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# EECS 203 W14 HW # 6 ALEX LAU February 26 2014 Lecture Section: 001 COMPTON Discussion Section: 016 WELCH

Section 3.2 12. Show that x log x is O(x2) but that x2 is not O(x log x) Proof from definition, for all x > 0 log(x) < x. Hence x log x < x2 for all x > 0. Since the rate of growth for polynomial functions > logarithmic functions If x2 is O(x log x) For C > 0 and k for any x > k Therefore So This is a contradiction as the term on the LHS goes to infinity as x goes to infinity. Thus x is not O(x log x)

20. Determine whether each of the functions log(n + 1) and log(n2 + 1) is O(log n). log(n + 1) is O(log n) for k = 2 and C = 2 log(n2 + 1) is not O(log n).

22. Arrange the function (1.5)n, n100, (log n)3, log n, 10n, (n!)2, and n99 + n98 in a list so that each function is big-O of the next function. (log n)3, log n, n99 + n98,n100, (1.5)n, 10n, (n!)2

24. Suppose that you have two different algorithms for solving a problem. To solve a problem of size n, the first algorithm uses exactly n22n operations and the second algorithm uses exactly n! operations. As n grows, which algorithm uses fewer operations? n22n uses fewer operations. For n = 1, 1! = 1, 12*21 = 2 But for n = 50, 50! = 3.04 X 1064, 502*250 = 2.8118

This is because growth rate of Factorials > exponential > power functions.

44. Suppose that f (x), g(x), and h(x) are functions such that f(x) is (g(x)) and g(x) is (h(x)). Show that f (x) is (h(x)). ( ) ( ( )) and ( ) ( ( )).

Since ( ) | ( )|

( ( )), there exists C1 > 0 and C2 > 0 such that | ( )| | ( )|, for any x > ( ( )), there exists C3 > 0 and C4 > 0 such that | ( )|, for any x > and | ( )| | ( )| | ( )| | ( )| , since is always positive is always positive

Similarly, since ( ) | ( )| | ( )|

## Let k be the larger of | ( )|

| ( )| implies that

## Similarly | ( )| Therefore Hence And ( )

| ( )| implies that | ( )|

| ( )| , since

| ( )| | ( )|

| ( )| | ( )|

## | ( )| for all x > k

| ( )|

( ( )) (shown)

Section 3.3 2. Give a big-O estimate for the number additions used in this segment of an algorithm. t := 0 for i := 1 to n for j := 1 to n t := t + i + j The two loops both run n times, thus the total number of times is n 2 Thus the complexity is O(n2)

4. Give a big-O estimate for the number of operations, where an operation is an addition or a multiplication, used in this segment of an algorithm (ignoring comparisons used to test the conditions in the while loop). i := 1 t := 0 while i <= n t := t + i i := 2i The number of operations is O(n) Section 5.1 10a. Find a formula for 1 by examining the values of this expression for small values of n. ( = + + ... + =1= b. Let P(n) be the proposition that: ( Base step: n = 1 P(1): = , LHS = RHS Hence P(1) is true. Assume that P(k) is true Then ( ) ) )

## We want to show that P(k+1) is also true P(k+1): ( LHS = ( = =( =( =( =(

( ( )( ) ) ) )( ) ) ( )( )

)(

)(

)(

= RHS (shown) Therefore P(k+1) is true Since P(1) is true, P(k) is true -> P(k+1) is also true, using the principle of mathematical induction, the formula is true.

## We want to prove that P(0) is true. LHS = ( RHS =

(

)
)

Since LHS = RHS, P(0) is true Assume that P(k) is true i.e assume that ( )
( )

is true

Now we want to show that P(k+1) is also true i.e we want to show that LHS = = =
( ( )

is true

+(
( )

+
)

= RHS (shown)

Since P(0) is true, P(k) is true -> P(k+1) also true, the equation is valid for all non negative integer n.

20. Prove that 3n<n! if n is an integer greater than 6. Let P(n) be the proposition that 3n<n! for any integer greater 6. We want to prove that the base case P(7) is true 37 < 7! 2187 < 5040, thus P(7) is true.

Assume that P(k) is true for all k > 6 i.e 3k < k! We want to prove that P(k+1) is true i.e. We want to prove that 3k+1 < (k+1)! LHS = 3k+1 = 3(3k) < 3 k! (according to assumption of P(k)) < (k+1)k! (since k > 6. k+1 is always > 3) < (k+1)! Thus P(k+1) is also true. Since P(7) is true, P(k) is true -> P(k+1) is also true, the inequality is true for all n > 6.

Assume that

(assumption)

and

(shown)