar Village 114.5
Taranagar <
DA11 114 184 184 156.2 39 68 68 54.9 6.4 15.3 15.3 10.9 8.6 17.6 17.6 13.0
Village 114.5
Sandur – <
DA12 148 236 236 190.5 50 82 82 63.3 7.9 14.9 14.9 11.4 10.5 17.1 17.1 14.0
Krishna Nagar 114.5
<
DA13 Naulati Village 95 195 195 144.9 36 49 49 43.0 6.2 9.1 9.1 7.8 8.6 13.8 13.8 11.0
114.5
Devagiri <
DA14 68 147 147 113.2 33 44 44 38.6 6.4 9.4 9.4 7.9 8.6 13.4 13.4 10.9
Village 114.5
CPCB Core Zone 500 150 120 120 5000
STANDARDS Buffer Zone 200 100 80 80 2000

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III-19

It is seen from the Tables (3.4a -3.4c) that all the ambient air quality
parameters viz., SPM, RPM, SO2, NO2 & CO are well within the CPCB standards.
It is imperative that the present mitigative measures are effectively controlling
the air, dust pollutants in the active mining stage.

Dust fall

Dust fall monitoring was carried out at 14 ambient air quality-monitoring


stations (Plates III.4 & III.5) for one month each during Post Monsoon, Winter &
Summer seasons. The dust fall status is given in Table 3.5.

Post monsoon season: The dust fall values were ranging from 2.0 to 7.0
MT/Km2/Month.

Winter season : The dust fall values were ranging from 3.0 to 8.0
MT/Km2/Month.

Summer season : The dust fall values were ranging from 3.0 to 9.0
MT/Km2/Month.

The values are found to be within the NEERI recommended tolerance limit of
10 MT/Km2/Month.

3.1.2 Anticipated impacts

In the open cast mine envisaged, mining operations such as drilling, blasting,
excavation, loading and unloading, movement of dumpers on haul roads,
crushing and screening are expected to generate air-borne fugitive dusts. The
fugitive dust released may cause immediate effect on the mine workers, who
are directly exposed to the fugitive dist. Smaller size dust particles (<2µm) may
be transported longer distances by wind and may cause impact on the people
residing nearby villages.

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-20

TABLE - 3.5
DUSTFALL STATUS

Dustfall Rate (MT/Km2/Month)


Sl. Location Post
Location Name Winter Summer
No Code Monsoon
Jan.08 Apr.08
Oct.07
1. Working Bench South Block DD-1 3.0 5.0 7.0

2. Working Bench North Block (Deposit-2W) DD-2 4.0 4.0 7.0

3. Working Bench North Block (Deposit 3E) DD-3 4.0 5.0 7.0

4. 10m from Crushing Plant DD-4 5.0 6.0 9.0

5. 10m from Screening Plant DD-5 6.0 7.0 9.0

6. 10m from Loading Plant DD-6 7.0 8.0 9.0

7. Donimalai Township DD-7 3.0 3.0 3.0

8. Narsapur Village DD-8 3.0 4.0 3.0

9. Ubbalagandi village DD-9 4.0 4.0 3.0

10. Bhujanga Nagar DD-10 5.0 5.0 3.0

11. Taranagar DD-11 5.0 5.0 6.0

12. Sandur (Krishna Nagar) DD-12 4.0 5.0 4.0

13. Naulati DD-13 3.0 3.0 4.0

14. Devagiri DD-14 2.0 3.0 3.0


NEERI Recommend Standard 10

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III-21

Dust emission sources

Fugitive and non-fugitive dust emissions sources during the iron are mining are
presented in Table 3.6.

Table : 3.6
Fugitive and non-fugitive dust emissions during iron ore mining
S. Nature of Frequency of Nature of air
Source
No. emission emission pollution
Construction of
Fugitive and Infrequent and
1. infrastructural facilities Dust
area source pre-mining
(building, roads)
Fugitive and Infrequent and
2. Top soil stripping Dust
area source pre-mining
Fugitive and Infrequent and
3. Drilling Dust
point source pre-mining
Dust, CO, NOx , SO2,
Fugitive and Frequent and
4. Blasting H2S (slurry
point source post-mining
explosives)
Fugitive and Very frequent and
5. Excavation of ore Dust
area source post-mining
Non-fugitive
Very frequent and
6. Waste rock dumping and point Dust
post-mining
source
Non-fugitive
Loading and unloading of Very frequent and
7. and point Dust
ore post mining
source
Fugitive and Very frequent and
8. Material transport Dust
line source post mining
Fugitive and Frequent and post
9. Wind erosion Dust
area source mining
Conveyors and material Non-fugitive Very frequent and
10. Dust
transfers and line source post-mining
Fugitive and Very frequent and
11. Crushing and screening Dust
point source post mining
Non-fugitive Very frequent and
12. Heavy equipment exhaust SPM, NOx, SO2, HC
and line source post-mining
Fugitive and
13. Fuel storage tanks Continuous HC
print source
Fugitive and Frequent and
14. Stock piles Dust
area source post-mining
Fugitive and
15 Pellet Plant Continuous SO2 / SPM
Point source

Emission factors in open-cast mining

The fugitive emissions from a mining activity are most frequently determined
from an emission factor method, although typical emission factors may be
significantly less accurate. Despite this in accuracy, emission factors are widely
used to estimate pollutant emission rates because there is at present no better

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-22

quantification method. Silt content, moisture content, drop height, wind speed,
wet days, precipitation evaporation index are the major factors governed in
fugitive emission rates. Some of the emission factors of interest in iron ore
mining are presented below:

1. Top soil stripping and dumping = 18.5 g/MT


2. Drilling = 75.0 g/hole
3. Blasting

Emission factors for blasting

Sl. Nature of Dust parcel Gaseous Emission factor (g/kg


No. pollutant size in µm pollutants of explosive)
< 2.5 - 5.1
1. Dust 2.5 – 15 - 41.0
15 – 30 - 49.9
CO 34
Gaseous NOx 8
2. -
pollutants SO2 1
H2S* 12
* Slurry explosives only

4. Excavation of iron ore = 25 g/MT


5. Waste rock dumping = 20 g/MT
6. Haulage emissions = 980 g/ VKT (uncontrolled)
(Material transport) = 98 g/VKT (controlled)
7. Crushing and screening = 1000 g/MT (uncontrolled)
including transfers = 100 g/MT (controlled)
8. Pellet Plant = 10.77 gm/sec
9. BHJ beneficiation = 6.3 gm/sec
10. Heavy mine equipment exhaust (grams per litre of diesel)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-23

Emission factors for heavy equipment

Sl. Wheeled Front-end Haul


Pollutant Scraper Grader
No. doser loader truck
1. CO 14.73 10.185 6.590 11.86 14.738
2. HC 1.557 2.276 1.557 5.15 1.557
3. NOx 34.27 31.03 30.43 38.46 34.27
4. SO2 3.714 3.714 3.714 3.714 3.74
5. SPM 1.797 3.235 2.636 3.474 2.156

Estimation of dust and gaseous pollutant release from Donimalai Iron Ore
mining activities:

A. Drilling
i. Number of drilling holes = 64 holes/day

ii. Drilling hours = 6 hours

iii. Emission rate = 75.0 g/hole

iv. Total dust emissions = 222.2 mg/sec.

B. Blasting

i. Number of holes in a blast = 64

ii. Depth of the hole = 13.6 m

iii. Explosives used per hole (avg). = 115 kg/hole

iv. Explosives used in single blast = 36,000 Kg

v. Emission rate of dust

a. < 2.5 µ size @ 5.1 g/kg = 183.6 Kg/blast

b. 2.5 – 15 µm @ 41 g/kg = 1476 Kg/blast

vi. Emission rate of gaseous pollutants

a. CO @ 34 g/kg = 1224 Kg/blast

b. NOx @ 8 g/kg = 288 Kg/blast

c. SO2 @ 1 g/kg = 36Kg/blast

d. H2S (slurry) @ 12 g/kg = 86.4 Kg/blast

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-24

C. Extraction of iron ore and waste rock

i. Quantity of ore production = 884 tons/hour

ii. Quantity of waste rock production = 690 tons/hour


iii. Total quantity ore and waster production = 1574 tons/hour

iv. Number of working hours in a day = 18


v. Dust emission factor = 25 g/ton

vi. Rate of dust emission = 39.35 Kg/hour


vii. Area of influence = 400 sq. m

viii. Uncontrolled emission rate = 27.33 mg/sec./m2


ix. Controlled emission rate = 2.733 mg/sec./m2

D. Waste rock to dumpsite


i. Quantity of waste rock production = 690 tons/ hour

ii. Capacity of haul – truck = 10 tons


Total number of haul tracks per day = 62 (for waste dumping).

iii. Lead length for trip = 2.0 km (waste), (two


way).

iv. Total VKT/day = 2976


v. Emission rate = 0.98 kg/VKT
(20% silt and 10% MC)
vi. Total emission kg/VKT = 2916.5

vii. Uncontrolled emission rate = 22.5 mg/sec./m

viii. Controlled emission rate = 2.25 mg/sec./m

E. Crushing and screening of iron ore


i. Rate of ore crushing and screening = 884 tons/hour,

ii. Dust emission factor = 0.1 kg/MT (Uncontrolled),


= 0.1 kg /MT (Controlled)
iii. Operation of crushing and screening plant = 8 hours

iv. Rate of dust emission = 10.323 g/s (Uncontrolled)


= 1.0323 g/s (Controlled)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-25

F. Pellet Plant

i. Dust emission = 0.68 g/MT (Controlled)

ii. SO2 emission = 590 g/MT (uncontrolled)

Combination of emission sources for air quality modeling

The worst scenario of simultaneous operations of mining includes (1) drilling, (2)
extraction, (3) waste rock dumping, (4) crushing and screening (5) pellet plant
(6) BHQ Processing plant as shown in Table 3.7.

Table 3.7: Air quality model applicability

Sl. No. Mine operation Nature of emission Air quality model

1. Drilling Point source FDM

2. Blasting Point source Puff model

3. Extraction of ore Area source FDM

4. Waste rock transport Line source FDM

5. Waste rock dumping Point source Puff model

6. Screening and crushing Point source FDM

7 Pelletization Point source ISCST3 model

8 BHQ processing plant Point source FDM

Fugitive dispersion model (FDM)


The fugitive dispersion model (FDM) is a computerized air quality model
specifically designed for computing concentrations and deposition impacts of
fugitive dust sources. The model is based on the well known Gaussian plume
formulation for computing concentrations and also the model specifically
transfer deposition algorithm. Emissions for each source are apportioned into a
series of particle size classes. Gravitational settling velocity and deposition
velocity are calculated by FDM for each class. The model is designed to work on
hourly meteorological data.

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III-26

The main equation is the FDM model is:

Q - Vg (z - h) 2 2 2 ( z h) 2 ( z h) 2
C e - Vg e e
Z y. z.u z 2 z2 2 z2

2
-z h V 2 z h V1 z z h
4 V1 e 2
.e 1 erf
2 z zu 2 y 2.k 2 z

where

x Vg z 2 .u
= ; V1 = ug – .K=
2. z.u 2 2x

C = Concentration (g/m3)
Q = Emission rate (g/s)
y, z = Standard deviation of concentration in Y and Z direction (m)
x, y, z = Receptor coordinates (m)
Vg = Gravitational settling velocity (m/s)
h = Plume center line height (m)
k = Eddy diffusivity (m 2/s)
Ug = Deposition velocity (m/s)

b. Puff model:

This model can be employed when the dust and gaseous pollutants are released
instantaneously into the atmosphere. The main equation in the puff model is

2
Qm1 1 x ut y2
C ( x , y ,t ) exp.
2 x. y . z
2 x y2

Where,

C (x, y, t) : The pollutant concentration of coordinates x and y at time


t (mg/m3)
Q1m : The mass of pollutant released (mg)
U : Wind velocity (m/s)
x, y, z : The dispersion coefficients in the x, y an z directions

respectively (m)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-27

C. ISCST3 Model

Application of ISCST3 for prediction of ground level concentration

Prediction of cumulative ground level concentrations due to emissions from the


mining activity has been computed using ISCST3 model (Point Source).

ISCST 3 model with the following options has been employed to predict the ground
level concentrations due to emissions.

Area being rural, rural dispersion parameters are considered.

Predictions have been carried out to estimate concentrations values over a


radial distance of 10 km around the source.

A total of 600 receptors with combination of polar and Cartesian receptor


network have been considered.

Emission rates from the single source is considered as constant discharge


and magnitude during the entire period.

Ground level concentration computed is based on without any


consideration of decay coefficient.

24 hourly (for 24 hour mean meteorological data as per guide lines of IMD
and MoEF) mean ground level concentration was estimated for winter
season (December 2007, January and February 2008)

Plume rise is estimated by Briggs formula, but the final rise is always
limited to that of the mixing height layer.

Buoyancy and momentum induced dispersion is used to describe the plume


dispersion during the ascension phase.

Calm processing routine is used by default

Wind profile exponents are used by default “Irwin”.

Cartesian coordinate system has been used for computations.

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-28

Basic input data requirements

The basic data inputs include the run stream set up file and the meteorological
data file. The run stream set up file contains the selected modeling options,
source location and parameter data receptor locations, meteorological data
specifications and output options. The meteorological data file contains the
hourly data on wind speed, wind direction, ambient temperature, atmospheric
stability class and mixing height.

The meteorological data used in dispersion modeling is of average values of


winter data, which depicts worst scenario of ground level concentration of air
pollution.

Source emissions

Stack Stack
Stack Control Temp. SPM SO2 , NOx, HC Flow
height dia 0
attached to equipment C Kg/hr Kg/hr Kg/hr Kg/hr Nm3/hr
(m) (m)
Pelletisation Mechanical
plant air
68 1.65 150 28.5 98.54 Traces Traces 114000
including cleaning
Furnace equipment

Meteorological Input Data (Winter)

Temperature
Minimum Maximum
Average Minimum Average Maximum
Month Temperature, Temperature
Temperature, °C Temperature, °C
°C , °C
December, 2007 17.0 29.0 18.9 27.5
January, 2008 17.0 31.0 18.5 28.6
February, 2008 18.0 33 20.2 30.3

Wind velocity
Minimum velocity, Maximum velocity, Average velocity,
Month
m/s m/s m/s
December, 2007 0.11 0.78 0.45
January, 2008 1.0 2.22 1.58
February, 2008 1.03 2.61 1.67
Average 1.233

Wind direction and velocity


Direction SE NE SW E N Calm
% Frequency 29.49 24.55 7.36 6.12 5.19 6.94
Wind velocity m/s 0.11 to 2.61 m/s 0.5 m/s

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-29

Atmospheric stability category

Duration Day time Night Time


Stability category B&C E&F

Meteorological data

The meteorological data recorded during winter season (2007-08) on hourly


basis is used in the FDM and puff models. Wind speed, wind direction,
temperature and solar insulation have been processed to extract the data
required for simulation by FDM and puff models as per IMD guidelines.

Table-3.8 shows the mean meteorological data considered for modeling. Stability
classes computed is based on wind speed and solar radiation.

Table – 3.8 : Mean meteorology – Winter`2007-08


Avg. Wind Wind Temperature Stability Mixing
Hour
speed (m/s) direction °K class height (m)
1. 1.92 SE /NEE 299.9 F 208
2. 1.8 SE 299.8 F 200
3. 1.8 NNE/SE 299.4 F 178
4. 1.76 NE 299.0 F 168
5. 1.69 NE 299.0 F 148
6. 1.65 NE 299.1 F 148
7. 1.96 SE 299.8 F 159
8. 2.12 NE 299.8 B 238
9. 2.42 SE 300.0 B 492
10. 2.10 SE 300.8 B 730
11. 2.60 SE 302.3 A 810
12. 2.42 SE/NE 304.0 A 1195
13. 2.65 NE 305.3 A 1320
14. 2.18 SE 305.8 A 1430
15. 2.20 N 305.7 B 1310
16. 2.26 SE/NEE 305.5 B 1120
17. 2.35 NEE 302.8 C 830
18. 2.28 NE 302.6 C 725
19. 2.36 NE 302.4 F 628
20. 2.01 NNE 301.3 F 572
21. 1.58 E 300.4 F 480
22. 1.66 E 299.5 F 406
23. 1.58 NE 298.7 F 342
24. 1.82 N 300.1 F 320

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


III-30

DISPERSION FACTOR
TABLE 3.9
DISPERSION CO-EFFICIENTS (m) FOR SELECTED DISTANCES DOWNWIND (km)

Distance, x Stability class and y Stability class and z


(km) C F C F
0.1 8 4 7.5 2.6
0.2 25 8 14 4
0.4 46 15 26 7
0.6 66 22 38 9
0.8 85 28 50 12
1.0 104 34 61 14
2.0 193 63 115 22
3.0 278 91 166 28
4.0 359 117 216 32
5.0 438 143 264 35
6.0 516 169 312 38
7.0 592 194 360 40
8.0 667 218 406 52
9.0 742 242 452 44
10.0 814 266 497 46
15.0 1170 383 719 52
20.0 1514 495 934 59
Note : If the calculated value of z exceeds 500m, z is set to 5000m.

Predicated ground level concentration of SPM

The following inputs have been considered in air quality prediction modeling.

i. Drilling emissions (Point source)

ii. Excavation of ore (Area source)

iii. Ore and waste transport (line source)

iv. Crushing and screening (point source)

v. Pelletization

vi. BHQ Process plant

vii. Hourly mean meteorological data (Table 3.14)

Isopleths of predicted ground level concentration of SPM (24 hourly values) for
Winter & Summer are shown in Plates III.6 & III.7.

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Plates III.6.

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Plates III.7

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The following are the predicted SPM, SO 2 and NOx based on fugitive dispersion
modeling.

1. This shows that pollution contribution is mostly along the NE and SE axis
which is the predominant wind direction in summer.

2. The maximum SPM concentration of 28.6 µg/m 3, SO2 concentration of 3.8


µg/m3 and NOx concentration of 4.0 µg/m3 are found within the core zone.
This will occur at a distance of 100-120 m from the mining activities within
the mine site.

3. The SO2 & SPM levels at nearby villages are presented in Table 3.10.

The max. GLC of SO2 and SPM and the distances occurring from the source are
given below for various conditions

Pollutant, µg / m3 Atmospheric Stability Conditions


A B C D E F
SO2 23.4 16.3 17.6 22.1 15.9 16.1
Distance,km 0.76 1.34 1.64 1.23 2.59 3.35
SPM 6.8 4.7 4.2 6.4 4.6 4.7
Distance,km 0.76 1.34 1.64 1.23 2.59 3.35
Air Environment in Core zone Post project Scenario (µg/m 3)
Suspended Particulate Sulphur dioxide Oxides of nitrogen
24 hourly concentrations
matter(SPM) (SO2) (NOX)
Baseline Scenario(max) 405 16.9 21.3
Predicted Ground level
48.2 24 4.8
Concentration(max)
Resultant concentrations 453.2 40.9 26.1
NAAQ standards 500 120 120

Table 3.10 - SO2 & SPM levels at near by villages during operation of mine
NAAQ
Base line Predicted Post project
Sl. Standard
Village SPM in µg/m3 SPM in µg/m3 SPM in µg/m3
No. µg/m3
SPM SO2 SPM SO2 SPM SO2 SPM SO2
1. Donimalai Township 119 7.7 5.2 10.2 124.2 17.9 200 80
2. Narsapur Village 224 16.2 10.2 21.8 234.2 38 200 80
3. Bhujanga Nagar Village 249 15.1 1.05 7.2 250.05 22.3 200 80
4. Taranagar Village 238 15.3 0.5 10.0 238.5 25.3 200 80
5. Sandur 262 14.9 0.04 1.2 262.04 16.1 200 80
6. Devagiri Village 210 9.4 0.03 0.4 210.03 9.8 200 80
7. Ranjithpura village 343 18.4 13.2 23.2 356.2 41.6 200 80
8 Ubbalagandi 210 9.4 0.8 5.2 210.8 14.6 200 80

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The table -3.10 shows that contribution of SPM from the project at other
villages will be normal and in worst scenario the dust concentration may
increase more than the permissible value.

As the fugitive dust pollution is localized, pellet plant stack emission may
disperse in the atmospheric environment through a tall stack provision.

3.1.3 Proposed mitigating measures

Air pollution control measures would be of three types namely (i) dust
suppression system (DSS), (ii) dust extraction system (DES) and (iii) vehicular
emission control (VEC).

Dust Suppression System (DSS):

Adequate water sprinkling arrangement would be provided to suppress dust


emissions from the haul roads, mine working faces, ROM stockpiles and other
areas susceptible to dust emissions due to surface wind. It is proposed to deploy
water tankers fitted with pressurized multiple spray systems including side
sprays. On the haul roads which cause maximum dust nuisance, water to be
sprinkled on the road should be mixed with dust suppressant chemical to
enhance the soil moisture retention capacity. This chemical should be non-
toxic, non-corrosive and of neutral pH. Periodically the road needs to be graded
and spillage material removed to the earmarked areas.

Dust Extraction System (DES):

Crushing and screening plant and conveyor transfer points would be provided
with dust extraction system. It is proposed to install dust extraction system
complete with aspiration hoods, bag filters and extraction fans of adequate
capacity. Particulate levels in the DE stack emissions will be limited to 100
mg/N cu.m. This will help minimize the dust levels in the operating zone.

Dust is extracted from traveling grate from screening of pellets and at material
transfer points and is passed through bag filters with an emission dust
concentration 50 mg/Nm3.

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Source Emission Control:

In opencast mining, operation such as drilling and blasting, ore handling,


crushing and screening generate appreciable levels of fugitive dust. In order to
control the dust emissions at the above sources it is proposed to adopt the
following work practices on routine basis.

Flue gas dust emission from Pelletization plant induring furnace is treated by
Electro Static Precipitors (ESP). The SO2 of flue gas is discharges through a tall
stack into the atmosphere for dispersion and diffusion of SO2 to a level such
that its maximum level in the surrounding air shall be less than well below 80
micro gram/ m3. The details of stack calculation are given below.

Gas Flow from Induring Furnace - 114000 Nm3/hr

Concentration of SPM - <50 mg/Nm3

Concentration of SO2 - 840 MG/nm3 =

Material of Construction of Chimney - RCC

Diameter of Chimney - 1650 mm

Stack height - 14(Q)0.3


-
14(98.54)0.3
=
68.53 (approx.)

- Say 75.0 mtrs

To ensure usage of sharp and properly shaped drill bits by maintaining


appropriate pressure on the bit and keeping the holes clear for cuttings.

To generally keep the in-process material moistened to a certain extent


to minimize dust arising during various operations such as drilling,
blasting, crushing, etc.

A Budgetary provision of 25.0 lakhs has been earmarked for air pollution
control measures.

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Vehicular Emission Control (VEC):

Vehicular emissions from diesel operated transport equipment can be contained,


by avoiding idle running and overloading of the engine. In addition, the engines
shall be periodically serviced to ensure proper running and exhaust gases
monitored on a regular basis to check smoke and CO levels.

The general fugitive dust control measures to be adopted in pellet plant are
presented in Table 3.11.

Table 3.11 - Fugitive Dust emission control measures at DIOM


Categorization of
Fugitive Emission Control technique Control Equipments Control system
capabilities
Watering
Active Storage Piles Windscreens Water sprinkler RACT
Plantations
Water sprays
Conveyor & Transfer Dust suppression system
Hooding & Ducting RACT
Points Bag filters
Wind screen
Product Handling Bag filters RACT
Hooding & Ducting
Windscreens
Loading & Unloading Water sprinkler on Yard RACT
Water sprays
Water spray
Concrete / Tar Road Water sprinkler Construction
Internal Road
Plantation of Internal Roads Plantation RACT
Transportation
at road sides

Watering
Crushing & Screening Windscreens Dust separation system RACT
Hooding & Ducting
Chemical stabilizers
Vegetative cover
Waste sites LAER
Windscreens
Plantations

RACT - Reasonable Available Control Technology


BACT – Best Available Control technology
LAER - Lowest Available Emission Rate

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3.2 Noise Environment

3.2.1 Baseline status

Methodology

Noise levels were monitored at fourteen locations in and outside the project
premises (Plates III.4 & III.5) during Post monsoon, Winter & summer seasons.
Noise readings were taken in day-time as well as night-time. Bruel & Kjaer
(model 2237) sound level meter was used for recording noise levels.

Data Analysis

The noise level abstract is given in Table 3.12.

Ambient Noise

Post- monsoon: During Day and night time the noise levels were ranging from
46.8 - 53.9 dB(A) and 41.7- 47.4 dB(A) respectively. The noise levels are found
to be within the prescribed limits.

Winter season : During Day and night time the noise levels were ranging from
46.8 - 53.2 dB(A) and 41.8- 45.1 dB(A) respectively. The noise levels are found
to be within the prescribed limits.

Summer season : During Day and night time the noise levels were ranging from
48.9 - 54.1 dB(A) and 42.4- 46.4 dB(A) respectively. The noise levels are found
to be within the prescribed limits.

Work zone Noise

Post monsoon : During Day and night time the noise levels were ranging from
58.0- 63.5 dB(A) and 54.0 – 59.2 dB(A) respectively. The noise levels are found
to be within the prescribed limits.

Winter season : During Day and night time the noise levels were ranging from
71.4 - 83.8 dB(A) and 61.0 - 70.5 dB(A) respectively. The noise levels are found
to be with4in the prescribed limits.

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Summer season : During Day and night time the noise levels were ranging from
70.0 - 82.0 dB(A) and 58.6 - 70.0 dB(A) respectively. The noise levels are found
to be within the prescribed limits.

TABLE 3.12 - ABSTRACT OF WORKZONE (CORE ZONE) NOISE LEVEL DATA

Leq.Noise Levels in dB(A)

S. Location Post
Location Name Winter Summer
No Code monsoon

Day Night Day Night Day Night

Working Bench,
1. DN-1 58.0 54.0 72.7 61.0 71.4 60.3
South Block

Working Bench,
2. North Block, Deposit DN-2 59.1 56.3 72.8 61.6 70.4 58.6
– 2W

Working Bench,
3. North Block, Deposit DN-3 62.4 58.9 71.4 62.8 69.4 65.8
– 3E

10m from Crushing


4. DN-4 63.1 59.1 83.8 70.5 82.0 70.0
Plant

10m from Screening


5. DN-5 58.8 58.2 71.4 64.0 70.0 60.3
Plant

10m from Loading


6. DN-6 63.5 59.2 72.6 63.5 71.0 58.7
Plant

Working Limit : 85 dB(A) for 8 hours


exposure
Tolerable DGMS Limits
Danger Limit : 90 dB(A) for 8 hours
exposure

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TABLE 3.12 - ABSTRACT OF AMBIENT NOISE LEVEL DATA


(Buffer Zone) (Contd..)

Leq.Noise Levels in dB(A)


S. Locatio
Location Name Post monsoon Winter Summer
No n Code
Day Night Day Night Day Night
Donimalai
1. DN-7 53.9 43.9 51.8 42.4 54.1 44.2
Township
2. Narsapur village DN-8 52.7 44.2 50.8 45.1 53.4 44.0
Ubbalagandi
3. DN-9 52.7 44.6 50.8 42.6 51.4 43.4
village
4. Bhujanga Nagar DN-10 51.3 42.1 50.8 41.8 53.4 43.6
5. Tara nagar DN-11 50.3 41.1 51.8 43.8 52.4 42.4
6. Sandur DN-12 52.8 47.4 53.2 43.9 53.4 46.4
7. Naulati village DN-13 47.4 42.0 46.8 43.8 49.8 43.5
8. Devagiri village DN-14 46.8 42.0 47.4 44.2 48.9 43.4
Day time : 55 dB(A)
CPCB Limits
Night time : 45 dB(A)

3.2.2 Anticipated Impacts

Noise will be produced during operational phase of mining due to drilling,


blasting, ore extractors, compressors, movement of trippers and other heavy
machinery. Table-3.13 shows the noise produced by various mining equipment.

Table 3.13: Noise levels (dB (A)) by mining equipment


Sl.
Equipment / Process of mining Noise in dB(A)
No
1. Drilling 90 – 92
2. Blasting 160 – 180
3. Shovel loading area 79 – 80
4. Compressor 82 – 84
5. Trippers 88 – 90
6. Scrapers, grader 82 – 85
7. D.G. set 85 – 88
8. Crushing plant 80 – 82
9. Screening plant 78 – 80
10. Dumper plat form (crushing plant) 76 – 78
11 Pellet plant 78-80

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The noise generated by the mining activity is dissipated within the core zone.
Since, the mining and allied activities will take place only during day time, the
increase in noise levels will be only during day time.

Noise levels in the work zone varies from 88 to 90 dB(A), except during blasting,
which is carried out after the end of working shifts, personal exposure is less
than 90 dB(A), because operators sit in closed cabins.

Noise contribution from work zone to the nearby buffer zone villages will be
insignificant because (a) at 1 to 2 km distance contribution level is in the range
of 30-32 dB(A) and (b) the villages are situated at lower level, whereas mining is
carried out on hill top. Ranjitpura which is near the loading point may likely
subject to noise levels which would like to be 55-60 dB(A). The development of
green belts will further reduce noise in both core zone and buffer zones.

Blasting effects

In accordance with DGMS regulations, the lease area will maintain a safety belt
of 500 m distance from the quarry. There is no human habitation within the core
zone. However, keeping in view the presence of villages beyond the core zone
and presence of office buildings within the core zone, adequate measures will
be followed during blasting, which are discussed in EMP.

An empirical equation has been used for assessment of peak particle velocity
(PPV) values at nearby locations.
1.2704
D
PPV 113.062
Q

Where

PPV = Peak particle velocity in mm/s

D = Distance between location of blast and gauge point (m)

Q = Quantity of explosives per delay (kg)

Since 170 kg of explosives is used in each blast, the PPV values at nearby
locations are presented in Table 3.14.

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Table 3.14 :PPV values at near by locations during blasting

Structure Distance (m) PPV (mm/s)


TV Relay building, Rest Houses 800 3.26
Canteen buildings 700 4.25
100 Ton Magazine buildings 1500 1.3
Screening plant 1600 1.28
Crushing Plant 250 6.14
Pellet Plant 1800 1.22
Donimalai Township 1600 1.28
Ubbbalagandi village 1800 1.22
Ranjithpura 1800 1.22
Narsapura 1900 1.205

The above results have been compared with the limiting values prescribed by
Central Mining Research Institute (CMRI), Dhanbad, which are presented in
Table 3.15.

Table 3.15 - Limiting values of PPV by CMRI, Dhanbad

Sl. Max. PPV


Structure
No. (mm/s)
1. Steel or reinforced converse 25
2. Good residential, commercial structure 10
3. Mud wall and temple structures* 8.00
4. Old buildings with brick masonry and R.C.C or tiled roofs** 12.5
* German standard (DIN 4150, 1983)
** USBM standards

Comparison of the estimated ground vibrations show that with 39 kg of explosive


charge per blast round the vibrations are within limits for existing all types of
structures both in core zone and buffer zone.

3.2.3 Proposed Mitigating Measures

Mine workers are generally exposed to a higher risk of hearing impairment than
most other industrial workers. The circular of Directorate General of Mines
Safety (DGMS) prescribes a permissible level of 90 dB(A) for exposure without

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any protection for a maximum . duration of 8 hours: DGMS has recommended


115 dB(A) as the noise level at and above which appropriate ear protection
device should be used and 140 dB(A) as the level where no worker should be
allowed to enter even with ear protection device.

Noise control measures at the mine can be broadly classified into three types,
namely (i) administrative control, (ii) engineering control and (iii) personal
hearing protection (Ref. Prof. B.B. Dhar, Environmental Management of Mining
Operation, Ashis Publishing House, 1990).

A brief outline of each of the control measures is outlined below:

Administrative control:

The staff roster should be so planned that none of the workers working in noisy
environment gets over-exposed to noise beyond the permissible duration. Other
administrative control techniques include providing proper noise· proof
enclosure for the workers separated from the noise source and noise prone
equipment.

Engineering control:

The effective attenuation of noise can be achieved by source control measures


such as:

Selection of quieter mining equipment and machineries

Retrofitting additional noise control device as required

Installation of anti-vibration devices in crushing and screening equipment

Housing of the crusher separately to contain noise

Covering by casing of the crusher internal elements to reduce transmission


of impact noise.

Carrying of blasting during day time. Blasting shall not be carried out in
stormy and rainy weather and during lighting.

Provision of noise proof cabin for operators and exhaust silencers for all
mine transport equipment.

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Personal hearing protection: Personal hearing protection can be considered as


an accepted method of minimizing the impacts in a noisy environment. Personal
hearing protection devices include earplugs with glycerine soaked cotton and
earmuffs. A budgetary provision of 4.0 lakhs has been earmarked for noise
pollution control measures.

3.3 Water Environment

3.3.1 Baseline status

Reconnaissance survey was carried out to identify the location of water bodies,
industrial/residential areas, their water intake and effluent disposal locations
etc., for generation of baseline data on water quality at different sources.

Methodology

Ground / drinking water samples 8 numbers and surface water samples 5


numbers were collected (sampling locations shown in Plate III.8) around the
study area during Monsoon, Post-monsoon, Winter & summer seasons and
analyzed for Physico-chemical and Bacteriological parameters as per Standard
methods of IS 2488 after taking suitable precautions. Sterilized bottles were
used for collection of water samples for bacteriological analysis, stored in
icebox and transported to the laboratory for the analysis. Parameters like pH,
Temperature, DO etc. were measured in the field while collecting the samples.
MPN index of coliforms were determined in the laboratory as per Standard
methods.

The ground and surface water quality data are given in Annexure II.

Data Analysis

Ground water

Monsoon: At all locations, pH values were in the range of 7.20 – 8.26 with
agreeable colour, taste and odour. Chloride and Sulphate values were in the
range of 12 - 544 mg/l and 4 -152 mg/l respectively. Hardness values were in
the range of 40 – 580 mg/l respectively. Fluoride values were found to the

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Plate III.8 Location map of water quality monitoring stations.

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maximum concentration of 0.60 mg/l. Iron value was found to be a maximum


extent of 0.54 mg/l, which is well within the permissible limit of 1.00 mg/l.

Post-monsoon: At all locations, pH values were in the range of 7.14 – 8.24 with
agreeable colour, taste and odour. Chloride and Sulphate values were in the
range of 14-558 mg/l and 4-124 mg/l respectively. Hardness values were in the
range of 42 - 540 mg/l respectively. Fluoride values were found to the maximum
concentration of 0.54 mg/l. Iron value was found to be a maximum extent of
0.48 mg/l, which is well within the permissible limit of 1.00 mg/l.

Winter : At all locations, pH values were in the range of 7.22 – 8.20 with
agreeable colour, taste and odour. Chloride and Sulphate values were in the
range of 16 - 588 mg/l and 4-144 mg/l respectively. Hardness values were in the
range of 48 - 540 mg/l respectively. Fluoride values were found to the maximum
concentration of 0.58 mg/l. Iron value was found to be a maximum extent of
0.44 mg/l, which is well within the permissible limit of 1.00 mg/l.

Summer : At all locations, pH values were in the range of 7.14 – 8.24 with
agreeable colour, taste and odour. Chloride and Sulphate values were in the
range of 18 - 602 mg/l and 8-124 mg/l respectively. Hardness values were in the
range of 52 - 640 mg/l respectively. Fluoride values were found to the maximum
concentration of 0.50 mg/l. Iron value was found to be a maximum extent of
0.42 mg/l, which is well within the permissible limit of 1.00 mg/l.

At all locations, oil and grease, phenolic compounds, cyanides, sulphides and
insecticides were found to be absent and all heavy metal except iron values
were found to be below the detection limit.. The maximum total coliforms were
found to be 10 MPN/100 ml. While comparing with IS: 10500 – 1991 norms, all
values except total coliforms were found to be well within the limits.

Overall, it can be concluded that the ground water quality is good and suitable
for domestic and irrigation purposes.

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Surface water

Monsoon : pH values were found to be in the range of 7.44 – 7.88. At all locations
Oil & Grease, Phenols, Cyanides, Sulphides and insecticides were found to be
absent and most of the heavy metal values except iron were found to be below the
detectable limits.

Post- monsoon : pH values were found to be in the range of 7.24 – 7.88. At all
locations Oil & Grease, Phenols, Cyanides, Sulphides and insecticides were found to
be absent and most of the heavy metal values except iron were found to be below
the detectable limits.

Winter : pH values were found to be in the range of 7.30 – 7.78. At all locations Oil
& Grease, Phenols, Cyanides, Sulphides and insecticides were found to be absent
and most of the heavy metal values except iron were found to be below the
detectable limits.

Summer : pH values were found to be in the range of 7.26 – 7.88. At all locations
Oil & Grease, Phenols, Cyanides, Sulphides and insecticides were found to be
absent and most of the heavy metal values except iron were found to be below the
detectable limits.

However, the concentration of iron is also well within the permissible limit of 3.0
mg/l. Also, low BOD/COD values and marginally high DO content at these locations
indicate that the natural restoration of water quality is maintained.

3.3.2 Anticipated Impacts

Impact on ground water environment: There is no impact on ground water


environment since no abstraction of water from ground water sources is
envisaged in this project.

Impact on Surface water environment

About 15938m3/day (peak demand) of water from Narihalla reservoir is required


for mining & ore processing and domestic requirements. This is approximately
equal to the population equivalent of 1.18 lakhs , assuming the rate of water is

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135 lpcd. As such the profit moderate impact on surfec water resources.
Storm water from mining and waste dump areas is the major source of pollution
of surface water bodies with excess silt, turbid particles (colloidal matter) and
soluble iron (Fe +2). The impact on surface water bodies is temporary, since
oxidation of soluble iron is precipitated as bottom sediments. The reactions are
systematically represented as:

FeS2 + 7O2 + 2H2O 2 Fe +2 + 4 SO4-2 + 4 H + (1)

Pyrite Dissolve Water Ferrous Sulphates Hydrogen oxygen ion

Fe+3 + ½ O2 + 2H+ 2 Fe+3 + H 2O (2)

Fe+3 + 3 H 2O Fe (OH)3(solid) + 3H + (3)

The mine will not seriously affect the flow of storm water, especially much of
the rain rapidly infiltrates through the rock fissures. Excess storm water require
effective management plan which includes collection of storm water through
garland drains and treatment in settling pits and thickners before being
discharged, finally in to Narihalla reservoir.

3.3.3 Proposed Mitigation measures

Raw water Treatment

Raw water drawn from Narihalla dam pumps water to WTP through 2 stages of
the pumps. Raw water received in the masonry tank from where water diverted
into two line of water treatment capacity 0.5 MGD each. First water is received
in sedimentation tank with dosing of ferric alum. After sedimentation, water
flows through the clarifloculator and then it is passes through the sand filter
beds for removal of turbidity. After filtration of the water, bleaching powder is
added for disinfection. The treated water is stored in clean water tanks for
distribution in Township and plant area.

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Waste water

The domestic effluents are collected through well-defined sewer system and are
treated in the existing Oxidation pond. The treated effluents are conforming to
GSR 422(E) (General discharge standards - effluents) on land standards.

Oxidation Pond

The dimensions of oxidation pond of North block are 109m x 43m with an area of
4687 sq.m. The proposal is to utilize half portion of this pond by making an
embankment inside the North block pond.

The south block pond is 125m x 70m with an area of 8750 sq.m. Sludge desilting
is proposed from this oxidation pond.

Sewage from south block goes to south oxidation pond and the north block goes
to north oxidation pond. Both the oxidation ponds are adjacent to each other
and are located about 1 km from township.

The outlet of both the oxidation ponds is let into a fishpond. The fishpond has a
length of 60m & width of 40m totaling an area of 2400 sq.m. Proposal is being
made for raising embankment on the eastern side & northern side.

In summer months, blue green algae (cyanobacteria) may grow vigorously in the
ponds giving rise to floating mats of algae. The algae in the mats may then die
and give rise to odours. The growth of algal mats will be therefore controlled by
frequent removal.

Desludging will be done by emptying the pond up to the top level of the sludge
and allowing the sludge to dry out in the sun. The dried sludge can be removed
and used as fertilizer / manure for afforestation / nursery / horticulture /
gardening / agriculture purpose. Plate III.9 & Photograph shows the details of
oxidation pond.

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Oxidation Pond

Plate III.9 Layout Plan for Oxidation Pond

1. Sludge de-silting from South Block Oxidation Pond


2. Embankment inside North Block Oxidation Pond

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Silt water control

During the monsoon period, run-offs from the overburden dump and top soil
dump would be checked at the check dam. The check dam would prevent
carryover of fine solids to the peripheral drain, which finally follows the natural
slopes down the hill. The check dams would be made from boulders by cement
pointing. In addition the overburden dump would have garland drains all around
for each terrace of adequate size so that velocity is appreciably reduced to
enhance the settling of the fine particulate. Rock lined wide mouthed drains
with catchpits or silting pond need to be constructed near the crushing plant
and R.O.M. stockpile for arresting the carryover of ore dust to the drainage
channels on the hill slopes.

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Tailing dam

To prevent tailing / slime effluent joining the natural stream in the area, a
tailing dam has been constructed as shown in the plan. In the initial stage, the
tailing dam was constructed to accommodate 12.0 lakh cubic metres of water
and the cost of construction was Rs.17.00 lakhs. Subsequently, during the period
1984-87, the height of the tailing dam was further increased by 10m at a cost of
Rs.65.00 lakhs. The capacity has been increased to 39 lakh cu.m. Though,
overflow channel was provided in the tailing dam, there had been no overflow
right from the inception. To meet the increased water demand due to proposed
production enhancement to 7 MTPA, the storage capacity of the dam need to be
increased for which appropriate design is to be get from CWC, New Delhi.

Check Dams

Ten (10) nos. check dams were already constructed below the waste rock dumps
& additional two nos. are proposed to avoid flow of material during monsoon
season so that the natural water courses are not polluted. The lay-out plan of
Check dam is given in Plate III.10.

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Plate III.10 Lay-out Plan of Check dams

Girdle walls:

Five numbers of girdle walls have been constructed in order to prevent the
sliding of the dump materials and protect the soil erosion with agave and grass
plantation on dumps for stabilization. Plate III.11 shows the Lay-out plan of
Gridle walls.

Plate III.11 Lay-out Plan of Girdle walls

Treatment of Effluent from Beneficiation

Effluents from Ore beneficiation plant and BHQ processing effluents are treated
by thickeners with flocculants additives. The water flow from thickeners is again

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recycled into the plants. The residual precipitated slimes are impounded in the
tailing dams and the supernatant water is recycled to Screening plant.

Repair shop Effluents

In the service centre area, the vehicles washing bay would generate some
amount of oil & greasy waste water. In order to control Oil & Grease emanating
from Auto shop, work shop and service centre, two ETP`s have been constructed
for efficient separation of oil & grease.

A budgetary provision of 1.2 crores is earmarked for water pollution control


measures.

Recirculation of Water from Tailing dam and Thickners

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At Donimalai Iron ore project the water is being recycled from tailing dam for
use of screening plant / mineral beneficiation plant. The percentage of total
requirements of water met by such re-circulation for the last financials years
are as follows.

Water recycled from


Year Water recycled from Tailing dam
Thickeners
2004-05 30.1% 32.3%
2005-06 32.4% 10.8%
2006-07 41.8% 12.5%

Water Conservation measures adopted at DIOM

Donimalai Iron Ore Mine is situated in the dry arid zone; wherein water for
industrial and domestic use needs scientific and sustainable approach. The mine
produces iron ore more than 5.00 MTPA with wet processing facility and is fully
mechanized operations. Donimalai area receives on an average 700 to 800 mm of
annual Rainfall and the main source of Water for the project is Narihalla
Reservoir. This paper makes an attempt to highlight the following issues.

Various water conservation structures

a) Due to installation of high rated thickeners, the re-circulation of water


from the thickeners has improved thereby reducing the fresh water
consumption. Approximately, the anticipated improvement of 5 to 10% of
recovery of re-circulated water to the Screening plant is achieved.
Thereby the fresh water consumption is reduced.

b) Further, close monitoring of water consumption in the Screening plant is


done by installation of microprocessor based water flow meter for
ensuring optimum utilization of water in the plant.

Use of Oxidation pond water

The overflow from Oxidation ponds out-let is approximately 1600 to


1800 m3/day. This water is chemically free and is tested regularly. It is

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proposed to utilize this water by directly pumping the same to the re-circulation
tank at screening plant.

Replacement of Valves

The replacement of valves at screening plant is being considered, as they are a


major source of water loss. It is proposed to procure new valves and replace the
same with the old.

Pressurized water spray & use of PC Dustron compound

Pressurized water spray and use of PC Dustron compound on mine haulage has
reduced the water consumption in the mine area and successfully suppressed
dust on haul roads.

Water being a prime commodity for any development activity, its conservation
is of utmost essential. The draft National Water Policy 2002, has very well
highlighted the need of water utilization and conservation. Donimalai Iron Ore
Mine keeping in pace with the policies as formulated the Government from time
to time is innovating her thinking process in optimum utilization of Water not
only for industrial purposes, but also for domestic consumption. All possible
measures are being taken at the Screening plant of Donimalai Iron Ore Mine
being the major user of water. Apart from ensuring optimum utilization of
Water at Screening plant attempts are being made to enrich the ground water
table in the form of Tailing dam and check dams.

4.9.3 Monitoring of Water Quality

Water quality is being monitored in and around the Mining Lease area
seasonally viz., pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon.

4.9.4 Improvement in the Ground Water table

Although, no scientific study has been carried out by the project in regards to
the improvement in the ground water table of the area. Based on the field
visits, it is found that villages situated on the down stream areas of the tailing
dam and other check dams are growing two to three crops by pumping water

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from the ground, as compared to other villages. It is presumed that the check
dams situated in and around the mine and the tailing dam have improved the
ground water table in the region.

3.4. Land Environment

3.4.1 Baseline status

Soil Environment

In order to assess the baseline status of soil quality of the project site and
neighborhood, five sampling locations (Plate III.8) were selected and samples
were collected during Winter `07-08. At each location, samples were collected
using augers and analyzed for various parameters. The soil quality data are
given in Annexure III.

At all locations, pH ranges from 7.04 to 7.27. The sand content of the soil
ranges between 23.0 and 68.0 %. Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus are found
to be in the range of 328.0– 514 Kg/Ha, 106 – 161 Kg/Ha and 3.2 – 6.7 Kg/Ha
respectively. Organic Carbon was found to be in the range of 2.5 – 3.8%.

Land Environment

Land use pattern

An area falling within a radius of 10 kilometres around the project site was
covered to record the land use pattern, which is presented in Plate – III.12 . The
region as it enjoys diverse physiography has a unique land use distribution.
Cartography was performed using Arc Info-GIS (Plate III.13). Sandur Town, the
Taluk headquarters is located Northwest of the project site.

Major part of the area comes under the classification of forest and hence the
habitations are scattered.

The mining activity, which is going on in the region has transformed a once
poorly developed and sparsely populated area into a moderately developed
region. The Toranagallu village has now become a busy town and the NMDC

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Donimalai township has also developed as a major settlement. The land use of
the area has been classified in to following major types.

a) Hills with forest

b) Hills with scrub

c) Cultivated lands

Plate III.12 LAND USE PATTERN IN BUFFER ZONE OF DIOM

18%

4%
45%

31%
2%

Forest Irrigated
Unirrigated Cultivable W aste
Not Available for Cultivation

Hills with forest

The major part of the land use/land cover is forest with vegetation covering
nearly 70% of the area spread through out the area. The hills in the western part
contain dense vegetation as the stratified rocks particularly the BIF alternating
with phyllitic and graywake layers associated with metabasalts are subjected to
extensive weathering providing fracture system for penetration of the roots and
thick soil cover that supports dense vegetation and growth of tall trees. The
Forests occurring in the Sandur mountain range region are 1) Kumaraswamy
Betta Reserved Forest, 2) Donimalai State Forest., 3) Sandur State Forest,
4) Ramangarh R.F.

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Hills with scrub

In the eastern part of the area and the southern margin in Devagiri village
younger granites belonging to Closepet granite suite are found to occur. These
rocks are massive with gentle slopes and the granite rocks are not intensely

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Plate III.13 Land-use Map

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fractured and weathered. As a result soil formation is restricted and the relative
absence of fractures does not support deep rooting trees. These hills are
covered with stunted trees and scrubs providing moderate vegetative cover. The
forests belonging to this type are 1) Ubalagandi Extension R.F., Marutala
Extension R.F., Kodalu R.F.

Cultivated lands

The area being a rugged terrain with lofty mountains, cultivation is restricted to
the stream courses. The Nari Halla stream has dissected the Sandur mountains
and the valley formed by the stream serve as the boundary of the different hill
ranges like Donimalai, Kumaraswamy Betta, etc. Availability of water and gentle
slope once facilitated agricultural activity. However, a better employment
opportunity in the mining sector has made agriculture secondary.

Crops like onion and ragi are cultivated in the northern part of the area utilising
the water stored in the reservoir formed by construction of a bund across Nari
halla on the northern face of Donimalai hills. In the eastern part of the area
along the course of the Hirehalla stream system cultivation is restricted to few
pockets in an areas predominantly covered with hills and boundary outcrops.
Small stretches of land wherein agricultural activity is carried out are found in
the south-eastern and southern parts of the area.

3.4.2 Anticipated Impacts

Excepting the mining lease area and the degraded forestland allotted to the
company by the Forest Department for the purpose of compensatory
afforestation and dumping mineral rejects, there will not be any adverse effect
on the land in the buffer zone area. The proposed 44.90 Ha dumping area within
the ML area towards North-east of ML area also shall be degraded over a period
of time due to dumping of waste.

With the measures proposed under EMP there will not be any effect of land
degradation other than the mining area as the dumping areas are proposed to be
reclaimed by suitable afforestation measures.

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The top soil in the mining area is scanty. Whatever is available will have to be
excavated during the development of the mine pits. Most of this soil is boulders
in nature and will get mixed with the over burden. Temporary storage of top soil
over burden may cause some loss of nutrients and this can not be avoided.

The top soil will be subjected to water borne erosion during rainy season from
reclamation areas when in unconsolidated state. A combination of diversion
ditches and garland drains will be constructed to minimize soil loss. A large
amount of soil loss can be arrested in catch pits/settling pits, which will be
collected and put back to the reclamation areas. The impact on land
environment in corezone during mine development is marginal and during
operation and post mining stages are moderate. The impact of mining on buffer
zone land environment is in significant.

The leasehold area has already undergone a little topographical modification


due to the natural process of soil erosion. The mining area is on a hill top. The
topography in the lease area is undulating with ridges reaching at maximum
level of 1100 m RL; whereas the minimum ground level within the leasehold is
about 900 m RL. In the iron ore section several small quarries to from a single
quarry pit. These quarries will be in operation till the end of mining.

Due to the moderate reef, the possibility of topographical impact is limited to


the Eastern sector area. In the end, around all the pits, existing drainage
direction and flow may be affected due to change in topography, which shall be
restored through EMP.

The waste filled dump sites shall be terraced with overall slope in the direction
of natural ground level slope. In most cases, the overall slope of back filled
surface shall merge with natural slope.

The topographical impact will be mainly one of the colour contrasts between the
mined rock surfaces and surrounding vegetation (trees, shrubs and grasses)

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3.4.3 Proposed Mitigation measures

The land management plays an important role in reducing the adverse impacts
caused by such surface mining operation. Land management is required in the
key areas like land use scheme within the ML area, calendar plan, mine bench
advancement to arrest indiscriminate degradation of landform, top soil
preservation, overburden management, soil erosion control and the restoration
of the mine pits. On each of these prime areas of land management, the
following schemes are proposed.

Land use

The project requires a total ML area of 608.0 hectares of Donimalai Reserve


Forest. The ML area is principally degraded land and has sporadic patches of
very little shrub vegetal cover in the hill slopes. It may be observed from the
proposed mine general layout that out of 608 hectares of ML land, nearly 180Ha
of the land area is earmarked for mining and 85 Ha earmarked for
afforestation. The core zone landscape can be improved by tree plantation,
scrub growth etc., which are outlined separately under eco-restoration green
belt development.

Calendar plan

The calendar plan for such surface mining operation depicts the excavation
planning of overburden as against rising of minerals in each year upto a specific
period of mining. It ensures the landform change in a planned manner, one of
the essential tools for land management. The development of iron ore mine
would be in phases spread over a period of about 4-5 years.

The composite mine development plan would be developed in the next stage of
project planning showing the yearly advancement of land opening and its
ultimate limit.

Mine bench planning

This is again required for planned way of changing the land form and safety
aspects for meeting the desired mine production level. Determination of bench

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height for exploitation of mineral deposit depends largely on topography of the


land, geological characteristics, best practicable utilization of excavation
equipment and the scale of operation. It is regulated by the provisions of Mines
Act 1952 and the Metaliferrous Mines Regulations, 1961. Bench plans for the
mines will be developed during the next phase of project planning.

Mine roads:

Roads for haulage and access to different locations would be laid as per the
statutory regulations stipulated in the Metaliferrous Mines Regulations, 1961.
Some of the basic features of laying the haul roads at the mine site as required
from environmental and safety angle should cover the following:

The road layout would be generally followed as per scheme shown in


mine general layout. The main haul road and feeder roads would be
generally of 12 m wide keeping provisions for arboriculture.

The corners and bends would be made in such a way as to offer the
vehicle operator, a clear visibility of at least 30 m along the road.

Road gradient would be maintained at 1 in 16 except in cases of ramps,


where gradient of 1 in 10 may be provided.

The alignment of haul roads and feeder roads may require alteration with the
progress of mining work.

Storage and preservation of top soil:

The soil in the mine site can be described as medium textured, non-calcareous,
dark reddish in colour. The soil cover of the mineable areas with low nutrient
level is devoid of any vegetation cover.

While scrapping the top soil cover of the mineable area by a bulldozer prior to
removal of overburden layer, the soil removed needs to be stored and preserved
in the earmarked dump areas for future use. The top soil will be stored
separately in the area earmarked for waste dumps. It may be noted that once
the in-situ soil is disturbed by scrapping, soil particles lose their coherency and

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tendency to stick to one another. The soil therefore needs to be graded and
compacted at the dump site. The soil quality may be upgraded by adding lime
solution and organic manure to improve the nutrient levels. The soil stockpile
height shall preferably be restricted to 1 meter arid the surface vegetated with
fast growing shrubs, creepers or grasses to prevent erosion and loss of nutrients.
Topsoil thus stored and preserved would be utilized as early as possible by
spreading the same over the overburden dump and during mine pit
rehabilitation for the purpose of vegetation growth.

Dump Management

The mine would produce considerable quantities of waste. The major problems
with this waste are its storage or dumping at proper location, slope stability of
the dump and stabilization or disposal.

Considering the extension of the mining zones and disposition of the working
faces, separate area has been earmarked as shown in mine general layout
drawing. The dump sites would be located at North-Eastern and northern slopes
of the hill. The sites are almost barren and non-promising zones. No special
ground preparation is envisaged. The overburden would be loaded on rear-dump
truck by front-end loaders for transportation to dump areas. Formation of
stacking of the overburden would be initiated by dumping of overburden
materials on the ground all along the outer periphery of the demarcated area.
Once this is completed, further quantity of the waste would· be dumped inside
the vacant space of the perimeter stocking. The process would continue till the
entire ground area is filled-in after which the stock is dressed and levelled. The
stock formation process will continue till the final height is reached.

For further stability of the dump and improved aesthetics, the slopes of the
overburden would be progressively revegetated with local or introduced trees,
shrubs and grasses. Top soil preserved would be spread over the slopes of the
dump for vegetation growth.

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Stabilization of waste Dumps

As part of waste dump stabilization, the Mine has prepared a detailed waste
dump stabilization plan till the closure of Mine.

As a step towards this objective, initially the Mine proposes to cover 12 Ha of


Non-active waste dump in the next 5 years ie., from 2005-06 to 2009-2010. The
remaining part of the waste dump area shall be taken up after the closure of
the mine.

As a preventive measure, check dam & girdle walls have been constructed below
all the waste dumps. 10 Nos. of check dam & 5 Nos. of girdle walls have been
constructed as an effort to avoid rolling of boulders & rain-washouts during the
monsoon. The check dams provided with spill way facilities are being desilted
regularly as per the requirement. Further, the non-active waste dump areas are
stabilized by terracing the slopes & planting agave and bamboo grooves as a
step towards stabilization which is followed by planting fast growing species.

Stabilization of waste dump slopes

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Year wise stabilization of waste dumps

Year of Stabilization Area Covered Type of Plantation


2004-2005 1.5 Agave and Bamboo
2005-2006 1.5 - do -
Reclamation &
Stabilization after 17.9 - do -
Exhaust of ore

Soil erosion control:

Most of the soil cover on the hill slopes would be lost. due to spoiling of the
natural vegetation cover. It would, therefore, be necessary to check the soil
erosion by tree plantation discussed under eco-restoration measures. The
overburden and topsoil dumps would be provided with check dam/bund wall to
prevent carry over of soil particles/silt to the drainage channels on the slopes
during monsoon period.

Land restoration:

During the course of mining, the original land form would get disturbed. In the
initial stages of the mining operation, concomitant reclamation of the land may
not be possible due to following operational reasons:

Simultaneous opening of different benches at different levels for


achieving the desired tonnage and grade of R.O.M.

Irregular and heterogeneous nature of mineralization.

Unfavorable topography limiting the total backfilling of the pits with


overburden.

In consideration of the above constraints, it would be preferable to take up the


backfilling of the mined out block after exploitation of the iron ore. The
restoration of the degraded land would cover backfilling and terracing with the
overburden / wastes and surfacing the same with top soil. The fast growing

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trees like acacia nilotica, Acacia leocophea, etc and other native shrubs would
be planted to stabilise the reclaimed land and prevent wind erosion of solid
particles (Plate III.14).

Plate - III.14 : Reclamation of Mined out Pit

Post-mining land restoration is basically mine rehabilitation. It is estimated that


at the end of the total exploitation of the deposit, about 30 to 40 per cent of
mine leasehold land would be degraded. It would be necessary to plan and
execute the post-mining restoration with an objective to recoup the lost
vegetation so that the local communities are benefited to the extent
practicable. The original land form should be brought back by backfilling and
terracing with the overburden / waste material and subsequent vegetation of
the restored land.

While reclaiming the mined out area, the original land form cannot be fully
restored. There would be some left out pits and depressions of varying depth
which can serve as a pond by the impounding rain water. 'This would be
beneficial in two aspects, namely (i) it may recharge the spring table by
seepage of water through cracks and joints and (ii) the impounded water
reservoir can be utilized for development of pisiculture.

A detailed mine closure plan with regard to progressive mining closure plan of
green belt development and reclamation and rehabilitation of the mine out area

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has been identified at Donimalai iron ore site. The details of reclamation plan
are presented in Table 3.16.

Table – 3.16 Details of Reclamation Plan

Present
Area already Area to be
Land Use Reclamation Land use
S.No. Present Land Reclaimed in reclaimed in
area in Details
hectares Hectares
hectares
Area broken up for Biological reclamation of
1 180.00 17.18 162.82
mining purpose mined out areas
Biological reclamation of
Area used for waste
2 44.90 Waste dumps with slope 11.00 33.90
Dumping
Stabilization
Area used for approach &
3* 18.60 - - -
haulage roads
Area used for
4* construction for 6.50 - - -
infrastructure
Area used for tailing-dam
5 10.00 - - -
purpose
6 Unbroken Area 348.00 - 197.50 151.30
TOTAL 608.00 - - -

* Reclamation not possible

Green Belt Development Plan

Apart from reclamation and rehabilitation of the active mined out area,
Donimalai project proposes to develop the non mineralized area with in the
leasehold of mine as green belt. As a step towards achieving this objective, the
mine has prepared a detailed year wise green belt plan and the same is
presented plate VI. During the period from 2004-2005 to 2010-11, the mine
proposes to plant 1,05,000 saplings covering area of 151.30 Ha. apart from
protecting the natural vegetation, flora & fauna and improving upon biomass
generation.

An area of 64.20 hect has been planted with 45,000 Nos. of saplings from 2001-
2002 to 2003-04 as part of achieving development & protection of green belt of
Non Mineralised lease area. Details of year wise proposed afforstation and the
area to be covered in the Non Mineralised area with in the mining lease of
Donimalai Iron Ore Mine is detailed in Table 3.17.

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Table 3.17

DETAILS OF PROPOSED AFFORESTATION WITHIN MINE LEASE AREA IN THE


NEXT FIVE YEARS (from 2006-07 to 2010-11)

Area already afforested : 197.50. ha

No. of Area to be
Sl. Year of
sapling to be covered in
No. Plantation
planted Hectare
1 2006-2007 15000 24.6
2 2007-2008 15000 24.6
3 2008-2009 15000 24.5
4 2009-2010 15000 18.0
5 2010-2011 15000 21.2
Total 75000 112.9
The biological stabilization of waste dumps and Roads side plantation plan
are shown in Plate III.15. The existing green belt development plant in DIOM
is shown in Plate III.16.

PLATE NO. 3.15: BIOLOGICAL STABILISATION OF WASTE DUMP AND ROAD SIDE
PLANTATION

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Plate III.16 Green belt development plan

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3.5 Biological Environment

General introduction:

The flora and fauna of an area before industrialization was dependent upon the
local climate, geological history of the land mass, continental drift, glaciations,
volcanic activity, earthquakes, impact of asteroids, migrations and extinctions
as there was very little human interference. Such natural and virgin vegetation
is probably found in highly inaccessible areas only. After the evolution of the
modern man, forests continue to shrink and the habitats of wild life are invaded
by humans. Thus the present flora and fauna of any area is mainly dependent on
our own actions and activities. Agriculture, urbanization, industrialization,
mining, introduction of exotic species, elimination of local species and other
such activities have brought about a total change and transformation of flora
and fauna in all those areas wherever the level of human interference is higher.
Mining is undoubtedly, a destructive and damaging activity as far as the flora
and fauna are concerned. Digging eliminates all plants and animals in the area
of greatest impact while dumping buries them alive. Apart from direct damage
due to digging and dumping, the dust and noise generated during mining are
also capable of adversely impacting the local flora and fauna. Acid mine
drainage, slime formation, mining induced land slides are also capable of
affecting the flora and fauna of the mining area.

The impacts of mining are very severe in the active mine site and its vicinity and
the impacts decrease with distance from the mining area. In order to make an
assessment of the flora and fauna, the mile lease area (MLA) is taken as the
core area while an area extending up to a radius of 10 Km is taken as the buffer
area. The status of flora and fauna in the core and buffer areas has to be
critically assessed; impacts are predicted and management plans are prepared
to minimize the adverse impacts.

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3.5.1 Baseline Status

In order to assess the baseline status of the flora of the core and the buffer
areas, extensive field surveys were undertaken during the rainy season by a
team of Ecologists, Botanists and Zoologists under the supervision of
Prof.K.B.Reddy, an expert in Community and Production Ecology and a senior
consultant on flora, fauna, biodiversity and ecology for several major irrigation
and hydroelectric projects in Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and
the North Eastern States.

A detailed survey of flora and fauna of the Mine lease area (MLA) of 608 Ha and
its environs extending up to a radius of 10 km was carried out during July and
August 2008. In order to determine the floristic composition, diversity,
dominance, and similarity and to calculate the Importance Value Indices (IVI) as
well as the Shannon – Wiener Indices of diversity, standard ecological and
phytosociological methods were adapted with appropriate modifications.
Prof.K.B.Reddy and his research scholars have developed and introduced these
modifications at research level. He has also modified the line intercept method
for estimation of plant cover in 1986. Unlike animals, plants are modular
organisms. In several cases it is difficult to distinguish between genets and
ramets. In order to calculate the IVI and Shannon – Wiener Indices of diversity,
dominance, evenness etc of a community composed of herbs, shrubs and trees,
we need to establish equivalency among these plants of different sizes by giving
some empirical weighting. An empirical method has been developed for this
purpose by simply altering the size of the sampling units called quadrates. The
frequency, density and dominance as percent cover of herbaceous species were
based on quadrates of 1x1m while toes’ of shrubs and trees are based on
quadrates of 2x10m and 5x20m respectively. It means that 10 herbs are
equivalent to a shrub and 10 shrubs or 100 herbs are equivalent to a tree.
Further, the larger quadrate includes the smaller and the smaller one includes
the smallest. This technique is more appropriate for the phyto-sociological study
of communities composed of plants of different sizes such as herbs, shrubs and
trees.

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Locations of sampling and monitoring stations:

Based on the land use and land covers of the buffer zone, sampling sites were
selected based on the following criteria:

a) Number of samples taken in any particular land use type are


proportionate to the area.

b) They are radially scattered at intervals of about 1 Km intervals subject


to accessibility.

c) All thick, undisturbed and inaccessible type of forest communities were


not invaded to unravel their secrets.

Biodiversity, terrestrial and aquatic

Biodiversity of an area is represented by the total variety and variability of


flora, fauna and microbes that inhabit the area under consideration. It includes
the genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. Our knowledge about the global
biodiversity is limited and our ignorance is unlimited as far the biodiversity is
concerned. Scientists have identified and named only about 1.4 million species
out of the total estimated (guestimated) 10 to 100 million. More than 50%
(750,000) of the organisms named are insects. Plants are represented by about
250,000 only. We are still ignorant about the biological secrets of deep oceans
and thick inaccessible tropical forests. They are considered as the treasures or
reservoirs of biological diversity.

The ecosystem diversity of the MLA and the buffer area are represented by both
terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems as outlined in Table 3.18. There are no
biosphere reserves, National parks, Sanctuaries or other eco sensitive areas
within the study area. Nearly about 65% of the areas towards the West, South
West and North West sides are under forests of different subtypes. Similarly,
towards the East, North East and South East there are open and scrub type of
forests. Between the Eastern and Western range of hills lays the Sandur valley
through which the Narihalla stream flows. The aquatic ecosystems are
represented by a small seasonal stream (Narihalla stream) and three ponds. Out

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of the three, the Narihalla reservoir built on Narihalla stream by the PWD with
the financial support of NMDC has a full storage capacity of 23 million cubic
meters with a total water spread of 255 Ha. The remaining two are small village
tanks. As the area is far away from sea or ocean, there are no marine
ecosystems. In addition to the terrestrial ecosystems listed in buffer zone, all
the different types listed under buffer zone are also present in the core area as
there are a dozen large hill top mines and several scattered mines in plains.

Table 3.18 - Ecosystems of the core and buffer areas


Core area Buffer area
Terrestrial Denuded mining area Terrestrial Thick forests
Wastage dumping Open forests
sites
Reclaimed old mines Thick scrub forests
Afforested areas Open scrub forests
Treeless hill tops Iron ore stocking areas
Hill slopes Hill top mines
Aquatic Tailing pond Croplands
Aquatic Lotic – represented by
Narihalla stream
Lentic – represented by
Narihalla Reservoir and two
tanks

A comprehensive list of floristic species found in the core and the buffer areas
are given in Annexure IV.1. A total of 548 plant species of plants have been
recorded in the buffer area. The core area contained relatively less number
(437) of species but all the species found in the core area were common to the
buffer area. In other words, none of the species was restricted to core area. The
species floristic similarity index for the core and buffer areas works out to be
88.7%. (It is calculated by the formula 2C/A+B x100, where C= the number of
species common to both core and buffer zones, A= the number of species found
in core area and B= the number of species found in buffer zone.

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Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms of the core and buffer areas are
recorded in Annexure IV.2. The area is not rich in non-vascular or vascular
cryptogams and Gymnosperms. Among the Gymnosperms, Cicas circinalis, C.
beddomii, C. revoluta are grown occasionally in gardens and parks. Similarly,
Thuja and Araucaria are also grown frequently in gardens. None of the
gymnosperms are native to the area. Among the Pteridophytes, a few ferns
such as the species of Adiantum and Pteris were noticed in the buffer zone.
Among the Bryophytes, species of Riccia, Marchantia and a few mosses were
noticed.

There were no rare or endemic or endangered or threatened (REET) species


either in the core area or in the buffer area.

But a number of fungal species were found either as pathogens or as


saprophytes on litter, decaying wood and other organic materials. A list of fungi
recorded during the survey is presented in Annexure IV.3. Again no REET species
of fungi were recorded either from the core area or from the buffer area. All
the fungi have occurred in both the areas.

3.5.1.4: Terrestrial fauna:

The active mining area is located on hill top and the ore is transported by a
conveyer. Most of the hill tops on all sides are subjected to severe disturbances
such as blasting and other activities associated with mining. Heavy traffic of
heavy vehicles on the worst possible roads generates noise and dust to deter
even the resident animals. Though the forests are capable of providing suitable
habitats for wildlife; blasting, mining, heavy traffic and human interference are
strong enough to deter any vertebrate species such as the Amphibians, Reptiles,
Aves and Mammals. List of vertebrates either noticed or reported from the area
up to 10 Km radius are given in Annexure IV.4. Most of the birds reported are
either residents or local migrants but no migrants from abroad. Though nesting
and breeding activity was not prevalent, many of the birds listed were spotted
frequently. Among the birds, peacock /peahen were found frequently in the
Swami Malai block of forests in the buffer area at a distance of over 8 Km from
the boundary of the core area. The peacock is a rare and threatened bird and

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hence it is protected under the wildlife (Protection) Act. Only Crows, Parrots,
Doves, Weaver birds, Peafowl and Mynas were more common among birds.
Other than peacock, none of the birds come under the REET category. Among
the reptiles; Lizards and Garden lizards were very common. Rat snake and
Monitor lizard were seen twice during the survey. Other reptiles were very rare.
The amphibians were relatively more frequent but not abundant. Among the
wild mammals, monkeys, squirrels, rats, bandicoots and Mongoose were
noticed. The presence of other wild mammals is doubtful. The list of mammals
(Annexure IV.5) is based on the secondary data and the information provided by
the local villagers and forest beat officers. Circumstantial evidence as well as
the observations made by knowledgeable and experienced persons employed by
the NMDC point to the presence of spotted deer, Sambar and Blackbuck. Most
mammals listed were of very rare occurrence.There are no reports of any
conflict between man and beast during the recent years. The Cheetah, Chital,
Sambar, Blackbuck and Sloth bear belong to the REET categories.

3.5.1.5: Aquatic biodiversity

Except for tail pond, there are no water bodies in the core area. Pond heron,
water hen, ducks and egrets were found to feed along the boundary of the
pond. As the water was highly turbid, the occurrence of phyto and zooplankton
was very doubtful. Filtration, concentration and microscopic examination of the
concentrated samples of phyto and zooplankton did not indicate the presence
of any planktonic forms during the rainy season. The Narihalla reservoir is a
relatively big water body in the buffer area but the water was so turbid that no
plankton could be noticed. The pond at Bomegatta village is used as a source of
drinking water while the tank located at Eral Village is irrigation cum drinking
water body. The phyto and zooplankton trapped in these ponds are given in
Annexures IV.6 and IV.7. The aquatic macrophytes ere confined to the periphery
of water bodies. There were no submerged macrophytes in any of the water
bodies. Thus the core and buffer areas of the DIOM are not important zones for
aquatic flora or fauna. A few snails and the fishes caught or recorded are given
in Annexure IV.8.

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3.5.1.6: Assessment of dominance, density, frequency, abundance;


diversity, similarity and importance Value indices of plant species within the
study area:

i).Dominance of a species may be represented by frequency, density,


abundance or cover or height, volume or biomass or combinations of these
parameters. Since a community is composed of small or big, short or tall, erect
or spreading etc., all in one community, it is not possible to measure the
dominance of a community. But most communities are dominated by one or two
or more individuals. Customarily, communities are described or named based on
the dominant species. For instance, The Teak forests, Sal forests, Dicanthium
grasslands, Sehima – Dicanthium grassland, Cymbopogon _ Heteropogon
grassland etc. But yet dominance may be due to different parameters.
Hence, the word ecological dominance is frequently used in community ecology.
Any species which is capable of taking advantage of the macroclimate and
determines the microclimate of its neighbours is defined as an ecologically
dominant species. Any species that is taller than others and or represented by
more number of individuals and or occupies large area etc can become a
dominant species. For natural communities such as open forest type of
vegetation containing herbs, shrubs and trees it is desirable to determine the
dominance based on the canopy cover or on the basis of its contribution to
biomass. But determination of biomass is not advisable as it requires cutting and
destruction. Hence, the dominance of a species is measured based on the
percent cover of a species. In order to determine, the canopy cover of a
species, modified line intercept method has been used. A line transect of 10 to
100 meters is taken in a sampling location and the area intercepted, or overlaid
or underlaid along the line by each species was measured and expressed as the
percent cover. This method is widely used in community ecology and the same
technique has adapted in the present study also.

An experienced phytosociologist can easily differentiate between different types


of formations dominated by different species based on physiognomy. It is
relatively faster and cheaper. Based on the physiognomy, the following types of
communities could be identified.

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a). Xerophilous, open, thorny scrubs: They are located at and near the foot
hills in the outermost boundary of the buffer zone, especially on the eastern
side. Different species of succulents of the genus Euphorbia such as
E.caducifolia, E.antiquorum, E. tirucalli and E.milli and xerophytic species of
Acacia, Ziziphus are scattered widely. The ground vegetation is represented
mainly by Cymbopogon coloratus, C. caesius, and C. flexuosus.

b). Shrub dominated seral communities: They occur along the hills on either
side of the Sandur valley. They seem to have been derived by the destruction of
forest trees either for cultivation or for mining. These areas are now colonized
by Dodonaea viscosa, Cassia auriculata, Cassia fistula Tecoma stans, Lantana
camara, Jatropha glandulifera, Jatropha gossyphifolia and Vitex negundo.

c). Tropical dry deciduous type of forests occur along the slopes of hills. They
are dominated mostly by Chloroxylon swietenia, hardwickia binata and Grewia
tiliifolia (=G.robusta). However the hill top vegetation was dominated by
species of Grewia, Chloroxylon swietenia, Acacia torta and Acacia ferruginea.

d). Bamboo and Ficus associations were found in Swamimalai and Ramanamalai
block of forests. In fact this is the only area in the region where two species of
Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus and Bambusa arundinacea) were dominant.

e). In contrast to these natural communities, the vegetation in the valley around
the human habitations as usual was dominated by Tamarind, Neem and other
avenue plants.

ii).Density is measured and expressed as the number per unit area. It is usually
expressed as the number per square meter in case of herbs and number per
hectare or acre in case or trees and shrubs. In case of trees and single stemmed
plants, each plant is considered as an individual. But in case of bunch forming
species and in case of those which go on spreading and rooting at nodes, it is
impossible to determine the origin or beginning or ending of a species. In all
such cases, any tiller or shoot with independent root system is considered as an
individual provided there is no visible organic connection with another shoot.
Since density over emphasizes the importance of smaller organisms, other

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parameters are also considered for the purposes of determination of indices of


diversity and importance value indices. In the case under report, density of
herbs was estimated as the average per meter square and quadrats of 1x1m
were used for sampling. The density of trees and shrubs was estimated as the
number per hectare.

H=- Pi(lnPi) where Pi is the proportion of each species in the sample.

vi). Similarity: Either on the basis of physiognomy or floristic composition, it is


possible to compare and contrast between different types of communities. But in
order to quantify how similar are two different communities, indices of similarity
are calculated by using different equations such as the Horn’s indices of
similarity, Simpson index of similarity etc. In the present study, the indices of
similarity were calculated by using the following formula:

Indices of similarity= 2C/A+B x100, where C= the number of species common to


both core and buffer zones, A= the number of species found in community A and
B= the number of species found in community B.

vii). Importance values and Importance value indices (IVI):

The IVI of a species is determined as the sum of three dimensions of a species.


The three dimensions are: frequency, density and abundance.

Abundance is usually determined based on the area occupied a species and it is


expressed as dominance. From the frequency, density and dominance, the
IVI values are calculated by using the following standard ecological equations:

Relative frequency = Frequency of a species / Frequency of all species x100

Relative density = Density of a species / Density of all species x100.

Relative dominance = Dominance of a species / Dominance of all species x 100.

IVI = Relative frequency + Relative density + Relative dominance.

The total IVI of all species in a community comes to 300. Other modifications
based on single parameter may be used provided all plants are equal in size.

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The importance values (Importance Value Indices = IVI) of the different species in
the mining lease area (MLA or core area and those of the buffer area are given
in Annexure IV.9 and IV.10. Based on the IVI values, the indices of diversity,
dominance and evenness for the different seasons for the mining area or core
area excluding the forests are calculated by using a computer programme called
“PAST” and the results are presented in Table 3.19. (R.F, R.D, R.Dom and IVI
represent Relative frequency, Relative density, Relative dominance and
importance value indices. Indices of diversity, dominance and evenness were
calculated by using ‘PAST’ programme.

Table 3.19 - Indices of dominance, evenness and Shannon – Wiener Indices


of diversity of the core and buffer areas of DIOM.
Indices Core area Buffer area
Number of taxa 52 61
Dominance 0.034 0.031
Evenness 0.95 0.96
Shannon – Wiener Indices 3.76 3.98
of diversity

Results (Table -3.19) indicate that in both the cases dominance was low and
evenness was higher. Different areas have in deed been dominated by different
species but when an average was taken it turned out to be even. The average
number of taxa per hectare was slightly higher in the buffer zone than in the
core area. This was probably due to the impact of introductions and moderate
disturbances. According to Intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH), the
numbers of species can be higher in areas subjected to intermediate
disturbances.

Indices of similarity between the floristic composition of the MLA and the area
around the MLA up to 10 Km radius during different seasons are calculated by
the following formula:

ISs = 2C/A+B, where C= species common to both, A= the number of species


present in A and B = the number of species present in B.

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Indices of similarity between the floristic composition of the core area and the
buffer area around the MLA up to 10 Km radius was found to be 88.49.

3.5.1.7: Rare or endemic or endangered or threatened (REET) species:

Among the plants, Santalum album is the only endemic species. It is endemic to
the forests of Karnataka and Tamilnadu.

Among the fauna, Chital, Sambar, Blackbuck, Sloth bear and Indian wolf come
under the REET category. But none of them was a resident of the core area.
They were not spotted at any time during the mining period. They are likely to
be residing in the Swamimalai block of forests. However, the NMDC is
maintaining a deer park at the point of entry to the mining area.

Among the birds, Pea cock is the only bird falling under the REET category. It
was spotted in the MLA but away from active mines. It is not a resident of the
core area.

3.5.1.8: Ethno botanical aspects:

Sacred medicinal plants of ethno botanical importance are given in Annexure


XI. Several medicinal plants are found to occur in the study area. But the
people are so busy with mining activity that the medicinal plants are neither
collected nor traded. A list of medicinal plants including the cultivated plants is
given in Annexure IV.11. None of these plants are in the REET category.

3.5.1.9: Major and minor forest products:

In the entire area, the major vocation of the people was mining. Though
mining is mostly mechanized, there are small surface mines in the valley. Many
migratory workers live in make shift tent houses and are engaged in digging,
gathering, screening, grading, loading etc activities. Some people go in search
of metalliferous rocks, collect them, segregate them and sell them to the bigger
operators. As such, major and minor forest products are neither gathered nor
marketed. However, fire wood is collected for cooking purposes by the poorer
sections of the society from the nearby forests.

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3.5.1.10: Afforestation and Social Forestry:

As a part and parcel of green belt development or as a part of the mine


rehabilitation and eco-restoration plans, afforestation programmes were
undertaken by the large scale mining operators such as NMDC. Eucalyptus spp
and Acacia auriculiformis are grown in either in monocultures or in mixed
cultures along the slopes of hills with large gaps and on hill tops. Apart from
such plantations, there are no agro forests or other social or community forests
in the area. Tamarind followed by Neem was the most extensively grown trees
in homesteads.

3.5.1.11: Characterization of litter fauna:

In most areas the vegetation was thin and litter fall was low. Whatever litter
accumulates during the summer period gets degraded soon after the
commencement of rainy season. Since the climate is tropical, conditions are
suitable for rapid degradation of litter provided there is sufficient moisture. The
litter fauna includes termites (white ants), micro arthropods, earthworms,
crickets, cockroaches, beetles, millipedes, centipedes and nematodes. They are
responsible for break down of litter in to small, unrecognizable particles which
are further degraded and mineralized by the fungi and bacteria. The action and
activities of these litter fauna is mainly responsible for nutrient cycling along
with fungi and bacteria.

3.5.1.12: Agriculture activity, crops and production:

Agriculture is limited to a few small croplands. Many of the arable lands are on
lease for a limited period for extraction of ore. After the lease period, the lease
holder has to fill up the pits, level the land before it is handed owner to the
land owner. As the lease amount is really fabulous, farmers do not care for
cultivation. Thus cultivation is the last resort in the entire Sandur valley. There
are no irrigation facilities and the cultivation is dependent on rain and ground
water.

Maize and Sorghum are the two predominant crops in the area. Vegetables,
fruits and other crops are grown in very small plots. Beyond the hills, on outer

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side of the chain of hills, beyond the 10 Km buffer zone, rain fed agriculture the
main vocation of rural farmers. Due to deficit rainfall during the current rainy
season, there was very cultivation.

3.5.1.13: Ecologically sensitive areas:

There are no National Parks, Sanctuaries, Biosphere reserves, Tiger reserves,


Elephant reserves, and Community reserves within the 10 Km radius from the
boundary of the core area. The Swamimalai block of Bamboo forests of 8090 Ha
is the only thick forest in the entire area. It needs to be conserved.

3.5.1.14. Estimation of number and type of trees and shrubs which would be
cut during deforestation for mining activity and other facilities:

The proposed expansion of production of iron ore does not involve opening of
any new pit or mine. There is no expansion of active mine area. It is only
proposed to dig deeper and exhaust the mine in about half of the remaining
period. As such, there is no further or additional clearing of vegetation or
cutting of trees or shrubs. Just about 24 trees of Grewia tiliifolia and another
20 plants of Acacia catechu are likely to be lost when the helipad is developed
on hill top. Any over burden shall be used for back filling. There is an unbroken
rocky area of about 348 Ha within the total mine lease area of 608 Ha. This area
is ear marked for new installations so that the need for any cutting of any plant
does not arise. Thus the expansion involves least damage to the trees or shrubs
in the mining area.

3.5.2. ANTICIPATED IMPACTS:

3.5.2.1. Loss of forest resources, economically important plants, medicinal


plants, REET species due to deforestation:

As already stated under 3.5.1.14, there shall be no further deforestation apart


from what has been done. There shall only be reforestation and afforestation.
Further there are no REET species in the core area. Any forest is a valuable
resource and hence every attempt should be made to save them. The forest of
the core area is not considered as an economic resource but an ecological

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reserve. As the medicinal plant species occur in the core area as well as the
buffer area, some individuals may be lost in the core area but there shall be no
loss of any species.

3.5.2.2. Impact of mining on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity:

As state earlier, no further damage or destruction of any vegetation is envisaged


to expansion of production. On the other hand every effort shall be made to
restore the rehabilitate the closed mines. As there are no aquatic communities
of any significance, either in the core area or in the buffer area, the direct and
indirect impacts on aquatic flora and fauna may not be significant.

3.5.2.3. Impact of mining activity wildlife including Avi-fauna:

As the entire area has been extensively mined, the buffer zone of one mine
includes the core zone of another mine. There are a total of over a dozen big
hill top mines in addition to several small surface mines in the valley. The
mining activity is so intense, that enough damage must have taken place and no
additional threat is expected. But any further destruction of the thick
Swamimalai block of forests, which are about 9 Km away from the boundary of
the core area may spell doom to the wildlife.

3.5.2.4. Impact of mining on biodiversity, wildlife habitats, and migratory


corridors:

It is not a new mine. There is no increase in mining area. It is only proposed to


speedily extract the available mineral and close the mines.

Further, the metal is transported by a conveyer system and hence the


movement of heavy vehicles on the connecting roads shall be lower. As such,
the expansion programme is not going to create nay additional threat to
wildlife. Further, there are migratory corridors either in the core or buffer area.

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3.5.2.5. Assessment of likely damage to flora and fauna due to emissions,


noise, vibration, illumination, vehicular movement, waste water discharge,
change in land use pattern and anthropogenic impact:

NMDC is an ISO 14001 company. It is a public sector undertaking. There are


qualified and competent people to ensure that the mining impacts do not
exceed the threshold limits. Further it is an existing mine going for expansion
without any further damage to flora and vegetation. As such, no new and
serious problems are anticipated.

3.5.2.6. Impact of mining activity on fishery resources and agriculture


production:

As the area is not rich in fish resources, the mining activity may not have any
significant impact of fish wealth or fish resources. As stated earlier, even the
private croplands are leased for mineral exploration and exploitation. But the
DIOM mine is located on hill top far away from croplands and hence it is not
going to have any negative impact on agriculture.

3.5.2.7. Habitat fragmentation and blocking of migratory corridors due to


mining activities.

The tall hills themselves are both a barrier and a link capable of either
preventing or facilitating migrations depending upon the species under
consideration. Since, the mining activity does not involve creation of any barrier
such as a reservoir; it does not cause any physical fragmentation of the habitat.
But during the period of intense mining, functional fragmentation may take
place due to disturbances of different kinds. In view of the absence of any
migratory corridors and the REET species, the proposed expansion of the
existing mine may not be a barrier for migrations.

3.5.3: PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES.

NMDC is an ISO 14001 certified public sector undertaking. It cares for the
commitments made as far as the Environment Management is concerned. They
have in house technology, facilities and experience as well as commitment to

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minimize the impacts of mining. The work done already by the corporation is
summarized in Annexure IV.14. It is proposed to use the same plants as well as
the following shrubs and herbs for mine rehabilitation and eco-restoration.

Additional list of shrubs and herbs proposed to be used for slope


consolidation, mine rehabilitation and ecorestoration of abandoned mines.
Latin name Purpose & function
Agave americana Soil binder and leaf fibre. Stems are fermented to
produce alcohol
Muntingia calabura Umbrella shaped tree with edible fruits to attract
birds
Dodonaea viscosa Non shedding, drought resistant local herb
Jatropha curcas Biodiesel
Cassia auriculata Tannin and green manure.
Cymbopogon coloratus Lemon scented perennial grass as soil binder.
Cymbopogon speciosus Lemon scented perennial grass as soil binder.
Cymbopogon flexuosus Lemon scented perennial grass as soil binder.
Cymbopogon martini Lemon scented perennial grass as soil binder.
Vetiveria zizanoides Excellent soil binder and roots are coolants.
Vetex negundo Very common local medicinal shrub.
Cynodon dactylon Good spreading perennial soil binder.
Apluda mutica Palatable fodder and soil binder
Alloteropsis cimicina Palatable fodder and soil binder
Panicum turgidum Commonly growing fodder grass of the area.

3.5.3.1: Biodiversity Management Plan:

Though there were no rare or endemic or endangered or threatened (REET)


species in the core area the local flora and fauna are likely to be affected by
the mining activities. The existing natural ecosystems of the core and buffer
areas of the project need protection and further strengthening of conservation
efforts. In order to ensure proper implementation of conservation policies and
measures additional funding support has been provided to aid conservation
efforts in the area. Since most of these areas are administered by the State
Forest Department, it will be desirable to strengthen the existing set up of the
Forest and Wildlife Department of the State with clear mandate of ensuring

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safety and conservation of wildlife in the region. In order to ascertain that


there is enough interest and necessary funding support for the activities related
to management and conservation of terrestrial ecosystems and various critical
species, it is proposed to provide adequate funding support for activities of
conservation and management of critical and important species and ecosystems
in the region.

The specific issues that are required to be dealt with are described below:

i) Poaching has been one of the major causes for destruction of wildlife.
Poachers from the town and nearby places kill these animals either out of
fear( fear of snakes and carnivores), or to protect their crops (from wild
herbivores) or just for the sake of fun . The poaching is to be checked by
regular patrolling and deployment of anti poaching parties and
enforcement of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972.

ii) The areas close to the outer most radius of the buffer area are under
grazing pressure and it is one of the main limiting factors for the wildlife
because of following effects of grazing on wildlife:

a) Interference

b) Reduction in food availability for herbivores

c) Disease propagation

d) Reduction in area of wilderness needed for the wildlife.

3.5.3.3. Biodiversity Conservation

It is recommended that the Reserved Forests be declared as non-interference


areas for any human activities. No activities should be permitted either by
private or pubic agencies in these areas except for the rights of the local
population which must be maintained in a regulated manner. All the provisions
and guidelines of Ministry of Environment & Forests for the buffer zone of
Biosphere Reserves would be implemented by the State Forest Department. The
detailed nature of the regulatory framework and its implementation will be left

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to the State Government, however, an action plan for the preservation and
management of these protected areas is indicated here.

(i) The State Government through its Department of Forests & Wildlife shall
take up the work of Biodiversity Conservation for the critical areas with
the financial support of the power development agency. This work shall
be under the direct administrative control of the Principal Chief
Conservator of Forests / Chief Wildlife Warden.

(ii) A Committee under the Chairmanship of the Principal Chief Conservator


of Forests, Karnataka shall govern the conservation work. It shall include
representatives from State Forest Department (of the rank of Conservator
of Forests), renowned Ecologists / Conservationists, representatives of
local NGOs and a Central Government representative of Ministry of
Environment & Forests.

3.5.3.4: Guidelines of Conservation of Biota:

(i) Strict monitoring of labourers and associated workers for any activity
related to endangering the life or habitat of wild animals and birds.

(ii) Strict restrictions will be imposed on the workers at project sites to


ensure that they do not harvest any produce from the natural forests and
cause any danger or harm to the animals and birds in wild.

(iii) Minimum levels of noise during construction activities will be maintained


and no activity will be carried out at night where the project site is in the
close vicinity of animal / bird habitats or villages located in the vicinity.

(iv) The fuel wood to the laborers will be provided from plantations meant for
the purpose and / or the provision has been made for the supply of the
free subsidized kerosene / LPG from the depots being set up for this
purpose to avoid forest degradation and animal habitats.

(v) The interference of human population would be kept to the minimum and
it would be ensured that the contractors do not set up labor colonies in
the vicinity of forests and wilderness areas.

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(vi) A mix of incentives for protection of wildlife and their habitats and strict
regulatory framework will be put in place to implement the conservation
effort.

(vii) The project authorities will be bound by the rules and regulations of the
Wildlife Protection Acts or any such agency of the State, which may exists
will be promulgated from time to time for the preservation of habitats
protection of wild animals.

3.5.3.5: Noise Mitigation and Management

The maximum noise levels allowed in human silence zones are 10 dB in addition
to the baseline noise. Humans can tolerate noise levels up to 60-65 dB(A)
without any health damages. Higher noise levels in the range of 100 dB and
above are reported to cause high blood pressures, risk of heart attacks, and
disturbance in sleep, annoyance and anxiety in humans. However, studies
indicating harmful effect high noise levels on wild animals and birds in
wilderness areas are very few. Given the fact that during blasting, the noise
levels at a distance of 7 m might vary from 120to 200 dB at a given time, it is
presumed that such high noise levels would be serious health hazard for
wildlife. Even though project activities concentrated in the areas where the
forests are in degraded condition, the baseline noise levels are low. As
vegetation is sparse, it will not act as a potential noise absorber. Therefore, it is
to be ensured that the noise levels in no case go above 100-150 dB in the
project area. One of the measures that are proposed to be adopted is that the
blasting should be avoided during nights, early mornings and late afternoons,
which are the feeding times of most of the fauna. Blasting will be restored to
only if extremely necessary. For this strict blasting regime i.e., controlled
blasting under constant and strict surveillance is to be followed.

Some of the suggested methodologies for reduction and mitigation of noise so as


to cause as little disturbance to the animals as possible are given below:

(i) Only well maintained / new equipment that produce lesser noise than old
and worn out one would be installed at the work sites.

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(ii) The best way to control the noise is at source. Certain equipment that
needs to be placed permanently at one place like generators, etc. would
be housed in some enclosed structures to cut off the noise.

(iii) The heavy equipments like rotating or impacting machines will be based
anti-vibration mountings.

(iv) Wherever combustion engines are required, they will be fitted with
silencers.

(v) The traffic (Trucks, etc.) used by the project works will be managed to
produce a smooth flow instead of a noise producing stop and start flow.
Necessary training / orientation will be provided to the traffic operators
/ drivers. Sounding of loud horns, etc. in the forested areas will be
banned.

(vi) While clearing the land of vegetation for any project work, the project
authorities will ensure that the work area has sufficient layers of tree
cover around it. It will act as an effective noise absorber. It will be better
not to have bigger trees lopped or cut around the periphery of the life.
The tree layer will act as buffer zone and these are known to cut off
noise by about 3-12 dB at a site depending upon the density of
vegetation. These measures will be planned in advance and well before
starting operation at any site.

(vii) The project authorities will monitor the noise at critical sites from time
to time.

Wildlife Management Plan of NMDC

The following ameliorative measures shall be adopted by NMDC for proper wild
life management.

• Driver awareness on this road shall be emphasized.

• Road underpasses shall be provided if need arises.

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• Adequate green belts shall be created around all infrastructures.

• Adopting proper blasting procedures as mentioned in the above text for


the purpose of reducing ground vibrations and fly rock.

• Birds are seen to be attracted by the Oxidation pond and the tailing pond
of Donimalai project. The Oxidation pond has been covered by earthen
mounds and fencing for restricting animal entry.

• Already there is a tailing dam for receiving slimes from the screening
plant.

• Awareness shall be created in the project against wildlife poaching.

3.5.3.6: Activities and Development works to be undertaken

i) Augmentation of water supply facilities for bunds, check dams, wells and
for transportation of water, pumping of water, etc.

ii) Habitat improvement by way of plantation of trees, fodder plant species,


fire protection measures, prevention of soil erosion and denudation of
slopes removal of weedy plant species.

Plantation of indigenous plant species is to be done. To fulfill the


requirement of fruits, timber and fuel wood, etc. In addition to
providing tree cover degraded and bare slopes.

Pasture improvement in order to increase the fodder and forage


availability the area.

Horticulture plantation for rising of fruit bearing trees.

Soil and moisture conservation (SMC) works including check dams, sunken
gullies, percolation tanks, Micro and macro trenches across the slopes,
rock fill check dams etc.

To create the fire protection facility by the purchase of fire fighting


equipment like gloves, helmets, aprons, shovels, pick axes, beaters,
extinguishers chain saw, etc.

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iii) For the improvement of vigilance and measures to check poaching,


boundary demarcation, wireless and other equipment is required. In
addition provision for rewards for informers for control of poaching and
illegal trade, check posts and watch towers.

* Anti-poaching measures to improve vigilance for anti-poaching and better


protection and enforcement by construction of anti-grazing, anti-
poaching – cum – check post.

* Under the reward for informers programme it is proposed to engage local


youth who are very well acquainted with the area and are resourceful in
gathering the information for anti-poaching and better vigilance on daily
wage basis.

* The construction of shelter sheds- cum-watch towers for effective


protection vigilance.

* The construction bridges for more effective and meaningful patrolling by


the forest staff.

* The construction of inspection paths (for effective patrolling and


protection). This activity is needed for effective control and to reach out
inaccessible areas.

* The construction of office complex would be essential to monitor all the


activities.

* The purchase of wireless and other equipment especially the modern


communication facilities to improve the vigilance and anti-poaching
activities.

* In order to improve network and vigilance it is required to procure


equipment like V-Sat and to document and develop a database IT
infrastructure like laptops, LCD projectors, altimeters, GPS, binoculars,
video as well as digital still cameras are essential.

* Improvement of vigilance by procurement of field vehicle.

iv) Maintenance and improvement of existing infrastructure like buildings,


bridges, watch towers, inspection paths.

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III-93

v) Publicity awareness and hoardings, conducting training camps, research


documents, pamphlets, brochures, hoardings, etc.

The main activity for the implementation of the conservation and


management plan would be to monitor and enforce regulatory provisions in
the existing conservation areas in the vicinity of project and ensure that
the natural ecosystem structure and functions are not impaired or
subjected to any threat.

The proposed conservation efforts will endeavor to conduct works related


to documentation of the existing biological diversity in the area and publish
checklists of flora and fauna and accounts of ecology and biodiversity from
time to time. This effort would be supplemented by detailed surveys on
flora and fauna by the competent institutions / agencies with the approval
and with funding support of the project authorities.

The areas rich in medicinal plants also require special efforts for their
management. However, in past uninhibited exploitation of medicinal plants
has led to depletion of this valuable resource. Therefore, in order to augment
natural stock of medicinal plants in the forests, it is proposed to take up
planting of medicinally important plants in the project catchment area.

3.6 Socio-economic and Cultural Environment

Demographic Profile

Demographic scenario includes the village-wise population, sex, literacy,


minorities and other developmental sectors like SC/ST, etc. Demographic details
collected for the villages in the study area are given in Table 3.20. The total
population of the study area as per the census 2001 updated to 2006 is 80006,
out of which 43788 is the rural population. The study area is more thickly
populated than the Bellary district and Sandur taluk, on an average. The
average household size is 5 to 6. The population growth rate from 1991 to 2001
is 12% per decade, which is less than the district average. Male to female ratio
in the study area was found to be 1:0.94. The population of rural and urban area
has been worked to be 43788 and 36218 respectively in 2006.

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III-94

Literacy level in the study region is greater than that of Sandur Taluk. It is
appreciable that the female literacy in the study region has almost equalled to
that of the district average. The literacy percentage of Donimalai Township is
almost double to that of the buffer zone.

The scheduled caste and tribe population in Bellary district is 19% and 9%
respectively. The SC&ST population in Sandur taluk is 18% and 14% respectively.
The figures recorded in the study area as per 2001 census for the above
developmental sectors are 18% and 20% respectively. The statistics clearly state
that the scheduled tribe population is predominantly higher in the Sandur valley
including the study area, while the scheduled caste population are almost the
same throughout the district. The demographic details are given in Table…

Occupational structure

In Sandur taluk, the main workers basically comprise of cultivators and


agricultural labourers to about 32% of the total population. The next occupation
prevalent in the region is employment (direct / indirect) in the mining and
allied activities and accounts to 5% of the total population.

In the study area, the total main workers are about 35% of the total population.
Of the main workers category, about 75% work in the mining and allied activity
area. In contrast to the total picture in the Sandur taluk and Bellary district as a
whole, cultivators and agricultural labourers form only a meagre 1% of the total
population. Thus the mining industry forms the backbone for the livelihood of
the population in the study area.

Marginal workers represent about 6% of the total population in and around


Donimalai project. Even these people get temporary jobs in the mining industry
only. Out of the total mine workers, 57% work in NMDC mines. It is worth to
note that 1/3rd of the total working population comprise of females. Thus, the
existence of NMDC in the area has acquired significant dimensions in the socio-
economic development of the local population.

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III-95

Table - 3.20 Demographic profiles of the villages in Core and Buffer zones

No. of Households No. of Population Literacy rate


S.No. Name of village
SC ST Others Total SC ST Others Total Male Female
1 Swamihalli 37 79 127 243 184 393 635 1212 365 203
2 Krishnanagar 48 3 781 832 240 14 3906 4160 851 465
3 Muraripur 3 218 6 227 16 1091 31 1138 280 135
4 Taranagar 134 347 594 1075 672 1737 2968 5377 1647 947
5 Bhujanganagar 271 48 615 934 1357 240 3075 4672 1589 951
6 Narasingapur 38 185 123 346 192 925 616 1733 624 365
7 Ranjitpura 59 5 111 175 293 26 555 874 289 187
8 Nandihalli 29 25 303 357 146 127 1516 1789 592 389
9 Devagiri 140 107 398 645 699 537 1988 3224 1195 808
10 Kodalu 84 10 230 408 418 48 1150 1616 401 181
11 Lakshmipur 44 25 195 264 218 125 973 1316 371 254
12 Narsapur 27 135 21 183 135 674 88 897 162 88
13 Martala 47 - - 47 213 - - 213 41 24
14 Lingadahalli 1 127 99 227 5 636 496 1137 241 120
15 Ubbalagundi 52 103 101 256 262 515 503 1280 340 191
16 Malapur 11 161 13 185 53 806 64 923 147 67
17 Hamunagudda - 42 175 217 - 211 874 1085 301 159
18 Ganglapur 19 25 90 134 97 126 449 672 144 44
19 Rajapur 46 157 117 320 277 942 703 1922 437 237
20 Mallapura 1 70 16 87 2 352 71 425 93 53
21 Donimalai Township 239 142 930 1311 1194 709 4651 6554 2848 2319
22 Sandur 549 723 331 1603 3295 4335 19984 27614 9975 6738
23 Appayanhalli 182 176 126 484 1090 1056 629 2775 914 492
24 Devagiri Kammattur 348 - - 348 2089 - - 2089 527 196
25 Vyasapura 77 - - 77 461 - - 461 76 31
26 Maliyamma gudda 8 18 21 47 - 39 88 127 47 36
27 Naulatti 6 7 22 35 25 36 131 192 69 55
Total 2500 2938 5545 11067 13633 15700 46144 75477 24566 15735

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The total population in Donimalai Township is about 6554 (2001 census). Out of
which mining and quarrying workers are about 1214. The number of households
is around 1507. The occupational structure of Donimalai Township is given
below.
Dependency ratio in this developing part of Bellary district is still alarming. The
total rural population is 43788 while the total workers population is 20,002
(in 2006). Therefore, the dependency ratio comes to 1:2.2.

Occupational Structure of the Donimalai Township (NMDC)


Sl.
Heads Total
No.
1. Area in Square Kilometers 1.28
2. No. of Occupied Residential Houses 1507
Male Female Total
3. Total Population 3295 3184 6379
4. Scheduled Castes 665 648 1313
5. Scheduled Tribes 244 218 462
6. Literates 2584 2010 4594
7. Total Main Workers (I to IX) 1542 130 1672
8. Cultivators (I) 7 1 8
9. Agricultural Labourers (II) 9 5 14
10. Livestock, Forestry, Fishing, Hunting 0 1 1
11. Mining and Quarrying (IV) 1170 44 1214
Manufacturing, Processing, Servicing and
12. 2 0 2
Repairs in household industries (Vb)
Manufacturing, Processing, Servicing and
13. 9 0 9
Repairs in other than household industries (Vb)
14. Construction (VI) 68 35 103

15. Trade and Commerce (VII) 63 5 68

16. Transport, Storage and Communication (VIII) 42 8 50

17. Other Services (IX) 164 108 272

18. Marginal Workers 126 59 185

19. Non –Workers 1696 2946 4642


Source: Census 2001

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III-97

The occupation of population and work forces of buffer zone are given in Table
3.21.
Economic structure
There are about 14,204 households in the 10 kms study region around the DIOM
project. About 300 households have been surveyed for assessing the income
classification data. Not surprisingly, the income groups less than Rs.3,600 pa
was found less than 1%. It is worth to mention that the income group greater
than 12,000 pa was observed to be highest and also comprise of approximately
half of the total population in the study region.

Out of the cultivable land in Sandur taluk, only 628Ha fall into irrigated
category. Of this, 26% of them were funded by the Government. Food grains
constitute 85% of the cultivated land. Rabi crop is sown only on 6% of the land
indicating the present practices of cultivating single crop in a year. Major crops
grown include Jawar, Onion, Maize, Groundnut, Ragi and Sunflower. The yield
per hectare indicates the soil of low to medium nutrients and poor fertilising
habits.

Livestock in general, suffers from poor feeding and ill breeding. Modern
veterinary services are available only at Sandur and Bhujanganagar.

Sample survey conducted in the area reveals that the inhabitants are partially
dependent on forests for fuel and fodder. Use of LPG / Kerosene as medium of
cooking is gaining importance in the region.

As explained earlier, the presence of Donimalai Iron ore project of NMDC


commissioned in the year 1977 has immensely developed the life style and
culture of the local population.

In Sandur taluk, out of 42,350 ha of cultivated land, only 3% (Table – 4.11)


comes under Government funded irrigation system. In addition to this, 8% of
land comes under private irrigational practices. Food grains constitute about
85% of the total crop.

In most of the area of the study region, only one crop per year is practiced i.e.
in the Kharif season. About 6% of lands are cultivated for Rabi crop while hardly
2% of land cultivated for summer season also.

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III-98

The study area does not fall under any irrigation schemes of the Tungabhadra
dam. However Narihalla dam/ reservoir at Taranagar is a source for irrigation in
the downstream of dam.

The village wise Landuse details are given in Table 3.22.

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III-99

Table 3.21 - Occupation of Population and Work Forces of the Buffer Zones

Main activity / Occupation of households of


Worker`s Classification
the village
Non

House holds

Workers (Male)

Non – Workers
-

agriculture.
Agriculture

Allied agri.
Agr. Labor

(Fe-male)

(Fe-male)
Marginal

Marginal
Business

Workers

Workers

Workers
S.No. Name of village Wor

activity
Service

(Male)

(Male)
Labor
Non-
kers
(Fe
mal
e)
1 Swamihalli 242 68 12 7 97 12 46 317 194 18 40 274 369
2 Krishnanagar 693 194 35 21 277 35 132 1105 353 75 140 977 1510
3 Muraripur 136 38 7 4 54 7 26 320 314 9 14 258 223
4 Taranagar 976 273 49 29 390 49 186 1429 745 74 163 1244 1722
5 Bhujanganagar 867 243 43 26 347 43 164 1259 694 81 176 1046 1416
6 Narasingapur 346 97 17 10 138 17 66 465 153 26 62 428 599
7 Ranjitpura 141 39 7 4 56 7 27 218 104 6 34 219 293
8 Nandihalli 346 97 17 10 138 17 66 356 61 206 18 48 32
9 Devagiri 615 172 31 18 246 31 117 710 141 37 116 984 1326
10 Kodalu 309 87 15 9 124 15 58 421 339 39 96 360 361
11 Lakshmipur 288 81 14 9 115 14 54 430 198 246 62 86 108
12 Narsapur 163 46 8 5 65 8 31 244 219 55 40 183 174
13 Martala 39 11 2 1 16 2 7 43 39 15 15 49 52
14 Lingadahalli 202 57 10 6 81 10 38 339 241 - 3 232 322
15 Ubbalagundi 240 67 12 7 96 12 46 322 153 40 215 271 279
16 Malapur 150 42 8 5 60 8 29 214 95 64 179 177 194
17 Hamunagudda 204 57 10 6 82 10 39 303 219 176 34 81 172
18 Ganglapur 110 31 6 3 44 6 21 187 109 19 86 137 134
19 Rajapur 348 97 17 10 139 17 67 437 50 96 474 439 426

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Main activity / Occupation of households of


Worker`s Classification
the village
Non

House holds

Workers (Male)

Non – Workers
-

agriculture.
Agriculture

Allied agri.
Agr. Labor

(Fe-male)

(Fe-male)
Marginal

Marginal
Business

Workers

Workers

Workers
S.No. Name of village Wor

activity
Service

(Male)

(Male)
Labor
Non-
kers
(Fe
mal
e)
20 Mallapura 73 20 4 2 29 4 14 105 5 9 111 105 90
21 Donimalai 1507 1553 174 126 59 1696 2946
Township 422 75 45 603 75 286
22 Sandur 5257 26 15 7223 1684 252 383 6964 1110
1472 3 8 2103 263 999 8
23 Appayanhalli 529 148 26 16 212 26 101 759 518 2 78 641 777
24 Devagiri 294 448 170 141 419 487 424
Kammattur 82 15 9 118 15 56
25 Vyasapura 61 17 3 2 24 3 12 119 101 - - 116 125
26 Maliyamma 27 34 17 1 24 21 30
gudda 8 1 1 11 1 5
27 Naulatti 41 11 2 1 16 2 8 41 10 21 20 41 59

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Table 3.22 - Land use and cropping Pattern of the core and Buffer Zones

Land-Use Pattern (in Hectares) Waste Land Land used for


Agriculture land (Hectares) Public Utilities
S. Home such as schools,
Name of village stead Grazing
No. Total area Forests Non- Current temples, roads,
area Irrigated Lands Fallow ponds,
irrigated Fallow
monuments etc.,
1 Swamihalli 568.29 321.33 - 85.48 161.49 - - - -
2 Krishnanagar 583.44 40.86 - 32.38 454.38 - - - 0.88
3 Muraripur 1251.78 20.28 - 29.55 545.99 - 651.97 - -
4 Taranagar 2015.23 - - 148 312.53 742.28 613.80 - -
5 Bhujanganagar 625.94 78.50 -- 55.04 489.34 - - - 1.12
6 Narasingapur 137.60 66.20 - - 120.28 - - - 0.22
7 Ranjitpura 209.69 47.09 - - 120.28 - - - 0.28
8 Nandihalli 130.76 63.60 - - 54.60 10.12 6.68 - -
9 Devagiri 583.63 278.41 - - 123.10 121.2 - - 1.44
10 Kodalu 325.24 - - 0.48 162.49 - 161.07 - -
11 Laxmipur - - -- - - - - - -
12 Narsapur 137.60 66.20 - - 54.60 - - -
13 Martala 423.21 - - - 190.88 - 232.33 - -
14 Lingadahalli 902.0 400.45 - - 386.14 51.24 64.17 - -
15 Ubbalagundi 1396.21 441.93 - 2.02 704.18 - - - 3.11
16 Malapur 423.21 - - - 190.88 - 232.33 - -
17 Hamunagudda 2387.65 1331.35 - - 763.24 5.40 282.56 - -
18 Gangalapur 423.21 - - - 190.88 - 232.33 - -
19 Rajapur 702.41 - - - 524.49 - - 1.04
20 Mallapura 423.21 - - - 190.88 - 232.33 - -
21 Donimalai 61.83 10.72 - - 40.81 - 10.30 - -
Township

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Land-Use Pattern (in Hectares) Waste Land Land used for


Agriculture land (Hectares) Public Utilities
S. Home such as schools,
Name of village stead Grazing
No. Total area Forests Non- Current temples, roads,
area Irrigated Lands Fallow ponds,
irrigated Fallow
monuments etc.,
22 Sandur - - - - - - - -
23 Appayanhalli 97.60 56.20 - - 44.60 - 6.80 - -
24 Devagiri 583.63 278.41 - - 123.10 101.81 80.94 - -
Kammattur
25 Vyasapura 423.21 - - - 190.88 - 231.33 - -
26 Maliyamma gudda 583.44 40.86 - 32.88 450.38 43.27 12.55 - -
27 Naulatti 91.83 20.72 - - 50.81 - 20.30 - -

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Education
Quality of education beginning with nursery level to various grades viz., lower
secondary, higher secondary level are provided to the students coming from the
villages apart from the local township students. School uniform, textbooks, etc.
are allowed to be purchased by the NMDC employees by giving them
reimbursement of Rs. 2,250 for each child. Students from surrounding villages
are provided bus facility by NMDC to attend schools / colleges / polytechnics
with free of charge. There are two schools being run in the project township,
one is Central school and the other is Govt. high school, both being funded by
this project. During the year, 1998-99, construction of additional classrooms for
Narsapura Primary School was undertaken.

The educational facilities available in the study area are evenly distributed. As
per 2001 census, 87% of the villages have primary school out of 27 inhabitated
villages and 33% of the villages have middle school and 4% villages have high
school.

There is a private polytechnic (Sandur Polytechnic) at Yeshwant Nagar, a


residential college (Sandur Residential College) at Sandur, which provide higher
education. There is a P.G. Center (The Gulbarga University Post Graduate
Center) at Krishna Devarayanagar (Nandihalli) near Laxmipura, for higher
studies. It was founded in the year 1975 by the Karnataka University, Dharwar
and afterwards it became an independent university, namely Gulbarga
University.

Adequate educational facilities are available at NMDC, Donimalai Township, 51%


of the total students are girls, which shows that the awareness of educating the
girl child is satisfactory. 87% of the total students constitute NMDC employee’s
children while 13% constitute children of the locals. The existing educational
facilities in the study region are quite satisfactory in the Indian context and
presented in Table 3.23.

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III-104

Table 3.23 - Educational Facilities and CBO`s within the study area

Adult
Middle Training
Sr.Sec school College Literatacy CBO`s
school School
Centre
Primary
S.No Name of village Other
school
commu
SHG`s
nity
org.
1 Swamihalli 1 1 - - - - - -
2 Krishnanagar 2 1 (-5 km) - - - - -
3 Muraripur 2 (-5 km) - - - - -
4 Taranagar 1 1 1 - - - - -
5 Bhujanganagar 2 1 1 - - 2 - -
6 Narasingapur 1 1 (-5 km) - - - - -
7 Ranjitpura 1 1 (-5 km) - - - - -
8 Nandihalli 1 1 (-5 km) - - - - -
9 Devagiri 2 1 1 - - - - -
10 Kodalu 1 1 (-5 km) - - - - -
11 Laxmipur 1 1 (-5 km) - - - - -
12 Narsapur 1 1 (-5 km) - - - - -

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Adult
Middle Training
Sr.Sec school College Literatacy CBO`s
school School
Centre
Primary
S.No Name of village Other
school
commu
SHG`s
nity
org.
13 Martala 1 - - - - -
14 Lingadahalli 1 1 - - - - -
15 Ubbalagundi 2 - - - - -
16 Malapur 1 1 - - - - -
17 Hamunagudda 1 1 - - - - -
18 Gangalapur 1 - - - - -
19 Rajapur 1 - - - - -
20 Mallapura 2 1 - - - - -
21 Donimalai 2 3 1 - - - - -
Township
22 Sandur 1 1 1 1 - - - -
23 Appayanhalli 2 1 (-5 km) - - - - -
24 Devagiri 1 1 - - - - -
Kammattur

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Adult
Middle Training
Sr.Sec school College Literatacy CBO`s
school School
Centre
Primary
S.No Name of village Other
school
commu
SHG`s
nity
org.
25 Vyasapura - - - - - -
26 Maliyamma -
- - - - -
gudda
27 Naulatti 1 1 1 - - - - -

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Medical Facilities
As per the sample survey conducted during 2003, 11% of the villages / towns
have hospital (H) and 8% of the villages / towns have Dispensary (D). 8% of the
villages / towns have Veterinary Hospitals (VH). There were three dispensaries
in the study area in 1981. By 1997, the dispensary at Devagiri has become a
hospital. There are two more hospitals, one at Yeshwant Nagar and one at
Sandur, both in the study area. Apart from this NMDC is also maintaining a fully
equipped 50 bedded hospital at Donimalai Township for its employees with nine
doctors & specialists visit every week from the nearby medical college. This
facility has been made accessible to local residents of nearby villages. There are
two veterinary hospitals in the study area one at Sandur, the other at
Bhujanganagar. There is an improvement in medical facilities from 1981 to
1997. Apart from this, some villages also have registered medical practitioners
(RMP). For the benefit of villagers, a dispensary has been opened at Narsapur
and medical facilities are being extended with the help of Project hospital
doctors and medicines are provided free of cost. Regular spraying is undertaken
for Malaria control. For eradication of parthenium, biological methods of weed
control are adopted. Regular removal of solid waste from the township is
undertaken. The medical facilities availability in the study area is presented in
Table 3.24.

Family Planning
Family planning camps are regularly organized in the project hospital and wide
publicity is given in the surrounding villages and township. Free diet, medical
care and indoor hospitalisation facilities are provided to the patients. Incentives
in cash and also gift articles are distributed to the persons undergoing
sterilization operations.

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Table 3.24 - Medical Facilities within the study area

OT
ME MC PH FW
M H PH TB N H.
S.No DI W CW S S RM SM CH
Name of village HO CN CN CL HO CN
. FA CN C CN CN P P C
ME TR TR N ME TR
C TR TR. TR
S.
1 Swamihalli - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2 Krishnanagar - - - - - - P - - - - - - -
3 Muraripur - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
4 Taranagar - - - - - P - - - - - - - -
5 Bhujanganagar - - - - - - P - - - - - - -
6 Narasingapur - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
7 Ranjitpura - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
8 Nandihalli - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 Devagiri - - - - - - P - - - - - - -
10 Kodalu - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 Laxmipur - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
12 Narsapur - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 Martala - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
14 Lingadahalli - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 Ubbalagundi - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
16 Malapur - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 Hamunagudda - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
18 Gangalapur - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 Rajapur - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
20 Mallapura - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 Donimalai Township P P P P P P P P P P P P P P
22 Sandur - - - - P P P - - - - - - -
23 Appayanhalli - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
24 Devagiri Kammattur - - - - - P P - - - - - - -

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III-109

OT
ME MC PH FW
M H PH TB N H.
S.No DI W CW S S RM SM CH
Name of village HO CN CN CL HO CN
. FA CN C CN CN P P C
ME TR TR N ME TR
C TR TR. TR
S.
25 Vyasapura - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
26 Maliyamma gudda - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 Naulatti - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
MEDI FAC : Medical Facilities FWC CNTR : Family Welfare Centre
MCW CNTR : Maternity & Child Care Centre TB CLN : TB Clinic
M HOME : Maternity Home N HOME : Nursing Home
CWC : Child Welfare Centre RMP : Registered Medical Practitioners
H CNTR : Health Centre SMP : Subsidized Medical Practitioners
PH CNTR : Primary Health Centre CHC : Community Hall Centre
PHC CNTR : Primary Health Sub Centre Oth CNTR : Other Centre

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Infrastructure facilities available in study area


Drinking Water
The dug wells, hand pumps and reservoir are the various sources of water in the
study area. All the villages were dependant upon dug wells to fulfill their water
needs and 26% of the villages were dependent upon hand pump and dug wells,
15% on Borewells and 29% on surface water sources.

The percentage of the villages depending upon dug wells for drinking water
reduced from 100% to 54% due to the availability of improved drinking water
facilities. Use of tap water supply increased tremendously from 25% to 88% of
the villages. Similarly, access to water from bore well and hand pumps also
increased to 81% and 85% of the villages respectively. Drinking water facilities in
the study area are satisfactory, which is definitely due to coming up of the
mines both in public and private sectors.

Electricity
Electricity for all purposes is available to 96% of the villages out of 27 inhabited
villages. Only in one village (Jodikashinayakanhalli) electricity is used for other
purposes like drinking, agricultural pump sets, etc.

Transport and Communication


Due to terrain features, transport is generally difficult in the area. The mining
industry with co-operation from Karanataka Public Works Department, Zilla
Parishad and Panchayat Raj department has laid various types of metal roads in
the study area, which has improved the human & material communication
systems. Some of the public roads even pass within the mining lease areas in
proximity to the direct excavation areas. In 1981, 69% of the villagers had bus
facilities. This figure has increased to 84.6% and 89% in 1997 and 2001
respectively. The most common modes of travel are cycle, motorcycle and bus.
Communication is dependent upon road in the absence of railways. The network
of roads is satisfactory in the study area. Earlier 44% of the villages had pucca
roads and 48% had kuchcha roads. At present, 85% of the villages have pucca
roads and 15% have kuchcha roads.

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III-111

Bus facilities for transportation are made available to all the NMDC employees
for attending to their work either from the project township or from the
surrounding villages of Mudukulapenta, Taranagar, Bhujanganagar & Sandur. Bus
facilities have also been provided for marketing at Sandur; so much so that on
weekly days of rest, i.e., Sundays there are about 12 trips to Sandur market
from Donimalai township.

Housing
All the employees of the project have been provided with suitable housing facilities
in the project. Those coming from their own houses from the nearby villages are
provided house rent allowance. A total number of 1507 quarters have been
constructed for housing the employees of various categories at Donimalai
Township.

Post and Telegraph


The no. of villages bestowed with Post & Telegraph facilities has increased from
44% in 1981 to 69% in 2001. There has been a good improvement with about 12%
of villages using a PCO facility. The no. of villages connected by telephone lines
has increased from 15% to 24%.

Marketing Facilities
The nearest important market is Sandur. Smaller markets are also available in
Donimalai, Yeshwant Nagar, etc. Most of the villages have a co-operative society
and a fair price shop.11% of the villages have a market and 58% of the villages
have a co-operative society. A co-operative society was established in 1977,
which is functioning very well with its branch at South block, catering to the
needs of the local community and the surrounding villages.

Banking Facilities
There is a branch of Canara Bank, branch of State Bank of Mysore and a Co-
operative Bank at Sandur. There are also branches of Canara Bank and State
Bank of Mysore for NMDC employees at Donimalai. This facility has bee made
available to local residents of the surrounding areas.
Town Planning and Infrastructural Development
A well laid out township has been constructed at Donimalai with all amenities
like network of roads, houses, gardens, parks, shopping areas, banks, post

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office, recreation clubs, hospital, guest house, places of worship for Hindu,
Christians, Muslims population, auditorium, multipurpose community halls at
Narsapur and Bhujanganagar. Two more multipurpose halls are proposed to be
constructed in the surrounding villages of Mudukulapenta and Ubbalagundi.

Other Facilities
The opening of DIOM and KIOM has raised the development level of the
settlement facilities which otherwise would not have come up, exist and are
being utilized by the employees of NMDC (DIOM & KIOM) as well as the local
residents.

A community centre has been provided where free 35 mm feature films shows
are organized once in a week. Sometimes cultural programmes (dance & drama)
are organized on festive occasions. The mine employees and the local
residential attend all these functions. NMDC has provided cable TV facilities to
its employees at their residences and they can view programmes of various
channels. Facilities have been provided for playing indoor and outdoor games.
Donimalai Township has a swimming pool, park, guesthouse, community hall,
officers club, play grounds, etc.

In a nutshell, the developmental activities of the region prior and after entry of
NMDC are as follows:

Prior to 1981, no village other than Sandur, Donimalai and Devagiri were having
hospitals. There is a 30% increase in the total number of schools. Medical
facilities have been extended to the local population by NMDC free of cost,
which had secured a place in the aorta of the hearts of the natives. There has
been an unanticipated acceleration in the construction of ordinary to speciality
hospitals.

Specialised courses like M.Tech. Computer science and M.Sc. have been offered.
Educational facilities to the children have been extended to the natives. Girls
dominate boys in the educational system.

Motivation has been developed in the girl students, basically due to the
developing culture of the region. There is a four-fold increase in the number of
users of treated water and from borewells. Electricity usage for all purposes has

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increased to 96%. Eight Kuchcha roads have been made pucca roads thereby
increasing the number of bus stops by four units. 30% of the villages are having
post office facility and 24% possess telephone facility.

Area of Historical & Social Importance

As mentioned earlier in the preamble, the study region has a glorious past and
thus, emphasise on good industrial practices. The major area of importance
include:
a) Kumaraswamy Temple
The divine abode of Lord Kartikeshwar. Well respected by all local people and
have no complaints of any mining activity. It is at a distance of 10 km from
Donimalai Township.
b) Sandur Fort
This fort is located in Sandur township proper and is at a distance of 9 km from
Donimalai Iron Ore Mine.
c) Harishankar Temple
It is on the road Sandur – Kumaraswamy temple and is at a distance of about
7.5 km from DIOM.

Table 3.25 shows the Infrastructure facilities available in the study area.

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Table 3.25 - Other Infrastructure facilities within the study area

S.No DW
Name of village Tp W T TW HP R C L S O PO TO PT P B RS NW CB CoB
. F
1 Swamihalli Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No
2 Krishnanagar Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No
3 Muraripur Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No
4 Taranagar Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No
5 Bhujanganagar Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No
6 Narasingapur Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No
7 Ranjitpura Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No
8 Nandihalli Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No
9 Devagiri Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No
10 Kodalu Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No
11 Laxmipur Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No
12 Narsapur Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No
13 Martala Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No
14 Lingadahalli Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No
15 Ubbalagundi Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No
16 Malapur Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No
17 Hamunagudda Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No
18 Gangalapur Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No
19 Rajapur Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No
20 Mallapura Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No

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21 Donimalai Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No


No No No Yes Yes
Township
22 Sandur Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
23 Appayanhalli Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No
24 Devagiri Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No
No No No No No
Kammattur
25 Vyasapura Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No
26 Maliyamma Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No No No No
No No No No No
gudda
27 Naulatti Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No

DWF : Drinking Water Facility C : Canal P : Phone


Tp : Tap L : Lake B : Bus
W : Well S : Spring RS : Railway Service
T : Tank O : Others NW : Navigable Waterways
TW : Tube Well PO : Post Office CB : Commercial Bank
HP : Hand Pump TO : Telegraph Office CoB : Co-operative Bank
R : River PT : Post & Telegraph Offices

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3.6.2 Anticipated Impacts


Impact on Socio-economic environment
Operation of mining and associated activities will result in some positive soico-
economic impacts of direct and indirect in nature.
Impact on human settlements
The project has no impact on significant human settlement
Population growth
The project will also have no significant on population growth due to
immigration of people fro employment
Impact on literacy and educational facilities
The literacy level of the project area (buffer zone) is likely to increase as there
will be in flux of many educated people taking up jobs in the mining. Life style
may change
Impact on Civic amentities
Network of roads, telephone facilities, educational facilities and health cre
facilities may be improved due to the project. A higher demand for food
facilities may appear in buffer zone.
Impact on environment
About 1200 people get employed directly due to the project. Allied activities of
the mining activities indirectly generate employment a tune of about another
3000-4000 people.
Impact on economic aspects
Per capita income may likely increase slightly due to direct and indirect
employment and associated trading activities.
Impact on Industrial establishments
Small scale industries and small business centres may likely come up in the
vicinity of the project.

3.6.3 Proposed Mitigation measures


Socio – economic development
Community Development works undertaken by DIOM
Donimalai Iron Ore Mine, having regards to the social needs to provide ways and
means to enrich the quality of life in the rural areas has taken up various

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developmental measures under the banner “Community Development”. The


project has identified nine villages surrounding Donimalai Iron Ore Mine for
taking of various Community development works. A committee constituted by
the project head, identifies important works that a particular village needs in
consultations with the Village Panchayat and District officials. The works so
decided; is taken-up by the project and a constant feedback is given to the
District officials from time to time. Apart from this, other development works
either at taluk or at District level are also undertaken by the project. Head of
the Project directly interacts with the local authorities and monitors the
progress of the works periodically.

Various community development works undertaken by the project are:

1. Construction of multi-purpose community halls at


a. Bhujanganagar Village
b. Narasingapura Village
c. Ubbalagandi Village
d. Taranagar village
2. Construction of Anganvadi School and Rangamandira at Vittal nagar Village
3. Construction of additional classroom at Narasingapura village
4. Construction of Mahila Samaj & Library Hall Bldg at Bhujanganagar village
5. Construction of compound wall to kalyana mandapam, toilet for women and
drainage at Bus Stop at Narasingapura village
6. Construction of protection wall to Nallah, WBM and BT road near bus stand
of Ranjitpura village to protect run of wash outs during monsoon.
7. Construction of protection wall to avoid inundation of rainwater and laying
of pipe line to Harijan colony at Naulatti village.
8. Providing tube light fittings, construction of drainage and provision of water
supply to the kalyana mandapam at Ubbalagandi village
9. Construction of Two Class rooms to Govt., Primary school at Taranagar
village.
10. Providing tube light fittings bore well and hand pumps to community hall and
improving road drainage system of Bhujanganagar and Ubbalagandi villages.

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The following socio- economic development activities by DIOM which are


presented in Table 3.26.

Table 3.26 : Socio-economic development activities in Nearby villages

Expenditure (in Expenditure (in


S.NO. Heads Lakhs)for the year Lakhs) for the year
23.14006-07 2007-08
1 Health & Hygiene 1.0 3.14
2 Education 0.008 4.85
3 Approach raods 66.7 60.75
4 Other Pheriperal 9.27 93.46
development
Total 77.37 179.75

Corporate Social Responsibility

As part of corporate social responsibility and provide better living conditions


specially to tribal's and downtrodden around our production projects, peripheral
development activities continue to be undertaken in a more focused way in
consultation with state, local panchayaths and unions operating in the projects
with core attention on actual needs of the locals. The activities are being
planed in more structures, result oriented and people friendly. Widening the
canvas of the activities to other areas is also under active consideration of the
CSR policy approved by the Board.

S.No. Project Amount In Lakhs


1 Bailadila Dep-5 1489.73
2 Bailadila Iron Ore project Dep-14/11c 757.49
3 NMDC Iron & Steel Project 20.95
4 Diamond Mining Project Panna 77.05
5 Donimalai Iron Ore Project 94.67
6 Head Office 26.30
Total 2466.19

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Development works at Donimalai Township


The following works have been carried out by the project for the benefit of the
employees and residence of the nearby areas in the Donimalai Township.
a. A well-laid township at Donimalai has been constructed with all amenities
viz. Good network of roads, planned houses, gardens, parks and shopping
areas. The avenue plantation with flowering species on both sides of the
road enhances the beauty of township.
b. A 50 bedded hospital with Occupational Health Services along with full-
fledged staff caters the requirement of the project employees and near
by areas.
c. Deer park situated in the natural surrounding is a source of attraction for
the visitors.
d. Nehru Park with musical fountain increases the aesthetic beauty of the
area.
e. Two banks, post office and telephone exchange situated in the township
serves both township and nearby areas;
f. NMDC Employees “Consumer’s co-operative society functions as a fair
price shop, thereby controls prices of the area
g. Recreational facilities, club, open-air auditorium playground, swimming
pool etc.
h. Educational institutions viz., little flower schools, kendriya Vidhyalaya,
Govt, Kannada Primary and High Schools, Computer Institutions.
i. Places of Worship for Hindu, Muslim and Christian brethrens
j. Free Bus facilities for transportation are made available to all the
employees to attend their work either from the project township or from
the surrounding villages of Mudukulaenta, Bhujanganagar, Taranagar and
Sandur. Bus facilities have also been provided for the benefit of the
students of the nearby areas for attending school/educational institutions
at sandur and yeshwanthnagar. Further there are about 12 trips to
Sandur for marketing on Sundays and the facility is also extended to the
villagers of the near by villages.

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Apart from this, various other community development carried out by the
project are visit of Doctors to the nearby villages, immunization programmes,
eye camps, AIDS awareness campaign, family planning programmes etc.

3.7 Occupational health Environment

3.7.1 Baseline status


The general health conditions of the inhabitants of the micro region are
satisfactory when compared with the average helath condition in the Indian
context.
The main disease reported by heath department, Sandur in 1996-97 are given in
the table below. From the table, it can be concluded that 1.56% of the total
population is suffered from Pyodena (Scabies), 0.65% from acute diarrhea and
0.017% from enteric fever. The higher percentage of patients suffering from
Pyodema is due to excessive use of sour ingredients in common foods.

OCCURRENCE OF DISEASES IN SANDUR TALUK

Name of Disease Out Patient Department In Patient Department

Acute Diarrhea 1021 154

Pyodema (Scabies) 2450 Nil

Entric Fever 27 27

All other diseases 6180 516

Total 9706 697

Source: Health Dept., Sandur

Detailed of the major diseases occurring in the Sandur Taluk is given in Table
3.27 shows the percentage of occurnce of major disease in the Sandur Taluk.
From the Table 3.27, it can be seen that most of the patients are suffering from
Amcebiasis, Anaemia, Chronic disease of tonsils and adenoids, acute bronchiots
and bronchiolitis.

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Table 3.27(a) Disease of Sandur Taluk

S.No. Name of disease Out Patient dept. In patient Dept.


1. Typoid fevers 386 35
2 Amcebiasis 3763 187
3 Leprosy 167 -
4 Whooping Cough 53 -
5 Measies 9 -
6 Viral Hepatitis 18 -
Other Ill defined Intestinal
7 1961 -
Infections
8 Syphilis 14 -
9 Gonoeocal Infections 299 -
10 Diabities mellitus 184 -
11 Anaemia 1791 -
12 Conjunctivitis 1785 -
13 Qtitis Media and mastoditis 2091 -
Chronic disease of tonsils and
14 3785 -
adenoids
Actue bronchitis and
15 2394 -
bronchiolitis
16 Influenza 1598 -
Bronchitis, Chronic and
17 unspecified emphysema and 1145 -
Asthma
18 Menstrual discarders 1638 -
Rhematoid arthritis except
19 1868 -
spine
Total 24949 -

Table 3.27(b) % of Occurrence of Major disease in Taluk, Sandur


Out Patient Percentage of
S.No. Name of disease
dept. Patient
1. Amcebiasis 3763 2.40
2 Other Ill defined Intestinal Infections 1961 1.25
3 Anaemia 1791 1.14
4 Conjunctivitis 1785 1.14
5 Qtitis Media and mastoditis 2091 1.33
Chronic disease of tonsils and
6 3785 2.41
adenoids
7 Actue bronchitis and bronchiolitis 2394 1.53
8 Influenza 1598 1.02
Bronchitis, Chronic and unspecified
9 1145 0.73
emphysema and Asthma
10 Menstrual discarders 1638 1.04
11 Rhematoid arthritis except spine 1868 1.19
Total 23819 15.22

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Medical facilities available also in Donimalai Township exclusively for their


staffs, workers and the nearby villages.The system of periodical medical
examination is as follows.

3.7.2 Anticipated Impacts


The proposed DIOM project may likely cause marginal impacts during mine
development from 4.0 MTPA to 7.0 MTPA and moderate impact during mine
operations. Such an impact would exert
1. A slight decrease in efficiency of work
2. Higher expenditure in Medical Health care
3.7.3 Mitigative measures
Legislation in Indian Mines requires care for occupational health care and safety
of mine workers as an integral part of the mine production management.
Occupational health care:
The mine workers are generally prone to occupational health problems relating
to dust and noise.
In mining operations, the workers may get affected with lung diseases
resembling pneumoconiosis or silicosis due to presence of free silica in dusts,
when exposed for a prolonged period to mineral dust particles of size less than 5
microns, particularly in the range of 1-2 microns. These diseases are
characterized by shortness of breath, progressive diminution of working capacity
and finally complete incapacity. It also brings about an increased susceptibility
to tuberculosis.
Indian Mine Regulations amended in 1988-89 lay down norms for safe limits of
free silica levels in respirable dust in the work zone. It would, therefore, be
necessary to keep the work zone environment free from dust pollution by
adopting the control measures proposed earlier. Workers exposed to high dust
levels would be provided with dust masks.
The major occupational health problems relating to noise range from
physiological and psychological problems resulting in loss of concentration to
permanent impairment of hearing ability. To prevent these noise related
occupational health problems, the necessary control measures as outlined

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earlier would be helpful. Regular health check-ups will be carried on annual


basis for all the employees including labours and residents of near by villages
within 5 km radius by a competent local doctor. The health check-ups include
blood pressure, respiratory system including function tests and chest test
system. The activities of DIOM for OHC includes
1. Statutory Medical Examination
2. Health Education
3. Nutrition & First Aid
4. Zero Accident Motivation
5. Hearing Conservation
6. High Risks
7. Absenteeism, Alcoholism counseling
The lung function test carried out by Health Care Centre, DIOM are presented
below.

OHS Lung Function test

LFT 2006 2007


PME 242 135
IME 72 -
PRME 03 -
Follow Up - -
OPD 22 23
Total 339 158
Audiometric Test conducted by Health Care Center, DIOM during different
periods are presented below.
Actual covered
Year Target In addition Cum.
With PME Total
to PME
2001 167 167 0 167 167*
2002 170 175 0 175 342
2003 160 165 35 200 542
2004 205 213 166 379 921
2005 202 284 39** 323 1242
2006 255 242 119** 378 1620
2007 135 46** 281 1901

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The statics of Medical Examinations during 2005-07 are presented below.

2007
Details 2005 (annual`) 2006 (Annual)
(Annual)
IME of JO`s & Workers 16 72 -
PME (Total) 285 242 135
PME (Executives) - 96 11
PRME 26 02 -
IME of App. / Trainee 67 46 66
CISF 65 82 72
Med.Fit of Chronic Absentees 35 26 20

DIOM has spent under Aryogya Vardhini, Donimalai at Pheriperal villages during
the priof Apr.2007- Mar.08 to a tune of Rs.2.00 Lakhs.

The details are presented below.

Cost of Cost of Cost of


Total
No. of OP IPD Diesel
Month Cost
Patients Medicine Medicine consumption
(Rs.)
(Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.)
IP OP
Pts. Pts.
April`07 - 289 2246.07 - 1120.00 3366.07
May`07 05 429 4175.72 5000.00 1120.00 10295.72
June`07 - 541 3302.03 - 1120 4422.03
July`07 03 619 4968.57 3000.00 1120.00 9088.57
August`07 05 985 14949.26 5000.00 2754.00 22703.26
September`07 03 1213 21913.14 3000.00 3940.00 28853.14
October`07 03 897 16388.30 2000.00 3440.00 21828.30
November`07 01 699 13118.35 1000.00 4400.00 18518.35
December`07 01 860 16991.52 1000.00 4200.00 22191.52
January`08 03 1093 18318.67 3000.00 3480.00 4798.67
February`08 03 777 11419.06 3000.00 3600.00 18019.06
March`08 - 423 11878.22 - 4720.00 16598.22
Total 26 8825 139668.91 26000.00 35014.00 200682.91

Medical facilities
For the proposed mining operation, adequate medical surveillance will be
carried out, covering routine check-up and treatment of affected workers as
required. The medical staff will be familiar with the latest diagnostic tools for
occupational diseases. First aid medical kits would be made available at the
work spots.

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Drinking water
Drinking water would be supplied in rest shelters, canteens, workshops, etc. The
mines rules specify a minimum per capita requirement of 2 litres per day.
Drinking water taps shall not be within 6 m of any washing place, urinal or
latrines as per mine regulations.

Sanitation facility
Water flushed latrines and urinals would be provided at conveniently accessible
points at the scale of one seat for every 50 (or part) persons, with the
associated facilities for disinfection.

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IV-1

CHAPTER – IV

4.0 ADDITIONAL STUDIES

4.1 Public consultation during EIA Studies

Peoples’ perception regarding the project is a very important factor because it is


the people on whom the major part of the impact will fall. Accordingly an opinion
poll was conducted as a part of field survey. The results of this poll are furnished
in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1: People’s perception regarding the project

S. No. Perception % of respondents


A. Advantages
1. Increase in employment opportunity 88
2. General improvement of the area 34
3. Improved communication system 12
4. Enhancement of quality of life 14
5. Economic development of the area 8
6. Improvement of market 4
B. Disadvantages
1. Land acquisition in the long-run 38
2. Air pollution 30
3. Deterioration of law and order 10
4. Damage to natural beauty 8

4.2 People perception during Public Hearing

The entire proceedings of the Public Hearing with issues raised by the public and
responds of the proponent will be presented after Public hearing is getting over.

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IV-2

4.3 Risk Assessment and Disaster Management Plan

It is presumed that the proposed mining process would be designed and engineered
with all possible safety measures and standard code of practices. In spite of this,
there may be some design deficiency or due to operation and maintenance faults
which may lead to accidental events causing damage to life and property. This
chapter presents an over view of environmental risk associated with various mining
operations, suggested remedial measures and outlines of the emergency
preparedness plan.

4.3.1 Risk assessment

The objectives of environmental risk assessment are governed by the following,


which excludes natural calamites.

a. To identify the potential hazardous areas so that necessary design safety


measures can be adopted to minimize the probability of accidental events.
b. To identify the potential areas of environmental disaster this can be
prevented by proper design of the installations and its control operation.
c. To manage emergency situation or a disastrous event, if any from the
mining operation.

4.3.2 Identification of hazards

During the operation of the proposed open-cast mechanized mine, the following
risks have been identified.

1. Filling up the mine pit due to excessive rains.

2. Failure of slope in the pit.

3. Failure of slope of external dump.

4. Fly Rock Fragment from Blasting Operations.

5. Accidents of heavy machinery.

6. Surface fire (Electrical and Oil).

7. Possible Danger due to Storage of Explosives.

The hazard potential and consequences of hazards are presented in Table 4.2

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Table 4.2: Hazard potential of various mining operations

Sl. Item Hazard Remarks


No. Potential

1. Failure of slopes in mine-pit Moderate Land Slides

Moderate Erosion of solids during


Failure of slopes of external waste
2. precipitation surface
dumps
water pollution

Major Flying of rock


3. Accidents due to blasting operations fragments, injury
damage to property

Major Permanent
4. Accidents due to mining machinery
disability/death

5. Surface fire Major Fire and injuries

Major Explosion/ Property


6. Sabotage of explosive magazine
damage injuries/death

Filling-up of the mine pit due to Major Inundation/stagnation


7.
excess rains of mining work

4.3.3 Risk Management

Filling up the mine pit due to excessive rains

Filling up the mine pit due to excessive rains in the worked out area is a remote
possibility. Normally there will be sufficient warning time before such as incident
takes place harming equipment and human life. However, as a precautionary
measure, interceptor ditches along the outer boundary of the pit area constructed
to control inflow of runoff into the mine pits. Water that collects in the mine pit
from rainfall will be pumped out from the pits, using submergible pumps, if
required.

Failure of slope in the pit

In order to allay dangers due to open cast slope failure, slope stability estimations
have been made of the existing quarries after determining various physical
parameters of the ground mass like uniaxial compressive strength, triaxial

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IV-4

compressive strength, cohesion, angle of friction, specific gravity of the rock,


water pressure etc. Besides, all the discontinuities have been plotted in stereo
plots, which indicate that there is no chance of any planer failure or wedge
failure. Even then, factor of safety has been determined against overall slope
failure as well as against individual bench slope by circular failure, planer failure,
wedge failure. Besides determining factor of safety the slopes are monitored at
regular intervals to check for any possible failure. The well-developed drainage
system over the lease area ensures that storm water does not accumulate in the
lease area and therefore hydrostatic pressure remains at a low level.

Thus all types of measurements and inspections will be carried out. The mine has
been designed based on the above considerations with sufficient safety margins to
eliminate any chances of slope failure in the pit.

Failure of slope of external dump

The slopes of external dumps have been initially planned at the angle of response
of dump material. However, as the edge attain final position, the slopes will be
terraced and proper vegetation will be laid which will cause lowering of the slopes
as well as binding of the soil, preventing any slope failure.

Fly rock fragments and vibrations due to blasting

Trial blasting results from nearby mines have been used to arrive at the field
empirical equations based on which the charge per delay has been regulated to
protect the nearby structures. All precautions related to control of fly rock will be
taken during the blasting operations. Safety zones of 500 m as per statute are
being maintained. The nearest habitation is too far to be affected by fly rock.

Accidents of heavy machinery

Most of the accidents during transfer of dumpers, trucks and other vehicles are
often attributed to mechanical failures, in which the factor of human errors can
not be ruled out. Regular maintenance and testing of all mine equipment as per
manufacturers guide lines can largely eliminate accidents of heavy machinery.

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IV-5

Surface fire

Spillage of HSD and resultant fire constitutes a potential risk. The quantity of the
maximum oil, which can spill, is not much and can be easily controlled. Sufficient
numbers of portable fire extinguishers have been provided at strategic locations to
take care of any eventuality.

Danger due to storage of explosives

An explosive magazine exists in the mine. Adequate safety zone has been provided
as per statutory requirements while locating the magazine. The magazine has been
constructed as per plan approved by Department of Explosives. The following have
been considered in the design of the magazine.

All dry vegetation within a 15 m radius cleared.


Lighting arrestor installed on the magazine roof.
A safety zone around the magazine created.
In summer, the temperature inside the magazine is monitored to guard
against spontaneous fire.
The manufacturing dates of all explosives stored in the magazine are
carefully recorded so that no explosive whose shelf life has expired is kept
in stock.

In case of any fire, whosoever notices the fire will sound the alarm and inform the
shift-in-charge. The shift-in-charge will inform security personnel and arrange to
evacuate all personnel, except those who are required for fire fighting, from the
area. The fire brigade shall be summoned to deal with the emergency. Concerned
district officials will be informed. Nearby hospitals will be informed to standby to
handle casualties.

4.2 Preparedness Plan

A major emergency is one, which has the potential to cause serious injury or loss
of life. It may cause extensive damage to property and serious disruption both
inside and outside the work zone area. Sometimes, it would require the assistance
of outside agencies.

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IV-6

The aim of disaster Management is concerned with preventing accidents through


good design, operation, maintenance and inspection, by which it is possible to
reduce the risk of an accident.

An important element of mitigation is emergency planning, i.e recognizing


accidents that are possible, assessing the consequences of such accidents and
deciding on the emergency procedures, both onsite and offsite, that would need to
be implemented in the event of an emergency.

Emergency planning is a critical aspect of safety and cannot be considered in


isolation.

The on-site plan is called Disaster Management Plan (DMP) and the off-site plan is
called Emergency preparedness Plan (EPP). Both the elements recognize clearly
the responsibility of line and staff to necessitate immediate action when need
arises.

Onsite Emergency

Types of emergency in respect of Donimalai Iron ore mine are classified into the
following three categories.

1. Fire
2. Explosion

3. Inundation

The following are the measures proposed to be undertaken in respect of onside


emergency management plan i.e., Disaster Management.

Fire and Explosion

1. The quantity of explosives will not be stored in excess of the licensed


capacity of each magazine at any time.
2. Opening, weighing and packing of explosives will not be carried out in the
magazine house.

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IV-7

3. First in - First out method of usage of explosive is envisaged. Further, the


un-used explosives returned back from the mine site to the magazine house
will be re-used immediately during the next available opportunity.
4. The interiors of the magazine houses will be constructed in such a way that
all the fittings including that of doors, ventilators, shelves, benches, etc.,
shall be as per requirement of Explosives Act, 1884 and Rules thereof. They
shall not possess any exposure of iron or steel, grit or any such material
making a possible spark with the explosives. Brass hinges will be used for
doors.
5. Lighting conductor as recommended by the Controller of Explosives would
be installed at rooftop of each magazine house to prevent any incidence of
natural electric discharge on to the magazine house. In no case, the
resistance would be more than 10 ohms. This resistance will be measured
monthly once by competent electrician appointed for the purpose and
suitable records be maintained.
6. All materials capable of producing fire viz., cotton, match boxes, polyester
or similar clothes, etc. will not be allowed into the magazine houses.
Further, smoking will be banned in the premises of the magazine and
blasting sites.
7. The magazines will be well maintained and "Z" ventilation with mesh wires
will be done as to ventilate the area only to the desired level and avoid
excess oxygenation inside the houses.
8. Adequate security of armed personnel from Central Industrial Security Force
has been provided for the magazines.
9. The explosive packages will be stacked to maximum height of 3m with a
free board of at least 1m to the roof in such a way so as to allow the
movement of at least one person to check the condition of all packages
stored and to read the manufacturing particulars of each package.
10. A distance of 15m surrounding each magazine house will be kept clear of
grass or brush or flammable materials within the fenced areas.
11. Every packet of explosive at the time of bringing inside the magazine will be
examined for its sound condition.

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IV-8

12. Not more than 4 persons will be allowed inside any magazine house at any
given time.
13. Only authorized persons nominated by the Mines Manager will be allowed to
enter the premises.
14. For charging and stemming a shot hole, only wooden tamping kits will be
adopted.
15. No re-boring or tampering of a charged hole will be done either before firing
or after mis-fire.
16. Before commencing the shot firing, sufficient warning to the public by an
efficient system of signals, sirens and by putting up red flags in the danger
zone will be given so as to restrain men entering into the active area.
17. The work personnel will be allowed to enter the danger zone area only after
the "all-clear signal" is given.
18. In the event of mis-fire, all provisions as per regulation no.167 of
Metalliferrous Mines Regulations (MMR) 1961, framed under mines act,1952
will be followed. The holes will be fired by duly qualified personnel only
taking all standard precautions.
19. Regulation No.162 of MMR 1961 dealing with the procedure for drilling,
charging, stemming and firing of shot holes will be strictly compiled with.
20. The transport of explosives to and from the magazines will be arranged
utilising an approved explosive van.
21. No person will be allowed to take any naked light other than an enclosed
light or electric torch into any of the explosive magazine houses.
22. Arrangements will be made for using the explosives at the first available
opportunity or for return the same to the magazine, if any, found at the
mine face due to mis-fire during mineral excavation operations utilizing the
services of properly qualified blasting personnel.
23. Water in a small sump will be provided at the entrance of each magazine
house for cleaning the feet of persons entering into it, to avoid any chance
of entry of grit particles.

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IV-9

Inundation

There is no chance of inundation of Donimalai iron ore mine as it is located on a


hilltop and proper drainage arrangements have been made to drain out storm
water during the rainy season. The main hazard, which is probable, is due to
tailing dam giving away, which result in inundation on the downstream. Heavy loss
of vegetation, soil fertility and death of inhabitants may be likely if adequate
measures are not taken up.

In order to handle this situation, a safe passage channel is already constructed to


divert the water safely. Alternatively, all efforts will be made to evacuate the
people in Muthkulapenta and Narsapur villages, which are likely to be affected.

In case of any such eventuality, provision of the Public Insurance Liability Act,
1991 will be honoured and met with accordingly. However, the chance of
inundation due to tailing dam failure is a remote occurrence except in the
situation of earthquakes since the tailing dam construction is of heterogeneous
type. Heterogeneous type dam provides safety against overturning and slicing on
the phreatic line.

For the above listed emergencies, a systematic response plan is worked out. The
salient feature of the response plan is given below.

The following control and co-ordination locations are identified to provide contact
points for the various services involved.

1. Initial emergency action calling fire tender, medical assistance and security.
2. The shift incharge to coordinate the emergency initially.
3. Sounding of alarm, sirens etc.

Duties and Responsibilities

The prime and foremost responsibility of the management in the event of


occurrence of any major accident is to avoid creating panic in the work force and
neighborhood.

The emergency organisation is prepared so that responding persons are clear about
various actions required to be taken by them. It is proposed to give wide publicity

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IV-10

about this plan to the employees through the safety and training department along
with learning programmes. The emergency situation will be initially managed by
shift personnel and when the Mines Manager / Addl. General Manager (production)
arrives at the site, the emergency organization will be taken over by him. The
responsibilities of the emergency officers are listed below:

Shift In charge

To Inform mines manager about the emergency and site of accident


To inform time office for ambulance
To inform security officer for Siren/Fire brigade
To inform project hospital to alert doctor/Medical Administrator
To arrange water tanker, transport vehicles etc.
To rush to the site for evacuation and relief works
Mines Manager

To inform General Manager / E.D. / Agent


To rush to site to oversee relief works
To inform DGMS, Controller of explosives
to inform State Pollution Control Board authorities at Bellary/ Gulbarga/
Bangalore.
To inform Civil / Electrical departments to maintain Fire Water Supply and
Power supply
Key personnel representative to handle Emergency Plan are:

Shift Personnel

Shift Incharge in the mine


The time office personnel on duty
Shift Maintenance Engineer
Telephone exchange incharge
Medical Officer or Nurse on duty
CISF Security Officer on duty

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IV-11

Senior Officers

General Manager / Executive Director


Mines Manager / Additional General Manager (Production)
Manager, Fire and Safety at Training Institute
Personnel Manager for Administration and Security
Medical Officer / Medical Administrator
Disaster Information Flow

In case any disaster due to fire or explosion, minimum information shall reach the
control points. Every person who comes to know about disaster first informs the
emergency officer (Shift in charge) and the time office/security; office concerned.
The channels for passing the above information are made available as follows:

Flow of disaster information is shown in Plate IV.1.

Emergency Response Plan

The nominated emergency officer, once gets the information shall take charge of
the situation and arrange for the rescue and other facilities like Ambulance, Fire
Tender and he will also inform Mines Manager, Electrical and Water Supply
sources, Hospitals etc. for the rescue work.

On-site Emergency plan initially to be dealt by shift in charge and then by Mines
Manager. The on-site emergency plan showing the response mechanism is depicted
in the flow chair (Plate IV.2). The following services shall also be arranged for
taking up the emergency work.

A. Fire Services

Call for the fire fighting tender by special siren, mobilization for firewater from
storage, etc. Request for outside Fire Brigade from Sandur, if needed.

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Plate IV.1 - Disaster Information flow, DIOM

Magazine / Mine

Emergency Officer Time Office /


(Shift In-charge) Security Office

Channels

Telephone
Wireless
Messenger

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Plate IV.2 - Response Mechanism-Onsite Emergency Plan Preparation

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IV-14

B. Medical Services

Arrange for Ambulance van to the site, call for the medical and para-medical staff
to attend emergency at hospital and site. Arrange for casualty transport to the
Hospital, alternate medical facility outside if needed.

C. Security

Mobilization of manpower for rescue work, traffic control, blow special siren for
calling Fire Brigade, evacuation, security of the area and liaison with police, mode
control.

D. Transport

Transport in charge to arrange transport vehicles like Bus, Car, Van etc.
Maintenance and upkeep of Ambulance and Fire Tender of all types render
assistance to Site in charge and Personnel officer for transporting the causalities.

8.6 Offsite Emergency Plan

The off-site emergency plan deals with those incidents, which might have the
potential to harm the persons or affecting the surrounding community outside the
boundary of the NMDC premises. The off-site emergency plan provides guidelines
for the individual role and/or collective role during an emergency under overall
directions of the Executive Director / General Manager of the Project; it also
serves as a ready reference to all the agencies like fire fighting, medical services,
civil defense, district administration etc. for taking immediate actions.

The key feature of a good off-site plan is its flexibility in its application to various
emergencies. The responsibility for the off-site plan will be likely to rest either
with the mine management or with the local authority.

Some of the aspects to be included in off-site management plan are as follows:

Organization

Names and designation of incident controller, site main controller, their duties and
other key personnel are identified for immediate action in the matter.

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IV-15

Further, details of the command structure, warning systems, implementation


procedures, emergency control centers are as follows:

Communication

Identification of personnel involved, communication center, call signs, network,


list of telephone numbers.

Special emergency equipment

Details of availability and location of heavy lifting gear, bulldozers, specified fire-
fighting equipment, fireboats.

Voluntary Organization

Details of organizers, telephone numbers, resources etc.

Information on Hazardous material storage etc.

Details of the hazardous substances stored or processed on each site and a


summary report of the risks associated with them.

Meteorological Information

Arrangements for obtaining details of weather conditions prevailing at the time


and weather forecasts.

Humanitarian arrangements

Transport, evacuation centers, emergency feedings, treatment of injured, first


aid, ambulances, temporary mortuaries.

Public Information

Arrangements for (a) dealing with the media-press officers, (b) informing relatives
etc.

Assessment

(a) Collecting information on the causes of the emergency, (b) reviewing the
efficiency and effectiveness of all aspects of the emergency plan.

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Role of the Emergency Co-ordination Officer

The various emergency services will be coordinated by an emergency coordinating


officer (ECO), who will be designated by the district collector. The ECO will liaise
closely with the site main controller. Again depending on local arrangements, for
every severe incident with major or prolonged off-site consequences, the external
control will be passed to a senior local authority administrator or even an
administrator appointed by the central or state government.

Role of the Local Authority

The duty to prepare the off-site plan lies with the local authorities. The
emergency planning officer (EPO) appointed will carry out his duty in preparing for
a whole range of different emergencies within the local authority areas. The EPO
will liaise with the Works, to obtain the information to provide the basis for the
plan. This liaison will ensure that the plan is continually kept upto date.

It will be the responsibility of the EPO to ensure that all those organisations, which
will be involved in handling the off-site emergency, know their role and are able to
accept it by having for example, sufficient staff and appropriate equipment to
cover their particular responsibilities. Rehearsals for off-site plans will be
organized by the EPO.

Role of Police

Formal duties of the police during an emergency include protecting life and
property and controlling traffic movements. Their functions will include controlling
by-standers, evacuating the public, identifying the dead and dealing with
casualties and informing relatives of death or injury.

Role of Fire Authorities

The control of a fire will be normally the responsibility of the senior fire brigade
officer who would take over the handling of the fire from the site incident
controller on arrival at the site. The senior fire brigade officer will also have a
similar responsibility of other events, such as explosions and toxic materials
release. Fire authorities in the region will be appraised about the location of all

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IV-17

sorts of flammable materials, water and foam supply points, and fire fighting
equipment. They will be involved in on-site emergency rehearsals both as
participants and, on occasion, as observers of exercises involving only site
personnel.

Role of Health Authorities

Health authorities, including doctors, surgeons, para-medical staff, mobile


hospitals, ambulances etc. will have a vital part to play following a major
accident, and they will form an integral part of the emergency plan.

For major fires, injuries will be the result of the effects of thermal radiation to a
varying degree, and the knowledge and experience to handle this in all but
extreme cases may be generally available in most hospitals.

Major off-site incidents are likely to require medical equipment and facilities
additional to those available locally, and a medical “mutual aid” scheme should
exist to enable the assistance of neighboring authorities to be obtained in the
event of an emergency.

Role of Government Safety Authority

The Donimalai iron ore project is under the jurisdiction of Dy. Director of Mines
Safety, Bellary.

Donimalai iron ore project has prepared a detailed on site and off site Disaster
Management Plan.

Donimalai mechanized mine has been commissioned during October 1977. The
original Detailed Project Report of this project envisaged an annual production of
4.0 MT of R.O.M. Iron ore. From the year 2000-01 onwards the demand for iron ore
supply from this project has been raising from both the domestic market and
foreign buyers. Accordingly old mining / mineral processing equipments have been
replaced with larger size, modern equipments. Some of the 50 Tons rear dumpers
have been replaced by 85 tons dumpers. During the last 5 years the iron ore
production operation of shovels, dumpers, drills, dozers, motor graders, ore
crushing, screening and loading plant equipments are being carried out in all the 3

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IV-18

shifts in a day as against earlier practice of 2 production shifts and other


maintenance shift on each working day. Hot seat changeover system has been
introduced during the last 6 years in the mine to improve upon the working hours
of the principal mining equipments and OCSL plant equipments.

Training

The training of mine personnel is conducted regularly with respect to


environmental protection. Training facilities are also extended to equipment
maintenance and operation also to the operators. Training will cover the following
fields.

Awareness regarding pollution control and environmental protection.

Operation and maintenance of pollution control equipment.


Afforestation / plantation and post care of plants.

Field monitoring, maintenance and calibration of pollution monitoring


instruments.

Chemical analysis of various environmental parameters at laboratory.


Repair of pollution monitoring instruments.

Knowledge of norms, regulations and procedures.


Occupational health and safety.

Risk assessment and disaster management plan.

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CHAPTER – V

5.0 Environmental Management Plan and Post Project Monitoring Programme

The mining development in the study area needs to be inter-twined with judicious
utilization of non-renewable resources of the study area and within the limits of
permissible assimilative capacity. The assimilative capacity of the region is the
maximum amount of pollution load that can be discharged into the environment
without affecting the designated use and is governed by dilution, dispersion and
removal due to physico-chemical and biological process.

The Environment Management Plan (EMP) is required to ensure sustainable


development in the region around the mining complex, hence it needs to be an all
encompassing plan for which the mining authorities, government, regulatory
agencies like Central and State Pollution Control Boards, Indian Bureau of Mines
(IBM), etc. working in the region and more importantly the affected population of
the region need to extend their co-operation and contribution.

The Management Action Plan aims at controlling pollution at the source level to
the extent possible, with the available and affordable technology, followed by
treatment measures before they are discharged.

5.1 Administrative and Technical Set-up

Various measures have been proposed to implement for mitigating the adverse
impacts due to mining on the environment in the area. The existing Environmental
cell (EMC) monitor the requirements.
The mine management will undertake the control measures in coordination with
the State Forest Department, CPCB / MoEF and Environmental consultant. The
management of environment shall be made an integral part of the major activities
of mining. The environmental data shall be monitored by using on outside agency
having valid recognition from MOEF/CPCB.

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V-2

Plate V.1 - Organizational Set-up of NMDC at DIOM

MEDICAL
PERSONAL EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
ADMN DONIMALAI IOM
VIGILANCE
FINANCEL

DGM (PROD) DGM (PROD)


DONIMALAI KUMARASWAMY

MINING MATERIAL ENVI. TRAINING & MECHANICAL ELECTRICAL CIVIL


MANAGEMENT SAFETY

TOWNSHIP MINE PLANT CONST. & HORTICULTURE


ENVIRONMENT CONST. & MGMT CONST. & MGMT MGMT

TRAINING & Jr. MGR


Asst / Jr. SAFETY DIOM / KIOM
MGR DIOM /
KIOM

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V-3

5.2 Important records to be maintain by EMC are:

Field monitoring results for various Environmental parameters


Inspection records of slope failure, land erosion, drainage, socio-economic
development.
Format to record / monitor plantation measures.
Nursery records
Environmental and related standards / norms.
Records pertaining to statutory consents, approvals
Code of actions for population control in identified areas.
Periodic medical examination (PME) records.
Records pertaining to laboratory equipment maintenance and calibration.
Complain register (environmental pollution)
Records on water and electricity consumption
Periodic progress records
Environmental audit records
Records of annual budgetary requirement and allocation for pollution control.

5.3 IMPLEMENTATION
The following system shall be followed to see that the environmental scheme is
implemented as per schedule.

a) Environment Cell would see the engineering measures such as construction of


check dams and retention walls are taken up, wherever necessary.
b) A crew attends for afforestation measures on a regular basis for culturing,
manuring and watering.
c) On seasonal basis, various environmental parameters would be monitored to
understand the status vis-à-vis the baseline data. This would enable the
management for taking up necessary corrective measures, if required.

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V-4

5.4 ENVIRONMENTAL PLAN OF THE MINE LEASE AREA


An environmental plan of the mine lease area is presented in plate No. 5.2

5.4.1 Slope failure


Regular examination will be carried out to look after for slope failure on open cast
mine faces, ore and over burden benches etc. Any abnormal condition, if observed
will be brought to the notice of concerned department. Survey team also monitors
mine faces with precision level instruments.

5.4.2 Land erosion

Regular observations during the rainy season for checking land erosion will be
made in back filled areas / hill slopes.

5.4.3 Drainage

The effectiveness of drainage system depends upon proper cleaning of all drains
and sumps. Any blockage due to silting or accumulation of loose materials will be
removed on a regular basis. Stone pitching, brick machinery etc on drains shall also
be monitored.

5.4.4 Blasting effects

Regular testing and inspection of blasting operations in work zone areas will be
done with respect to noise, fly rock fragments, vibration, dust and fume
generation. These tests will also be conducted whenever new pattern of blasting is
adopted as per mine working.

5.4.5 Re-vegetation and green belt development

Planned schedule for green belt development will be checked after every year and
improvement required will be implemented. Post plantation status will be
regularly checked in every season. Phase wise development in the areas of
plantation including rate of growth, survival rate etc. will be recorded
systematically.

5.4.6 Occupational health

Each group of mine workers and near by villagers will be monitored at regular
intervals by specialist doctors.

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V-5

5.4.7 Socio-economic development

As a part of the social responsibilities, the project proponent will take up the
following peripheral developmental works.
Encouraging entrepreneurship among local – vocational training.
Upgrading primary schools.
Health camps in nearby villages.
Distribution of school uniforms and books to needy students.
Promotion of Cultural activities in the nearby villages.
Transportation of patients in case of emergency.

Preferential employment to the local people depending upon their qualification


and suitability of post.

5.5 Suggested Environmental Monitoring Programme

No management plan would give the desired results unless it is monitored regularly,
analyzed and corrective actions taken accordingly. It may be noted that
environmental management plan document should not be considered as a conclusive
one. It shall be updated regularly for the purpose of having an effective
management of the environment. This can be achieved by conducting regular
environmental audits and planned targets. A monitoring programme is suggested,
which is presented in Table 5.1 to check the efficiency of the environmental
measures adopted in the 7.0 MTPA DIOM mine.

Table 5.1: Suggested environmental monitoring programme

S. Monitoring Frequency of Major parameters


Location
No. activity monitoring to be monitored
1. Micrometeorology At hill top Daily Temp., R.H.,
rainfall wind speed
and directions.
2. Ambient air At least 3 fixed Preferably SPM, RPM, SO2 and
quality (AAQ) locations in the monthly once NOx
ML area and 2 for 24 hours
fixed stations at period during
the foot hills/ three seasons
nearby villages of the year.
(one down wind
and the other at
upwind direction)

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3. Dust fall rate At one of the AAQ Monthly Total dust fall rate
stations in ML MT/sq.km/month.
area.

4. Work zone noise Noise prone areas Preferably Leq.noise


of ML area. monthly once
for 24 hours
period during
three seasons
of the year.
5. Drinking water From drinking Once in each As per IS:10500 (91)
water tap season
6. Land erosion Core and relevant Rainy season Erosion potential
area of buffer
zones
7. Drainage Garland drains of Post monsoon -
dump sites,
gullies
8. Blasting effects Core zones During blasting Noise, fly rock
fragments,
vibration.
9. Inventory of flora Core zone Every year Plantation status,
survival rate.
10. Soil quality Core zone Once in every Soil fertility for
year growth of plants
11. Socio-economic Local population Once in 3 to 4 Per capita income,
condition of buffer zone years diseases, living
conditions health
camps.

The environmental monitoring data thus generated is regularly furnished to KSPCB,


Bangalore, RO, MoEF, Bangalore.

5.6 Cost of Environmental Control Measures

The capital cost towards the equipment related to Environmental protection and
control measures has been provided in the Project Report / Cost. No additional
equipment for this purpose is required during production and enhancement
programme. It is imperative that existing equipment suffice for the environmental
work. However, it is necessary to include recurring environmental cost as a part of
the budgetary cost component for proper implementation of reclamation and
control measures as recommended in proposed mitigate measures.

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V-7

It is proposed to take up protective measures like check bunds and retaining walls
near the toes of the dumps. The roadways within the lease area and outside the
mining lease areas were to be sprinkled with water for dust suppression regularly.
The project authorities propose to undertake the following environmental works to
achieve the environmental quality as defined by Statutory Authorities.
Afforestation within and outside mine lease area of 20 hectares would be taken-up
annually. Training and awareness programmes will be conducted regularly. Waste
water treatment system will be put in operation continuously. Various village
developmental works have already taken-up and is continued.

Cost is incurred for land restoration, engineering structures like check bunds,
retention walls, water spraying on haul roads and mine workings and for
monitoring of environmental parameters.

A time specific budgetary cost is allocated for conducting the environmental works
on a continuous basis is given in Table-5.2.
Table – 5.2
COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL WORKS AT DONIMALAI IRON ORE MINE PER ANNUM
Recurring cost /
Sl. No. Particulars annum
Rs. In Lakhs
1 Pollution control 150.0
(Dust suppression, Rétention Wallis, etc.)
2 Pollution monitoring 18.0
3 Occupational Health and Social development 4.0
works
4 Green belt development / Plantation 20.0
5 Reclamation / Rehabilitation of worked out 6.5
pits
6 Waste water treatment system 20.0
7 Water cess, air and water consents, Training 11.5
Programme etc.
Total 230.0
Recurring Cost Rs. 3.30 per MT of ore excavated

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V-8

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Working Bench South Block (DA-1) SEASON : WINTER`07-08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.12.07 196 62 14.8 18.6 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.12.07 188 61 14.3 19.3 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.12.07 168 57 13.4 17.6 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.12.07 179 61 13.9 18.3 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.12.07 188 61 14.2 18.9 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.12.07 196 63 14.9 19.3 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.12.07 204 63 14.0 19.2 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.12.07 193 62 14.4 19.9 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.12.07 190 60 13.8 18.6 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.01.08 182 58 13.6 18.2 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.01.08 195 62 14.4 19.6 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.01.08 208 62 14.6 19 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.01.08 182 61 13.8 18.8 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.01.08 187 61 14.2 19.3 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.01.08 212 64 14.4 19.8 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.01.08 210 64 14.1 19.5 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.01.08 188 61 13.6 16.5 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 31/01.01.08 172 58 14.8 18.4 BDL
MON / TUE 04/05.02.08 168 56 14.5 17.6 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.02.08 196 59 14.2 17.9 BDL
MON / TUE 11/12.02.08 228 66 15.1 18.3 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/15.02.08 210 62 14.3 17.6 BDL
MON / TUE 18/19.02.08 184 61 13.6 16.8 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.02.08 192 59 14.3 17.5 BDL
MON / TUE 25/26.02.08 208 61 14.7 18.1 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 28/29.02.08 221 63 14.9 18.8 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA
Location : Working Bench North Block (Deposit-2W) (DA-2)
SEASON : WINTER`07-08
WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.12.07 173 56 13.0 18.4 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.12.07 165 54 12.8 17.9 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.12.07 152 52 12.7 17.1 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.12.07 161 54 12.9 17.6 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.12.07 168 54 13.2 17.6 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.12.07 173 56 13.6 17.9 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.12.07 182 56 13.8 18.1 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.12.07 186 58 14.1 18.8 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.12.07 174 54 12.7 17.6 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.01.08 170 53 12.3 17.2 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.01.08 170 54 12.4 17.2 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.01.08 166 52 13.0 17.6 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.01.08 167 52 12.9 17.0 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.01.08 162 50 12.4 17.8 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.01.08 189 56 13.6 18.6 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.01.08 177 54 13.4 18.3 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.01.08 189 58 13.9 16.9 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 31/01.01.08 196 61 14.6 17.5 BDL
MON / TUE 04/05.02.08 187 58 14.2 18.1 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.02.08 196 62 14.8 18.9 BDL
MON / TUE 11/12.02.08 195 64 13.6 16.5 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/15.02.08 176 58 14.1 17.4 BDL
MON / TUE 18/19.02.08 164 59 12.8 15.6 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.02.08 162 61 13.6 16.9 BDL
MON / TUE 25/26.02.08 176 57 14.8 17.1 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 28/29.02.08 184 59 14.5 17.9 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA
Location : Working Bench North Block (Deposit 3E) (DA-3)
SEASON : WINTER`07-08
WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.12.07 286 79 15.8 16.9 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.12.07 296 84 15.2 16.5 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.12.07 210 69 14.3 16.2 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.12.07 246 71 15 16.5 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.12.07 257 74 15.2 17.1 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.12.07 284 76 15.9 18.3 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.12.07 310 84 16.8 19.4 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.12.07 294 81 15.4 18.4 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.12.07 241 75 15.0 17.5 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.01.08 268 78 15.6 18.3 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.01.08 254 74 16.1 18.6 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.01.08 276 77 16.4 18.1 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.01.08 253 72 14.9 17.4 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.01.08 235 84 12.8 15.3 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.01.08 268 81 13.4 16.7 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.01.08 246 78 13.9 15.6 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.01.08 253 79 14.6 16.9 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 31/01.01.08 248 84 14.4 17.1 BDL
MON / TUE 04/05.02.08 279 76 15.3 16.8 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.02.08 295 89 16.8 18.1 BDL
MON / TUE 11/12.02.08 284 91 16.3 18.8 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/15.02.08 326 104 17.6 19.7 BDL
MON / TUE 18/19.02.08 346 112 18.8 20.9 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.02.08 276 96 17.5 19.5 BDL
MON / TUE 25/26.02.08 266 87 17.1 18.4 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 28/29.02.08 285 82 17.6 19.3 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA
Location : 100M Away from Crushing Plant (DA-4)
SEASON : WINTER`07-08
WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.12.07 225 66 13.7 20.8 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.12.07 220 65 13.5 19.7 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.12.07 190 60 13.2 18.4 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.12.07 206 62 13.8 19.3 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.12.07 231 68 14.4 19.4 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.12.07 228 67 14 19.1 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.12.07 242 69 14.9 19.2 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.12.07 234 68 14.3 18.6 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.12.07 248 67 13.2 18.6 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.01.08 252 68 13.8 19 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.01.08 234 65 13.6 17.9 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.01.08 238 65 14 18.1 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.01.08 228 62 12.7 18.2 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.01.08 236 63 12.9 18.6 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.01.08 243 69 14.6 19.5 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.01.08 237 68 14.8 19.2 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.01.08 228 67 14.2 18.1 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 31/01.01.08 210 65 15.1 19.6 BDL
MON / TUE 04/05.02.08 252 71 15.9 18.4 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.02.08 237 68 14.2 19.2 BDL
MON / TUE 11/12.02.08 244 66 13.8 17.6 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/15.02.08 238 64 14.1 18.3 BDL
MON / TUE 18/19.02.08 245 63 14.8 19.2 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.02.08 219 61 13.2 17.5 BDL
MON / TUE 25/26.02.08 252 68 15.8 19.2 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 28/29.02.08 241 62 14.9 17.3 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA
Location : 100M Away from Screening Plant (DA-5)
SEASON : WINTER`07-08
WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.12.07 182 59 14.1 20.4 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.12.07 186 60 14.5 20.9 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.12.07 177 56 13.3 18 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.12.07 186 56 13.6 18.4 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.12.07 189 61 14.2 18.8 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.12.07 195 63 13.6 18.1 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.12.07 196 62 14 18.4 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.12.07 208 63 14.5 18.8 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.12.07 214 63 14.6 19.5 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.01.08 207 62 14.3 19.1 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.01.08 190 61 13.8 18.8 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.01.08 184 61 13.4 18.4 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.01.08 182 58 12.8 17.8 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.01.08 177 58 13.1 17.5 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.01.08 188 61 14.1 18.4 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.01.08 196 62 14.4 18.9 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.01.08 177 60 14.9 17.9 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 31/01.01.08 192 64 15.4 18.9 BDL
MON / TUE 04/05.02.08 205 67 14.6 17.2 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.02.08 216 69 15.1 18.1 BDL
MON / TUE 11/12.02.08 188 58 14.2 17.6 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/15.02.08 204 58 14.9 17.5 BDL
MON / TUE 18/19.02.08 196 59 15.5 16.9 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.02.08 188 62 15.0 17.2 BDL
MON / TUE 25/26.02.08 176 54 14.2 17.9 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 28/29.02.08 179 59 14.9 18.3 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA
Location :100M Away from Loading Plant (DA-6)
SEASON : WINTER`07-08
WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.12.07 318 112 14.8 21.3 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.12.07 313 110 14.2 20.6 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.12.07 287 88 14 19.3 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.12.07 292 94 14.4 19.6 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.12.07 309 107 14.9 19.7 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.12.07 322 108 15.3 20.8 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.12.07 327 112 14.8 19.4 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.12.07 319 109 15.2 20.6 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.12.07 309 104 15.1 20.7 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.01.08 316 109 14.9 19.8 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.01.08 318 109 14.9 19.6 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.01.08 310 103 14.4 19.4 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.01.08 289 102 14.8 19.3 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.01.08 294 106 14.5 19 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.01.08 308 106 14.6 19.9 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.01.08 311 110 15 20.7 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.01.08 324 117 15.8 18.6 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 31/01.01.08 318 108 16.3 19.2 BDL
MON / TUE 04/05.02.08 348 121 15.8 18.8 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.02.08 324 113 15.9 19.1 BDL
MON / TUE 11/12.02.08 318 107 15.2 19.4 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/15.02.08 308 102 14.3 18.4 BDL
MON / TUE 18/19.02.08 345 119 16.1 20.9 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.02.08 324 111 15.4 19.6 BDL
MON / TUE 25/26.02.08 306 106 14.8 19.3 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 28/29.02.08 292 98 14.5 19.9 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA
Location : Donimalai Township (DA-7)
SEASON : WINTER`07-08
WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.12.07 102 38 6.2 7.8 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.12.07 94 35 5.9 7.5 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.12.07 92 35 6.3 8.1 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.12.07 87 32 5.6 7.5 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.12.07 94 31 6.0 7.9 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.12.07 106 36 6.3 7.8 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.12.07 115 37 6.6 8.1 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.12.07 108 34 6.2 8.6 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.12.07 105 31 5.9 7.6 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.01.08 96 36 5.4 7.9 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.01.08 78 33 5.2 7.6 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.01.08 92 34 6.3 8.3 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.01.08 96 31 6.1 8.5 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.01.08 84 32 5.8 7.6 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.01.08 90 31 6.3 8.1 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.01.08 92 29 5.9 7.6 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.01.08 96 34 6.4 8.6 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 31/01.01.08 106 36 6.3 8.2 BDL
MON / TUE 04/05.02.08 113 37 6.6 8.0 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.02.08 107 35 6.1 7.9 BDL
MON / TUE 11/12.02.08 112 38 6.8 9.4 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/15.02.08 104 31 6.3 8.9 BDL
MON / TUE 18/19.02.08 96 30 5.9 9.4 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.02.08 107 29 6.7 9.8 BDL
MON / TUE 25/26.02.08 106 31 7.1 10.3 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 28/29.02.08 96 31 6.6 9.4 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA
Location : Narsapur Village (DA-8)
SEASON : WINTER`07-08
WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.12.07 166 57 14.2 16.8 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.12.07 160 54 13.8 15.8 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.12.07 176 60 13.6 15.1 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.12.07 188 62 14.1 17.3 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.12.07 194 64 14.5 17.3 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.12.07 182 61 13.8 16.2 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.12.07 176 57 14.9 16.8 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.12.07 169 54 14.2 16.7 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.12.07 176 60 14.6 17.2 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.01.08 182 62 16.8 18.4 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.01.08 196 64 17.6 19.6 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.01.08 162 58 16.8 19.1 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.01.08 154 49 14.9 17.6 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.01.08 128 44 13.6 16.2 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.01.08 138 46 14.1 17.2 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.01.08 155 52 14.6 16.8 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.01.08 185 63 15.3 18.6 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 31/01.01.08 194 67 16.8 19.5 BDL
MON / TUE 04/05.02.08 182 70 15.4 19.0 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.02.08 186 68 15.8 18.4 BDL
MON / TUE 11/12.02.08 169 65 14.2 17.6 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/15.02.08 176 68 15.9 18.2 BDL
MON / TUE 18/19.02.08 182 70 16.2 18.4 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.02.08 204 76 17.8 19.3 BDL
MON / TUE 25/26.02.08 188 67 15.9 19.4 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 28/29.02.08 195 69 16.3 19.1 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA
Location : Ubbalagandi (DA-9)
SEASON : WINTER`07-08
WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.12.07 136 44 8.4 10.8 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.12.07 124 42 8.2 10.4 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.12.07 140 47 8.9 11.6 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.12.07 129 46 8.1 9.6 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.12.07 118 42 7.9 9.4 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.12.07 134 46 8.3 8.4 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.12.07 126 41 7.9 7.9 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.12.07 110 39 7.5 8.6 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.12.07 96 35 7.3 8.1 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.01.08 124 38 8.4 9.9 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.01.08 136 41 8.8 10.2 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.01.08 128 43 7.9 9.4 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.01.08 139 44 8.6 10.3 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.01.08 146 49 8.9 11.6 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.01.08 154 47 9.4 12.3 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.01.08 162 46 9.2 11.8 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.01.08 154 48 8.9 10.9 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 31/01.01.08 135 45 9.1 11.1 BDL
MON / TUE 04/05.02.08 128 43 8.8 10.9 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.02.08 134 46 9.0 11.6 BDL
MON / TUE 11/12.02.08 124 48 8.4 11.6 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/15.02.08 139 46 8.8 10.9 BDL
MON / TUE 18/19.02.08 130 43 8.1 10.6 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.02.08 126 41 8.0 9.4 BDL
MON / TUE 25/26.02.08 146 46 9.4 11.2 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 28/29.02.08 134 45 8.9 10.7 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA
Location : Bhujanga Nagar (DA-10)
SEASON : WINTER`07-08
WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.12.07 186 63 14.6 16.9 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.12.07 168 58 13.5 15.3 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.12.07 172 61 14.9 16.1 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.12.07 156 54 13.2 15.8 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.12.07 167 56 13.3 15.4 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.12.07 154 51 12.4 14.9 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.12.07 162 57 14.9 16.1 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.12.07 138 49 12.9 14.9 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.12.07 152 50 13.6 15.7 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.01.08 139 47 13.2 15.4 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.01.08 178 59 15.6 17.3 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.01.08 182 61 16.1 18.2 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.01.08 196 66 16.7 19.1 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.01.08 154 58 14.2 16.7 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.01.08 176 64 13.7 15.4 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.01.08 196 69 12.4 14.5 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.01.08 164 65 14.8 16.0 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 31/01.01.08 153 57 13.9 15.7 BDL
MON / TUE 04/05.02.08 172 67 14.3 16.2 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.02.08 188 69 14.9 16.7 BDL
MON / TUE 11/12.02.08 196 70 15.3 18.1 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/15.02.08 204 73 15.9 17.5 BDL
MON / TUE 18/19.02.08 218 75 16.3 18.6 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.02.08 224 71 16.8 19.5 BDL
MON / TUE 25/26.02.08 196 66 15.4 18.4 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 28/29.02.08 181 68 15.1 18.0 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA
Location : Taranagar (DA-11)
SEASON : WINTER`07-08
WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.12.07 168 66 13.4 16.5 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.12.07 174 69 14.1 17.2 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.12.07 184 68 15.3 18.1 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.12.07 202 70 16.6 18.8 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.12.07 186 65 15.8 17.6 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.12.07 196 67 16.2 19.4 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.12.07 154 63 14.3 16.8 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.12.07 161 64 14.9 18.1 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.12.07 176 68 15.9 18.4 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.01.08 182 63 16.3 19.2 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.01.08 196 67 16.5 18.6 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.01.08 204 72 17.1 19.4 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.01.08 211 75 17.9 19.9 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.01.08 196 70 15.9 17.6 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.01.08 184 68 16.2 19.5 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.01.08 151 64 14.9 16.4 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.01.08 175 68 16.2 18.4 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 31/01.01.08 182 68 17.6 19.2 BDL
MON / TUE 04/05.02.08 162 65 14.2 17.6 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.02.08 172 62 15.1 18.6 BDL
MON / TUE 11/12.02.08 171 69 14.9 18.4 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/15.02.08 182 64 15.6 19.2 BDL
MON / TUE 18/19.02.08 188 67 16.9 19.1 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.02.08 204 73 17.5 19.5 BDL
MON / TUE 25/26.02.08 218 75 17.2 20.3 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 28/29.02.08 196 71 16.4 19.6 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA
Location : Sandur (Krishna Nagar) (DA-12)
SEASON : WINTER`07-08
WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.12.07 208 69 14.6 17.2 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.12.07 196 66 14.1 16.9 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.12.07 184 63 14.3 16.4 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.12.07 196 67 14.5 16.2 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.12.07 211 71 15.3 17.3 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.12.07 186 64 13.6 16.2 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.12.07 194 66 14.2 17.2 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.12.07 176 67 13.8 15.4 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.12.07 216 69 14.3 16.7 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.01.08 186 64 12.6 14.9 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.01.08 164 61 12.9 14.2 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.01.08 173 62 13.1 15.6 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.01.08 188 66 14.2 16.7 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.01.08 196 69 13.9 17.2 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.01.08 234 74 14.3 16.4 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.01.08 246 76 14.6 17.2 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.01.08 256 77 15.3 18.1 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 31/01.01.08 238 71 13.8 16.2 BDL
MON / TUE 04/05.02.08 214 68 13.0 15.2 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.02.08 196 65 14.2 16.7 BDL
MON / TUE 11/12.02.08 216 71 15.3 17.2 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/15.02.08 238 73 15.9 18.2 BDL
MON / TUE 18/19.02.08 246 77 14.6 16.4 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.02.08 208 72 15.2 17.2 BDL
MON / TUE 25/26.02.08 210 69 14.6 16.4 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 28/29.02.08 196 68 14.7 16.8 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA
Location : Naulati (DA-13)
SEASON : WINTER`07-08
WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.12.07 176 56 8.4 10.9 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.12.07 186 59 8.6 10.2 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.12.07 194 62 8.9 11.6 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.12.07 182 64 8.7 12.4 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.12.07 154 57 8.1 11.7 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.12.07 175 60 7.9 11.2 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.12.07 164 58 7.4 10.9 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.12.07 179 61 8.1 11.6 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.12.07 196 64 8.6 12.3 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.01.08 212 66 9.3 12.6 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.01.08 224 68 9.4 12.9 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.01.08 196 63 9.3 12.4 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.01.08 186 61 8.6 11.4 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.01.08 138 54 7.6 10.8 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.01.08 166 59 8.1 10.4 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.01.08 144 55 7.6 9.6 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.01.08 154 49 8.3 10.7 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 31/01.01.08 138 51 7.4 9.4 BDL
MON / TUE 04/05.02.08 168 56 6.9 9.1 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.02.08 184 59 7.4 9.4 BDL
MON / TUE 11/12.02.08 210 63 7.9 10.3 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/15.02.08 196 56 8.2 11.6 BDL
MON / TUE 18/19.02.08 184 53 8.6 10.7 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.02.08 164 50 7.9 10.9 BDL
MON / TUE 25/26.02.08 170 57 7.2 9.6 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 28/29.02.08 187 60 8.4 10.6 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA
Location : Devagiri (DA-14)
SEASON : WINTER`07-08
WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.12.07 138 46 7.9 10.9 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.12.07 126 42 7.6 10.5 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.12.07 119 43 7.2 10.3 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.12.07 124 45 7.4 10.6 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.12.07 142 47 7.6 10.2 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.12.07 156 46 8.2 11.6 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.12.07 172 54 8.4 12.1 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.12.07 164 51 8.6 11.9 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.12.07 176 56 7.3 10.9 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.01.08 166 52 7.6 11.5 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.01.08 142 49 7.7 11.9 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.01.08 136 48 8.1 12.1 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.01.08 121 46 7.6 11.6 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.01.08 135 49 8.4 12.6 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.01.08 146 45 8.1 12.9 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.01.08 168 47 7.6 12.1 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.01.08 176 49 8.3 11.9 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 31/01.01.08 186 52 8.6 12.4 BDL
MON / TUE 04/05.02.08 194 56 9.4 12.9 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.02.08 176 53 8.4 13.5 BDL
MON / TUE 11/12.02.08 188 55 9.1 12.4 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/15.02.08 146 54 8.6 12.1 BDL
MON / TUE 18/19.02.08 164 57 8.4 11.9 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.02.08 140 53 7.3 10.9 BDL
MON / TUE 25/26.02.08 188 59 8.9 11.6 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 28/29.02.08 172 56 8.7 12.3 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA
Location : Working Bench South Block (DA-1)
SEASON : POST MONSOON`07
WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

THU / FRI 06/07.10.05 175 55 8.9 10.9 BDL


I
SAT / SUN 08/09.10.05 159 51 7.9 10.4 BDL
SAT / SUN 15/16.10.05 192 68 9.5 19.4 BDL
II
MON / TUE 17/18.10.05 150 54 8.0 9.1 BDL
WED / THU 19/20.10.05 209 72 8.6 10.3 BDL
III
FRI / SAT 21/22.10.05 200 70 8.2 10.0 BDL
TUE / WED 25/26.10.05 169 53 7.2 8.8 BDL
IV
THU / FRI 27/28.10.05 200 68 8.1 9.6 BDL
WED / THU 02/03.11.05 189 65 8.2 12.1 BDL
V
SAT / SUN 05/06.11.05 215 67 8.8 12.7 BDL
TUE / WED 08/09.11.05 253 83 10.1 13.5 BDL
VI
THU / FRI 10/11.11.05 227 81 9.6 12.0 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.11.05 301 98 11.6 14.8 BDL
VII
WED / THU 16/17.11.05 281 94 11.2 14.0 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.11.05 196 65 8.5 11.7 BDL
VIII
WED / THU 23/24.11.05 180 61 8.0 10.8 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.11.05 316 116 13.1 17.0 BDL
IX
WED / THU 30.11/01.12.05 329 122 13.9 18.5 BDL
SAT / SUN 03/04.12.05 320 115 13.3 16.4 BDL
X
TUE / WED 06/07.12.05 331 118 14.2 18.1 BDL
FRI / SAT 09/10.12.05 340 120 15.7 19.3 BDL
XI
MON / TUE 12/13.12.05 356 125 16.8 20.5 BDL
THU / FRI 15/16.12.05 340 120 17.3 20.5 BDL
XII
SAT / SUN 17/18.12.05 331 116 16.5 19.9 BDL
TUE / WED 20/21.12.05 330 122 14.5 18.8 BDL
XIII
THU / FRI 22/23.12.05 351 127 17.0 20.1 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Working Bench North Block (Deposit-2W) (DA-2)


SEASON : POST MONSOON`07

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.09.07 170 57 9.3 11.5 BDL


I
THU/FRI 05/06.09.07 160 51 6.4 9.3 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.09.07 155 53 7.5 8.7 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.09.07 170 56 7.7 9.0 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.09.07 220 73 8.6 10.3 BDL
III
THU/FRI 19/20.09.07 206 70 8.2 10.1 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.09.07 160 50 6.0 7.5 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.09.07 197 69 7.1 8.8 BDL
MON / TUE 01/02.10.07 176 63 8.5 10.7 BDL
V
THU/FRI 04/05.10.07 221 69 9.7 12.0 BDL
MON / TUE 08/09.10.07 268 83 10.6 12.8 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 11/12.10.07 271 81 11.2 13.0 BDL
MON / TUE 15/16.10.07 280 92 11.0 13.5 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 18/19.10.07 270 90 10.8 13.2 BDL
MON / TUE 22/23.10.07 206 65 8.9 12.4 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 25/26.10.07 189 64 8.0 10.5 BDL
MON / TUE 29/30.10.07 301 109 11.7 14.2 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.11.07 312 117 12.4 16.0 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.11.07 300 110 10.8 12.5 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.11.07 319 115 11.3 13.9 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.11.07 322 118 14.0 16.9 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/16.11.07 317 117 13.6 15.0 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.11.07 326 118 16.0 19.0 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.11.07 348 122 17.1 20.7 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.11.07 355 132 15.8 17.6 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.11.07 341 130 15.1 16.9 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Working Bench North Block (Deposit 3E) (DA-3)


SEASON : POST MONSOON`07

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.09.07 188 62 9.4 11.1 BDL


I
THU/FRI 05/06.09.07 174 53 8.4 10.3 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.09.07 206 68 9.0 10.2 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.09.07 166 57 8.3 9.0 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.09.07 246 83 9.6 11.8 BDL
III
THU/FRI 19/20.09.07 221 80 8.8 10.5 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.09.07 170 52 7.4 9.0 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.09.07 221 71 8.8 10.4 BDL
MON / TUE 01/02.10.07 216 70 9.5 12.0 BDL
V
THU/FRI 04/05.10.07 245 83 10.3 12.4 BDL
MON / TUE 08/09.10.07 290 98 11.6 15.0 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 11/12.10.07 278 96 11.2 14.6 BDL
MON / TUE 15/16.10.07 316 105 12.1 15.3 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 18/19.10.07 300 100 11.8 15.0 BDL
MON / TUE 22/23.10.07 212 68 9.2 10.6 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 25/26.10.07 201 67 8.9 10.4 BDL
MON / TUE 29/30.10.07 392 141 14.0 18.2 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.11.07 378 135 13.2 16.8 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.11.07 362 136 12.4 15.7 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.11.07 355 128 12.0 15.3 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.11.07 391 146 15.2 18.7 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/16.11.07 402 148 15.9 20.1 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.11.07 380 139 18.0 21.3 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.11.07 370 130 17.6 20.0 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.11.07 341 130 15.1 16.9 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.11.07 405 146 17.2 19.8 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : 100M Away from Crushing Plant (DA-4) SEASON : POST MONSOON`07

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.09.07 197 59 7.9 9.1 BDL


I
THU/FRI 05/06.09.07 189 56 7.5 8.8 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.09.07 160 52 6.6 7.5 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.09.07 139 49 6.0 6.8 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.09.07 190 65 7.6 9.4 BDL
III
THU/FRI 19/20.09.07 198 66 7.9 10.0 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.09.07 181 64 6.8 8.1 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.09.07 172 62 6.5 7.9 BDL
MON / TUE 01/02.10.07 175 61 8.0 9.5 BDL
V
THU/FRI 04/05.10.07 201 63 8.4 9.9 BDL
MON / TUE 08/09.10.07 281 94 10.8 12.4 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 11/12.10.07 269 88 10.5 12.0 BDL
MON / TUE 15/16.10.07 291 96 11.3 12.8 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 18/19.10.07 283 94 10.9 12.3 BDL
MON / TUE 22/23.10.07 200 65 8.8 9.8 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 25/26.10.07 226 66 9.0 10.3 BDL
MON / TUE 29/30.10.07 296 100 12.0 13.4 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.11.07 291 99 11.2 14.7 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.11.07 288 100 11.2 12.7 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.11.07 299 102 12.0 13.2 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.11.07 291 108 12.7 14.3 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/16.11.07 301 110 13.4 16.0 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.11.07 321 110 14.1 18.3 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.11.07 312 106 16.3 19.4 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.11.07 350 130 14.2 16.3 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.11.07 336 120 14.0 16.1 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : 100M Away from Screening Plant (DA-5) SEASON : POST MONSOON`07

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.09.07 205 61 7.8 8.9 BDL


I
THU/FRI 05/06.09.07 211 61 8.0 9.2 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.09.07 134 48 6.1 6.7 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.09.07 161 51 7.2 8.5 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.09.07 201 64 7.1 8.6 BDL
III
THU/FRI 19/20.09.07 210 66 7.8 9.3 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.09.07 205 68 7.2 9.1 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.09.07 190 63 6.9 8.4 BDL
MON / TUE 01/02.10.07 185 62 8.5 9.6 BDL
V
THU/FRI 04/05.10.07 216 66 9.2 10.3 BDL
MON / TUE 08/09.10.07 301 100 10.8 12.5 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 11/12.10.07 282 96 10.2 11.7 BDL
MON / TUE 15/16.10.07 300 100 10.8 12.0 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 18/19.10.07 285 97 10.6 11.9 BDL
MON / TUE 22/23.10.07 225 68 9.8 10.8 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 25/26.10.07 242 67 10.0 11.1 BDL
MON / TUE 29/30.10.07 306 103 12.1 14.2 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.11.07 294 100 11.9 15.0 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.11.07 314 112 13.4 16.4 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.11.07 300 110 12.2 15.9 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.11.07 311 112 15.2 17.7 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/16.11.07 311 112 15.2 17.7 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.11.07 366 129 17.2 19.7 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.11.07 341 121 16.9 19.6 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.11.07 370 135 16.0 18.3 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.11.07 351 133 15.8 18.0 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location :100M Away from Loading Plant (DA-6) SEASON : POST MONSOON`07

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.09.07 243 63 8.7 9.1 BDL


I
THU/FRI 05/06.09.07 231 60 8.3 9.0 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.09.07 152 50 7.0 7.9 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.09.07 175 55 7.3 8.4 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.09.07 200 67 7.5 8.9 BDL
III
THU/FRI 19/20.09.07 217 70 8.2 9.7 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.09.07 191 66 7.8 9.3 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.09.07 176 60 7.4 9.0 BDL
MON / TUE 01/02.10.07 206 67 10.2 12.2 BDL
V
THU/FRI 04/05.10.07 238 68 10.5 12.6 BDL
MON / TUE 08/09.10.07 295 99 11.2 13.1 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 11/12.10.07 290 98 11.0 13.0 BDL
MON / TUE 15/16.10.07 316 110 11.6 13.2 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 18/19.10.07 308 106 11.4 13.0 BDL
MON / TUE 22/23.10.07 249 68 9.5 11.1 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 25/26.10.07 260 69 9.8 10.8 BDL
MON / TUE 29/30.10.07 356 130 12.5 14.6 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.11.07 360 137 13.0 14.8 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.11.07 382 141 14.7 17.8 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.11.07 375 137 14.0 17.0 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.11.07 380 135 16.1 19.2 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/16.11.07 377 134 15.5 18.0 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.11.07 401 139 18.4 21.5 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.11.07 391 138 18.0 20.7 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.11.07 397 140 17.4 20.0 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.11.07 410 142 18.0 20.3 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Donimalai Township (DA-7) SEASON : POST MONSOON`07

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.09.07 88 32 5.9 7.6 BDL


I
THU/FRI 05/06.09.07 82 30 5.3 7.2 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.09.07 76 29 5.1 7.1 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.09.07 91 31 5.7 7.9 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.09.07 85 28 6.3 8.2 BDL
III
THU/FRI 19/20.09.07 91 33 6.4 8.5 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.09.07 69 34 5.8 7.6 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.09.07 78 31 6.3 7.8 BDL
MON / TUE 01/02.10.07 71 32 5.9 6.7 BDL
V
THU/FRI 04/05.10.07 89 34 6.3 6.9 BDL
MON / TUE 08/09.10.07 96 38 5.5 7.3 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 11/12.10.07 85 36 5.9 7.8 BDL
MON / TUE 15/16.10.07 87 37 6.2 8.1 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 18/19.10.07 76 35 6.7 8.9 BDL
MON / TUE 22/23.10.07 93 34 6.6 9.2 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 25/26.10.07 102 35 7.3 8.4 BDL
MON / TUE 29/30.10.07 105 36 7.7 9.4 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.11.07 95 38 6.9 8.6 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.11.07 87 39 6.3 8.2 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.11.07 101 39 6.8 8.3 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.11.07 78 36 7.2 9.3 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/16.11.07 90 32 7.4 9.7 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.11.07 102 34 7.1 9.6 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.11.07 96 33 6.9 7.6 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.11.07 102 35 7.0 8.8 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.11.07 108 38 7.2 9.4 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Narsapur Village (DA-8) SEASON : POST MONSOON`07

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.09.07 124 46 8.6 10.9 BDL


I
THU/FRI 05/06.09.07 108 42 8.0 9.6 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.09.07 94 39 8.2 10.3 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.09.07 82 38 7.6 9.6 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.09.07 102 43 7.7 9.6 BDL
III
THU/FRI 19/20.09.07 91 40 8.3 10.3 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.09.07 116 44 9.3 11.5 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.09.07 130 49 9.4 12.6 BDL
MON / TUE 01/02.10.07 168 58 11.4 13.8 BDL
V
THU/FRI 04/05.10.07 172 62 10.6 12.1 BDL
MON / TUE 08/09.10.07 95 43 8.9 11.6 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 11/12.10.07 127 51 9.6 12.1 BDL
MON / TUE 15/16.10.07 172 58 13.5 15.3 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 18/19.10.07 162 64 14.2 17.2 BDL
MON / TUE 22/23.10.07 199 73 15.1 18.6 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 25/26.10.07 165 67 13.5 15.3 BDL
MON / TUE 29/30.10.07 149 62 14.2 16.7 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.11.07 171 68 15.5 17.3 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.11.07 160 63 14.3 16.8 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.11.07 152 61 14.9 17.3 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.11.07 188 69 16.2 18.2 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/16.11.07 172 62 14.9 16.3 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.11.07 184 60 15.6 17.0 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.11.07 165 67 14.2 16.2 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.11.07 172 69 16.2 18.3 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.11.07 156 62 15.3 17.4 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Ubbalagandi (DA-9) SEASON : POST MONSOON`07

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.09.07 74 36 7.5 9.1 BDL


I
THU/FRI 05/06.09.07 82 39 7.9 9.5 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.09.07 104 42 8.6 10.1 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.09.07 91 40 7.6 8.9 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.09.07 68 32 7.1 9.4 BDL
III
THU/FRI 19/20.09.07 84 36 7.3 8.4 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.09.07 76 33 7.0 7.9 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.09.07 83 35 7.8 8.6 BDL
MON / TUE 01/02.10.07 104 38 7.4 8.1 BDL
V
THU/FRI 04/05.10.07 124 43 7.6 9.4 BDL
MON / TUE 08/09.10.07 130 45 8.2 10.3 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 11/12.10.07 124 41 7.9 9.6 BDL
MON / TUE 15/16.10.07 114 40 6.4 7.8 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 18/19.10.07 96 38 7.2 9.4 BDL
MON / TUE 22/23.10.07 120 43 6.6 9.3 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 25/26.10.07 104 41 7.3 8.6 BDL
MON / TUE 29/30.10.07 112 44 8.1 9.4 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.11.07 96 39 7.6 9.1 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.11.07 110 42 8.6 10.3 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.11.07 136 46 7.6 9.6 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.11.07 141 48 8.8 10.2 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/16.11.07 126 45 7.5 9.6 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.11.07 114 42 7.9 9.6 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.11.07 106 41 8.6 10.4 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.11.07 136 47 9.4 11.2 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.11.07 123 44 8.6 10.9 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Bhujanga Nagar (DA-10) SEASON : POST MONSOON`07

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.09.07 96 41 7.4 9.6 BDL


I
THU/FRI 05/06.09.07 106 44 7.9 10.3 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.09.07 86 39 7.3 9.6 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.09.07 82 37 7.6 9.8 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.09.07 108 42 8.3 10.9 BDL
III
THU/FRI 19/20.09.07 92 39 7.6 9.4 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.09.07 108 43 8.2 10.6 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.09.07 134 46 8.4 10.9 BDL
MON / TUE 01/02.10.07 146 49 9.0 11.6 BDL
V
THU/FRI 04/05.10.07 171 56 9.1 12.1 BDL
MON / TUE 08/09.10.07 155 52 8.6 10.8 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 11/12.10.07 162 57 8.9 11.7 BDL
MON / TUE 15/16.10.07 176 63 10.3 12.6 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 18/19.10.07 142 58 9.6 11.7 BDL
MON / TUE 22/23.10.07 154 52 8.6 10.6 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 25/26.10.07 136 48 8.1 9.6 BDL
MON / TUE 29/30.10.07 176 53 10.6 13.6 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.11.07 186 57 12.6 14.9 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.11.07 194 63 13.6 15.4 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.11.07 199 65 12.4 14.6 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.11.07 148 58 13.3 15.9 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/16.11.07 156 52 14.6 16.2 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.11.07 173 56 13.8 15.4 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.11.07 184 59 14.6 17.1 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.11.07 188 67 15.1 17.9 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.11.07 175 64 14.7 16.2 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Taranagar (DA-11) SEASON : POST MONSOON`07

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.09.07 114 43 7.3 9.5 BDL


I
THU/FRI 05/06.09.07 106 41 7 9.1 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.09.07 96 39 6.4 8.6 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.09.07 126 42 7.5 9.4 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.09.07 146 44 7.9 9.7 BDL
III
THU/FRI 19/20.09.07 138 42 8.1 10.3 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.09.07 154 46 7.4 10.1 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.09.07 168 48 7.6 9.3 BDL
MON / TUE 01/02.10.07 173 58 8.4 10.2 BDL
V
THU/FRI 04/05.10.07 184 61 8.8 10.7 BDL
MON / TUE 08/09.10.07 168 57 7.8 11.6 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 11/12.10.07 144 53 8.6 10.7 BDL
MON / TUE 15/16.10.07 129 52 9.6 11.9 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 18/19.10.07 156 59 11.6 13.5 BDL
MON / TUE 22/23.10.07 142 46 13.8 15.6 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 25/26.10.07 137 49 12.4 14.9 BDL
MON / TUE 29/30.10.07 166 54 14.6 16.9 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.11.07 192 66 13.5 15.4 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.11.07 184 62 12.9 13.7 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.11.07 199 68 11.6 13.5 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.11.07 184 65 12.5 14.8 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/16.11.07 167 59 13.2 15.6 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.11.07 172 67 14.6 16.5 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.11.07 188 66 15.3 17.2 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.11.07 162 62 14.8 16.8 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.11.07 184 65 15.2 17.6 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Sandur (Krishna Nagar) (DA-12) SEASON : POST MONSOON`07

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.09.07 176 62 8.8 11.4 BDL


I
THU/FRI 05/06.09.07 159 58 7.9 10.9 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.09.07 148 57 8.1 10.5 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.09.07 156 50 8.6 11.9 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.09.07 176 53 9.4 12.4 BDL
III
THU/FRI 19/20.09.07 193 59 10.3 13.3 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.09.07 208 64 11.6 14.5 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.09.07 188 59 10.9 12.8 BDL
MON / TUE 01/02.10.07 162 62 11.6 14.0 BDL
V
THU/FRI 04/05.10.07 152 60 10.8 13.1 BDL
MON / TUE 08/09.10.07 179 57 10.3 12.8 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 11/12.10.07 166 54 9.6 13.8 BDL
MON / TUE 15/16.10.07 196 54 10.1 12.7 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 18/19.10.07 218 67 11.6 13.9 BDL
MON / TUE 22/23.10.07 204 66 10.9 12.5 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 25/26.10.07 178 58 9.6 11.7 BDL
MON / TUE 29/30.10.07 210 68 11.7 14.2 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.11.07 236 78 12.6 15.4 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.11.07 186 55 13.5 16.7 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.11.07 169 54 12.4 14.8 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.11.07 189 60 12.1 15.1 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/16.11.07 176 59 11.9 14.6 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.11.07 210 72 14.9 16.4 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.11.07 187 68 14.2 15.7 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.11.07 234 82 13.9 17.1 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.11.07 222 79 14.6 16.8 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Naulati (DA-13) SEASON : POST MONSOON`07

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.09.07 121 42 7.4 9.6 BDL


I
THU/FRI 05/06.09.07 104 39 7.1 9.2 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.09.07 96 37 6.4 8.8 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.09.07 116 38 6.7 9.1 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.09.07 138 43 7.6 10.4 BDL
III
THU/FRI 19/20.09.07 151 41 8.2 11.6 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.09.07 172 46 8.9 12.9 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.09.07 148 42 7.6 11.4 BDL
MON / TUE 01/02.10.07 120 41 6.9 10.1 BDL
V
THU/FRI 04/05.10.07 135 43 7.3 9.4 BDL
MON / TUE 08/09.10.07 109 39 6.4 8.6 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 11/12.10.07 95 36 6.2 8.9 BDL
MON / TUE 15/16.10.07 106 43 7.1 9.6 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 18/19.10.07 126 39 7.6 10.1 BDL
MON / TUE 22/23.10.07 138 41 8.0 10.7 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 25/26.10.07 156 46 8.4 11.6 BDL
MON / TUE 29/30.10.07 172 48 8.9 10.3 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.11.07 184 45 9.1 12.4 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.11.07 177 43 8.4 11.7 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.11.07 179 46 8.2 11.9 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.11.07 195 49 8.8 12.3 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/16.11.07 184 47 8.2 12.7 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.11.07 170 46 7.6 11.9 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.11.07 154 45 7.9 12.1 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.11.07 138 42 7.9 11.9 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.11.07 149 44 8.1 13.8 BDL

(Contd…)

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Devagiri (DA-14) SEASON : POST MONSOON`07

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.09.07 94 36.0 7.4 9.4 BDL


I
THU/FRI 05/06.09.07 78 33.0 7.3 9.1 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.09.07 84 36.0 7.9 10.4 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.09.07 92 37.0 7.5 10.9 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.09.07 87.0 35.0 7.1 9.4 BDL
III
THU/FRI 19/20.09.07 92 37.0 7.5 9.8 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.09.07 104.0 39.0 8.2 10.6 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.09.07 112 41.0 8.4 11.7 BDL
MON / TUE 01/02.10.07 90.0 39.0 7.6 9.6 BDL
V
THU/FRI 04/05.10.07 68.0 34.0 6.4 8.6 BDL
MON / TUE 08/09.10.07 116.0 38.0 7.6 9.4 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 11/12.10.07 128.0 39.0 8.3 10.3 BDL
MON / TUE 15/16.10.07 136.0 44.0 8.6 11.6 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 18/19.10.07 128.0 41.0 8.4 11.6 BDL
MON / TUE 22/23.10.07 116.0 37.0 7.4 10.3 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 25/26.10.07 92.0 36.0 7.0 9.6 BDL
MON / TUE 29/30.10.07 121.0 39.0 8.4 12.4 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.11.07 138.0 44.0 9.4 12.6 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.11.07 132.0 41.0 8.4 10.9 BDL
X
THU/FRI 07/08.11.07 124.0 38.0 7.9 9.6 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.11.07 116.0 36.0 7.2 10.6 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 14/16.11.07 108.0 37.0 7.6 11.3 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.11.07 147.0 39.0 7.9 12.6 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 21/22.11.07 145.0 42.0 8.9 13.4 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.11.07 134.0 39.0 8.5 12.7 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.11.07 120.0 37.0 8.0 12.1 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Working Bench South Block (DA-1) SEASON : SUMMER`08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.03.08 220 66 14.2 18.6 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.03.08 217 65 14.0 18.3 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.03.08 179 61 13.3 16.9 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.03.08 187 62 14.1 17.9 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.03.08 234 67 14.6 18.1 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.03.08 226 68 14.8 17.8 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.03.08 249 70 15.8 17.8 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.03.08 233 68 15.3 17.0 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.04.08 225 68 14.9 16.9 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.04.08 221 67 15.4 17.3 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.04.08 234 68 15 16.9 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.04.08 226 67 14.6 16.4 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.04.08 249 71 15.7 17.1 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.04.08 237 67 15.5 16.7 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.04.08 217 65 14.8 16.9 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.04.08 228 67 15.3 17.2 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.04.08 198 60 14.1 16.6 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.05.08 209 63 14.8 16.9 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.05.08 189 56 14.4 15.8 BDL
X
THU/FRI 08/09.05.08 214 60 14.9 16.8 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.05.08 208 60 14.7 16.3 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 15/16.05.08 216 61 15.2 16.8 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.05.08 184 53 14.0 15.6 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 22/23.05.08 180 52 14.3 15.2 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.05.08 173 51 14.8 15.2 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.05.08 174 51 14.5 15.6 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Working Bench North Block (Deposit-2W) (DA-2)


SEASON : SUMMER`08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.03.08 188 57 13.4 17.8 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.03.08 192 59 14.4 19.1 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.03.08 169 52 12.9 15.8 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.03.08 173 56 13.6 18.3 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.03.08 192 57 13.8 14.7 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.03.08 189 55 14.1 14.9 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.03.08 215 58 14.6 16.1 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.03.08 210 57 15.3 15.7 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.04.08 192 56 14.1 16.0 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.04.08 184 55 14.6 15.3 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.04.08 209 56 15.2 16.3 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.04.08 194 56 14.9 15.8 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.04.08 216 58 14.9 15.6 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.04.08 225 59 15.2 16.3 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.04.08 188 53,8 14,4 16.1 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.04.08 206 56 14.9 16.7 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.04.08 179 58 14.8 16.5 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.05.08 190 56 14.4 18.3 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.05.08 206 60 15.2 16.8 BDL
X
THU/FRI 08/09.05.08 217 59 14.8 15.8 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.05.08 218 62 15.7 17.6 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 15/16.05.08 225 64 15.9 17.4 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.05.08 202 57 15.1 16.7 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 22/23.05.08 189 58 15.5 17.1 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.05.08 217 59 14.6 16.8 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.05.08 193 55 14.2 15.9 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Working Bench North Block (Deposit 3E) (DA-3)


SEASON : SUMMER`08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.03.08 188 62 9.4 11.1 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.03.08 174 53 8.4 10.3 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.03.08 206 68 9.0 10.2 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.03.08 166 57 8.3 9.0 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.03.08 246 83 9.6 11.8 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.03.08 221 80 8.8 10.5 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.03.08 170 52 7.4 9.0 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.03.08 221 71 8.8 10.4 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.04.08 216 70 9.5 12.0 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.04.08 245 83 10.3 12.4 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.04.08 290 98 11.6 15.0 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.04.08 278 96 11.2 14.6 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.04.08 316 105 12.1 15.3 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.04.08 300 100 11.8 15.0 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.04.08 212 68 9.2 10.6 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.04.08 201 67 8.9 10.4 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.04.08 392 141 14.0 18.2 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.05.08 378 135 13.2 16.8 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.05.08 362 136 12.4 15.7 BDL
X
THU/FRI 08/09.05.08 355 128 12.0 15.3 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.05.08 391 146 15.2 18.7 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 15/16.05.08 402 148 15.9 20.1 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.05.08 380 139 18.0 21.3 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 22/23.05.08 370 130 17.6 20.0 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.05.08 341 130 15.1 16.9 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.05.08 405 146 17.2 19.8 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : 100M Away from Crushing Plant (DA-4) SEASON : SUMMER`08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.03.08 257 70 13.6 18.4 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.03.08 238 68 14 18.8 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.03.08 216 65 12.9 17.2 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.03.08 208 62 13.3 17.6 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.03.08 244 68 13.7 17.8 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.03.08 254 70 14.5 18.1 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.03.08 262 72 15.4 18.4 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.03.08 270 75 16.3 18.9 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.04.08 249 68 15.1 17.3 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.04.08 252 65 15.7 18.2 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.04.08 238 65 14.8 17.1 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.04.08 230 63 15.3 17.6 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.04.08 255 66 16 17.9 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.04.08 264 68 15,2 18.3 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.04.08 237 61 15.3 17.4 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.04.08 244 63 15.6 17.7 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.04.08 214 60 15.7 16.8 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.05.08 232 63 16.1 16.9 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.05.08 235 62 15.1 16.7 BDL
X
THU/FRI 08/09.05.08 216 61 15.7 16.6 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.05.08 242 66 16.2 17.5 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 15/16.05.08 235 65 15.8 17.1 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.05.08 213 61 15.8 16.8 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 22/23.05.08 207 59 15.9 17.3 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.05.08 223 60 15 16.1 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.05.08 211 54 15.3 16.6 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : 100M Away from Screening Plant (DA-5) SEASON : SUMMER`08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.03.08 271 75 14.8 19.6 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.03.08 264 71 13.6 18.2 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.03.08 242 67,1 14.2 18.0 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.03.08 231 64 13.6 17.2 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.03.08 286 72 14.8 18.6 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.03.08 274 67 14.2 18.1 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.03.08 305 72 15.7 19.3 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.03.08 285 70 15.0 18.4 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.04.08 315 74 16.0 19.4 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.04.08 323 72 15.6 18.7 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.04.08 308 70 15.1 18.2 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.04.08 295 68 14.9 18.1 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.04.08 289 74 15.9 18.7 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.04.08 306 77 16.0 19.2 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.04.08 305 79 16.3 18.5 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.04.08 317 81 16.9 18.8 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.04.08 289 77 15.6 17.4 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.05.08 304 79 15.9 18.0 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.05.08 278 72 14.8 17.8 BDL
X
THU/FRI 08/09.05.08 292 75 15.6 18.4 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.05.08 310 73 15.8 18.6 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 15/16.05.08 317 74 16.2 18.8 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.05.08 274 67 14.9 17.8 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 22/23.05.08 282 69 15.4 18.3 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.05.08 267 65 15.1 17.2 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.05.08 273 62 15.4 17.6 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location :100M Away from Loading Plant (DA-6) SEASON : SUMMER`08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.03.08 319 117 15.1 19.6 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.03.08 325 113 14.6 18.1 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.03.08 273 89 14.6 18.1 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.03.08 280 91 14.8 17.7 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.03.08 324 106 14.9 18.8 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.03.08 319 98 14.2 18.2 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.03.08 311 94 16.2 19.5 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.03.08 328 93 15.7 18.8 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.04.08 337 98 16.8 20.1 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.04.08 319 96 15.9 19.4 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.04.08 310 94 15.6 19.7 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.04.08 318 96 15.8 20.2 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.04.08 329 98 15.9 18.7 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.04.08 309 97 15.6 18.4 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.04.08 343 102 15.9 19.7 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.04.08 327 97 16.4 19.3 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.04.08 317 94 14.8 18.6 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.05.08 295 91 15.3 17.6 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.05.08 308 88 15.3 17.9 BDL
X
THU/FRI 08/09.05.08 312 91 15.8 18.3 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.05.08 341 90 15.9 18.4 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 15/16.05.08 329 88 15.7 18.0 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.05.08 310 84 15.2 17.7 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 22/23.05.08 310 86 15.6 17.4 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.05.08 313 83 15.6 16.9 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.05.08 320 85 15.3 17.0 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Donimalai Township (DA-7) SEASON : SUMMER`08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.03.08 90 36 6.4 8.4 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.03.08 88 35 6.3 8.6 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.03.08 94 39 6.5 8.7 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.03.08 102 42 6.8 7.3 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.03.08 94 40 6.3 7.6 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.03.08 87 37 5.9 7.2 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.03.08 78 36 5.6 6.7 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.03.08 94 35 6.1 7.3 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.04.08 96 34 6.6 7.5 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.04.08 105 39 7.1 8.2 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.04.08 112 43 7.5 8.4 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.04.08 108 42 7.3 8.6 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.04.08 96 34 6.4 8.3 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.04.08 81 32 6.2 8.1 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.04.08 89 34 6.1 7.6 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.04.08 94 35 6.4 8.4 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.04.08 76 32 5.9 7.4 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.05.08 82 36 6.3 8.3 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.05.08 94 38 6.2 8.1 BDL
X
THU/FRI 08/09.05.08 106 41 6.5 8.4 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.05.08 118 45 7.3 7.6 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 15/16.05.08 108 42 7.1 8.3 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.05.08 119 46 7.6 8.2 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 22/23.05.08 104 41 6.8 7.6 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.05.08 96 37 7.2 8.1 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.05.08 103 39 7.1 8.4 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Narsapur Village (DA-8) SEASON : SUMMER`08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.03.08 188 68 14.1 17.3 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.03.08 172 66 13.8 16.4 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.03.08 168 62 13.2 15.9 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.03.08 149 59 12.6 15.6 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.03.08 153 65 13.8 15.1 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.03.08 172 67 14.2 16.8 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.03.08 168 62 15.4 17.2 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.03.08 149 60 14.2 16.3 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.04.08 158 57 13.8 15.6 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.04.08 176 63 14.2 16.7 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.04.08 196 66 16.2 18.1 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.04.08 184 62 16.4 18.9 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.04.08 137 51 15.1 17.6 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.04.08 166 56 14.2 15.6 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.04.08 175 60 14.9 16.7 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.04.08 164 61 15.2 17.3 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.04.08 196 64 16.2 18.4 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.05.08 204 68 16.8 19.2 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.05.08 196 62 15.7 17.6 BDL
X
THU/FRI 08/09.05.08 214 67 16.2 18.6 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.05.08 224 73 16.6 18.2 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 15/16.05.08 196 68 16.2 18.9 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.05.08 168 65 17.3 19.6 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 22/23.05.08 175 69 16.8 18.4 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.05.08 187 66 15.9 17.1 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.05.08 196 70 16.3 18.3 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Ubbalagandi (DA-9) SEASON : SUMMER`08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.03.08 129 46 8.7 11 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.03.08 134 48 8.9 11.5 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.03.08 152 51 9.6 12.1 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.03.08 148 46 8.6 11.8 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.03.08 126 42 8.1 10.6 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.03.08 162 46 8.3 10.9 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.03.08 145 41 8.4 11.2 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.03.08 161 44 9.2 12.3 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.04.08 120 39 8.1 11.5 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.04.08 132 35 8.5 11.7 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.04.08 175 39 9.3 12.1 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.04.08 164 44 9.1 11.8 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.04.08 135 42 8.6 11.4 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.04.08 148 46 8.3 10.7 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.04.08 152 48 8.2 11.1 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.04.08 166 47 8.4 12.3 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.04.08 184 46 8.1 11.8 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.05.08 196 45 9.4 12.4 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.05.08 210 49 9.6 11.7 BDL
X
THU/FRI 08/09.05.08 186 45 8.9 10.3 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.05.08 126 42 8.3 11.8 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 15/16.05.08 138 43 8.6 11.7 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.05.08 154 46 8.7 12.1 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 22/23.05.08 168 48 9.1 12.9 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.05.08 176 52 8.7 11.8 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.05.08 188 47 9.0 12.1 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Bhujanga Nagar (DA-10) SEASON : SUMMER`08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.03.08 215 73 14.1 17.3 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.03.08 208 71 13.9 16.8 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.03.08 196 68 13.6 15.9 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.03.08 176 62 12.8 14.6 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.03.08 188 64 13.1 15.3 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.03.08 195 69 14.8 16.2 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.03.08 175 65 13.6 15.9 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.03.08 146 62 12.9 14.9 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.04.08 172 64 15.1 17.3 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.04.08 182 69 14.6 17.1 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.04.08 138 58 12.6 14.9 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.04.08 151 61 12.0 14.6 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.04.08 168 64 13.9 15.6 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.04.08 176 62 14.8 17.2 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.04.08 195 70 15.1 17.9 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.04.08 214 74 15.8 17.5 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.04.08 227 72 16.3 18.1 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.05.08 238 76 16.2 19.3 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.05.08 205 70 15.4 17.5 BDL
X
THU/FRI 08/09.05.08 249 73 16.6 17.4 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.05.08 235 71 14.2 16.9 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 15/16.05.08 216 70 13.9 15.5 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.05.08 208 69 15.1 17.1 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 22/23.05.08 196 67 14.6 16.8 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.05.08 229 75 14.9 17.1 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.05.08 210 72 15.3 18.3 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Taranagar (DA-11) SEASON : SUMMER`08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.03.08 196 73 15.9 17.9 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.03.08 210 76 16.3 18.1 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.03.08 182 71 15.2 17.6 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.03.08 184 74 16.1 18.1 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.03.08 221 78 16.8 18.8 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.03.08 176 72 15.8 17.2 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.03.08 192 75 14.8 16.5 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.03.08 176 70 13.9 15.6 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.04.08 192 74 16.1 17.1 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.04.08 188 70 16.4 18.2 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.04.08 206 79 17.0 19.4 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.04.08 216 81 17.6 19.1 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.04.08 228 82 17.2 19.5 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.04.08 234 84 18.2 21.5 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.04.08 210 80 17.1 19.9 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.04.08 206 79 16.9 20.4 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.04.08 186 74 15.8 17.6 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.05.08 196 72 15.4 18.6 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.05.08 210 82 16.3 19.3 BDL
X
THU/FRI 08/09.05.08 211 85 16.8 18.4 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.05.08 226 88 17.1 18.8 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 15/16.05.08 238 84 16.4 18.4 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.05.08 216 79 15.9 18.0 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 22/23.05.08 196 75 14.8 17.3 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.05.08 208 78 16.2 19.5 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.05.08 224 76 16.8 19.7 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Sandur (Krishna Nagar) (DA-12) SEASON : SUMMER`08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.03.08 224 73 15.6 17.9 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.03.08 248 76 16.3 18.3 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.03.08 230 75 15.9 18.6 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.03.08 206 71 14.8 17.5 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.03.08 215 73 15.3 18.3 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.03.08 216 73 16.2 19.5 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.03.08 171 68 14.9 17.2 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.03.08 186 70 15.3 18.3 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.04.08 210 66 16.1 19.2 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.04.08 192 69 15.6 18.4 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.04.08 174 72 16.7 19.5 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.04.08 166 67 15.1 17.6 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.04.08 154 62 14.8 16.5 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.04.08 184 67 15.1 17.5 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.04.08 210 69 16.4 18.6 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.04.08 223 73 16.8 19.2 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.04.08 194 68 15.8 17.5 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.05.08 216 70 14.8 16.2 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.05.08 248 80 16.4 18.1 BDL
X
THU/FRI 08/09.05.08 262 84 17.6 19.5 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.05.08 231 79 16.1 18.6 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 15/16.05.08 242 81 16.6 17.6 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.05.08 195 76 14.8 16.2 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 22/23.05.08 228 81 15.7 17.0 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.05.08 206 75 15.2 16.9 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.05.08 210 78 15.5 17.4 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Naulati (DA-13) SEASON : SUMMER`08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.03.08 210 63 8.2 10.9 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.03.08 216 68 8.8 11.6 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.03.08 229 67 8.6 12.1 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.03.08 216 64 8.1 11.9 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.03.08 176 56 7.9 10.8 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.03.08 196 59 8.1 11.6 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.03.08 188 55 7.6 10.6 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.03.08 208 59 7.9 10.9 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.04.08 202 60 8.1 11.7 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.04.08 196 58 6.9 9.6 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.04.08 218 62 7.3 9.6 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.04.08 236 65 7.5 10.1 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.04.08 256 74 8.8 11.1 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.04.08 238 69 7.6 10.8 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.04.08 210 62 7.5 9.4 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.04.08 176 57 7.1 9.9 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.04.08 188 62 7.4 10.8 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.05.08 210 64 8.0 10.9 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.05.08 204 61 7.2 9.6 BDL
X
THU/FRI 08/09.05.08 234 63 7.9 10.3 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.05.08 220 67 8.4 11.3 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 15/16.05.08 212 65 8.8 11.9 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.05.08 182 57 8.2 10.8 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 22/23.05.08 200 61 8.4 10.6 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.05.08 187 58 8.3 9.6 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.05.08 198 59 8.1 10.3 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA

Location : Devagiri (DA-14) SEASON : SUMMER`08

WEEK DAY DATE SPM RPM SO2 NOx CO

MON / TUE 03/04.03.08 196 56 8.9 11.6 BDL


I
THU/FRI 06/07.03.08 180 52 8.4 11.9 BDL
MON / TUE 10/11.03.08 168 49 8 11.5 BDL
II
THU/FRI 13/14.03.08 154 46 7.6 10.8 BDL
MON / TUE 17/18.03.08 210 51 7.9 10.4 BDL
III
THU/FRI 20/21.03.08 188 54 7.6 10.6 BDL
MON / TUE 24/25.03.08 210 58 8.3 11.5 BDL
IV
THU/FRI 27/28.03.08 190 56 8.1 10.4 BDL
MON / TUE 31/01.04.08 176 55 7.6 10.7 BDL
V
THU/FRI 03/04.04.08 164 54 6.9 9.6 BDL
MON / TUE 07/08.04.08 152 51 6.5 9.2 BDL
VI
THU/FRI 10/11.04.08 148 49 7.3 10.3 BDL
MON / TUE 14/15.04.08 166 54 7.5 10.8 BDL
VII
THU/FRI 17/18.04.08 179 56 7.9 11.1 BDL
MON / TUE 21/22.04.08 224 64 8.1 10.8 BDL
VIII
THU/FRI 24/25.04.08 210 61 8.4 11.5 BDL
MON / TUE 28/29.04.08 196 59 8.2 11.3 BDL
IX
THU/FRI 01/02.05.08 157 54 7.4 10.4 BDL
MON / TUE 05/06.05.08 215 67 8.8 12.3 BDL
X
THU/FRI 08/09.05.08 196 63 8.5 11.5 BDL
MON / TUE 12/13.05.08 215 65 8.7 11.6 BDL
XI
THU/FRI 15/16.05.08 228 68 9.1 12.3 BDL
MON / TUE 19/20.05.08 196 62 8.6 11.7 BDL
XII
THU/FRI 22/23.05.08 188 60 8.3 11.4 BDL
MON / TUE 26/27.05.08 210 63 8.8 10.8 BDL
XIII
THU/FRI 29/30.05.08 184 61 8.6 11.7 BDL

Richardson & Cruddas (1972) Ltd.


SURFACE WATER QUALITY DATA

Location name : Narihalla nallah below the PWD bridge at Narsapur Cross Roads (WQS1)

Post- IS: 2296-1982


Sl. Parameter Unit Monsoon`07
monsoon`07
Winter`07 -08 Summer`08
Class C Norms
No.
1. pH - 7.48 7.48 7.60 7.67 6.5-8.5
Micro
2. Conductivity 148 158 418 456 -
mhos/cm
3. Colour Hazen Units <5 <5 <5 6 300
4. Dissolved Oxygen mg/l 5.8 5.8 5.96 5.69 4.0
o
5. BOD - 5 Days 25 C mg/l <2 <2 <2 <2 3
6. Total Dissolved Solids mg/l 108 118 242 284 1500
7. Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l 24 28 72 84 600
8. Sulphates (as SO 4) mg/l 4 6 18 23 400
9. Nitrates (as NO3) mg/l 3.6 3.4 Nil Nil 50
10. Free Ammonia (as N) mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil -
11. Sodium absorption ratio - 1.44 1.48 1.66 1.84 -
12. Boron (as B) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 Nil Nil -
13. Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.2
+2
14. Iron (as Fe ) mg/l 0.50 0.48 0.19 0.26 50
15. Fluorides (as F) mg/l 0.28 0.24 0.09 0.12 1.5
16. Lead (as Pb) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.1
17. Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 1.5
18. Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 0.40 0.40 <0.01 <0.01 1.5
19. Total Coliforms MPN/100 ml <1100 <1100 <1100 <1100 5000
SURFACE WATER QUALITY DATA

Location name : Nalla D/s of Check dam no.4 near Ubbalagandi village (WQS2)

Post- IS: 2296-1982


Sl. Parameter Unit Monsoon`07
monsoon`07
Winter`07 -08 Summer`08
Class C Norms
No.
1. pH - 7.48 7.24 7.67 7.69 6.5-8.5
Micro
2. Conductivity 148 402 1120 1080 -
mhos/cm
3. Colour Hazen Units <5 <5 <5 <5 300
4. Dissolved Oxygen mg/l 5.8 5.4 5.42 5.12 4.0
o
5. BOD - 5 Days 25 C mg/l <2 3 <2 <2 3
6. Total Dissolved Solids mg/l 108 310 740 684 1500
7. Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l 24 68 238 256 600
8. Sulphates (as SO 4) mg/l 4 20 45 52 400
9. Nitrates (as NO3) mg/l 3.6 4.8 Nil Nil 50
10. Free Ammonia (as N) mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil -
11. Sodium absorption ratio - 1.44 1.40 2.78 2.88 -
12. Boron (as B) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 Nil Nil -
13. Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.2
+2
14. Iron (as Fe ) mg/l 0.50 0.54 0.88 0.68 50
15. Fluorides (as F) mg/l 0.28 0.28 0.13 0.16 1.5
16. Lead (as Pb) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.1
17. Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 1.5
18. Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 0.40 0.30 <0.01 <0.01 1.5
19. Total Coliforms MPN/100 ml <1100 <1100 <1100 <1100 5000
SURFACE WATER QUALITY DATA

Location name : Nalla near KV School, Donimalai Township (WQS3)

Post- IS: 2296-1982


Sl. Parameter Unit Monsoon`07
monsoon`07
Winter`07 -08 Summer`08
Class C Norms
No.
1. pH - 7.80 7.60 7.80 7.86 6.5-8.5
Micro
2. Conductivity 1108 1210 891 838 -
mhos/cm
3. Colour Hazen Units <5 <5 7 8 300
4. Dissolved Oxygen mg/l 5.8 5.6 5.83 5.71 4.0
o
5. BOD - 5 Days 25 C mg/l <2 <2 4 4 3
6. Total Dissolved Solids mg/l 740 710 483 544 1500
7. Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l 194 194 210 238 600
8. Sulphates (as SO 4) mg/l 62 62 42 48 400
9. Nitrates (as NO3) mg/l 4.8 4.8 Nil Nil 50
10. Free Ammonia (as N) mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil -
11. Sodium absorption ratio - 1.28 1.28 1.51 1.64 -
12. Boron (as B) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 Nil Nil -
13. Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 <0.001 0.2
+2
14. Iron (as Fe ) mg/l 0.44 0.44 2.88 3.12 50
15. Fluorides (as F) mg/l 0.14 0.14 0.24 0.19 1.5
16. Lead (as Pb) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.1
17. Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 1.5
18. Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 0.30 0.30 <0.01 <0.01 1.5
19. Total Coliforms MPN/100 ml <1100 <1100 <1100 <1100 5000
SURFACE WATER QUALITY DATA

Location name : Tailing Pond water near Pump House (WQS4)

Post- IS: 2296-1982


Sl. Parameter Unit Monsoon`07
monsoon`07
Winter`07 -08 Summer`08
Class C Norms
No.
1. pH - 7.88 7.88 7.78 7.88 6.5-8.5
Micro
2. Conductivity 1480 1480 1540 1710 -
mhos/cm
3. Colour Hazen Units 8 8 9 10 300
4. Dissolved Oxygen mg/l 5.4 5.4 5.2 5.1 4.0
o
5. BOD - 5 Days 25 C mg/l 4 4 5 5 3
6. Total Dissolved Solids mg/l 1280 1280 1280 1380 1500
7. Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l 348 348 358 394 600
8. Sulphates (as SO 4) mg/l 114 114 114 142 400
9. Nitrates (as NO3) mg/l 11.4 11.4 10.2 9.4 50
10. Free Ammonia (as N) mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil -
11. Sodium absorption ratio - 1.18 1.18 1.28 1.14 -
12. Boron (as B) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 -
13. Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.2
14. Iron (as Fe +2) mg/l 0.70 0.70 0.64 0.64 50
15. Fluorides (as F) mg/l 0.54 0.54 0.50 0.52 1.5
16. Lead (as Pb) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.1
17. Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 1.5
18. Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 1.10 1.10 1.04 1.28 1.5
19. Total Coliforms MPN/100 ml <1100 <1100 <1100 <1100 5000
SURFACE WATER QUALITY DATA

Location name : Nalla D/s of Check dam No.6, constructed below the screening plant and fine ore dump (WQS5)

Post- IS: 2296-1982


Sl. Parameter Unit Monsoon`07
monsoon`07
Winter`07 -08 Summer`08
Class C Norms
No.
1. pH - 7.44 7.28 7.30 7.26 6.5-8.5
Micro
2. Conductivity 380 398 530 584 -
mhos/cm
3. Colour Hazen Units 5 5 10 13 300
4. Dissolved Oxygen mg/l 5.6 5.6 5.28 5.11 4.0
o
5. BOD - 5 Days 25 C mg/l 2 3 7 6 3
6. Total Dissolved Solids mg/l 284 294 290 352 1500
7. Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l 80 88 76 86 600
8. Sulphates (as SO 4) mg/l 18 16 23 28 400
9. Nitrates (as NO3) mg/l 4.2 4.0 Nil Nil 50
10. Free Ammonia (as N) mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil -
11. Sodium absorption ratio - 1.22 1.18 1.64 1.58 -
12. Boron (as B) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 Nil Nil -
13. Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.2
+2
14. Iron (as Fe ) mg/l 0.20 0.22 4.36 4.86 50
15. Fluorides (as F) mg/l 0.18 0.16 0.26 0.32 1.5
16. Lead (as Pb) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.1
17. Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 1.5
18. Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 0.28 0.24 <0.01 <0.01 1.5
19. Total Coliforms MPN/100 ml <1100 <1100 <1100 <1100 5000
GROUND WATER QUALITY DATA

Location : Borewell, Devagiri (WQG1)


Desirable Limit Permissible Limit
Post- Winter`07 -
S.No Parameter Unit Monsoon`07 Summer`08 IS: 10500-1991 IS: 10500-1991
monsoon`07 08 Norms
Norms
1. Colour Hazen Units <5 <5 <5 <5 5 25
2. Odour - Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable
3. Taste - Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable
4. Turbidity NTU 4 4 4 5 5 10
5. pH - 8.10 8.14 8.20 8.24 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5
6. Conductivity µmhos/cm 1510 1580 1680 1710
7. Total dissolved solids mg/l 1053 1120 1240 1380
8. Total Hardness (as CaCO3) mg/l 294 310 380 420 300 600
9. Calcium (as Ca) mg/l 76 80 80 102 75 200
10. Magnesium (as Mg) mg/l 25 26 26 40 30 100
11. Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 1.5
12. Iron (as Fe +2) mg/l 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.14 0.08 1.0
13. Manganese (as Mn) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
14. Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l 210 218 234 248 250 1000
15. Sulphates (as SO4) mg/l 84 90 88 94 200 400
16. Nitrates (as NO3) mg/l 0.68 0.62 0.58 0.64 45 100
17. Fluorides (as F) mg/l 0.24 0.20 0.24 0.28 1.0 1.5
18. Phenols (as C6H5OH) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.001 0.001
19. Mercury (as Hg) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.001 0.001
20. Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
21. Selenium (as Se) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
22. Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
23. Cyanides (as CN) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
24. Lead (as Pb) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
25. Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 0.64 0.60 0.72 0.64 5 5
26. Hexavalent Chromium (as Cr6+) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 -
27. Mineral Oil mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil - -
28. Residual Free chlorine mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.3 1.0
29. Total Coliforms MPN/100 ml -0- -0- -0- -0- Absent Absent
30. E-Coli Nos/100ml -0- -0- -0- -0- Absent Absent
GROUND WATER QUALITY DATA

Location : Borewell, Krishna nagar (WQG2)


Desirable Limit Permissible Limit
Post- Winter`07 -
S.No Parameter Unit Monsoon`07 Summer`08 IS: 10500-1991 IS: 10500-1991
monsoon`07 08 Norms
Norms
1. Colour Hazen Units <5 <5 <5 <5 5 25
2. Odour - Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable
3. Taste - Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable
4. Turbidity NTU 2 4 4 6 5 10
5. pH - 7.50 7.14 7.28 7.14 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5
6. Conductivity µmhos/cm 1680 1720 1890 1910
7. Total dissolved solids mg/l 1310 1390 1480 1590
8. Total Hardness (as CaCO3) mg/l 450 480 540 640 300 600
9. Calcium (as Ca) mg/l 127 140 168 156 75 200
10. Magnesium (as Mg) mg/l 34 31 29 60 30 100
11. Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 1.5
12. Iron (as Fe +2) mg/l 0.40 0.38 0.44 0.42 0.08 1.0
13. Manganese (as Mn) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
14. Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l 540 558 588 602 250 1000
15. Sulphates (as SO4) mg/l 112 124 144 120 200 400
16. Nitrates (as NO3) mg/l 0.54 0.52 0.68 0.62 45 100
17. Fluorides (as F) mg/l 0.40 0.42 0.58 0.50 1.0 1.5
18. Phenols (as C6H5OH) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.001 0.001
19. Mercury (as Hg) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.001 0.001
20. Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
21. Selenium (as Se) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
22. Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
23. Cyanides (as CN) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
24. Lead (as Pb) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
25. Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.4 5 5
26. Hexavalent Chromium (as Cr6+) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 -
27. Mineral Oil mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil - -
28. Residual Free chlorine mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.3 1.0
29. Total Coliforms MPN/100 ml -0- -0- -0- -0- Absent Absent
30. E-Coli Nos/100ml -0- -0- -0- -0- Absent Absent
GROUND WATER QUALITY DATA
Location : Borwell, Bhujanganagar (WQG3)

Post- Desirable Limit Permissible Limit


Monsoon`0 Winter`07 -
S.No Parameter Unit monsoon`0 Summer`08 IS: 10500-1991 IS: 10500-1991
7 08 Norms
7 Norms
1. Colour Hazen Units <5 <5 <5 <5 5 25
2. Odour - Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable
3. Taste - Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable
4. Turbidity NTU 4 4 4 5 5 10
5. pH - 8.26 8.12 8.12 8.24 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5
6. Conductivity µmhos/cm 2180 2050 2050 2180
7. Total dissolved solids mg/l 1700 1680 1540 1680
8. Total Hardness (as CaCO3) mg/l 580 540 540 598 300 600
9. Calcium (as Ca) mg/l 134 124 120 144 75 200
10. Magnesium (as Mg) mg/l 59 55 55 57 30 100
11. Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 1.5
12. Iron (as Fe +2) mg/l 0.38 0.32 0.32 0.28 0.08 1.0
13. Manganese (as Mn) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
14. Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l 544 512 548 528 250 1000
15. Sulphates (as SO4) mg/l 152 148 138 124 200 400
16. Nitrates (as NO3) mg/l 0.54 0.50 0.52 0.50 45 100
17. Fluorides (as F) mg/l 0.20 0.22 0.22 0.20 1.0 1.5
18. Phenols (as C6H5OH) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.001 0.001
19. Mercury (as Hg) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.001 0.001
20. Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
21. Selenium (as Se) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
22. Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
23. Cyanides (as CN) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
24. Lead (as Pb) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
25. Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 0.58 0.50 0.54 0.48 5 5
26. Hexavalent Chromium (as Cr 6+) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 -
27. Mineral Oil mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil - -
28. Residual Free chlorine mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.3 1.0
29. Total Coliforms MPN/100 ml -0- -0- -0- -0- Absent Absent
30. E-Coli Nos/100ml -0- -0- -0- -0- Absent Absent

GROUND WATER QUALITY DATA


Location : Handpump, Ubbalagandi (WQG4)
Post- Desirable Limit Permissible Limit
Monsoon`0 Winter`07 -
Parameter Unit monsoon`0 Summer`08 IS: 10500-1991 IS: 10500-1991
S.No 7 08 Norms
7 Norms
1. Colour Hazen Units <5 <5 <5 <5 5 25
2. Odour - Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable
3. Taste - Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable
4. Turbidity NTU 6 4 4 6 5 10
5. pH - 8.06 8.10 8.08 8.12 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5
6. Conductivity µmhos/cm 1400 1340 1280 1340
7. Total dissolved solids mg/l 988 940 910 940
8. Total Hardness (as CaCO3) mg/l 270 246 288 298 300 600
9. Calcium (as Ca) mg/l 78 70 92 94 75 200
10. Magnesium (as Mg) mg/l 18 17 14 13 30 100
11. Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 1.5
12. Iron (as Fe +2) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.08 1.0
13. Manganese (as Mn) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
14. Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l 228 210 224 264 250 1000
15. Sulphates (as SO4) mg/l 86 70 68 72 200 400
16. Nitrates (as NO3) mg/l 0.68 0.60 0.54 0.50 45 100
17. Fluorides (as F) mg/l 0.30 0.24 0.22 0.24 1.0 1.5
18. Phenols (as C6H5OH) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.001 0.001
19. Mercury (as Hg) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.001 0.001
20. Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
21. Selenium (as Se) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
22. Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
23. Cyanides (as CN) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
24. Lead (as Pb) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
25. Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 0.30 0.20 0.12 0.10 5 5
26. Hexavalent Chromium (as Cr 6+) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 -
27. Mineral Oil mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil - -
28. Residual Free chlorine mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.3 1.0
29. Total Coliforms MPN/100 ml -4- -6- -8- -6- Absent Absent
30. E-Coli Nos/100ml -0- -0- -0- -0- Absent Absent

GROUND WATER QUALITY DATA


Location : Borwell, Naulati (WQG5)
Post- Desirable Limit Permissible Limit
S.No. Parameter Unit Monsoon`07 Winter`07 -08 Summer`08
monsoon`07 IS: 10500-1991 IS: 10500-
Norms 1991 Norms

1. Colour Hazen Units <5 <5 <5 <5 5 25


Unobjectionabl
2. Odour - Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable
e
3. Taste - Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable
4. Turbidity NTU <5 <5 <5 <5 5 10
5. pH - 7.62 7.44 7.44 7.44 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5
6. Conductivity µmhos/cm 310 320 320 480
7. Total dissolved solids mg/l 204 214 214 280
8. Total Hardness (as CaCO3) mg/l 80 88 88 108 300 600
9. Calcium (as Ca) mg/l 24 28 28 38 75 200
10. Magnesium (as Mg) mg/l 5 4 4 3 30 100
11. Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 1.5
12. Iron (as Fe +2) mg/l 0.18 0.16 0.16 0.14 0.30 1.0
13. Manganese (as Mn) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
14. Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l 30 28 28 32 250 1000
15. Sulphates (as SO4) mg/l 6 4 4 10 200 400
16. Nitrates (as NO3) mg/l 0.38 0.32 0.32 0.32 45 100
17. Fluorides (as F) mg/l 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 1.0 1.5
18. Phenols (as C6H5OH) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.001 0.001
19. Mercury (as Hg) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.001 0.001
20. Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
21. Selenium (as Se) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
22. Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
23. Cyanides (as CN) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
24. Lead (as Pb) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
25. Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.04 5 5
26. Hexavalent Chromium (as Cr 6+) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 -
27. Mineral Oil mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil - -
28. Residual Free chlorine mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.3 1.0
29. Total Coliforms MPN/100 ml -0- -0- -0- -0- Absent Absent
30. E-Coli Nos/100ml -0- -0- -0- -0- Absent Absent

GROUND WATER QUALITY DATA (Contd.,)


Location : Handpump, Narsapur (WQG6)
Post- Desirable Limit Permissible Limit
S.No. Parameter Unit Monsoon`07 Winter`07 -08 Summer`08
monsoon`07 IS: 10500-1991 IS: 10500-
Norms 1991 Norms

1. Colour Hazen Units 6 <5 <5 <5 5 25


2. Odour - Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Odourless Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable
3. Taste - Agreeable Agreeable Tasteless Tasteless Agreeable Agreeable
4. Turbidity NTU 6 6 <5 <5 5 10
5. pH - 7.28 7.38 7.38 7.45 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5
6. Conductivity µmhos/cm 2144 2080 2240 2380
7. Total dissolved solids mg/l 1680 1540 1780 1840
8. Total Hardness (as CaCO3) mg/l 440 410 235 258 300 600
9. Calcium (as Ca) mg/l 140 124 88 96 75 200
10. Magnesium (as Mg) mg/l 6 24 26 24 30 100
11. Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 1.5
12. Iron (as Fe +2) mg/l 0.54 0.48 0.18 0.16 0.30 1.0
13. Manganese (as Mn) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 <0.001 0.01 0.01
14. Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l 510 480 210 184 250 1000
15. Sulphates (as SO4) mg/l 140 124 56 43 200 400
16. Nitrates (as NO3) mg/l 0.50 0.52 Nil Nil 45 100
17. Fluorides (as F) mg/l 0.60 0.54 0.13 0.11 1.0 1.5
18. Phenols (as C6H5OH) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 <0.001 0.001 0.001
19. Mercury (as Hg) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 <0.001 0.001 0.001
20. Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 <0.001 0.01 0.01
21. Selenium (as Se) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 <0.001 0.01 0.01
22. Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 <0.001 0.05 0.05
23. Cyanides (as CN) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 <0.001 0.05 0.05
24. Lead (as Pb) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 <0.001 0.05 0.05
25. Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 0.22 0.20 Nil Nil 5 5
26. Hexavalent Chromium (as Cr 6+) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 <0.001 0.05 -
27. Mineral Oil mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil - -
28. Residual Free chlorine mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.3 1.0
29. Total Coliforms MPN/100 ml -8- -4- -0- -0- Absent Absent
30. E-Coli Nos/100ml 0 0 -0- -0- Absent Absent

GROUND WATER QUALITY DATA


Location : Drinking Water, Donimalai Township (WQG7)
Permissible Limit
Post- Winter`07 - Desirable Limit
S.No. Parameter Unit Monsoon`07 Summer`08 IS: 10500-
monsoon`07 08 IS: 10500-1991 1991 Norms
Norms

1. Colour Hazen Units 7 6 6 <5 5 25


2. Odour - Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable
3. Taste - Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable
4. Turbidity NTU 7 6 6 <5 5 10
5. pH - 7.20 7.14 7.22 7.24 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5
6. Conductivity µmhos/cm 110 138 158 168
7. Total dissolved solids mg/l 88 98 108 112
8. Total Hardness (as CaCO3) mg/l 40 42 48 52 300 600
9. Calcium (as Ca) mg/l 12 14 14 16 75 200
10. Magnesium (as Mg) mg/l 3 3 4 6 30 100
11. Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 1.5
12. Iron (as Fe +2) mg/l 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.30 1.0
13. Manganese (as Mn) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
14. Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l 12 14 16 18 250 1000
15. Sulphates (as SO 4) mg/l 4 4 6 8 200 400
16. Nitrates (as NO3) mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil 45 100
17. Fluorides (as F) mg/l 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.02 1.0 1.5
18. Phenols (as C6H5OH) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.001 0.001
19. Mercury (as Hg) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.001 0.001
20. Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
21. Selenium (as Se) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
22. Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
23. Cyanides (as CN) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
24. Lead (as Pb) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 0.05
25. Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 5 5
26. Hexavalent Chromium (as Cr 6+) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 -
27. Mineral Oil mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil - -
28. Residual Free chlorine mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.3 1.0
29. Total Coliforms MPN/100 ml -0- -0- -0- -0- Absent Absent
30. E-Coli Nos/100ml -0- -0- -0- -0- Absent Absent

GROUND WATER QUALITY DATA


Location : Handpump, Taranagar (WQG8)
Desirable Limit Permissible Limit
Post- Winter`07 -
S.No. Parameter Unit Monsoon`07 Summer`08 IS: 10500-1991 IS: 10500-
monsoon`07 08
Norms 1991 Norms
1. Colour Hazen Units 6 6 5 <5 5 25
2. Odour - Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable Unobjectionable
3. Taste - Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Tasteless Agreeable Agreeable
4. Turbidity NTU 9 8 7 6 5 10
5. pH - 8.14 8.24 8.12 7.42 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5
6. Conductivity µmhos/cm 1240 1320 1480 1580
7. Total dissolved solids mg/l 980 1020 1140 1240
8. Total Hardness (as CaCO3) mg/l 244 214 228 206 300 600
9. Calcium (as Ca) mg/l 64 60 68 68 75 200
10. Magnesium (as Mg) mg/l 20 15 14 19 30 100
11. Copper (as Cu) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.05 1.5
12. Iron (as Fe +2) mg/l 0.20 0.22 0.14 0.19 0.30 1.0
13. Manganese (as Mn) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 0.01 0.01
14. Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l 190 214 228 182 250 1000
15. Sulphates (as SO4) mg/l 68 72 68 21 200 400
16. Nitrates (as NO3) mg/l 0.40 0.36 0.30 0.76 45 100
17. Fluorides (as F) mg/l 0.30 0.24 0.20 0.12 1.0 1.5
18. Phenols (as C6H5OH) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 0.001 0.001
19. Mercury (as Hg) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 0.001 0.001
20. Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 0.01 0.01
21. Selenium (as Se) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 0.01 0.01
22. Arsenic (as As) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 0.05 0.05
23. Cyanides (as CN) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 0.05 0.05
24. Lead (as Pb) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 0.05 0.05
25. Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 0.14 0.12 0.10 Nil 5 5
26. Hexavalent Chromium (as Cr 6+) mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.001 0.05 -
27. Mineral Oil mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil - -
28. Residual Free chlorine mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.3 1.0
29. Total Coliforms MPN/100 ml -6- -4- -6- -0- Absent Absent
30. E-Coli Nos/100ml -0- -0- -0- -0- Absent Absent
SOIL QUALITY DATA
Season : Winter`07-08 Location : Backfilling Area (DS1)

Sl. Depth, cm
Parameter
No. 0-30 30-60 60-100
1. pH 7.16 7.18 7.22
2. Temperature (o C) 22.0 22.0 22.0
3. Electrical conductivity (µmhos/cm at 20 C) 1112 1119 1116
4. Nitrogen, kg/ha 428 441 419
5. Phosphorus, kg/ha 5.7 6.1 5.9
6. Potassium, kg/ha 138 139 144
7. Calcium, kg/ha 789 805 819
8. Magnesium, kg/ha 281 288 294
9. Sodium , kg/ha 15 17 16
10. Chlorides, kg/ha 41 43 46
11. Sulphates, kg/ha 19 18 22
12. Iron, kg/ha 4.2 4.6 5.1
13. Boron (%) 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001
14. Organic matter (%) 3.1 3.4 3.8
15. Microbial Activity (CO2 evolved /sq.m.) 1.09 1.01 0.96
16. Grain size distribution
Sand 44 43 41
Clay 37 37 35
Silt 19 20 24
17 Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) 2.7 2.6 2.7
18 Natural Moisture content (%) 2.6 2.7 2.9
19 Field Capacity (%) - 9.7 -
20 Wilting Co-efficient (%) - 0.9 -
21 Available Water Storage Capacity (%) - 8.1 -
22 Bulk Density (gms /cc) 1.19 1.24 1.37
23 Cation exchange Capacity (cm/hr) 1.32 1.34 1.37
24 Infiltration rate (cm/hr) - 4.8 -
25 Atterburg Limits
Liquid limit (%) 27.3 26.8 27.2
Plastic Limit (%) 12.6 12.4 13.1
Shrinkage (%) 4.3 4.1 3.7

PROFILE
0-30cm
30 - 60 cm
Undisturbed
sample
60-100 cm Sandy loam
SOIL QUALITY DATA (Contd..)
Season : Winter`07-08 Location : Waste Dump Stabilised area (DS2)

Sl. Depth, cm
Parameter
No. 0-30 30-60 60-100
1. pH 7.18 7.22 7.28
2. Temperature (o C) 21.5 21.5 21.0
3. Electrical conductivity (µmhos/cm at 20 C) 1121 1118 1115
4. Nitrogen, kg/ha 339 341 328
5. Phosphorus, kg/ha 3.8 4.4 4.3
6. Potassium, kg/ha 106 109 111
7. Calcium, kg/ha 789 790 794
8. Magnesium, kg/ha 312 314 316
9. Sodium , kg/ha 5 5 6
10. Chlorides, kg/ha 39 40 42
11. Sulphates, kg/ha 23 24 26
12. Iron, kg/ha - - -
13. Boron (%) 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001
14. Organic matter (%) 2.7 2.8 2.7
15. Microbial Activity (CO2 evolved /sq.m.) 1.03 0.94 0.90
16. Grain size distribution
Sand 68 62 57
Clay 21 23 25
Silt 11 15 18
17 Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) 3.2 3.0 3.0
18 Natural Moisture content (%) 4.4 4.5 4.6
19 Field Capacity (%) - 6.5 -
20 Wilting Co-efficient (%) - 0.4 -
21 Available Water Storage Capacity (%) - 6.1 -
22 Bulk Density (gms /cc) 1.05 1.12 1.14
23 Cation exchange Capacity (cm/hr) 1.29 1.31 1.38
24 Infiltration rate (cm/hr) - 4.6 -
25 Atterburg Limits
Liquid limit (%) 19.5 17.6 16.8
Plastic Limit (%) 11.2 10.2 9.2
Shrinkage (%) 5.1 4.9 4.2

PROFILE
0-30cm
30 - 60 cm
Undisturbed
sample
60-100 cm Sandy loam
SOIL QUALITY DATA (Contd..)
Season : Winter`07-08 Location : Waste Dump (DS3)

Sl. Depth, cm
Parameter
No. 0-30 30-60 60-100
1. pH 7.04 7.09 7.14
2. Temperature (o C) 22.0 22.0 21.0
3. Electrical conductivity (µmhos/cm at 20 C) 1118 1123 1128
4. Nitrogen, kg/ha 332 341 346
5. Phosphorus, kg/ha 3.2 3.2 3.5
6. Potassium, kg/ha 118 124 129
7. Calcium, kg/ha 743 751 734
8. Magnesium, kg/ha 318 324 321
9. Sodium , kg/ha 6 7 6
10. Chlorides, kg/ha 49 51 48
11. Sulphates, kg/ha 25 27 31
12. Iron, kg/ha 5.2 5.0 4.1
13. Boron (%) 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001
14. Organic matter (%) 2.7 2.5 2.8
15. Microbial Activity (CO2 evolved /sq.m.) 0.86 0.91 0.88
16. Grain size distribution
Sand 68 65 63
Clay 23 23 21
Silt 9 12 16
17 Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) 2.7 2.6 2.5
18 Natural Moisture content (%) 3.4 3.3 3.1
19 Field Capacity (%) - 5.8 -
20 Wilting Co-efficient (%) - 0.4 -
21 Available Water Storage Capacity (%) - 6.7 -
22 Bulk Density (gms /cc) 1.09 1.01 0.99
23 Cation exchange Capacity (cm/hr) 1.51 1.38 1.33
24 Infiltration rate (cm/hr) - 5.3 -
25 Atterburg Limits
Liquid limit (%) 19.3 20.1 21.3
Plastic Limit (%) 10.8 11.6 11.8
Shrinkage (%) 4.1 4.2 4.5

PROFILE
0-30cm
30 - 60 cm
Undisturbed
sample
60-100 cm Sandy loam
SOIL QUALITY DATA (Contd..)
Season : Winter`07-08 Location : Afforestation area (DS4)

Sl. Depth, cm
Parameter
No. 0-30 30-60 60-100
1. pH 7.09 7.14 7.18
o
2. Temperature ( C) 22.0 21.5 21.5
3. Electrical conductivity (µmhos/cm at 20 C) 1138 1144 1129
4. Nitrogen, kg/ha 514 492 485
5. Phosphorus, kg/ha 5.8 6.0 6.2
6. Potassium, kg/ha 161 155 148
7. Calcium, kg/ha 839 834 827
8. Magnesium, kg/ha 380 386 405
9. Sodium , kg/ha 16 15 13
10. Chlorides, kg/ha 85 80 83
11. Sulphates, kg/ha 31 28 30
12. Iron, kg/ha 2.1 2.3 2.8
13. Boron (%) 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001
14. Organic matter (%) 3.5 3.6 3.7
15. Microbial Activity (CO2 evolved /sq.m.) 1.41 1.24 1.18
16. Grain size distribution
Sand 27 24 23
Clay 57 55 53
Silt 16 21 24
17 Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) 4.1 4.2 4.1
18 Natural Moisture content (%) 2.8 2.7 2.7
19 Field Capacity (%) - 10.6 -
20 Wilting Co-efficient (%) - 1.2 -
21 Available Water Storage Capacity (%) - 9.7 -
22 Bulk Density (gms /cc) 1.82 1.77 1.72
23 Cation exchange Capacity (cm/hr) 2.07 2.11 2.08
24 Infiltration rate (cm/hr) - 5.3 -
25 Atterburg Limits
Liquid limit (%) 27.4 29.2 31.7
Plastic Limit (%) 13.9 14.3 13.8
Shrinkage (%) 6.5 6.8 5.9

PROFILE
0-30cm
30 - 60 cm
Undisturbed
sample
60-100 cm Sandy loam
SOIL QUALITY DATA (Contd..)
Season : Winter`07-08 Location : Proposed Afforestation area (DS5)

Sl. Depth, cm
Parameter
No. 0-30 30-60 60-100
1. pH 7.13 7.21 7.27
o
2. Temperature ( C) 21.5 21.5 21.0
3. Electrical conductivity (µmhos/cm at 20 C) 1107 1112 1118
4. Nitrogen, kg/ha 386 393 408
5. Phosphorus, kg/ha 4.1 4.3 4.4
6. Potassium, kg/ha 119 127 131
7. Calcium, kg/ha 684 692 712
8. Magnesium, kg/ha 284 296 308
9. Sodium , kg/ha 8 10 10
10. Chlorides, kg/ha 49 53 52
11. Sulphates, kg/ha 29 31 33
12. Iron, kg/ha 1.5 1.7 1.3
13. Boron (%) 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001
14. Organic matter (%) 3.3 3.4 3.6
15. Microbial Activity (CO2 evolved /sq.m.) 1.07 1.09 1.11
16. Grain size distribution
Sand 47 43 41
Clay 36 39 44
Silt 17 18 15
17 Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) 2.7 2.8 2.6
18 Natural Moisture content (%) 3.8 3.9 4.1
19 Field Capacity (%) - 7.9 -
20 Wilting Co-efficient (%) - 0.7 -
21 Available Water Storage Capacity (%) - 7.2 -
22 Bulk Density (gms /cc) 1.09 1.13 1.08
23 Cation exchange Capacity (cm/hr) 1.76 1.81 1.79
24 Infiltration rate (cm/hr) - 4.5 -
25 Atterburg Limits
Liquid limit (%) 20.8 20.8 20.1
Plastic Limit (%) 12.9 12.1 11.2
Shrinkage (%) 5.7 5.2 4.6

PROFILE
0-30cm
30 - 60 cm
Undisturbed
sample
60-100 cm Sandy loam
IV.1. Comprehensive list of plant species found in the core and buffer areas during the
rainy season of 2008. ‘P’ indicates presence and ‘A’ indicates absence.
Latin name Family Core Buffer
area area
Abelmoschus esculentus Malvaceae A P
Abrus fruticulosus Fabaceae A P
Abrus precatorius Fabaceae A P
Abutilon crispum Malvaceae P P
Abutilon indicum Malvaceae P P
Acacia nilotica Mimosacae A P
Acacia catechu Mimosacae P P
Acacia chundra Mimosacae A P
Acacia auriculiformis Mimosacae P P
Acacia ferruginea Mimosacae P P
Acacia horrida Mimosacae A P
Acacia leucophloea Mimosacae A P
Acacia mangium Mimosacae P P
Acacia roxburghii Mimosacae A P
Acacia torta Mimosacae A P
Acalypha indica Euphorbiaceae A P
Acalypha lanceolata Euphorbiaceae A P
Acalypha paniculata Euphorbiaceae A P
Acanthospermum hispidum Acanthaceae A P
Achrus sapota Sapotaceae A P
Achyranthes aspera Amaranthaceae P P
Adhatoda vasica Acanthaceae P P
Aegle marmelos Rutaceae P P
Aerva lanata Amaranthaceae A P
Aerva tomentosa Amaranthaceae P P
Aeschynomene indica Fabaceae A P
Ailanthus excelsa Simaroubaceae A P
Ageratum conyzoides Asteraceae A P
Alangium salvifolium Alangiaceae P P
Albizia lebbeck Mimosacae P P
Alhagi camelorum Fabaceae A P
Allamania longepedunculata Amaranthaceae A P
Allium sativus Liliaceae A P
Allium sepa Liliaceae A P
Alloteropsis cimicina Poaceae P P
Alocasia indica Araceae A P
Aloe barbadensis Liliaceae P P
Aloe vera Liliaceae A P
Alstonia scholaris Apocyanaceae A P
Alternanthera pungens Amaranthaceae A P
Alternanthera traindra Amaranthaceae A P
Alysicarpus longifolius Fabaceae A P
Alysicarpus monilifer Fabaceae P P
Alysicarpus vaginalis Fabaceae A P
Amaranthus polygamus Amaranthaceae A P
Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthaceae A P
Amaranthus tricolor Amaranthaceae A P
Amaranthus viridis Amaranthaceae P P
Ammania baccifera Lythraceae A P
Andrographis echioides Acanthaceae A P
Andrographis ovata Acanthaceae A P
Andrographis paniculata Acanthaceae P P
Andropogon jwarancusa Poaceae A P
Anisomeles malabarica Lamiaceae A P
Annona squamosa Annonaceae A P
Anogeissus latifolia Combretaceae P P
Antigonon leptopus Polygalaceae A P
Apluda mutica Poaceae P P
Arachis hypogea Fabaceae A P
Argemone mexicana Papaveraceae A P
Aristida depressa Poaceae P P
Aristida funiculatus Poaceae P P
Aristida hystrix Poaceae P P
Aristida setacea Poaceae P P
Aristolochia bracteata Aristolochiaceae A P
Aristolochia indica Aristolochiaceae A P
Artocarpus integrifolia Moraceae P P
Aschynomene indica Fabaceae A P
Asclepias curassavica Asclepidaceae A P
Asystasia gangetica Acanthaceae P P
Atalantia monophylla Rutaceae A P
Azadirachta indica Meliaceae P P
Azima tetracantha Salvadoraceae A P
Azolla pinnata Azollaceae A P
Bambusa arundinacea Poaceae A P
Barleria cristata Acanthaceae A P
Barleria prionitis Acanthaceae A P
Bauhinia racemosa Caesalpiniaceae A P
Bauhinia tomentosa Caesalpiniaceae P P
Bauhinia purpuria Caesalpiniaceae P P
Bauhinia variegata Caesalpiniaceae A P
Biophytum sensitivum Geraniaceae A P
Blepharis repens Acanthaceae A P
Blepharis molluginifolia Acanthaceae A P
Blumea bifoliata Asteraceae A P
Blumea virens Asteraceae P P
Boerhaavia chinensis Nyctaginaceae A P
Boerhaavia diffusa Nyctaginaceae P P
Bombax ceiba Bombacaceae P P
Borassus falbellifer Araceae P P
Borreria hispida Rubiaceae P P
Boswellia serrata Burseraceae P P
Bothriochloa pertusa Poaceae P P
Brachiaria cruciformis Poaceae P P
Brachiaria distachya Poaceae P P
Brachiaria mutica Poaceae P P
Brachiaria reptens Poaceae P P
Brassica juncea Brassicaceae A P
Bridelia retusa Euphorbiaceae P P
Bryonopsia laciniosa Cucurbitaceae A P
Breynia retusa Euphorbiaceae P P
Breynia vitis-idaea Euphorbiaceae A P
Buchanania lanzan Anacardiaceae P P
Bulbostylis barbata Cyperaceae A P
Butea monosperma Fabaceae P P
Capparis brevispina Capparidaceae A P
Capparis divaricata Capparidaceae A P
Capparis floribunda Capparidaceae P P
Capparis grandis Capparidaceae P P
Capparis sepiaria Capparidaceae A P
Capparis zeylanica Capparidaceae P P
Cajanus cajan Fabaceae A P
Calophyllum inophyllum Clusiaceae P P
Calotropis gigantea Asclepiadaceae P P
Calotropis procera Asclepiadaceae P P
Calycopteris floribunda Combretaceae P P
Canna indica Canaceae A P
Capsicum frutescens Solanaceae A P
Carissa carandas Caesalpinaceae A P
Cassia auriculata Caesalpinaceae A P
Cassia fistula Caesalpinaceae P P
Cassia occidentalis Caesalpinaceae P P
Cassia siamea Caesalpinaceae P P
Cassia spectabilis Caesalpinaceae P P
Cassia tora Caesalpinaceae A P
Cassytha filiformis Lauraceae P P
Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarinaceae P P
Catharanthus roseus Apocyanaceae A P
Catharanthus pusillus Apocyanaceae P P
Catunaregum spinosa Rubiaceae A P
Celastrus paniculatus Celastraceae P P
Celosia cristata Amaranthaceae A P
Cenchrus ciliaris Poaceae P P
Centella asiatica Umbelliferae A P
Cerepegia bulbosa Asclepiadaceae A P
Cestrum nocturnum Solanaceae A P
Chenopodium album Chenopodiaceae A P
Chloris barbata Poaceae P P
Chloris montana Poaceae P P
Chloxylon swietenia Flindersiaceae P P
Chromalaena odorata Asteraceae P P
Chrysopogon fulvus Poaceae P P
Cissus quadrangularis Vitaceae P P
Citrullus colocynthis Cucurbitaceae A P
Citrullus vulgaris Cucurbitaceae A P
Citrus grandis Rutaceae A P
Citrus aurantifolia Rutaceae A P
Citrus lemonia Rutaceae P P
Cleistanthus collinus Euphorbiaceae P P
Clematis gouriana Ranunculaceae A P
Cleome aspera Capparidaceae P P
Cleome chelidonii Capparidaceae P P
Cleome gynandra Capparidaceae P P
Cleome monophylla Capparidaceae P P
Cleome viscosa Capparidaceae P P
Clitoria ternatea Fabaceae A P
Coccinia cordifolia Cucurbitaceae A P
Coccinia indica Cucurbitaceae A P
Cochlospermum gossypium Cochlospermaceae A P
Cocos nucifera Araceae A P
Coleus forskohlii Lamiaceae A P
Colocasia esculenta Araceae A P
Combretum albidum Combretaceae P P
Commelina benghalensis Commelinaceae A P
Commenlina undulata Commelinaceae P P
Commiphora caudata Burseraceae P P
Commiphora berryi Burseraceae P P
Conyza stricta Asteraceae A P
Corchorus aestuaans Tiliaceae A P
Corchorus tridens Tiliaceae P
Corchorus trilocularis Tiliaceae A P
Cordia dichotoma Cordiaceae P P
Cordia evolutior Cordiaceae A P
Cordia monocia Cordiaceae P P
Coriandrum sativum Umbelliferae A P
Cosmos bipinnatus Asteraceae A P
Couropita guinensis Lecythidiaceae A P
Cressa cretica Convolvulaceae A P
Crinum asiticum Amaryllidaceae P P
Crossandra infundibuliformis Acanthaceae A P
Crotalaria juncea Fabaceae A P
Crotalaria medicaginea Fabaceae P P
Crotalaria paniculata Fabaceae P P
Crotalaria prostrata Fabaceae P P
Crotalaria verrucosa Fabaceae P P
Croton bonplandianum Euphorbiaceae A P
Crucuma longa Zingiberaceae A P
Cuscuta chinensis Lythraceae P P
Cyanotis axillare Commelinaceae A P
Cyanotis cristata Commelinaceae A P
Cymbopogon coloratus Poaceae P P
Cymbopogon caesius Poaceae P P
Cynodon dactylon Poaceae P P
Cyperus aristatus Cyperaceae P P
Cyperus iria Cyperaceae A P
Cyperus rotundus Cyperaceae P P
Dalbergia lanceolaris Fabaceae P P
Dalbergia latifolia Fabaceae P P
Dalbergia paniculata Fabaceae P P
Dalbergia sissoo Fabaceae P P
Datura innoxia Solanaceae A P
Datura metel Solanaceae A P
Delonix regia Caesalpiniaceae A P
Dendrocalamus strictus Poaceae A P
Dendrophthoe falcata Loranthaceae P P
Desmodium gangeticum Fabaceae A P
Desmodium triflorum Fabaceae P P
Dichrostachys cinerea Mimosaceae A P
Digera arvensis Amaranthaceae A P
Digitaria adscendens Poaceae P P
Dinebra retroflexa Poaceae P P
Dioscorea oppositifolia Dioscoriaceae A P
Dioscorea pentaphylla Dioscoriaceae A P
Dodonaea viscosa Sapindaceae P P
Dolichandrone falcata Bgnoniaceae A P
Dolichos biflorus Fabaceae A P
Dolichos lablab Fabaceae A P
Duranta repens Verbenaceae A P
Echinochloa colona Poaceae P P
Eclipta alba Asteraceae P P
Eclipta prostrata Asteraceae P P
Emilia sonchifolia Asteraceae P P
Enicostemma hyssopifolium Gentianaceae P P
Eragrostis gangetica Poaceae P P
Eragrostis maderaspatana Poaceae P P
Eragrostis pilosa Poaceae P P
Eragrostis tenella Poaceae P P
Eragrostis tenuifolia Poaceae P P
Eremopogon faveolatus Poaceae P P
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Myrtaceae P P
Eucalyptus globulus Myrtaceae P P
Eucalyptus tereticornis Myrtaceae P P
Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbiaceae A P
Euphorbia caducifolia Euphorbiaceae A P
Euphorbia elegans Euphorbiaceae A P
Euphorbia heyneana Euphorbiaceae P P
Euphorbia milli Euphorbiaceae A P
Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbiaceae P P
Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae P P
Euphorbia pulcherrima Euphorbiaceae A P
Euphorbia rosea Euphorbiaceae P P
Euphorbia thymifolia Euphorbiaceae P P
Euphorbia tirucalli Euphorbiaceae P P
Euphorbia tortilis Euphorbiaceae A P
Evolvulus alsinoides Convolvulaceae P P
Evolvulus nummularis Convolvulaceae A P
Feronia limonia Rutaceae P P
Ficus hispida Moraceae P P
Ficus amplissima Moraceae A P
Ficus benghalensis Moraceae P P
Ficus indica Moraceae A P
Ficus microcarpa Moraceae P P
Ficus racemosa Moraceae P P
Ficus religiosa Moraceae P P
Fimbristylis acuminata Cyperaceae A P
Fimbristylis dichotoma Cyperaceae A P
Gardenia latifolia Rubiaceae P P
Gardenia resinifera Rubiaceae P P
Gardenia spinosa Rubiaceae A P
Gardenia gummifera Rubiaceae A P
Gardenia jasminoides Rubiaceae A P
Garuga pinnata Burseraceae P P
Givotia moluccana Euphorbiaceae P P
Gliricidia sepium Fabaceae P P
Glycine javanica Fabaceae P P
Gmelina asiatica Verbenaceae P P
Gmelina arborea Verbenaceae A P
Gnaphalium indicum Asteraceae P P
Gomphrena decumbens Amaranthaceae A P
Gomphrena globosa Amaranthaceae A P
Gossypium arboretum Malvaceae A P
Gossypium barbadense Malvaceae A P
Gossypium herbaceum Malvaceae P P
Grewia hirsuta Tiliaceae P P
Grewia orbiculata Tiliaceae P P
Grewia orientalis Tiliaceae P P
Grewia rhamnifolia Tiliaceae P P
Grewia rothii Tiliaceae P P
Grewia tenax Tiliaceae P P
Grewia tillifolia Tiliaceae P P
Grewia villosa Tiliaceae P P
Grewia bracteata Tiliaceae P P
Helianthus annus Asteraceae A P
Heliotropium curassavicum Boraginaceae A P
Heliotropium indicum Boraginaceae P P
Heliotropium ovalifolium Boraginaceae A P
Hemidesmus indicus Asclepiadaceae P P
Heteropogon contortus Poaceae P P
Hibiscus micranthus Malvaceae A P
Holarrhena antidysenterica Apocynaceae P P
Holarrhena pubescens Apocynaceae P P
Holoptelia integrifolia Ulmaceae P p
Hyptis suaveolens Lamiaceae P P
Impatiens balsamiana Balsamiaceae A P
Imperata arundinaceae Poaceae P P
Indigofera enneaphylla Fabaceae A P
Indigofera linifolia Fabaceae A P
Indigofera involucra Fabaceae P P
Indigofera pulchella Fabaceae A P
Indigofera viscosa Fabaceae P P
Ipomea nil Convolvulaceae A P
Ipomea purpurea Convolvulaceae A P
Ipomoea eriocarpa Convolvulaceae A P
Ipomoea angulata Convolvulaceae A P
Ipomoea aquatica Convolvulaceae A P
Ipomoea carnea Convolvulaceae A P
Iseilema laxum Poaceae A P
Iseilema prostratum Poaceae A P
Ixora coccinea Rubiaceae A P
Ixora pavetta Rubiaceae A P
Ixora arborea Rubiaceae P P
Jacaranda mimosifolia Bignoniaceae P P
Jasminum grandiflorum Oleaceae A P
Jasminum rigidum Oleaceae A P
Jasminum sambac Oleaceae A P
Jatropha curcas Euphorbiaceae A P
Jatropha gossypifolia Euphorbiaceae A P
Justica adathoda Acanthaceae A P
Justica glauca Acanthaceae A P
Justica paniculata Acanthaceae A P
Justica procumbens Acanthaceae A P
Justica repens Acanthaceae A P
Justica trinervia Acanthaceae A P
Kyllinga triceps Cyperaceae A P
Lannea coromandelica Anacardiaceae A P
Lantana camara Verbenaceae P P
Lantana indica Verbenaceae A P
Lawsonia inermis Lythraceae A P
Leptochloa chinensis Poaceae P P
Leucas aspera Lamiaceae P P
Leucas hirta Lamiaceae P P
Leucas lanata Lamiaceae A P
Limonia acidissima Rutaceae P P
Luffa acutangula Cucurbitaceae P P
Mallotus philippensis Euphorbiaceae P P
Malvastrum coromandelianum Malvaceae A P
Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae P P
Marremia emarginata Convolvulaceae P P
Marselia quadrifolia Pteridophyte A P
Maytenus emarginata Celastraceae P P
Melanocenchrus sp. Poaceae P P
Melia azadirachta Meliaceae P P
Merremia gangetica Convolvulaceae P P
Merremia tridentata Convolvulaceae A P
Michelia champaka Magnoliaceae P P
Millingtonia hortensis Bignoniaceae A P
Mimosa pudica Mimosaceae P P
Mimosa rubicaulis Mimosacae A P
Mimusops elengi Sapotaceae P P
Mimusops hexandrra Sapotaceae A P
Mollugo nudicaulis Aizoaceae A P
Mollugo pentaphylla Aizoaceae A P
Momordica charantea Cucurbitaceae A P
Morinda citrifolia Rubiaceace A P
Morinda tinctoria Rubiaceace P P
Moringa olivaefera Moringaceae A P
Moringa concanensis Moringaceae A P
Muntingia calabura Elaeocarpaceae P P
Murraya paniculata Rutaceae P P
Murraya koenigi Rutaceae A P
Musa paradisiaca Musaceae A P
Myristca malabarica Myristicaceae A P
Nelumbo nucifera Nelumbiaceae A P
Neptunia indicum Mimosaceae A P
Neptunia triquetra Mimosaceae A P
Nerium indicum Apocyanaceae A P
Nerium tinctorium Apocyanaceae A P
Nicotiana tabacum Solanaceae A P
Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaeaceae A P
Ocimum americanum Lamiaceae P P
Ocimum basillicum Lamiaceae A P
Ocimum gratissimum Lamiaceae A P
Ocimum sanctum Lamiaceae A P
Oldenlandia corymbosa Rubiaceae A P
Oldenlandia herbaceae Rubiaceae A P
Oldenlandia umbellata Rubiaceae P P
Opuntia dillenii Cactaceae A P
Opuntia elatiori Cactaceae A P
Oryza sativa Poaceae A P
Ottelia alismoides Hydrocharitaceae A P
Oxalis corniculata Oxalidaceae P P
Oxalis latifolia Oxalidaceae A P
Panicum miliaceum Poaceae P P
Panicum miliare Poaceae P P
Panicum montanum Poaceae P P
Panicum psilopodium Poaceae P P
Panicum repens Poaceae P P
Panicum turgidum Poaceae P P
Panicum typheron Poaceae P P
Parthenium hysterophorus Asteraceae A P
Paspalidium flavidum Poaceae P P
Paspalum scrobiculatum Poaceae P P
Passiflora foetida Passifloraceae A P
Pedilanthus tithymaloides Euphorbiaceae A P
Peltophorum pterocarpum Caesalpiniaceae P P
Pennisetum pedicellatum Poaceae P P
Pennisetum typhoides Poaceae P P
Pergularia deamia Asclepiadaceae A P
Peristrophe bicalyculata Acanthaceae P P
Perotis indica Poaceae P P
Phaseolus aconitifolius Fabaceae P P
Phaseolus sublobatus Fabaceae P P
Phaseolus trilobus Fabaceae P P
Phoenix sylvestris Araceae P P
Phyllanthus amarus Euphorbiaceae P P
Phyllanthus emblica Euphorbiaceae P P
Phyllanthus polyphyllus Euphorbiaceae A P
Phyllanthus simplex Euphorbiaceae P P
Phyllathus maderaspatensis Euphorbiaceae A P
Physalis minima Solanaceae P P
Pistia stratiotes Araceae A P
Pithecellobium dulce Mimosaceae P P
Plumbago zeylanica Plumbaginaceae P P
Plumeria rubra Apocyanaceae P P
Polyalthia longifolia Annonaceae P P
Polyalthia pendula Annonaceae P P
Polycarpaea corymbosa Caryophyllaceae P P
Polygala chinensis Polygalaceae A P
Polygala eiroptera Polygalaceae P P
Polygala elongata Polygalaceae P P
Polygala persicariaefolia Polygalaceae A P
Pongamia pinnata Fabaceae P P
Portulaca grandiflora Portulacaceae A P
Portulaca oleraceae Portulacaceae P P
Portulaca quadrifida Portulacaceae P P
Portulaca tuberosa Portulacaceae A P
Prosopis juliflora Mimosaceae P P
Prosopis spicigera Mimosaceae P P
Psidium guajava Myrtaceae A P
Punica granatum Punicaceae A P
Randia dumatorium Rubiaceae A P
Randia uliginosa Rubiaceae A P
Rhynchosia mimima Fabaceae P P
Rhynchosia suaveolens Fabaceae P P
Rothia trifoliata Fabaceae P P
Ruellia tuberosa Acanthaceae P P
Rungia repens Acanthaceae A P
Saccharum officinarum Poaceae A P
Saccharum spontaneum Poaceae A P
Samanea saman Mimosaceae P P
Sanseveria roxburghiana Liliaceae P P
Santalum album Santalaceae P P
Sapindus emariginatus Sapindaceae P P
Scilla indica Liliaceae A P
Scirpus barbatus Cyperaceae P P
Scirpus chinensis Cyperaceae A P
Scoparia dulcis Scrophulariaceae A P
Scutia myrtina Rhamnaceae P P
Semecarpus anacardium Anacardiaceae P P
Sesbania aculeata Fabaceae A P
Sesbania procumbens Fabaceae P P
Setaria intermedia Poaceae P P
Setaria italica Poaceae P P
Setaria tomentosa Poaceae P P
Sida acuta Malvaceae A P
Sida cordifolia Malvaceae A P
Sida rhombifolia Malvaceae A P
Solanum anguivi Solanaceae A P
Solanum melongena Solanaceae A P
Solanum nigrum Solanaceae P P
Solanum xanthocarpum Solanaceae P P
Sonchus arvensis Asteraceae P P
Sonchus oleraceus Asteraceae P P
Soymida febrifuga Meliaceae P P
Spathodea companulata Bignoniaceae P P
Sphaeranthus indicus Asteraceae P P
Sporobolus coromandelianus Poaceae P P
Sporobolus diander Poaceae P P
Sterculia villosa Sterculiaceae P P
Sterculia urens Sterculiaceae P P
Stereospermum chelonoides Bignoniaceae P P
Striga angustifolia Scrophulariaceae A P
Striga asiatica Scrophulariaceae P P
Strychnos nux-vomica Loganiaceae P P
Syzigium cumini Myrtaceae P P
Syzygium aromaticum Myrtaceae P P
Tabernaemontana divaricata Apocynaceae A P
Tamarindus indica Caesalpiniaceae P P
Tecoma stans Bignoniaceae P P
Tectona grandis Verbenaceae P P
Tephrosia hirta Fabaceae P P
Tephrosia procumbens Fabaceae P P
Tephrosia roxburghiana Fabaceae P P
Terminalia bellerica Combretaceae P P
Terminalia chebula Combretaceae P P
Terminalia arjuna Combretaceae P P
Terminalia catappa Combretaceae P P
Themeda quadrivalis Poaceae P P
Thespecia populnea Malvaceae P P
Tragia involucrata Euphorbiaceae A P
Tragus biflorus Poaceae P P
Trainthema portulacastrum Ficoidaceae A P
Trianthema triquetra Ficoidaceae A P
Tribulus terrestris Zygophyllaceae P P
Trichodesma indicum Boraginaceae A P
Tridax procumbens Asteraceae P P
Triumfetta pilosa Euphorbiaceae A P
Triumfetta rhomboidea Euphorbiaceae A P
Tylophora indica Asclepiadaceae A P
Uraria picta Fabaceae P P
Urginea congesta Liliaceae P P
Urginea coromandeliana Liliaceae P P
Urochloa panicoides Poaceae P P
Urochloa reptans Poaceae P P
Vetevera zizanoides Poaceae P P
Viscum articulatum Viscaceae P P
Vitex negundo Verbenaceae A P
Vitex trifolia Verbenaceae A P
Waltheria indica Sterculiaceae P P
Withania somnifera Solanaceae P P
Woodfordia fruticosa Lythraceae P P
Wrightia arborea Apocynaceae P P
Wrightia tinctorea Apocynaceae A P
Xanthium strumarium Asteraceae P P
Zea mays Poaceae A P
Zinnia elegans Asteraceae A P
Ziziphus numularia Rhamnaceae P P
Ziziphus marutiana Rhamnaceae P P
Ziziphus oenoplia Rhamnaceae P P
Zornia gibbosa Fabaceae A P
IV.2. List of Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms found in the core
area (CA) and buffer area (BA) of the DIOM.
Latin name Local /Common name Area of occurrence
Bryophytes
Riccia fluitans Riccia (Liver wort) CA& BA
Marchantia polymorpha Marchantia (Liver wort) CA&BA
Anthoceros punctatus Anthoceros (Liver wort) BA
Anthoceros laevis Anthoceros (Liver wort) BA
Pellia epiphylla Pellia (Liver wort) BA
Porella elegantula Porella (Liver wort) BA
Pogonatum patulum Moss BA
Bryum apiculatum Moss BA
Bryum argentium Moss BA
Bryum wrightii Moss BA
Pteridophytes
Adiantum caudatum Adiantaceae CA &BA
Adiantum incisum Adiantaceae CA &BA
Adiantum lunulatum Adiantaceae CA &BA
Dryopteris marginata Fern BA
Equisetum arvense Horse tails BA
Pteris cretica Fern BA
Pteris excelsa Fern BA
Pteris vittata Fern BA
Ptieris eniformis Fern BA
Gymnosperms
Cycas beddoei Cycas BA
Cycas circinalis Cycas BA
Cycas revoluta Cycas BA
Thuja sp. Thuja BA
Araucaria sp. Araucaria BA
IV.3: List of fungi found during the rainy and winter seasons in the
catchment and command areas.
Name of Fungus Division Habitat / Habitat
Pythium debaryanum Mastigomycotina Damping off of seedlings
Saprolegnia ferax Mastigomycotina Water and decaying insects
Aspergillus candidus Zygomycotina Soil and litter
Aspergillus flavus Zygomycotina Produces aflatoxin
Aspergillus fumigatus Zygomycotina Soils
Aspergillus indicus Zygomycotina Soils
Aspergillus nidulans Zygomycotina Soils
Aspergillus niger Zygomycotina Soils and air
Mucor mucedo Zygomycotina Soils and air
Mucor racemosus Zygomycotina Soils and air
Peziza ostracoderma Ascomycotina On dung
Phyllachora graminis Ascomycotina Tar spots of grasses
Alternaria tenuis Deuteromycotina Facultative parasite
Candida albicans Deuteromycotina Facultative parasite
Candida tropicalis Deuteromycotina Facultative parasite
Claviceps purpurea Deuteromycotina Ergot of grain in the
Command area
Fusarium oxysporum Deuteromycotina Wilt disease in the
Command area
Helminthosporium Deuteromycotina Maise leaf spot in the
maydis Command area
Helminthosporium oryzae Deuteromycotina Paddy leaf spot in the
Command area
Oidium sp Deuteromycotina Powdery mildew
Penicillium claviforme Deuteromycotina Soil, air & organic matter
Penicillium glaucum Deuteromycotina Soil, air & organic matter
Penicillium brevi-compactum Deuteromycotina Soil, air & organic matter
Penicillium chrysogenum Deuteromycotina Soil, air & organic matter
Penicillium notatum Deuteromycotina Soil, air & organic matter
Penicillium patulum Deuteromycotina Soil, air & organic matter
Perenospora tabacina Deuteromycotina Plant pathogen
Phoma sp. Deuteromycotina Plant pathogen
Pyricularia oryzae Deuteromycotina Blast of Rice
Rhizoctonia lugumicola Deuteromycotina Damping off of seedlings
Rhizoctonia solani Deuteromycotina Damping off of seedlings
Rhizopus nigricans Deuteromycotina Soils & organic matter
Rhizopus oryzae Deuteromycotina Spoiled rice grains and litter
Rhizopus stolonifer Deuteromycotina Bread mould
Scerotium rolfsii Deuteromycotina Moist grains
Trichoderma viride Deuteromycotina Soils
Agaricus bisporus Basidiomycotina Edible mushroom
Agaricus compestris Basidiomycotina Edible mushroom
Amanita muscaria Basidiomycotina Poisonous mushroom
Amanita phalloides Basidiomycotina Poisonous mushroom
Coprinus cinereus Basidiomycotina Dung and organic materials
Ganoderma sp. Basidiomycotina On live tree trunks
Lycoperdon sp. Basidiomycotina Puff balls
Pleurotus mutilis Basidiomycotina Edible mushroom
Polyporus circinatus Basidiomycotina Wood rotting fungi
Polyporus hispidus Basidiomycotina Wood rotting fungi
Polyporus obtusus Basidiomycotina Wood rotting fungi
Polyporus sulphureus Basidiomycotina Wood rotting fungi
Puccinia graminis Basidiomycotina Rust fungus
Ustilago hordei Basidiomycotina Grain smut
Ustilago maydis Basidiomycotina Smut of Maize
IV.4. List of vertebrate species either found or known to occur in the study
area. CA and BA indicate the core and buffer areas respectively.
Mammals:
Common name Latin name Area Schedule
Blackbuck Antelope cervicapra BA II (part i)
Bonnet Monkey Macaca radiata BA & CA Not listed
Brown flying squirrel Petaurista sp. BA Not listed
Common Mongoose Varanus indicus BA & CA Not listed
Indian Wolf Canis lupas pallipes BA I (part i)
Fox Vulpes bengalensis BA IV (Part ii)
Greater Bandicoot Bandicota indica BA & CA Not listed
House rat Mus muscuius BA & CA Not listed
Indian field rat Mus booduga BA & CA Not listed
Indian flying fox Pteropus giganteus BA Not listed
Indian hare Lupus nigricollis BA & CA IV (Part ii)
Jackal Canis aureus BA IV (Part ii)
Lesser Bandicoot Bandicota bengalensis BA & CA Not listed
Porcupine Hystrix indica BA & CA IV (Part ii)
Small Indian civet Paradoxurus hemaphroditus BA II (Part ii)

Spotted deer Axis axis BA IV (Part ii)


Squirrel Funambulus ponnanti BA & CA Not listed
Wild boar Sus scroffa BA III (Part ii)
Sloth bear Melursus ursinus BA I (Part i)
Sambar Cervus unicolor BA III (Part ii)
Chital Axis axis BA III (Part ii)
Reptiles
Indian python Python molurus BA I (Part ii)
Sand boa Eryx johni BA
Krait Bungarus caeruleus BA & CA Not listed
Cobra Naja naja BA & CA I (Part ii)
Russell’s viper Vipera russseli BA & CA Not listed
Saw scaled viper Echis carinatus BA & CA I (Part ii)
Rat snake Ptyas mucosus. BA & CA Not listed
Tree Snake Dryphis sp. BA & CA Not listed
Blind Snake Typholops sp. BA & CA Not listed
Whip Snake Dryphis nasutus BA & CA Not listed
Monitor lizard Veranus monitor. BA & CA I (Part ii)
Chameleon Chameleon sp BA & CA I (Part ii)
Golden Gecko Caloductyloides aureus BA & CA I (Part ii)

Wall lizard Hemidactylus sp. BA & CA Not listed


Garden lizard Calotes versicolor BA & CA Not listed
Small wall lizard Gecko sp. BA & CA Not listed
Fresh water turtle Trionxy sp. BA I (Part ii)
Indian star tortoise Testudo elegans BA & CA I (Part ii)
Fresh water tortoise Geomyda sp. BA I (Part ii)
Aves
Cormorant Phalacrocorax higher, Local migrant Not listed
Crow Corvus sp1lendens Resident Not listed
Jungle Crow Corvus macrohyuchos Local migrant Not listed
Crow pheasant Centrpus sinesis Resident Not listed
Cuckoo Cuculus varus Resident Schedule IV
Ring Dove Streptopelia decactao Local migrant Schedule IV
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Local migrant Not listed
Egret, Little Egretta garetta Local migrant Not listed
Ibis, Black Pseudibis papilosa Local migrant Schedule IV
Ibis, white Threskiornis Local migrant Schedule IV
melenocephalu
Koel Eudynamis scolopaceus Local migrant Schedule IV
Munia, Spotted Lonchura striata Local migrant Schedule IV
Munia,White- Lonchura malabarica Local migrant Schedule IV
Throated
Myna, Black-headed Sturnus pagodarun Local migrant Not listed
Myna, common Acridothers trists Resident Not listed
Owlet Barred Jungle Galuciddum radiatuum, Resident Schedule IV
Owl, Spotted Athene brama Resident Schedule IV
Parakeet Large Indian Psittacula eupatria Resident Not listed
Parakeet, Rose-ringed Psittacula krameri Resident Schedule IV
Partridge, Grey Francolinus Resident Not listed
pondicerianus
Common Peafowl Pavo cristatus Resident Schedule IV
Pigeon, Blue Rock Columbia livaia, Resident Schedule IV
Pigeon,common Green Treron pheoenicoptera, Resident Not listed
Indian Robin Saxicoloides fulicata Resident Schedule IV
Swift, house Apus affinis Resident Not listed
Swallow, common Hirando rustica, Resident Not listed
Water hen Amauromis phoenicurus Local migrant Schedule IV
Weaver Bird, common Ploceus philippinus Resident Not listed
White Ibis Theskiornis aethopica Local migrant Schedule IV
Amphibians
Ordinary frog Rana hexadactyla. BA & CA Not listed
South Indian Toad Bufo melonosticatus BA & CA Not listed
Tree Frog Hyla arboria BA & CA Not listed
Burrowing frog Cacopus bystema BA & CA Not listed
Tiger Frog Rana tigrina BA & CA Not listed
AQUATIC FLORA AND FAUNA

IV.5. List of algae (microflora) found in the buffer zone of DIOM during the
rainy season of 2008
Latin name Division
Botrydium granulatum Chlorophyta or green algae
Chaetophora sp. Chlorophyta or green algae
Chlamydomonas reinhardi Chlorophyta or green algae
Chlamydomonas sp. Chlorophyta or green algae
Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chlorophyta or green algae
Chlorella vulgaris Chlorophyta or green algae
Chlorococcus sp. Chlorophyta or green algae
Cladophora sp. Chlorophyta or green algae
Cosmarium reiforme Chlorophyta or green algae
Eudorina elegans Chlorophyta or green algae
Gonium pectorale Chlorophyta or green algae
Hydrodictyon reticulatum Chlorophyta or green algae
Hormidium sp. Chlorophyta or green algae
Oedogonium sp. Chlorophyta or green algae
Pandorina morum Chlorophyta or green algae
Pandorina sp. Chlorophyta or green algae
Pediastrum boryanum Chlorophyta or green algae
Pediastrum duplex Chlorophyta or green algae
Scenedesmus acuminatus Chlorophyta or green algae
Scenedesmus dimorpha Chlorophyta or green algae
Scenedesmus obliques Chlorophyta or green algae
Scenedesmus quadricauda Chlorophyta or green algae
Spirogyra sp Chlorophyta or green algae
Synedra acus Chlorophyta or green algae
Tetraspora sp. Chlorophyta or green algae
Ulothrix sp. Chlorophyta or green algae
Volvox sp. Chlorophyta or green algae
Chara zeylanica Charophyta
Chara verticillata Charophyta
Cyclotella sp. Bacillariophyceae
Cymbella cistula Bacillariophyceae
Denticula sp. Bacillariophyceae
Diatoma vulgare Bacillariophyceae
Diatomella balfouriana Bacillariophyceae
Fragilaria intermedia Bacillariophyceae
Frustulia rhomboids Bacillariophyceae
Melosira granulata Bacillariophyceae
Melosira various Bacillariophyceae
Navicula cryptocephala Bacillariophyceae
Navicula cuspidata Bacillariophyceae
Navicula viridis Bacillariophyceae
Pinnularia sp Bacillariophyceae
Triceratium sp Bacillariophyceae
Vaucheria sp Bacillariophyceae
Anabaena circularis Cyanophyceae
Anabaena constricta Cyanophyceae
Anabaena orientalis Cyanophyceae
Chroococcus sp. Cyanophyceae
Gleocapsa sp. Cyanophyceae
Gleotrichia sp. Cyanophyceae
Lingbya sp. Cyanophyceae
Microcystis aeruginosa Cyanophyceae
Oscillatoria chlorina Cyanophyceae
Oscillatoria limosa Cyanophyceae
Oscillatoria princepes Cyanophyceae
Oscillatoria putrida Cyanophyceae
Oscillatoria splendida Cyanophyceae
Oscillatoria tenuis Cyanophyceae
Phormidium ambiguum Cyanophyceae
Rivularia sp. Cyanophyceae
IV.6. List of zooplanktonic (microfauna) organisms recorded from the
aquatic environments of the DIOM.
Zoological name Taxonomic group
Euglena proxima Euglenophyceae / Protozoa
Euglena intermedia Euglenophyceae/ Protozoa
Euglena pisciformis Euglenophyceae / Protozoa
Euglena polymorpha Euglenophyceae/ Protozoa
Euglena oxyuris Euglenophyceae
Euglena viridis Euglenophyceae
Diffugia sp. Protozoa
Filinia longiseta Rotifers
Brachionus caudatum Rotifers
Brachionus falcatum Rotifers
Brachionus forficula Rotifers
Keratella tropica Rotifers
Polyarthra sp. Rotifers
Trichocerca similis Rotifers
Lecane luna Rotifers
Synchaeta sp. Rotifers
Diaptomus sp. Copepods
Cyclops sp. Copepods
Moina etc.,. Cladocera
Bosmina sp. Cladocera
Bosminopsis Cladocera
IV.7. List of aquatic or semi aquatic macophytes found in the buffer zone during
the rainy season.
Latin name Family Status
Acanthus ilicifolius Acanthaceae Locally dominant
Alternanthera Solanaceae Predominant occasionally
philoxeroides
Azolla pinnata Azollaceae Scattered and common
Brachiaria mutica Poaceae Sporadic
Carex cruciata Cyperaceae Occasional
Centella asiatica Apiaceae In localized patches
Chrysopogon aciculatus Poaceae Occasional
Colocassia esculenta Araceae Occasional
Cyperus exaltatus Cyperaceae Locally abundant
Cyperus pangorei Cyperaceae Scattered
Echinochloa colona Poaceae Occasional
Echinochloa stagnina Poaceae Occasional
Eichhornia crassipes Pontederiaceae Extensive and widespread
Ipomoea aquatica Convolvulaceae Extensive and widespread
Ludwigia perennis Onagraceae Occasional
Marsilia quadrifoliata Marsiliaceae Very common Pteridophyte
Nelumbo nucifera Nelumbiaceae Very common
Nymphaea nauchali Nympheaceae Widely scattered
Nymphaea stellata Nympheaceae Widely scattered
Nymphoides hydrophylla Nympheaceae Scattered
Nymphoides indica Nympheaceae Scattered
Oxalis corniculata Oxalidaceae Occasional
Paspalidium geminatum Poaceae Common
Phragmites karka Cyperaceae Occasional
Pistia stratoides Araceae Widespread
Typha angustata Typhaceae Extensive and widespread
IV.8 : List of Molluscs collected from the study area
Gastropoda Bivalvia
Bellamya bengalensis Lamellidens corrianus
Bellamya dissimilis Lamellidens marginalis
Bellamya bengalensis var.typica Parreysia (Radiatula) caerula
Bellamya bengalensis var.doliaris Parreysia favidens
Bellamya crassa Parreysia favidens var.pinax
Pila globosa Parreysia favidens var.marunson
Thiara scabra Parreysia olivaria
Thiara tuberculata Parreysia pachysoma
Thiara lineate Corbicula striatella
Lymnaea accuminata
Lymnaea accuminata var.patula
Lymnaea luteola
Achatina fulfulica
Cryptozona ligulata

IV.9 : List of fishes either caught by the fisherman or reported from the reservoir
and the tanks
Common name Latin name
Catla Catla catla
Rohu Labeo rohita
Murrel Channa striatus
Murrel Channa punctatus
Wallago Wallago attu
Cat fish Mystus vittatus
Spiny eel Mastecembalus armatus
Prawn Macrobrachium rosenberghii
Prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii
Eel Anguilla sp.
Gobids Glossogobius giuris
Gobids Platycephalus sp.
Mrigal Cirrhinus mrigala
List of benthic fishes reported from the study area
Channa striatus
Channa punctatus
Mastecembalus armatus
Anguilla sp.
Mystus vittatus
Hetyeropneustes fossilis
IV.10. Relative frequency (RF), relative density (RD) and relative
dominance (RDo) and IVI values of structural species in the core area.
Name of the species RF RD RDo IVI
Acacia auriculiformis 2.1 3.2 3.5 8.8
Acacia catechu 1.8 2.4 3.7 7.9
Acacia concinna 1.3 1.4 1.2 3.9
Alangium salvifolium 1.0 0.9 1.2 3.1
Albizia amara 1.1 0.8 1.1 3.0
Albizia lebbeck 1.6 1.3 2.2 5.1
Anogeissus latifolia 3.1 3.3 3.7 10.1
Apluda mutica 2.7 1.4 0.6 4.7
Azadirachta indica 2.5 2.6 2.8 7.9
Boswellia serrata 1.5 1.0 1.1 3.6
Cassia fistula 3.1 2.2 2.4 7.5
Chloroxylon swietenia 6.5 5.4 5.8 17.7
Cymbopogon spp. 4.1 3.5 4.2 11.8
Dalbergia latifolia 0.6 0.5 0.8 1.9
Dalbergia sissoo 1.7 2.1 3.7 7.5
Delonix regia 1.2 1.1 1.5 3.8
Dicanthium annulatum 2.2 2.6 2.8 7.6
Eucalyptus spp. 5.6 4.6 6.3 16.5
Feronia limonia 0.6 0.8 0.8 2.2
Ficus bengahalensis 2.3 2.6 2.9 7.8
Ficus hispida 1.1 1.3 1.6 4.0
Ficus racemosa 1.3 1.6 1.4 4.3
Ficus religiosa 2.7 2.4 2.5 7.6
Flacourtia indica 0.7 0.5 0.6 1.7
Gardenia resinifera 0.9 1.0 0.8 2.7
Grewia tiliifolia 4.6 4.8 4.9 14.3
Hardwickia binata 4.2 3.8 4.8 12.8
Ixora arborea 0.7 0.6 0.5 1.8
Lagerstroemia parviflora 1.3 1.0 1.1 3.4
Limonia acidissima 0.6 0.5 0.5 1.6
Maytenus emerginata 2.7 1.8 1.6 6.1
Morinda tinctoria 3.2 2.8 2.7 8.7
Panicum turgidum 2.6 2.2 3.1 7.9
Peltophorum pterocarpum 2.0 1.6 1.5 5.1
Pennisetum pedicellatum 1.6 1.8 1.3 4.7
Phyllanthus emblica 3.2 2.7 2.7 8.6
Pongamia pinnata 1.4 1.2 1.2 3.8
Samania saman 1.6 1.3 1.2 4.1
Santalum album 0.6 0.8 0.4 1.8
Soymida febrifuga 0.9 0.7 0.7 2.3
Srtychnos nux-vomica 0.4 0.5 0.4 1.3
Stereospermum chelonoides 1.1 1.0 1.9 4.0
Tamarindus indica 2.3 1.8 1.3 5.4
Tecoma stans 3.3 2.1 2.6 8.0
Tectona grandis 1.2 1.6 1.3 4.1
Terminalia arjuna 1.4 1.5 1.4 4.3
Terminalia bellirica 1.6 1.2 1.4 4.2
Terminalia tomentosa 1.2 1.5 1.3 4.0
Wrightia arborea 2.2 1.4 1.5 5.1
Ziziphus numularia 1.2 1.3 1.5 4.0
Ziziphus oenoplia 1.4 1.1 1.7 4.2
Ziziphus xylopyra 1.3 1.4 1.6 4.3

IV.11 Relative frequency (RF), relative density (RD) and relative


dominance (RDo) and IVI values of structural species in the buffer area.
Nane of the species RF RD RDo IVI
Ailanthus excelsa 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.8
Atalantia monophylla 0.6 0.6 0.8 2.0
Acacia auriculiformis 2.0 2.8 2.6 7.4
Acacia catechu 1.4 2.3 2.7 6.4
Acacia concinna 1.0 1.2 1.1 3.3
Alangium salvifolium 1.0 0.9 0.4 2.3
Albizia amara 1.4 1.2 1.1 3.7
Albizia lebbeck 1.6 1.3 2.2 5.1
Anogeissus latifolia 2.6 2.4 2.8 7.8
Apluda mutica 2.1 1.0 1.2 4.3
Azadirachta indica 2.3 2.1 2.6 7.0
Bambusa arundinacea 1.5 1.6 1.4 4.5
Boswellia serrata 1.5 1.0 1.1 3.6
Cassia auriculata 2.1 2.2 2.4 6.7
Cassia fistula 3.0 2.3 2.5 7.8
Chloroxylon swietenia 3.5 3.6 3.4 10.5
Cymbopogon spp. 4.1 3.6 4.2 11.9
Dalbergia latifolia 0.6 0.5 0.8 1.9
Dalbergia sissoo 1.2 1.4 1.3 3.9
Dendrocalamus strictus 1.7 2.1 3.7 7.5
Delonix regia 1.2 1.1 1.5 3.8
Dicanthium annulatum 2.2 2.6 2.8 7.6
Dodonaea viscosa 4.1 3.2 3.6 10.9
Eucalyptus spp. 3.5 2.7 3.3 9.5
Euphorbia tirucalli 2.7 2.1 1.7 6.5
Euphorbia caducifolia 2.0 1.5 1.6 5.1
Feronia limonia 0.6 0.8 0.8 2.2
Ficus bengahalensis 2.1 1.6 1.9 5.6
Ficus hispida 0.5 0.4 0.4 1.3
Ficus racemosa 0.5 0.4 0.3 1.2
Ficus religiosa 1.2 1.1 1.1 4.4
Flacourtia indica 0.4 0.5 0.3 1.2
Gardenia resinifera 0.9 1.0 0.8 2.7
Grewia hirsute 2.4 2.1 1.8 6.3
Hardwickia binata 2.1 1.8 1.4 5.3
Ixora arborea 0.7 0.6 0.5 1.8
Lagerstroemia parviflora 1.3 1.0 1.1 3.4
Lantana camara 3.2 2.7 3.6 9.5
Limonia acidissima 0.6 0.5 0.5 1.6
Maytenus emerginata 2.3 1.8 1.8 5.9
Morinda tinctoria 3.2 2.8 2.7 8.7
Peltophorum pterocarpum 2.0 1.6 1.5 5.1
Pennisetum pedicellatum 1.6 1.8 1.3 4.7
Phyllanthus emblica 2.3 1.7 1.8 5.8
Polyalthia pendula 2.1 2.2 2.1 6.4
Pongamia pinnata 1.4 1.2 1.2 3.8
Samania saman 1.6 1.3 1.2 4.1
Santalum album 0.6 0.8 0.4 1.8
Soymida febrifuga 0.9 0.7 0.7 2.3
Srtychnos nux-vomica 0.4 0.5 0.4 1.3
Stereospermum chelonoides 1.1 1.0 1.9 4.0
Tamarindus indica 2.7 2.5 1.8 7.0
Tecoma stans 3.2 3.1 3.4 9.7
Tectona grandis 1.2 1.6 1.3 4.1
Terminalia arjuna 1.4 1.5 1.4 4.3
Terminalia bellirica 1.6 1.2 1.4 4.2
Terminalia tomentosa 1.2 1.5 1.3 4.0
Wrightia arborea 2.2 1.4 1.5 5.1
Ziziphus numularia 1.2 1.3 1.5 4.0
Ziziphus oenoplia 1.4 1.1 1.7 4.2
Ziziphus xylopyra 1.3 1.4 1.6 4.3
IV.12.list of plants of ethnobotanical importance as sacred plants with
medicinal properties. All are found in the buffer area of the DIOM.

Latin name Common Ecological zone Status


name
Calophyllum Alexandrian Grown in gardens Safe
inophyllum Laurel and parks
Bambusa bambos Bamboo Throughout India Safe
Ficus benghalensis Banyan Throughout India Safe
Aegle marmelos Bengal Quince Throughout India in Safe
dry forests
Tinospora cordifolia Bile Killer Throughout India in Safe
forests
Webera corymbosa Bottle brush Terrestrial Safe
tree
Clitoria ternata Butterfly Pea Throughout India Safe
Couroupita Cannon ball Throughout India in Safe
guianensis tree plains
Tabernaemontana Cape Jasmine Throughout India Safe
divaricata
Cadaba fruticosa Capper Bush Deccan and the Safe
Western region
Ricinus communis Castor-oil Throughout India Safe
plant
Strychnos potatorum Clearing Nut Deciduous forests Safe
Tree
Michelia champaca Champak Grown in gardens Vulnera-
and parks ble
Cocos nucifera Coconut Tree South India Safe
Imperata cylindrica Cotton grass Terrestrial (Wet Safe
zones)
Andropogon Cus-cus grass Throughout India Safe
squarrosus
Butea monosperma Flame of the Throughout India in Safe
forest deciduous forests
Balsamodendron Hill Balsam / Rajpatna, Bellari, Safe
caudatum Gugal Mysore amd Sindh
Pongamia pinnata Indian Beech Throughout India Safe
Syzygium cumini Indian Black Throughout India Safe
Plum
Madhuca indica Indian Butter Throughout India Safe
Tree
Cordia myxa Indian Cherry Throughout India Safe
Emblica officinalis Indian Throughout tropical Safe
Gooseberry India.
Cassia fistula Indian Throughout India Safe
Laburnum
Guettarda speciosa Indian Terrestrial Safe
Lavender
Prosopis spicigera Indian Dry and arid regions Safe
Mesquite of India.
Mimusops elengi Indian Nedler Deccan peninsula. Safe
Diospyrus peregrine Indian West Bengal, South Safe
Persimon India
Zizyphus mauritiana Indian Plum Hotter parts of India. Safe
Albizzia lebbeck Indian Siris Throughout India Safe
Terminalia chebula Ink-nut Tree Throughout India Safe
Artocarpus integrifolia Jackfruit Tree Indigenous to Safe
evergreen forests
Jasminum Jasmine Terrestrial Safe
auriculatum
Jasminum hirsutum Jasmine Cultivated in Safe
tropical parts of
India
Aerva lanata Javanese Wool Throughout India Safe
Plant
Citrus limon Lemon Throughout India Safe
Mangifera indica Mango Tropical India Safe
Bauhinia purpurea Mountain Throughout India Safe
Ebony
Ficus retusa Narrow Leaved Throughout India Safe
Fig
Azadirachta indica Neem Throughout India Safe
Nyctanthes arbor- Night Jasmine Throughout India Safe
tristis
Borassus flabellifer Palmyra Palm Throughout India Safe
Ochna squarrosa Panicled Terrestrial Safe
Golden
Blossomed
Pear
Ficus religiosa Peepal Throughout India Safe
Musa paradisiaca Plantain Throughout India Safe
Terminalia arjuna Queen's Throughout India Safe
Flower
Nerium indicum Rose Laurel Throughout India Safe
Ocimum sanctum Sacred Basil Throughout India Safe
Crataeva religiosa Sacred Lingam Throughout India Safe
Tree
Santalum album Sandalwood Karnataka and Endan-
Tree Tamilnadu gered
Anthocephalus Seaside Indian Throughout India Safe
cadamba Oak
Calotropis procera Swallow Wort Throughout India Safe
Tamarindus indica Tamarind Throughout India Safe
Stereospermum Trumpet Throughout India in Safe
suaveolens Flower Tree deciduous forests
Jasminum sambac Tuscan Throughout India Safe
Jasmine /
Malligai
Capparis divaricata Wild Caper Throughout India Safe
Bush
Atalantia racemosa Wild Lime Throughout India in Safe
deciduous forests
Limonia acidissima Wood apple Southern India Safe
Tree

IV.13. List of medicinal plants found in the study area


Latin name Family Habit(at) Trade name/
Use
Abelmoschus manihot Malvaceae Perennial Abelmosan A,B,C
(=Hibiscus pungens)
Abelmoschus moschatus Malvaceae Annual Ambrette plant
Abrus precatorius Fabaceae Twiner Indian liquorice
Abutilon indicum Malvaceae Perennial Country mallow
Thuthurubenda
Acacia caesia Leguminosae Shrub Soap bark
Acacia catechu Leguminosae Tree Cutch tree
Acacia nilotica Mimosaceae Tree Gum Arabic
Acacia sinuta Mimosaceae Climbing Diuretic /
shrub antihelmintic
Acalypha indica Euphorbiaceae Herb Indian acalypha
Acanthus ilicifolius Acanthaceae Shrub Expectorant
Achyranthes aspera Amaranthaceae Herb Achyranthine &
betine
Achyranthes bidentata Amaranthaceae Herb Diuretic &
astringent
Acorus calamus Araceae Rhizo-matous Extracts of
rhizomes are
antimicrobial
Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Tree Holy fruit tree /
Bilva
Aerva lanata Amaranthaceae Herb Pashanabeda/
konda pindi
Agave americana Agavaceae Shrub American aloe
Ageratum conyzoides Asteraceae Herb Diarrhea /
dysentery
Ailanthus excelsa Simaroubaceae Tree Antihelmintic/antis
pasmodic
Alangium salvifolium Alangiaceae Straggler shrub Used in ayurvedic
preparations
Albizia lebbeck Mimosaceae Tree Antiseptic
Albizia odoratissima Mimosaceae Tree Treatment of insect
bites
Albizia procera Mimosaceae Tree Rheumatic pains
Allium cepa Liliaceae Herb Allicin & vegetable
Allium sativum Liliaceae Herb Garlic
Aloe vera Liliaceae Perennial herb Multiple uses
Alstonia scholaris Apocynaceae Tree Bark for malarial
treatment
Alstonia venenata Apocynaceae Small tree Ripe fruits for
many disorders
Alternanthera sessilis Amaranthaceae Herb Multiple uses
Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthaceae Herb Leu-cosal H drug
Amorphophallus Araceae Cormous herb Multiple uses
companulatus
Amorphophallus sylvaticus Araceae Cormous herb Tooth ache
Ampelocissus latifolia (=Vitis Vitaceae Climber Dental problems
latifolia)
Anacardium occidentale Anacardiaceae Tree Multiple uses
Anacyclus pyrethrum Asteraceae Perennial herb Multiple uses
Anamirta cocculus Menispermaceae Climbing shrub Narcotic and
insecticidal
Andrographis paniculata Acanthaceae Herb Multiple uses
Angiopteris evecta Fern Herb Heart diseases
Anisochilus carnosus Lamiaceae Aromatic herb Induparni /
karpooravalli
Anisomeles indica Lamiaceae Shrub Astringent/
carminative
Anisomeles malabarica Lamiaceae Shrub Antispasmodic
Annona muricata Annonaceae Tree Kidney problems &
cough
Annona squamosa Annonaceae Tree Spinal , asthma &
fevers
Argemone mexicana Papavaraceae Herb Narcotic & emetic
Aristolochia bracteolata Aristolochiaceae Prostrate herb Wart killer
Aristolochia indica Aristolochiaceae Twining shrub Gastric stimulant
Aristolochia tagala Aristolochiaceae Climbing Roots are
shrub carminative
Artabotrys hexapetalus Annonaceae Straggling Antifertility
shrub properties
Artemesia absinthium Asteraceae Herb Fever, swellings,
inflammation
Artemesia pallens Asteraceae Aromatic herb Anthelmintic /tonic
Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae Tree Jack fruit
Asclepias curassavica Asclepiadaceae Shrub Ornamental
mandara
Asparagus racemosus Liliaceae Perennial Satavari
climber
Atalantia monophylla Rutaceae Tree Atavi Jambira
Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Tree Neem oil &
azadiractin
Bacopa monnieri Scrophulariaceae Herb Brahmi
Balanites aegyptica Balanitaceae Small tree Ingudi / gara
Baliospermum montanum Euphorbiaeae Shrub Danti
Bambusa arundinacea Poaceae Shrub Thorny bamboo
Barleria prionitis Acanthaceae Shrub Bindi
Barringtonia acutangula Barringtoniaceae Tree Indian oak
Basella alba Basellaceae Twiner Indian spinach
Bauhinia racemosa Caesalpiniaceae Tree Ashtamantaka
Bauhinia variegate Caesalpiniaceae Tree Mountain Ebony
Biophytum nervifolium Oxalidaceae Herb Lajjalu
(=B.sensitivum)
Bixa orellana Bixaceae Tree Sindhuri
Boerhavia diffusa Nyctaginaceae Herb Pig weed
Bombax ceiba Bobacaceae Tree Red silk cotton
Borassus flabellifer Arecaceae Tree Palmyrah palm
Boswellia ovalifolia Burseraceae Tree Konda sambrani
Breynia vitis-idaea Euphorbiaeae Shrub Coral berry tree
Buchanania lanzan Anacardiaeae Tree Tapasya
Butea monosperma Fabaceae Tree Flame of the forest
Butea superba Fabaceae Woody climber Lata phalasa
Caesalpinia bonduc Caesalpinacae Straggler Kuberakshi
Calophyllum inophyllum Clusiaeae Tree Punnaga
Calotropis gigantea Asclepiadaceae Shrub Swallow wort
Calotropis procera Asclepiadaceae Shrub Swallow wort
Calycopteris floribunda Combretaceae Shrub Susavi
Canavalia gladiata Fabaceae Woody twiner Sword bean
Canna indica Cannaceae Perennial herb Indian reed
Canscora deccussata Gentianaceae Herb Sankhapushpi
Capparis zeylanica Capparidaceae Climbing shrub Karambha
Capsicum annuum Solanaceae Herb Red chillies
Caralluma umbellate Asclepiadaceae Succulent herb Dugdhika
Cardiospermum helicacabum Sapindaceae Climber Indravalli
Careya arborea Barringtoniaceae Tree Padmaka in
Ayurveda
Carica papaya Caricaceae Tree Papaya
Carissa carandas Apocynaceae Thorny shrub Karaunda
Carissa spinarum Apocynaceae Thorny shrub Bahudala
Carthamus tinctorius Asteraceae Herb Safflower
Cascabela thevetia Apocynaceae Shrub Oleander
(=Thevetia nerifolia)
Cassia absus Caesalpiniaceae Herb Multiple uses
Cassia alata Caesalpiniaceae Shrub Ring worm cassia
Cassia auriculata Caesalpiniaceae Shrub Tanner’s cassia
Cassia fistula Caesalpiniaceae Tree Rela
Cassia occidentalis Caesalpiniaceae Herb Kanaka
Cassia senna Caesalpiniaceae Shrub Indian senna
Cassia sophera Caesalpiniaceae Shrub Senna sophera
Cassia tora Caesalpiniaceae Herb Foetid cassia
Casuarinas equisetifolia Casuarinaceae Tree Beef wood
Catharanthus pusillus Apocynaceae Herb Sangki
Catharanthus roseus Apocynaceae Shrub Rosy periwinkle
Catunaregam spinosa Rubiaceae Armed shrub Madana
Ceiba pentandra Bombacaceae Tree Swetha salmali
Celastrus paniculatus Celastraceae Shrub Jyotimasti
Celosia argentea Amaranthaceae Herb Cock’s comb
Centella asiatica Apiaceae Perennial herb Indian penny wort
Cerbera odollam Apocynaceae Tree Dog-bane
Cereus pterogonus Cactaceae Cactus Bontha
Chlorophytum arundinaceum Liliaceae Rhizomatous Safed muslin/
herb swetha musli
Chlorophytum tuberosum Liliaceae Tuberous herb Musli/ swetha
musli
Cissampelos pareira Menispermaceae Climber Velvet leaf pareira
Cissus pallida Vitaceae Rambling shrub Nallateega
Cissus quadrangularis Vitaceae Rambling shrub Edible stem vine
Citrullus colocynthis Cucurbitaceae Climber Bitter apple
Citrus aurantifolia Rutaceae Tree Acid lime
Citrus medica Rutaceae Tree Citron
Cleome viscosa Capparidaceae Herb Wild mustard
Clerodendrum phlomidis Verbenaceae Shrub Glory tree
Clerodendrum serratum Verbenaceae Shrub Bhriguja
Clitoria ternatea Fabaceae Twining shrub Butterfly pea
Coccinia indica Cucurbitaceae Climber Ivy gourd
Cochlospermum gossypium Cochlospermaceae Tree Cotton tree
Convolvulus arvensis Convolvulaceae Trailing herb Bhadravala
Corallocarpus epigaeus Cucurbitaceae Climber Pathalagaruda
(=Bryonia epigaea)
Cordia dichotoma Boraginaceae Tree Sleshamantaka
Coriandrum sativum Apiaceae Herb Coriander
Crataeva magna Capparidaceae Tree Varuna
Crossandra infundibiliformis Acanthaceae Herb Kanakambaralu
Crotalaria laburnifolia Fabaceae Shrub Pedda giligicha
Crotalaria retusa Fabaceae Shrub Sanapushpi
Crotalaria verrucosa Fabaceae Shrub Giligitcha
Cryptolepis buchanani Asclepidaceae Climbing shrub Krishnasariba
Cucumis sativus Cucurbitaceae Climber Cucumber
Curcuma amada Zingiberaceae Rhizomatous Mango ginger
herb
Curcuma aromatica Zingiberaceae Rhizomatous Wild turmeric
herb
Curcuma longa Zingiberaceae Rhizomatous Turmeric
herb
Curcuma pseudomontana Zingiberaceae Rhizomatous Adavi jongra
herb
Cyamopsis tetragonaloba Fabaceae Herb Cluster bean
Cyclea peltata Menispermaceae Twining herb Durva patha
Cymbopogon flexuosus Poaceae Perennial grass Lemon grass
Cymbopogon martinii Poaceae Perennial grass Palm rosa
Cymbopogon winterianus Poaceae Perennial grass Java citronella
Cyperus rotundus Cyperaceae Stoloniferous Nut grass
herb
Dalbergia latifolia Fabaceae Tree Rosewood
Dalbergia sissoo Fabaceae Tree Sissoo
Datura innoxia Solanaceae Herb Datura
Datura metel Solanaceae Herb Thorn apple
Decalepis hamiltonii Asclepiadaceae Climbing shrub Nannari / swetha
sariva
Delonix elata Caesalpiniaceae Tree Gold mohur
Delonix regia Caesalpiniaceae Tree Flame tree
Desmodium gangeticum Fabaceae Shrub Shalaparni /
gitanaram
Desmodium motorium Fabaceae Shrub Telegraphic plant
Desmodium triflorum Fabaceae Herb Tripadi
Dichrostachys cineria Mimosaceae Tree Vellantara
Dioscorea alata Dioscoriaceae Large climber Asiaticyam
Dioscorea bulbifera Dioscoriaceae Twining to left Potato yam
Dodonaea viscosa Sapindaceae Shrub Switch sorrel
Drimia indica (=Urginia indica) Liliaceae Herb Indian squill
Drypetes roxburghii Euphorbiaceae Tree Putrajivika
Eclipta prostrate Asteraceae Herb Bhringaraj
Elephantopus scaber Asteraceae Herb Hastipadi /
Hastikaraka
Embelia ribes Myrsinaceae Extensive Embelia /
straggler vayividangamu
Embelia tsjeriam-cottam Myrsinaceae Rambling Vidanga
shrub
Emilia sonchifolia Asteraceae Herb Sudhimudi
Enicostemma axillare Gentianaceae Herb Indian gentian
Entada pursaetha Mimosaceae Woody climber Elephant creeper
(=E.scandens)
Erythrina stricta Fabaceae Armed tree Mura
Erythrina suberosa Fabaceae Armed tree Corky coral tree
Erythrina variegata Fabaceae Armed tree Indian coral tree
Eucalyptus globulus Myrtaceae Tree Eucalyptus
Euphorbia acaulis Euphorbiaceae Tuberous herb Barresepugadda
Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae Herb Snake weed
Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbiaceae Succulent tree Leafy milk hedge
Euphorbia tirucalli Euphorbiaceae Succulent tree Trikantaka
Evolvulus alsinoides Convolvulaceae Herb Vishnukranti
Ficus benghalensis Moracea Tree Banyan tree
Ficus benjamina Moracea Tree Benjamin fig
Ficus carica Moracea Tree Common fig
Ficus hispida Moracea Tree Wild fig
Ficus racemosa Moracea Tree Cluster fig
Ficus religiosa Moracea Tree Peepal
Ficus talboti Moracea Tree Plaksah
Ficus tsjakela Moracea Tree Kapitanah / kallal
Flacourtia indica Flacourtiaceae Tree Madagascar plum
Gardenia gummifera Rubiaceae Small tree Cumbi gum
Gendarussa vulgaris Acanthaceae Shrub Nila nirgundi
Givotia moluccana Euphorbiaceae Tree White catamaran
tree
Gloriosa superba Liliaceae Herb Agnisikha
Glycomis pentaphylla Rutaceae Shrub Pithari
Gmelina arborea Verbenaceae Tree White teak
Gmelina asiatica Verbenaceae Armed Biddari
straggler
Gossypium arboreum Malvaceae Shrub Cotton
Gymnema sylvestris Asclepiadaceae Woody climber Sugar killer /
podapatri
Haldinia cordifolia (=Adina Rubiaceae Tree Turmeric wood
cordifolia)
Hedychium coronarium Zingiberaceae Tuberous herb Carminative &
stimulant
Hedyotis corymbosa Rubiaceae Herb Parpatah
(=Oldenlandia corymbosa)
Helicteres isora Sterculiaceae Small tree Indian screw tree
/godratada
Heliotropium indicum Boraginaceae Herb Indiian turnsole /
nagadanti
Hemidesmus indicus Asclepiadaceae Perennial Anantamul
twiner
Hibiscus aculeatus Malvaceae Shrub Adavi gogu
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Malvaceae Shrub Chinese rose
Hibiscus sabdariffa Malvaceae Shrub Rozelle
Holarrhena pubescens Apocynaceae Tree Kurchi
(=H.antidysenterica)
Holoptelia integrifolia Ulmaceae Tree Indian elm
Holostemma ada-kodien Ascepiadaceae Twining shrub Swallow wort
Hugonia mystax Linaceae Climbing shrub Climbing flax
Hybanthus ennaespermus Violaceae Perennial herb Charanti
(=Viola suffruticosa)
Hygrophila auriculata Acanthaceae Stout herb Tamalakhana
(=Barleria longifolia)
Hyptis suaveolens Lamiaceae Herb Mahavira
Ichnocarpus frutescens Apocynaceae Straggling Kaalisaar
shrub
Indigofera tinctoria Fabaceae Shrub Common indigo
Iphiginea indica Liliaceae Herb Source of
colchicines
Ipomoea marutiana Convolvulaceae Woody twiner Gaint potato
Ipomoea nil Convolvulaceae Slender Morning glory
climber
Ipomoea pes-caprae Convolvulaceae Runner Goat’s foot creeper
Ipomoea sepiaria Convolvulaceae Twining shrub Bankalmi
Ixora coccinea Rubiaceae Shrub Flame flower/ ixora
Jasminum grandiflorum Oleaceae Climbing shrub Spanish jasmine /
Malati
Jasminum sambac Oleaceae Climbing shrub Arabian jasmine
Jatropha curcas Euphorbiaceae Shrub Adavi aamudam /
biodiesel
Jatropha glandulifera Euphorbiaceae Shrub Nepalam
Jatropha gossypifolia Euphorbiaceae Shrub Belly ache bush
Lantana camara Verbenaceae Shrub Wild sage
Lasia spinosa Arecaceae Shrub Multiple uses
Lawsonia inermis Lythraceae Shrub Henna
Lepidagathis cristata Acanthaceae Perennial herb Lepidagathis
Leptadenia reticulata Ascepiadaceae Twining shrub Jeevani
Leucas aspera Lamiaceae Herb Thumbe
Limonia acidissima (=Feronia Rutaceae Tree Wood apple
elephantum)
Litsea glutinosa (=L.chinensis) Lauraceae Small tree Maidalakadi
Luffa acutangula Cucurbitaceae Annual Ribbed gourd
Luffa cylindrica Cucurbitaceae Annual Sponge gourd
Macaranga peltata Euphorbiaceae Tree Lotus croton
Madhuca indica Sapotaceae Tree Madhuka
Madhuca longifolia Sapotaceae Tree Madhula
Mallotus philippensis Euphorbiaceae Tree Kamala dye tree
Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae Tree Mango
Manilkara hexandra Sapotaceae Tree Mimusops / paala
(=Mimosops hexandra)
Martynia annua Pedaliaceae Shrub Devil’s claw
Melia azadirach Meliaceae Tree Persian lilac
Memecylon edule Melastomataceae Tree Iron wood tree
Mentha spicata Lamiaceae Herb Spearmint /
pudina
Merremia gangetica Convolvulaceae Runner Mushkarani
Merremia tridentate Convolvulaceae Twiner Prasarani
Michelia champaca Magnoliaceae Tree Champaka
Mimosa pudica Mimosaceae Herb Touch-me-not
Mimusops elengi Sapotaceae Tree Sinhakesara
Mitragyna parvifolia Rubiaceae Tree Water kadamba
Momordica charantia Cucurbitaceae Herb Bitter gourd
Monochoria hastata Pontederiaceae Floating herb Nilotphalam
Monochoria vaginalis Pontederiaceae Rooted herb Indivarah /
nirkacha
Morinda citrifolia Rubiaceae Shrub Indian mulberry

Moringa concanensis Moringaceae Tree Soajana


Moringa pterigosperma Moringaceae Tree Drum stick
(=M.oleifera)
Mucuna pruriens Fabaceae Twining herb Common cowitch
Murraya koenigi Rutaceae Shrub Curry leaf
Musa paradisiaca Musaceae Perennial herb Banana
Naravelia zeylanica Ranunculaceae Climbing herb Dhanavalli
Nelumbo nucifera Nelumbonaceae Rooted Sacred lotus
emergent
Nerium indicum (=N.odorum) Aapocynaceae Shrub Indian oleander
Nicotiana tabacum Solanaceae Herb Tobacco
Nyctanthus arbor-tristis Nyctanthaceae Shrub Night jasmine
Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaeaceae Rhizomatous Indian water lily
(=N.stellata) herb
Ocimum americanum Lamiaceae Herb Hoary Basil
Ocimum basilicum Lamiaceae Herb Sweet basil
Ocimum gratissimum Lamiaceae Shrub Shrubby basil
Ocimum tenuiflorum Lamiaceae Shrub Sacred basil
Operculina turpethum Convolvulaceae Stout twiner Indian jalap
Opuntia stricta (=O.dillenii) Cactaceae Shrub Prickly pear
Oroxylum indicum (=Bignonia Bignoniaceae Tree Syonakah
indica)
Ougenia oojeinensis Fabaceae Tree Sandan
(=Dalbergia oojeinensis)
Oxalis corniculata Oxalidaceae Herb Indian sorrel
Pandanus fascicularis Pandanaceae Shrub Ketaki
(=P.odoratissimus)
Pavetta indica Rubiaceae Small tree Papata
Pedalium murex Pedaliaceae Herb Gokshura
Pergularia daemia Asclepiadaceae Twiner Uttamarani
(=P.extensa)
Phaseolus vulgaris Fabaceae Herb Kidney bean
Phuyla nodiflora (=Lippia Verbenaceae Herb Purple lippia
nodiflora)
Phyllanthus amarus (=P.niruri) Euphorbiaceae Herb Bhumiamla
Phyllanthus emblica Euphorbiaceae Tree Indian gooseberry
(=Emblica officinalis)
Piper betle Piperaceae Twiner Betel leaf
Plectranthus amboinicus Lamiaceae Fleshy herb Karpuravalli
(=Coleus aromaticus)
Plectranthus barbatus Lamiaceae Fleshy herb Coleus / Pashana
(=Coleus barbatus) bheri
Plumbago indica Plumbaginaceae Shrub Chitrakah
Plumbago zeylanica Plumbaginaceae Shrub Chitrakah
Plumeria alba Apocynaceae Tree Deva genneru
Plumeria rubra Apocynaceae Tree Pogado tree
Polyalthia longifolia Annonaceae Tree Ashoka
Pongamia piñata Fabaceae Tree Indian beech
Portulaca oleracea Portulaceae Herb Common purslane
Pouzozia zeylanica Urticaceae Perennial herb Eddumuthedumpa
(=Pouzolzia indica)
Premna corymbosa Verbenaceae Spiny tree Agnimatha /
padmaka
Pseudarthria viscida Fabaceae Undershrub Salaparini
Psidium guajava Myrtaceae Tree Guava
Psoralea corylifolia Fabaceae Undershrub Babchi seed
Pterocarpus marsupium Fabaceae Tree Indian kino tree
Pterolobium hexapetalum Caesalpiniaceae Straggling Traveller’s terror
shrub
Pueraria tuberosa Fabaceae Woody climber Indian kudzu
Punica granatum Punicaceae Tree Pomegranate
Rauvolfia serpentina Apocynaceae Undershrub Serpentine root /
sarpagandha

Rauvolfia tetraphylla Apocynaceae Large shrub Papataku


Rhinacanthus nasutus Acanthaceae Undershrub Naagamalli
(= Justicia nasutus)
Ricinus communis Euphorbiaceae Shrub Castor
Rivea ornata Convolvulaceae Climbing shrub Phanji
Rostellularia procumbens (= Acanthaceae Herb Justicia
Justicia procumbens)
Rotula aquatica Scrophulariaceae Trailing shrub Pashanabheda
Rubia cordifolia Rubiaceae Rugose herb Indian madder
Sansvieria roxburghiana Agavaceae Herb Bow hemp
Santalum album Santalaceae Tree Sandal wood
Sapindus emarginatus Sapindaceae Tree Soap nut tree
Saraca asoca (= S.indica) Caesalpiniaceae Tree Ashoka
Sarcostemma acidum Asclepiadaceae Leafless Moon plant
succulent
climber
Semecarpus anacardium Anacardiaceae Tree Marking nut
Senecio tenuifolius Asteraceae Herb Katimera chamanti
Sesamum orientale Pedaliaceae Herb Sesame
(= S.indicum)
Sesbania grandiflora Fabaceae Tree Sesban
Sida cordifolia Malvaceae Undershrub Country mallow
Sida rhombifolia Malvaceae Perennial herb Barela
Sida spinosa Malvaceae Undershrub Prickly sida
Smilax zeylanica Smilacaceae Large climber Phirangi mokka
Solanum melongena Solanaceae Undershrub Egg plant
Solanum nigrum Solanaceae Herb Kakamaci
Solanum surettense Solanaceae Prickly herb Kantakari
(= S.xanthocarpum)
Solanum trilobatum Solanaceae Climbing Climbing brinjal
undershrub
Sphaeranthus indicus Asteraceae Herb Globe thistle
Spondias pinnata Anacardiaceae Tree Wild mango
(= Mangifera pinnata)
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Verbenaceae Woody herb Brazilian tree
Stemona tuberosa Stemonaceae Tuberous kaniputeege
twiner
Sterculia urens Sterculiaceae Tree Tasy / gum karaya
Stereospermum suaveolens Bignoniaceae Large tree Patala
Strychnos colubrina Loganiaceae Tree Strychnine &
Brucine
Strychnos nux-vomica Loganiaceae Tree Snake wood /
mushti
Strychnos potatorum Loganiaceae Tree Clearing nut /
chilla ginja
Syzygium alternifolium Myrtaceae Tree Sapogenins / mogi
/ movi
Syzygium cumini Myrtaceae Tree Jaman/ black
(= S.jambolanum) berry

Tabernaemontana divaricata Apocynaceae Shrub Indian rose bay


Tamarindus indica Caesalpiniaceae Tree Tamarind / chinta
Tectona grandis Verbenaceae Tree Teak / teku
Tephrosia purpurea Fabaceae Undershrub Vempali
Tephrosia villosa Fabaceae Undershrub Galegara
Terminalia arjuna Combretaceae Tree Arjun
Terminalia bellirica Combretaceae Tree Myrobalam
Terminalia catappa Combretaceae Tree Almond / baadam
Terminalia chebula Combretaceae Tree Ink tree /
karakkaya
Terminalia pallida Combretaceae Tree White gall nut
Thespesia populnea Malvaceae Tree Indian tulip tree
Thevetia peruviana Apocynaceae Small tree Yellow oleander
Tinospora cordifolia Menispermaceae Woody climber Tinospora
Toddalia asiatica Rutaceae Armed straggler Forest pepper
Trachyspermum ammi Apiaceae herb Carum
(= Carum copticum)
Tragia involucrata Euphorbiaceae Hispid climber Stinging nettle
Trianthema portulacastrum Aizoaceae Herb Horse purslane
Tribulus terrestris Zygophyllaceae Herb Puncture vine
Trichodesma indicum Boraginaceae Herb Adhapusphi
Trichosanthes cucumeriana Cucurbitaceae Climber Potla
Tridax procumbens Asteraceae Herb Mexican daisy
Trigonella foenum-graecum Fabaceae Herb Fenugreek
Triumfetta rhomboidea Tiliaceae Undershrub Bur bush
Tylophora indica Asclepiadaceae Undershrub Swallow wort
Uraria picta Fabaceae Undershrub Pingerragadda
Vanda tessellata Orchidaceae Epiphytic Vanda
Vernonia anthelmintica Asteraceae Herb Purple fleabane/
Vernonia cinerea Asteraceae Herb Fleabane
Vetiveria zizanoides Poaceae Herb Khus-khus
Vigna mungo Fabaceae Herb Black gram
Vigna unguiculata Fabaceae Herb Cow pea
Vitex negundo Verbenaceae Small tree Nirgundi
Vitex trifolia Verbenaceae Bushy shrub Jala nirgundi
Vitis vinifera Vitaceae Woody climber Grape vine
Wattakaka volubilis Asclepiadaceae Extensive Madhumalati
twiner
Wedelia chinensis (=Solidago Asteraceae Perennial herb Bhringaraja
chinensis)
Withania somnifera Solanaceae Undershrub Aswagandha
Woodfordia fruticosa Lythraceae Woody shrub Fire flame bush /
dhataki
Wrightia tinctoria Apocynaceae Tree Palaindigo
Xanthium strumarium Asteraceae Subshrub Cocklebur
Ximenia americana Olacaeae Small tree Tallow wood / billa
nakkeru
Zaleya decandra Aizoaceae Herb Tella galijeru
(=Trianthema decandra)
Zanthoxylum armatum Rutaceae Armed shrub Tumburu

Zanthoxylum limonella Rutaceae Deciduous tree Sitejasi

Zingber officinale Zingeberaceae Rhizomatous Ginger


herb
Ziziphus mauritiana Rhamnaceae Tree Ber
Ziziphus oenoplia Rhamnaceae Prickly shrub Jackal jujube
IV.14. Details of different species planted and grown by the NMDC in
different areas of the DIOM.
Tailing
Name of the Plant Township Hill Top Total
Dam
Eucalyptus tereticornis
3000 32974 36937 99911
(Nilgiri Tree)
Acacia auriculiformis
20000 19500 33200 72700
(Bengali Jalli)
Tamarindus indica
17518 2984 31598 52100
(Tamarind Tree)
Azadirachta indica (Neem) 29500 8248 23738 61486
Syzygium cumini (Nerala
1402 1967 1631 5000
Tree)
Milligintonia hortensis
296 50 154 500
(Akasha Mallige)
Peltophorum pterocarpum
479 110 411 1000
(Coppor Pod)
Sapthodea companulata
500 140 300 940
(Newrrakai)
Cassia siamea 38406 56957 53235 148598
Samanea saman (Rain Tree) 357 190 257 804
Parkia biglandulosa 201 50 249 500
Magnifera indica (Mango) 50 650 2000 3600
Psidium guajava (Guava) 423 10 15 448
Citrus aurantifolia 211 10 10 231
Artocarpus hererophyllus
1156 200 203 1559
(Jack Fruit)
Manikara zapota (Sapota) 769 10 15 794
Cocus nucifera (Coconut) 170 0 0 170
Carcia papaya (Papaya) 8 0 0 8
Annona squamosa
409 194 533 1136
(Seetaphala)
Ficus bengalensis (Banyan
2160 3151 5844 11155
Tree)
Casuarina equisetifolia (She
2768 3400 10467 16635
Oak)
Grevilea robusta (Silver Oak) 84 0 0 84
Polyathia pendula (Drooping
164 0 78 242
Ashok)
Parmentiera careilera
1 0 0 1
(Candle Type)
Alyeria 1 0 0 1
Dalbergia sissoo 2078 1222 3890 7190
Phyllanthus emblica (Amla /
1401 1260 12980 15641
Nellikai Tree)
Acacia nilotica (Kari Jali) 1009 0 2214 3223
Narangi crenulata (Belavu) 0 0 90 90
Murrya konegii (Curry Leaf) 198 0 0 198
Saraca asoca (Ashoka) 110 0 0 110
Jacaranda mimosaefolia
35 0 45 80
(Jacaranda)
Tectona grandis (Teak Wood) 600 0 3462 4062
Ficus religiosa (Peepul Tree) 540 750 15900 17190
Anacardium occidentalis
47 0 0 47
(Cashewnut)
Delonix regia (Gulmohar) 1305 0 5 1310
Albizia lebbeck (Bhage) 109 3700 2228 6037
Thuja orientalis 20 0 0 20
Citrus sinensis (Mausambi /
6 0 0 0
Orange)
Punica granatum
55 0 0 0
(Pomegranate)
Callistemon speciosa (Bottle
6 0 6 12
Brush)
Schamu (Vietnam Tree) 9 0 40 49
Borassus flabellifer (Palm) 16 0 0 16
Olea diocia (Rosewood) 227 55 466 748
Terminalia catappa (Badam) 17 0 680 697

Leucaena leucocephala 450 540 3040 4030


(Subabul)
Acasia senagal 0 100 1475 1575
Cathri jally 0 470 1360 1830
Pongamia pinnata 3500 3287 4208 10995
Leagerstroemia parviflora
22 295 948 1265
(Challa)
Hardwickia binata (Kamara) 6500 14800 28650 49950
Bogari 85 405 660 1150
Indigofera tinctoria (Nelli) 12450 14560 2500 29510
Memcylon umbellatum (Udai) 55 575 1175 1805
Ficus leuscens (Basari) 126 570 1815 2511
Polyalthia longifolia 10 30 203 243
Madhuka latifolia 0 0 714 714
Borassus flabellifer (Toddy) 0 0 701 701
Cassia spectabilies 0 0 249 249
Ficus mysorensis 0 0 909 909
Pheronia elephantanum 0 0 335 335
Acasia ferreugina 0 0 25 25
Pongamia pinata (Honge) 5000 1000 12000 18000
Thabsi 0 0 400 400

Total 183919 174414 3042248 662581