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-Nita Ambani A women who has managed her life to bring a divine change in society and is well known

entrepreneur
This is the beginning of a new day. God has given me this day to use as I will. I can waste it or use it for good. What I do today is important, because I am exchanging a day of my life for it. When tomorrow comes, this day will be gone forever, leaving in its place something that I have traded for it. I want it to be gain, not loss; good not evil; success not failure; in order that I shall not regret the price I paid for it.

CHAPTER 1- introduction 1.1 Time Management - The Key to uccess in !our "ife
!ost of the successful people in this world have used this powerful tool called time management in the best possible manner. "veryone in this world has time of #$ hours a day but the one who uses these #$ hours in an effective way is different from others in terms of success. %atience and practical thin&ing are the part and parcel of effective time management. %eople normally find it very hard to manage time that's why there are few successful people in this world. (ut if you become serious about this type of management then chances of your failure becomes less. It deals with your actions. Time management actually means more actions in a day; it is all about getting all the things done that you need to do. Time management is not a modern concept rather it is prevalent from ancient times. It is not an automatic process rather it is self)management. *ou have to identify the time wasting events during the day. The things that distract your attention to waste time have to be ta&en out of your daily schedule. The common time wasters are poor planning, visitors diverting your attention, no clear ob+ectives, fatigue and stress. The schedules organi,ed in better ways manage the time automatically. The tas&s executed doubles with well)organi,ed schedules. To reach your destination you need to have excitement to meet new challenges and motivation to accomplish your tas&s. The main reason to manage time is to set a goal and achieve the same in specific time. If you don't have aim or goal to achieve you would not have cared about time in your life. In recent times when there is cut throat competition time has much importance. %reviously it would have happened that you might have lived moment by moment without caring much about time but now every minute in your life counts. %roper time management is needed to control your life schedule so as to reduce stress level and increase energy level. The progress at wor& is possible. The balance between wor&, personal and family life can be easily obtained with time management. %eople reach height of success in their respective fields li&e business, public service and sport through effective use of available time.

The activities done with managed time with give you best returns. -aving time will ma&e you wor& smarter instead of harder. Time management is all about planning things in life on daily, wee&ly or annual basis to get optimum results. .fter all getting results or not getting results is the difference between success and failure. /o you ever fill li&e you are +ust full of energy and you have nothing to do0 Well, the answer for most people is, 1f course not2 !ost of the world today runs around in a rush trying to get the next thing done. Trying to hurry home to escape the stresses of the world or +ust to watch our favorite television show involves time management. What do we &now about time management0 .s wor&ing adults we should &now a lot about time management. We all strive to become the best that we can be and some of us trying +ust to survive through our day to day events. This alone should encourage us to learn some valuable lessons about the sub+ect. "very aspect of our lives depends on it. If we try to plan, organi,e, and execute our ideas most of the time we can manage it well, but when we go the otherroute, and +ump out there feet first, most of the time we do not do as well. This is not the case in every light, but usually it is the norm. "ven as we sit in class trying to better ourselves by improving on our education, we learn that we must manage time to the best of our abilities. This is not done only for school, but for our families for those of us that have children and spouses. . lot of the time, we manage to get everything done and leave ourselves out in the cold when it comes to ma&ing time for ourselves. If it is not our school we are trying to meet else's needs. (eing prepared is a &ey step in to manage time. There are a lot of go with being prepared. 3irst, you have an idea of what you want to 4nowing what you are getting a lot because you will be able to being able things that have do. into helps focus on to +ob or someone

specific points that will ensure that you are headed in the right direction of achieving your goal.
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This sounds pretty easy, but it is a tas& that a lot of people overloo&. This is not the case in every light, but usually it is the norm. "ven as we sit in class trying to better ourselves by improving on our education, we learn that we must manage time to the best of our abilities. This is not done only for school, but for our families for those of us that have children and spouses. . lot of the time, we manage to get everything done and leave ourselves out in the cold when it comes to ma&ing time for ourselves. If it is not our +ob or school we are trying to meet someone else5s needs.

1.# The $mportance of Time Management in women%s life


It5s no more the time that the women will be shattered in the corner of the house and won5t be ,allowed to see the light of modernity. The present days mar& time of e6ual rights. The time has indeed changed by leaps and bounce. !ore and more women are moving out of their house every day. They are competing the men fol& in almost all fields, be it the field of education or in the field of +ob. There is absolutely no field in which women haven5t shown their mastery. The wor&ing women have proved their abilities, as doctor engineers, lawyers, entrepreneurs, pilots, educationalists and many others. 1nce, there was a time, when girls or women in most cases were ta&en as burden to the family, who are meant to married off and will never have any particular contribution to the well being of the family and the household. In the present scenario, there are bul&s of wor&ing women, who are highly educated and 6ualified to ta&e up +obs in various sectors and are wor&ing, earning and contributing to the household expenses. Wor&ing Women in India have commenced in various fields, such as politics, entertainment and movies, corporate world, music, sports, modeling, entrepreneurship and business world.
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7ompanies are also interested in hiring and recruiting women at wor&. 7ompanies are ta&ing steps to improve the wor&ing condition of women at the wor&place. 3lexible Wor& .rrangements supports their uni6ue needs. Women in India are given 8 months maternity leave. Women's !entoring %rograms are organi,ed at the wor&place. -enior 3emale executive's mentors, virtual wor&shops and conferences provide networ&ing tips to ensure the advancement of women. The women have really been successful in moving ahead nec&)to)nec& with their male counterparts. The best part of employing women is that, they are very responsible towards their +ob in most of the case. They also turn out to be much focused to their assignments and complete it in the best possible manner. -tudies also reveal that women are much competent in meeting deadlines and therefore do +ustice to their pro+ects. The wor&ing women, although face several problems in their professional life as strugglers in this society still dominated by men. They try hard and cope up the essential ha,ards and therefore they suffer from various mental depressions and psychological brea&downs. .s the wor&ing women are somehow financially independent now, so get the chance to mould their life in a way they li&e it to be. !any of them are independent enough to live in wor&ing women hostels, if they are wor&ing away from their home town. Thus the confidence and self respect of women are also enhancing in exposure to more and more +ob opportunities and more significant positions and responsibilities. In the days of +oint families, grandmothers would stand guard +ealously over the ingredients for delicacies that were getting ready for the festive preparations, supervise the actual preparations to the last detail until the yummy sweets were first offered ..."veryone is aware of the importance of time management in order to survive in today's highly competitive world. Indeed, managing your time successfully is as crucial....s a woman; you already have to contend with the powerful male wor&force and the proverbial glass ceiling. If you have a positive and bright attitude ...Wor&ing in a male dominated company for some years now has made me aware of what women in my position are going through and +ust how men in authority perceive us.

1.& 1' (ems to Time Management


9. Set Goals and Stay Focused: 3irstly, there is no definite way to manage your time. :owever, setting goals and staying focused on your dreams would help you a lot. To start with, set short term and long term goals according to your dreams and set up realistic schedules and deadlines. -etting a goal deadline for your goal is very important as it will help you to focus and will not ma&e your target seem too far. .d+ust your lifestyle to wor& towards these goals. #. Prioritize Your Actions: 1ne should not set hori,ontal priority list if one wish to see good results in a set amount of time. -o, prepare your priority list in tune with your goals, &eeping the urgent and important things on top followed by other important and not so important things. 3or example, for a college student li&e me, study is my top priority. -o I devote $;< of my time towards studies, #;< of time for online venture and 8=< for recreational and other activities. /evote your time +udiciously. 8. Know Yourself And The Environment Around You: It may sound confusing but to get the maximum out of a day, you must understand yourself well... 3igure out when you wor& your best and use this time for your most important activity. It will increase your output drastically. $. Multitas in!: "ffective multitas&ing will save you a lot of time and will also prevent you from overwor&ing. 3or example, If you spend a lot of time travelling from your college and home, use this time to read a new chapter or revise what was +ust taught in class. :ave dinner>lunch with your family and friends; listen to music while having bath etc. so that you get your fill of entertainment without any extra time spent on these things.

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Focus on "esults# $ot %n &ein! &usy: !any people do this mista&e. ?i&e here at hub pages, It is of no use If you &eep writing hubs after hubs. To see the results, It is important to write 6uality, content rich and -"1 friendly hubs. -o focus your efforts towards results and don't waste your energy &eeping yourself busy on unimportant things.

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E'(lore )ife &eyond *or : The best way to manage your time is sometimes not to manage it at all. 4eep someday reserved to free yourself from all your daily and monotonous activities and en+oy life to the fullest. It will recharge your brain and you would be all charged up for the following days.

A.

+on,t -ut &ac %n Slee(: This is one of the biggest mista&e people do to manage their time deficit. It is bad time management strategy simply because time bought in exchange of sleep is low productivity time and It continues to affect your productivity next day too. .lso, If you continuously cut bac& on sleep, then you may even fall sic& and waste your precious days.

B.

Kee( A +edicated Time for +ay +reamin!: It is a fact, we all day dream but day dreaming during some important wor& will send the entire plan into ti,,y. 1ne should consciously refrain oneself from day dreaming during their pea& activity. 4eeps a dedicated time for day dreaming0 3or example while having bath, wal&ing etc.

C.

)earn To +ele!ate Your *or : This step can prove to be very useful in managing one's time. 1ne must reali,e that one cannot do everything alone and should learn to delegate wor& effectively. (ut one should do it +udiciously and with caution.

9=. +o $ot Procrastinate: !any people are believer of the 6uote, DEever do today what you can put off till tomorrow. (etter yet, never put off till tomorrow what you can avoid altogetherD2 They are always behind their target. Then they get stressed and depressed. .lways remember you can't reverse time. -o it is essential to use it +udiciously to do all that you want

Chapter 2: women s in the past #.1 The $rony of being a woman in $ndia
.n /indu reli!ion# of the infinite num0ers of Gods and Goddesses# the (residin! deity of wealth is a woman# the God of (ower and stren!th is a woman and the God of )earnin! is a woman1 Their consorts are Gods too111-reator# the Kee(er and the +estroyer20ut then# what use is life without wealth# learnin! and (ower3 So the real 0ac in! comes from female (ower1 Even durin! the early 4edic times that e'tended 0etween si' thousand and three thousand years a!o# flourishin! in the northern .ndia (lains# women in .ndian society had a status e5ual to that of men# in almost all matters1 .n ancient /indu society# women were (olyandrous# could !et divorced if they did not find their hus0and6s worthy in any way# widows could remarry and royal women even had the ri!ht to arran!e for com(etitions to determine who they would chose to marry1 The most li0eral of all socially acce(ted norms was $iyo!# that a woman has the ri!ht to choose another man to have children 0y# if her hus0and is inca(a0le of (rocreation1 The heroes of the Maha0harata# the Pandavas# are all 0orn out of this norm2to s(ea in modern terms7 they are none 0e!otten from their mothers6 hus0and1 After five thousand years of 0ein! at (ar with men# the .ndian woman suddenly lost her importance in the society. "very mother, till today, sings the stories and glories of these powers, the G""T. Fthe boo& of :indu philosophyG, the tales of valor to her child in the cradle. Then why is it that the lesson that ever Indian child learns from his cradle is forgotten by adulthood0 I say :I- for a reason H that it is this very child that grows up to unmindfully rape, plunder, &ill and exploit the same woman, whether it is his unborn daughter in her mother5s womb, or any other woman on the road. The irony lies in the fact that a culture that sets aside the most important festivals and religious beliefs for worshipping female power That is again not true. :ow can an outside cultural invasion drive a man to &ill his own daughter for no fault except her sex0 :ow can a husband learn to disrespect, beat and exploit his wife +ust because his &ing happens to be of a foreign culture0 Was the :indu philosophy of four thousand
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years so thin, it came off with a swab doused in colonialism0 It cannot be. Why did not The !uslim coloni,ers, who themselves settled in India for these centuries learn to educate their women and worship their life giving abilities li&e the country they had captured0 Why did they not give up their culture0 .ll this tal& of cultural influence being the beginning of exploitation seems to be fu,,y logic, and belongs exactly where fu,,y logic belongsIin history boo&s. While it is true that the position of women in India has been rising and falling with the ruling power, he common5s man5s mind cannot be so volatile. !odern day India has an entirely different story to tell. "ven during the day5s long celebrations of women power, the festival of goddess /urga, and female fury unleashed in its most powerful form, there are reports of women being burnt for dowry. The concept of dowry as it exists in India, most probably does not exist in any other culture. The fact is that if the dowry of the woman is inade6uate in the eyes of her married family, she can be conveniently done to death, certainly doesn5t exist in any other culture. While India is the culture that has the world5s most explicit treatise on sex and sexual mores, The 4ama sutra, it is today a society where an educated wor&ing woman is not safe in the streets of its metros. It has, after centuries of intellectual awareness, today degenerated into a society that5s morally corrupt and humanely degraded to the lowest levels of base behavior. The governance has created many organi,ations to fight these situations, a number of human rights organi,ations have been set up, a large number of voluntary organi,ations extend a helping hand to raped youngsters, battered wives and half burnt brides. (ut that can happen only when the woman ta&es the initiative to see& help. 1r else, the organi,ation is +ust another farce, of no valid use. The :uman Jights 7ommission for Women that handles human rights violations against women, the Eational 7ouncil for Women handles the policies for women, the umpteen organi,ations that help her fight bac& erring husbands and in lawsI can only sometimes help get her dignity bac&. Who will help restore the dignity of the Indian woman00 I thin& it has to be herself. The family, the social structure, the upbringing she gives to her son...she alone can teach her son to respect women. -he alone can ma&e the /ivine powered Goddess come to life for her child, in the guise of the real life blood women around him. -he alone can teach him that to respect a woman is to respect the K.E.EI, your creator. -he alone can bring about the revolution in the society.
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#.#)ork schedule during olden times

$ L 8= ; L8= @ L8= A L8= 9=L== 99L8= 8 L 8= $ L8= ; L8= @ L== A L8= C L8=

(athing before sunrise :ousehold wor& 3eeding animals (rea&fast %reparing of lunch 3arming and having lunch (uying of vegetables !a&ing of handicrafts, bas&ets :ousehold wor& and ma&ing of dinner 3eeding to animals /inner time Go to sleep

819 A short account of un(rofita0le life of women22


The crisis of drin&ing water is a crisis in the lives of poor and marginali,ed women. The impact of drought and scarcity is felt most severely by women due to their gender)defined roles in collecting and utili,ing water for the survival of their households. 1ften, the other side of improved productivity due to irrigation also means increased labor for women .ll over the world women share a special relationship with water, as a life)sustaining resource, as a means of production, and as a cultural idiom. The landscape of women and water in India is no exception. In rural India, women head)load water over miles in the scorching heat of the

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semi)arid plains or along narrow dangerous paths up in the foothills. /enied land rights, most rural women find it difficult to access water for irrigation or to participate in ma&ing decisions in the newly established water user associations. Giving women a voice in articulating their water priorities re6uires an enabling environment which recogni,es that the right to water is embedded in the larger canvas of gender rights, livelihood sustainability and human security. The water sector is going through a crisis in terms of management of the resource as well as in terms of scarcity. In !aharashtra, the number of drought)prone talu&as is increasing rapidly. /espite huge investments in building dams, the irrigated area has not gone beyond 9;< of total cropped area. It is estimated that if all the potential were exploited, this area would not exceed 8=<. :owever, how much irrigation is expanded is less crucial than how much of it reaches the poor, and women. .lmost @=< of the irrigated area in !aharashtra is cornered by #< of the land, which is largely under sugarcane. The highly subsidi,ed expansion of irrigation in the last few decades has created poc&ets of prosperity but left a large section of the poor deprived of water. The 6uestion of assured water for livelihoods for a large section of the population remains unresolved. .part from the tremendous gaps in e6uity, the irrigation sector is beset with problems li&e inade6uate financial recoveries from users, stagnating performance, poorly maintained irrigation systems, displacement of people, and resultant conflicts between those affected by the pro+ect and its beneficiaries, and the irreparable damage that it has caused to the ecosystem In terms of drin&ing water, according to government of !aharashtra statistics, between 9CAB and 9CB=, 9#,A;8 villages had inade6uate drin&ing water. To resolve this crisis the government introduced 9;,=B; tube wells and then claimed that almost 99,=== were successful. In 9CB@, the number of villages with inade6uate drin&ing water increased to 9$,===. In 9CCC, ;,9@8 villages and 8,9C8 Vadis were being provided water through tan&ers. (etween 9CCA and #==#, the state government claimed that it had solved the problem for 8=,A$9 villages. :owever, at the end of #==#, there

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were about ##,BA= villages with a severe drin&ing water crisis )) which most severely affects the poor and women. *omen and drin in! water It is estimated that over 9= million person)years are spent by women and female children carrying water from distant sources every year *ho collects water for households3 .ccording to a study commissioned by MEI7"3 and done by the Ja+iv Gandhi Eational /rin&ing Water !ission, 9CC=, the principal collectors of water in Indian households are women, usually between the ages of 9;)8; years. They collect about 9C# litres of water a day for an average household of seven members. Women's role in water collection varies with age as followsL

Women 9;)8; yearsL 7ollect @8.@< of household water Women 8@);= yearsL 9@.#< Women ;9N yearsL #.=< Women O 9; yearsL $.=< !enL 9$.=<

The crisis of drin&ing water is a crisis in the lives of poor and marginali,ed women. The impact of drought and scarcity is felt most severely by women due to their gender)defined roles in collecting and utili,ing water for the survival of their households. . study in the 4on&ani region of !aharashtra found that in every household, on an average, women spend about AC<, men about A<, and children about 9$< of their time in meeting the household's domestic water needs These impacts women5s health, time and energy spent in collecting water, income)earning opportunities, childrearing capacities, and social status. These impacts have the combined effect of wea&ening the capabilities of women and their livelihood outcomes.

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While women normally spend a significant proportion of their time in meeting basic household needs for water, fodder and fuel even in normal times, during a drought they have to invest even more time and lab our to collect less and less )) both 6uantitatively and 6ualitatively )) water, fodder and fuel. They have to hire out more of their lab our for a smaller than usual wage. This leaves them with very little time to engage in any productive activity outside the house, and forces women to remain in subsistence. 3or women agricultural laborers5 this scarcity has meant loss of income. They sayL We cannot afford to spend our entire day loo&ing for water. We have to go for wage)earning. (ut then we have to buy water for drin&ing. We earn about Js 8= a day and spend about Js 9;)#= +ust on getting some &ind of water to 6uench our thirst. :ow do we live and what can we eat0 While this is the story in most parts of !aharashtra, in Wada in Thane district, 7oca)7ola was given an unlimited permit to extract water. :ealth impact studies have shown how lac& of water means that women have to cut down on the number of meals coo&ed, or manage with raw or partially coo&ed food. Wood is the main source of fuel in rural areas. 3uel becomes inade6uate during a drought, and this also changes consumption patterns. .ll this affects the nutritional 6uality of the food, and women and girls are the worst affected in the process. -tudies have shown that in such situations it is the women who cut down their inta&e first ?ong)term and widespread drought has had a long)standing impact on natural resources. "cological degradation, contributing to drought, has led to the erosion of livelihoods. .dded to this is a lac& of opportunities in the non)farm sector, which forces migration to urban areas. -chemes and programmers to address these issues lac& an understanding of the causes that brought about the depletion of the resource, as well as gender)defined tas&s and roles. *omen and irri!ation There is little documentation of the traditional rights of women over water sources. 3ormal rights are often vested in men as farmers and as heads of the household. Women therefore have little or no access to irrigation in their own capacity, and access is usually mediated through a male member of the household. 3ew women use water as individual farmers to irrigate crops on
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individually owned land. !ost women draw canal water for homestead plots or for domestic use in informal arrangements )) that is, the water is used for purposes other than irrigationL for drin&ing, domestic use, for small vegetable gardens, for livestoc& and micro)enterprises such as fisheries. Women's use of irrigation water is thus seen in uses other than irrigating the Pmain' crops. :owever, in conventional analyses of irrigation efficiency, this distraction from irrigating the main crops would be seen as wastage. 1nly women using water as individual farmers receive some attention in the present irrigation paradigm. !ost of the others fall in the informal arena, with no rights. . more explicit recognition and formali,ation of Pother' categories of users is needed. This will bring about a better assessment of water use and distribution, and improve the security of these users 3ew studies document how women would use water differently if given access. In our wor&, we have noticed that gender differences in irrigation are manifested in the choice of crops, preference over water timings, and lab our inputs. These are internal to the household and never really emerge as open conflicts. -ome studies show how women participate in irrigation)related activities. . study in Gu+arat shows that women spend an average of ;.8 hours in rearing livestoc&. 3etching water for livestoc& ta&es about ; hours daily. The detailed study on women's multiple uses of water showed that there were only a few activities in agricultural production in which women were not actively involved. Women were involved in irrigation, chemical spraying, fertili,er application and land preparation, along with men. The Gu+arat study also shows that although women are significantly involved in irrigated agriculture, the revenue generated from agriculture is entirely controlled by men and so are decisions around water. This is true also of production from women's fields and household gardens... Irrigation brings prosperity and hope but often at the cost of women and other resource)poor. There is a lot of documentation of the ill effects of irrigated agriculture on women. .part from the increased wor&load and resultant health ha,ards, changed cropping patterns due to

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irrigated Qagriculture affects the extent and nature of women's meaningful participation in agriculture. In most cases, the other side of improved productivity and irrigation efficiency is increased lab our for women. This is evident in many irrigated areas. .lthough improved labor opportunities have a positive side, women's wor& increases without a substantial improvement in their status and without them being relieved of their domestic wor&loads :owever, in some instances, there are positive outcomes. -ara .hmed's study on the lift co) operatives in eastern Gu+arat point to the fact that enhanced participation of women in irrigation does lead to positive outcomes. -he outlines the significant potential such participation holds in changing gender relations and responsibilities F.hmedG. We argue for women's presence in irrigation management and independent access to water for two reasons. Improving their access to water and decisions related to water is critical for better livelihood outcomes. -econd, such changes have the potential to challenge the existing property regime as well as its gender specific tas&s. It is assumed that because most women do not own land, they will not use water entitlements if given any. :owever, if access to water is given, women may demand land, trade that water, or use it for micro enterprises. %eople wor&ing in the water sector are grappling with a range of challenges related to gender e6uity. The arguments have ranged from gender participation on grounds of poverty, efficiency, welfare and e6uity. !any of these arguments are shaped by larger concerns in the water sector and lin& gender e6uity to more legitimate concerns such as better management of water, improved efficiency, cost recovery, etc.

81: *or in! women: -ontradictions 0etween reality and statistics


In India, it is ta&en for granted that economic activities are exclusively the prerogative of males while domestic wor&, child bearing and child rearing are the sole occupations of women. :owever, this is not true of the women from the wea&er sections of Indian rural society. These female wor&ers carry not only the load of domestic wor& but also carry a significant part of the

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load of economic activity. Their contribution to economic activity is in fact on the higher side than what is revealed by the different Indian 7ensuses. 3or the first time in the year 9C@9, the term 'actual wor&er' in place of actual earner and 'non) wor&er' in place of dependent was introduced by the Indian 7ensus. This term 'wor&er' included all persons who were on wor& and >or who were carrying out business)whether personally or by employing servants. Though the 9CA9 7ensus maintained the basic categori,ation similar to that of 9C@9, the 7ensus authorities went for an altogether new conservative definition of the term 'wor&er' and 'economic activity of a person'. The 9CA9 7ensus directed its en6uiry only towards the main economic activity of a person decided to neglect the supplementary economic activity. This implied that any supporting wor& in cultivation or in household economic occupation was not enumerated as main activity. Therefore millions of female wor&ers wor&ing on their family farms and in household economic occupations were declared as non)wor&ers. The result was that the 7ensus eliminated nearly #B million female wor&ers from the category of wor&ers. In all the 7ensuses, the enumerators generally met only male members in the rural households. .s the status)conscious male respondents were not positive in their replies to 6uestions on economic activities of the female members of their families, the enumerators too naturally came to the conclusion that the women were mainly active in domestic chores and their economic activity was only incidental. They also concluded that the males were the bread)winners and the females were housewives and non)wor&ers. (ut in most cases this was not true. The 7ensus enumerators also did not ma&e any study to evaluate the wor& load and women's time)disposition either in family farming or in house)hold economic occupation. The Eational -ample -urvey FE--G #Cth Jound showed an increase of $C< among the male earners; @=.@< among female earners and AA.8< among child)earners in the decade from 9C$@) @; to 9CA$)A; and the total increase in respect of total earners at ;$.B< of the total rural lab our households. The increase among female earners was @=< which meant #B< more than the increase in the households. This proves that the increase among females in more that that of males though it is true that increase among the child laborers5 in more than females.

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The 9CB9 7ensus has tried to correct this situation partly by introducing a new term called 'marginal wor&ers' mainly for part time and casual wor&ers. To some extent this does remove the confusion created by the 9CA9 7ensus. The 9CB9 7ensus has thus revealed that there are #A million marginal wor&ing persons of whom #8.$ million are in rural areas. 1ut of this latter total, as many as 9B.9< million are females and this number is out of the total female marginal wor&ers in India, i.e. #=.8 million. This means that out of every 9= marginal female wor&ers, C are from rural areas. In 9CAA the percentage of total wor&ers to total population was 88.=C<. This increased to 88.$$< in 9CB9. In the case of wor&ing population of males the participation rate of lab our marginally decreased from ;#.@9< to ;#.#8< while the participation rate in the case of female lab our force increased to 9$.$#< from 9#.98<. This clearly shows that during the last decade more women have started wor&ing in economic activities. .ccording to the 9CB9 7ensus, there are $;.C million female wor&ers having economic activities as their main activities and out of them, $=,$ million are in rural areas. 1ut of these $= million women wor&ers, #= million are agricultural laborers5 and 9$.C million are cultivators who generally belong to poor section of the cultivators li&e marginal and small farmers. While wor&ing mothers in urban areas have received some attention from organi,ation, committee, trade unions, cooperatives and public authorities, the welfare of wor&ing mothers in rural areas has received almost no attention from any organi,ation ) governmental or non) governmental. Whenever people in India tal& of wor&ing mothers, only the wor&ing women in urban centre5s are invariably on their mind.

81;-urrent Status of *omen in .ndia


.ccording India5s constitution, women are legal citi,ens of the country and have e6ual rights with men FIndian %arliamentG. (ecause of lac& of acceptance from the male dominant society, Indian women suffer immensely. Women are responsible for baring children, yet they are malnourished and in poor health. Women are also overwor&ed in the
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field and complete the all of the domestic wor&. !ost Indian women are uneducated. .lthough the country5s constitution says women have e6ual status to men, women are powerless and are mistreated inside and outside the home. India is a society where the male is greatly revered. Therefore women, especially the young girls, get very little respect and standing in this country. The women of the household are re6uired to prepare the meal for the men, who eat most of the food. 1nly after the males are finished eating, can the females eat. This creates a ma+or problem with malnutrition, especially for pregnant or nursing women. Rery few women see& medical care while pregnant because it is thought of as a temporary condition. This is one main reason why India5s maternal and infant mortality rates are so high. -tarting from birth, girls do not receive as much care and commitment from their parents and society as a boy would. 3or example a new baby girl would only be breast fed for a short period of time, barely supplying her with the nutrients she needs. This is so that the mother can get pregnant as soon as possible in hopes of a son the next time ."ven though the constitution guarantees free primary schooling to everyone up to 9$ years of age FIndian %arliamentG, very few females attend school. 1nly about 8C percent of all women in India actually attend primary schools. There are several reasons why families choose not to educate their daughters. 1ne reason is that parents get nothing in return for educating their daughters. .nother reason is that all the females in a household have the responsibility of the housewor&. -o even though education does not financially burden the family, it costs them the time she spends at school when she could be doing chores. In addition, even if a woman is educated, especially in the poorer regions, there is no hope for a +ob. !ost +obs women perform are agricultural or domestic which do not re6uire a formal education. .nother reason girls are not educated is because families are re6uired to supply a chaste daughter to the family of her future husband..(ecause women are not educated and cannot hold a prestigious +ob, they ta&e on the most physically difficult and undesirable +obs. . typical day for a woman in an agricultural position lasts from $am to Bpm with only an hour brea& in the middle. 7ompared to a man5s day, which is from ;am to 9=am and then from 8pm to ;pm. !ost women are overwor&ed with no maternity
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leave or special brea&s for those who are pregnant. %lus women do the ma+ority of the manual labor that uses a lot of energy compared to the men who do mostly machine operating .

CHPT :3-PRESENT SECNERIO IN WOMENS LIFE

91< The -han!in! "ole of *omen in Society


=Gone are the days when women sat at home, managing the house and loo&ing after the children. Today women have been given bigger role to play in the society. They are entrusted with more responsibility than their male counterparts.6 "arlier in the olden days, women use to sit at home detached from the outside world. They use to manage home and loo& after children. They were devoid from the responsibility of earning

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income for the family, leaving it exclusively to their male counterparts. The responsibility of earning income for the family was left to males. With the advent of industriali,ation and technological development, the lifestyles of human beings started to change. The needs of human beings started to multiply. .part from basic amenities, man aspired for sophisticated life. This shift to modern living started to reflect in the lifestyles of human being. In this process, women slowly started to move outside home. Women pursued education in e6ual terms with males and with this women literacy rate improved tremendously. -ubse6uently, women slowly started to participate in all wal&s of life. Women started to thin& independently and participated e6ually in the outside world along with their male counterparts. . -lowly and steadily discriminating women on the basis of gender diminished, as women won applauds in all the fields of life including politics, sports and even in defence services. .s the times have changed, along with that standard of living has undergone drastic transformation. Eeeds of human beings have multiplied and in this process earning substantial income for maintaining a decent life has become the highest priority. With the changed circumstances the role of women has become so important in the society. 3or matching today5s standard of living and leading a dignified life, it became imminent for both men and women to collectively earn income for the family. Gone are the days when women use to sit at home, managing home and loo&ing after the children. Today women have been given bigger role to play in the society. They are entrusted with more responsibility than their male counterparts. Women have to venture out and wor& along with men in supplementing income for the family. Initially men ob+ected to women pursuing their career outside home, but with the growing needs and scarcity of money, he had no other way out but to accept the reality and ad+ust with the changed circumstances. 7ontribution of women in generating income for their families increased drastically. Women started earning income almost at par with their male counterparts. (ut home was still managed exclusively by women as in the past, without any change. !en did not provide enough support to their female counterparts in managing home and children. It became a challenging tas& for women to manage both spheres of life, home front and their careers outside home. Women after wor&ing hard at their +obs had no respite after coming bac& from their office. They cannot afford to sit down and relax for some time, as they have to ta&e care of the needs of their children,
20

manage home and prepare food for their family. It became very hectic for women, as the burden on them increased disproportionately. Women are bearing the brunt and suffering mental hardship in managing home and pursuing their careers. 3urther women are also suffering emotionally, as they have to leave their small children at home and stay outside for long hours in pursuing their careers.

918 *omen wor ers in ur0an .ndia


The most recent data suggest that employment growth in the first half of this decade has been rapid among urban women. In the era of globali,ation, it has become commonplace to argue that trade openness in particular generates processes that encourage the increased employment of women, particularly in export) oriented activities. In addition, development in general and higher per capita incomes are supposed to lead to more employment in services and shifts from unpaid household wor& to paid wor&, which also involve more paid +obs for women wor&ers. /ata from the recent large sample employment survey of the E--1 would appear to provide confirmation of this perception. Wor& participation rates of women wor&ers have increased in #==$)=;, not only in comparison with 9CCC)#=== when they had fallen sharply, but also in comparison to a decade earlier. :owever, this process needs to be considered in more detail to see whether it is indeed the positive process outlined above. -ince this is meant to be much more mar&ed in the urban areas, this article is concerned with changes in employment patterns of urban women wor&ers in India. .s 7hart 9 shows, wor& participation rates have indeed increased and in #==$)=; were at the highest rate of the past #; years. FThe year 9CCC)#=== now appears to be a significant outlier, and other problems with that data suggest that the long)term trends are confirmed by the most recent data.G 1f course, these wor& participation rates are still low by international standards, and reflect substantial variation across -tates, with southern -tates showing generally higher rates.

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7hart # shows how the age specific wor& participation rates for urban women have changed over the past decade. There is a general tendency for women to enter into paid wor& at younger ages than previously S participation rates among younger urban women increased by about # percentage points compared to 9CC8)C$ and ; percentage points compared to 9CCC)#===. .nd the pea& wor& participation rate for urban women has shifted from the age group $=)$$ years in 9CC8)C$ to 8;)8C years in #==$)=;.

Em(loyment (rofile: -o what type of employment do urban women wor&ers find0 Table 9
show that there has been an overall decline in casual employment and a general increase in regular wor& and self)employment. The shift is especially mar&ed in the case of principal activity, with more than $# per cent of urban women wor&ers now reporting themselves as having a regular +ob. When subsidiary activities are included, self)employment assumes greater significance, with nearly $B per cent reporting as self)employed.
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This is certainly a phenomenon to be welcomed, especially if it does indeed indicate a shift to more productive and better)remunerated activities than are to be found with casual contracts. :owever, this needs to be confirmed with evidence on the specific activities that urban women are engaged in and the trends in wages. Table # provides the evidence on the broad sect oral classification of wor& of urban women. %redictably, agriculture shows a substantial decline over time. :owever, elsewhere there are surprises. The share of manufacturing has increased slightly, but at around #B per cent it is not much higher than the proportion achieved in 9CBA)BB, that is well before any export)led manufacturing boom was in evidence. -o the overall proportion of women in manufacturing employment in urban India does not support the notion of a big increase in female employment conse6uent upon greater export orientation of production.

"ven trade, hotels and restaurants, which are activities traditionally considered to attract a lot of women wor&ers, do not show much increase, and the share of these has even declined compared to 9CCC)#===. The clear increase, even if not very dramatic, is for other services, which is a catch)all for a wide range of both public and private services, as well as both high value added high)remuneration +obs and very low productivity low paying survival activities.
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Ty(e of activity: In the service sectors, there has been very little increase in female
employment in public administration, reflecting the overall constraints on such employment, although employment in education Fmainly with private employersG has shown a large increase. :owever, the biggest single increases after apparel S and the category of wor& that is now the single largest for urban India women S has been among those employed in private households. In other words, women wor&ing as domestic servants now number more than three million, and account for more than 9# per cent of all women wor&ers in urban India. It is indeed disturbing to see that the greatest labour mar&et dynamism has been evident in the realm of domestic service. This is well &nown to be poorly paid and often under harsh conditions S and certainly, it cannot be seen as a positive sign of a vibrant dynamic economy undergoing positive structural transformation. The newer activities that are much cited S such as IT and finance S continue to absorb only a tiny proportion of urban women wor&ers, which is why they have not been included in this table. Thus, women wor&ers in all IT)related activities S that is, computer hardware and software as well as IT)enabled services S account for only =.8 per cent of the urban women wor&ers in this large sample, amounting to an estimated total of A$,=== wor&ers at most. -imilarly, women wor&ers in all financial activities S that is, formal financial intermediation through ban&s and other institutions, life)insurance and pension activities and other auxiliary financial activities S added up to only 9.$ per cent of the women wor&ers in urban India. -o there is clearly a long way to go before the newer sectors S or even traditional but more dynamic exporting sectors such as textiles and garments S can ma&e a dent in transforming labour conditions for urban Indian women.

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This is probably why the evidence on real wage trends of urban women is so disappointing. 7hart $ indicates that average real wages have fallen between 9CCC)#=== and #==$)=; for both regular and casual women wor&ers, and have hardly increased much even in relation to more than a decade earlier.

919 -hallen!es Faced 0y *or in! *omen in .ndia


The financial demands on the Indian families are becoming fiercer by day. The s&y roc&eting cost of living, increasing expenses on education of children, increasing cost of housing properties in India force every family in India to loo& for ways and means of increasing the household income. .s a result, women in India who were mostly &nown as homema&ers are forced to go for +obs and ta&e up even careers that were considered only suitable for men such as wor&ing in night shifts in call centers or (%1s. They are left with no option but to fend for their families in all possible ways. Wor&ing women in India are faced with lot more challenges than their counterparts in the other parts of the world. In India men do not share on most of the household chores, it is women who have to coo&, clean the house, do the dishes, wash clothes, get their children ready for school etc. !en +ust too& care of few chores that are to be dealt outside the house. -o the ma+or burden of running the family is on the shoulders of women. It was alright for women to handle all the chores as long as they were homema&ers. Eow with their increasing need for getting some income for the family, they have to wor& all the more harder. They have to ta&e up a C to ; +ob
25

plus handle all the household chores that they handled as a homema&er. !en5s role has not changed much. Women have started sleeping lesser than before because only when they wa&e up early they can coo& for the family, get themselves ready for the +ob, get their children ready for the schools, so on an average, women lost # hours of sleep per day and up to 9$ hours sleep per wee&. If they happened to wor& in a highly pressuri,ed environment, then they will bring home their wor& and that cuts few more hours of sleep. It is not +ust about the reduced sleep, but such a lifestyle builds stress. This stress is passed on to the family and frustration level builds up in the family. This leads to relationship problems. They have to handle harassment's at their wor& place, sometimes +ust over loo& things to ensure that their +ob is not +eopardi,ed in anyway. !any Indian families are still living as +oint families along with the parents and in)laws. This adds to their stress further because they have to please all the family members of her husband. ?isten to their complaints that they ma&e against her and turn deaf ears towards them and so on. 1verall, ma+ority of women in India loo& towards or live in the hope that things will change. -ome of us have given up that hope and learnt to accept that nothing can be done about it. India has a long way to go before our women will be able to live their lives to the full. The reality of women5s lives remains invisible to men and women ali&e and this invisibility persists at all levels beginning with the family to the nation. .lthough geographically men and women share the same space, they live in different worlds. The mere fact that )omen hold up half the sky ) does not appear to give them a position of dignity and e6uality. True, that over the years women have made great strides in many areas with notable progress in reducing some genderT gaps. *et, Pthe afflicted world in which we live is characteri,ed by deeply une6ual sharing of the burden of adversities between women and men5. -prawling ine6ualities persist in their access to education, health care, physical and financial resources and opportunities in the political, economic, social and cultural spheres. =Gender ine5uality holds 0ac the !rowth of individuals# the develo(ment of nations and the evolution of societies to the disadvanta!e of 0oth men and women61 Gender issues are
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not sim(ly tal in! a0out women6s issues1 >nderstandin! !ender means understandin! o((ortunities# constraints and the im(act of chan!e as they affect 0oth men and women1 The impact of ine6uality is reflected in the status of women worldwide and in India.

The difference in hours spent on household activities is interesting, but since it5s not bro&en down by employment, and women are less li&ely to be employed full)time than men, it doesn5t really tell us to what degree this is women doing a second shift vs. household management as their primary activity, so that5s sort of annoying.

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Chpt 4 - Work Life Balance of Women Employees

Times have changed. 3rom the time the husband earned, and the wife stayed at home. To the time now when the husband earns and the wife earns too. (ut the wife still coo&s and washes and runs the house. -o, how does she balance her wor& with life at home0 .lthough, over the years women in India have struggled to establish an identity U create a mar& in the social as well as in the organi,ational platforms, but with educational institutions training more and more women to enter professional careers, have drastically changed the scenario. In fact, between 9CC9 and #==9 female employment in India on the whole, have increased by 8.@< per annum. Within the professional world, which reflects India's small but growing middle
28

class more than the country as a whole, the phenomenon of Indian women Dbrea&ing through the glass ceilingD is perhaps more muted. "ven, despite legal provisions made by acts li&e those of the "6ual Jemuneration .ct of 9CA@ Fwhich promulgates e6ual payment for e6ual wor&, regardless of gender U prohibits gender discrimination in hiring practicesG, the so)called Dglass ceilingD is perhaps still very prevalent within organi,ations. This article would highlight the various values, attitudes U beliefs of women regarding +ob anxiety in their formal wor& organi,ations U particularly balancing their wor& U personal life. Wor& ?ife (alance FW?(G is not a new concept.

Wor&)?ife (alance does not mean an e6ual balance. Trying to schedule an e6ual number of hours for each of your various wor& and personal activities is usually unrewarding and unrealistic. ?ife is and should be more fluid than that. *our best individual wor&)life balance will vary over time, often on a daily basis. The right balance for you today will probably be different for you tomorrow. The right balances for you when you are single will be different when you marry, or if you have children; when you start a new career versus when you are nearing retirement. There is no perfect, one)si,e fits all, balance you should be striving for. The best wor&) life balance is different for each of us because we all have different priorities and different lives. :owever, at the core of an effective wor&)life balance definition are two &ey everyday concepts that are relevant to each of us. They are daily .chievement and "n+oyment, ideas almost deceptive in their simplicity. "ngraining a fuller meaning of these two concepts ta&es us most of the way to defining a positive Wor&)?ife (alance. The change in the pattern of wor& and the concept of the wor&place after the industrial revolution in the second half of the 9Bth century gave a new dimension to the concept of W?(. .s time
29

progressed, nuclear families increased. . later change was the fading away of the Dideal homeD in which the earning member's spouse too& care of the home. With improved education and employment opportunities today, most homes are ones in which both parents wor&, because of necessity and the desire to augment incomes. Why Wor& ?ife (alance is Important to Women0 Today's career women are continually challenged by the demands of full)time wor& and when the day is done at the office, they carry more of the responsibilities and commitments to home. The ma+ority of women are wor&ing $=) $; hours per wee& and ;8< are struggling to achieve wor&>life balance. Women reported that their lives were a +uggling act that included multiple responsibilities at wor&, heavy meeting schedules, business trips, on top of managing the daily routine responsibilities of life and home. D-uccessfully achieving wor&>life balance will ultimately create a more satisfied wor&force that contributes to productivity and success in the wor&place.D "mployers can facilitate W?( with many schemes that can attract women employees and satisfy their needs. -ome of these are T 3acilities for child care T 3inancial planning services for employees who need them T 3lexi)timings T Wor& sharing T %art time employment T ?eave plans ) both paid and unpaid ) to suit employee's needs T -ubsidi,ed food plans T Insurance plans T 7ounseling services for problems li&e managing wor& and the home T Jest rooms, food preparation services T Kobs with autonomy and flexibility

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Wor& life balance

:1< -an women 0e 0oth sharers and careers


1ften, wor&ing women drop out of the wor& force when they are doing well, simply because they wanted to stay at home with their children, or care for an ageing parent. 1r for both reasons. .nd then there are women who have children later in life because they want to wor& for reasons of personal satisfaction or for the money. -o, can a woman have it all0 The wor&ing woman should refuse to ta&e on too much. -he should adopt a sense of priorities. If she has children, she should teach them to share responsibilities. (ut what about the husband0 :as he changed at all anywhere in the world0 -urprisingly, .E .JTI7?" brought a survey in the M4 revealed that a ma+ority of men want a ;=>;= partnership with their wives both at wor& and home. They no longer see themselves as macho men. They want to spend more time with their children. :as the Indian man &ept pace with the times0 7an women achieve a wor&)life balance0 The changing "6uations of Eew "ra The 7hanging "6uations The !achine .ge The Industrial .ge The Eetwor&ed .ge -tress :igh :igher :ighest Wor&) ?ife balance *ou went to wor&)life started only when you go home Eot only are people wor&ing at wor&, but also at home #$)hour wor&days split into compartments dedicated for 'life' Women and Wor& The men wor&ed and women tended the house (oth men and women wor&ed, and women still tended the house (oth men and women wor& and tend to the house.

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:1 8 Framewor for successful *or ?)ife &alance in or!anizations


TIdentify the &ey need or reason for introducing Wor&)?ife (alance policies T (uild the commitment to Wor&)?ife (alance %olicies into the organi,ation ' s vision or value statement T -et up a Wor&)?ife (alance Tas& 3orce "xamine current practices in the organi,ation T :old +oint discussions with employees to evolve policies, while also identifying possible barriers T 7ommunicate policies through handboo&s, newsletters, Intranet and other forms of communication T :old wor&shops to help !anagers implement and manage policies T (egin with a few D6uic& winD policies !onitor implementation and put feedbac& systems into place In India, there is a starting point in that organi,ations have recogni,ed the need for and value of Wor&)?ife (alance policies. .n integral part of our lives is our profession. Kust as there is responsibility and opportunity in life, our careers are also guided by opportunities and responsibilities. We must ensure that these two factors don't wor& at cross purposes. Vuality of life is something we all covet, every profession affects life in general and every profession has a duty towards life.

: 19 To( ; Strate!ies to Stri e a &alance


T(udget your time both in and out of the office ) -chedule your time efficiently at wor&. %ut yourself on your calendar and ta&e some time for you and your family > friends. ?eave wor& on time at least three days per wee& ) There are times when wor&ing late +ust can't be helped, but schedule your time to leave on time three days per wee&. T 7ontrol interruptions and distractions ) -tay focused while in the office, and budget your time effectively. Try to schedule a bloc& of time during the day without meetings when you can focus on your tas&s with minimal interruptions. T "xplore the availability of flex)time ) Jesearch flex)time options within your organi,ation.

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T -ei,e the wee&end ) %lan your time off as you plan your wor& wee&. T -chedule activities with family and friends, a wee&end trip, or +ust something fun. !a&e your time away from wor& count2

* $f you want to make good use of your time+ you%ve got to know what%s most important and then give it all you%ve got%.

Chpt 5 Working Women & Time Management


!anaging time is not an easy tas& and especially for the women that are ta&ing care of both the responsibilities of household and outdoor wor&. In ma+ority the cases, it gets hard for a wor&ing woman to handle wor&, family, household and most of all their personal and social life all together. Wor&ing women should organi,e their daily routine schedule in an effective manner.

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This is the most important part involved in wor&ing women time management. The reason why you have to stay organi,ed is to access the information and exhibit in the way you would li&e it. *ou don't want any delays or any mishaps happening during what you want to do because other tas&s which you have to perform apart from your office would get affected. .s a woman, you are not +ust responsible for yourself, you are also accountable and liable to your children, your husband and most of all, the family terms that you have with most of your relatives and social friends as well. .s wor&ing women, it is important that you must manage your time in an effective manner. If you don't &now how to manage time, you won't be able to achieve your tas&s and in the end everything would get messed up. *ou won't be able to finish and furnish up with what you start once. These days, technology and moderni,ation has made it easier and feasible for people to survive with their schedules, you can get help from file managers in the computers and plan up for things ahead of time. The pro+ects that are due should be done with the passage of time to avoid any hassle and distortion in the end. .part from your wor& related things, you can also ma&e schedule for your daily household activities which can include things li&e preparing lunch, washing clothes, dressing the children and etc. -o, as a wor&ing woman and for the purpose of wor&ing women time management, you should organi,e your daily routine schedule in an effective manner, plus if re6uired, then ta&e assistance from modern day technology to organi,e the thing in a more effective manner. The number one issue of concern to women is how do we balance our personal and professional livesL how can we get done all the things we need to do0 :ow do we +uggle our multitude of responsibilities0 .nd finally, how can we throw away the mythical concept of the superwoman but retain some sense of balance and fulfillment0 .n added challenge is that wor& holism has become paramount in these difficult economic times. .lthough the output per hour of wor& has more than doubled since 9C$;, leisure seems reserved largely for the unemployed and underemployed. Wor&ing hours have increased noticeably since 9CA=)perhaps because real wages have stagnated since that year. (oo&stores now abound with manuals describing how to

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manage time and cope with stress, companies have responded to improvements in the business climate by having employees wor& overtime rather than by hiring extra personnel, because it is more profitable for employers to wor& their existing employees harder. !ost of the time management literature is written by men, and thus typically is not applicable to women because, in general, women must +uggle more roles than men, women doing a lot of wor& for them, essentially Dta&ing careD of them. 3ew women have that luxury. Thus much of the time management literature is not applicable to women's lives. .lso, much of the time management literature is focused on career success rather than success in life. The time management literature can be bro&en into four categoriesL 9. chec&lists, #. planning and preparation using appointment boo&s, 8. planning, prioriti,ing, and controlling using planners and organi,ers, both written and electronic such as ?otus .genda, or $. D(ig %icture of ?ifeD exemplified by 3irst Things 3irst, in which you write a mission statement for your life, decide what you really want to do in life, and shift your emphasis from trying to do all things Fagain, the myth of the superwomanG to doing those things that hold great significance to you.

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A 0asic (lan would 0e:


9G /evelop a master plan or a mission statement. Ways to find out what is important to you are to as& such 6uestions as DIf I had only six months to live, how would I spend my time0D, and D.t my funeral, what would I want to hear said about me0D we all want to live, love, learn, and leave a legacy. !y personal life goals are to love, learn, have fun, be healthy, and ma&e a difference. *our master plan or mission statement should be built around that type of base. *ou should routinely refer to your mission statement to ma&e sure your life is in line with your goals. #G %lan your time, schedule your appointments. Write down all personal and professional appointments and events in your scheduler, and routinely chec& the wee&s and months ahead so you maintain a sense of what lies ahead. .t wor&, use a planner such as ?otus .genda to reduce paper Fno more losing your list of things to doG and to ensure that your wor& pro+ects stay on trac&. Jecogni,e that you cannot Ddo it allD. 8G -tay focused. /o one tas& at a time, from start to finish. -ome people can +ump from tas& to tas& efficiently, but that +ust derails most of us. $G /o it now. If you have a +ob or tas& to do, do it immediately. /ive in. Get going, and remember you will be surprised at how fast you accomplish tas&s. ;G ?earn to say no. This is one of the hardest lessons for women especially. .lec !ac&en,ie, author of The Time Trap, recommends this art of saying noL @G .t wor&, &now what you are expected to do and do it. .n important point here, though, is to rid yourself of perfectionist tendencies, because perfectionists can waste +ust as much time as procrastinators. 1ver&ill is not necessary and is often counterproductive. .t some point in a pro+ect, it is essential to stop researching and wrap it up. AG (eing cheap often does not pay. In many cases, it is better to buy a more costly but higher 6uality item. 3or example, buying well)made, comfortable shoes means you will not have to purchase shoes as often and may save a trip to the podiatrist. (uying a more expensive but more reliable car means you will have fewer repair bills, fewer brea&downs, and can &eep the car for more years.
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BG Ta&e care of yourself. "at nutritious foods, exercise regularly Fat least three times per wee&G, and practice some form of relaxation such as yoga, deep breathing, or meditation. 4eep regular sleeping hours, i.e., get up at the same time on both wor& days and wee&ends. Get routine %ap smears, breast examinations, and mammograms. CG "xpand your mind. Eever stop learning. Ta&e classes at the local community college, read, listen to boo&s on tape. 9=G :ave at least one hobby that you pursue with passion. ?ife is about living to the fullest1 There are many Dtime saversD that in fact do not ma&e our lives better. That is why I added Dlife balanceD to the title of this article. (y simply wor&ing more efficiently and doing more in less time, you may ma&e your life more stressful. 3ocusing on daily prioriti,ation of the urgent without 6uestioning if those items truly need to be done decreases our 6uality of life. .nd I maintain that facsimile machines, car telephones, and beepers only speed up the pace of life and ma&e things worse. (eware of those types of time savers, and select only those that seem right for you. 3or example, a bread ma&ing machine will provide you with homemade bread more 6uic&ly, but there is something inherently satisfying in ma&ing bread from scratch, &neading it, allowing it to rise, ba&ing it, and pulling it out of the oven. If you have a large family, a bread ma&ing machine may be very useful. :owever, if you have few to feed and you en+oy bread ma&ing, ma&ing it from scratch will contribute to your 6uality of life.

Add some (ersonal time to ur schedule


-it down and thin& about what5s most important to you. In today5s hectic life, things can +ust get out of control. Wor&, home, social commitments, school for &ids, church, appointments, unforeseen medical emergencies, and the list +ust goes on and on. It5s no wonder that people are damaging their health, both mentally and physically. /eart disease and cancer have 0oth 0een related to stress1 "ither it worsens the disease, or has a direct causal affect, either way it5s not good. Joad rage is another sign of the times too. Kust getting to wor& can be stressful, and people
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are acting out their uncontrolled feelings. ?ife shouldn5t be lived this way, and there are things that you can do to help yourself. -o it5s time to ta&e on another tas& H but this one is good for you. This one +ust might save your health and sanity. Ta&ing on this tas& should be your number one goal, with no excuses acceptable.

(elow are a few actions and ti(s that you can ta e to reduce stress , and to find an en+oyable life. Find a su((ort !rou(: It5s good to tal& about relieving stress. 3inding others with li&e concerns about living life and dealing with it5s stressors, and &nowing that you5re not alone, will in itself ma&e you less stressful. See the advice of a reli!ious or s(iritual counselor: It5s an ironic thing to thin& that if most people would +ust see& a spiritual life to begin with, life would be much easier to accept and cope with. . spiritual life brings balance and harmony, and leaves you with an inner peace of happiness and fulfillment. Tal with a mental health (rofessional: 3ace it, we all +ust might need some serious

counseling, or help at the different times in our life. If you feel that your life is +ust too out of control, ta&e the time and effort to see& a professional and tal&. They are trained to help you cope H that5s their +ob. If you5re strapped on cash see& out the free available resources in you community and use them. S(ea with a medical doctor: 1ften your physician can prescribe medications that will help you cope with stressors. They will often need to test for any condition or disease that might be causing a problem. /on5t be ashamed, go and get tested. /iseases such as diabetes and low thyroid can ma&e you feel tired and irritable. This ma&es you much less li&ely to cope with the everyday stressors of life. 1ften there are chemical imbalances that can play havoc with your emotions, and if necessary they can provide medications. . reliable and competent physician can

38

give you direct referrals to mental health care wor&ers too. /on5t neglect using them, it5s worth it. There are other things that you can do in your everyday life to help eliminate stress, and to find some personal time for you. )earn to say @$o1ALThere are only so many hours in the day, and there is only so much others5 should expect from you at home, and even at wor&. -ometimes the conse6uences for saying no might not be that easy to accept, but at some point the line has to drawn. Eo shifting or changing can be done except in cases of emergencies of course, but basically you have to find time for you. +ele!ate some wor : .s&ing from others for help is not a sign of wea&ness, or a flaw in your character. In fact it5s wor&ing smarter instead of harder. !a&e sure to define your instructions carefully, so others will &now what expected of them. That applies to wor& and at home. The last thing you need is to sit and worry if the +ob is being done correctly or at all for that matter. ?earn to delegate. "eward yourselfL (e good to yourself by ta&ing some time to do the things that you en+oy. Jead a good boo&, go shopping, tin&er in your garage, go to bed early, wa&e up later, or +ust ta&e a few minutes and tal& with a good friend or family member over the phone. *ou decide what5s best for you to do on your time off. Ta&e the time to ta&e care of your mind, body and spirit, which is the &ey to finding happiness. It5s a life time of wor&, but one that is for your benefit, and even for the ones around you. Eo one li&es being near a stressed out over bearing person. -o ta&e a deep breath, and begin to ta&e the time to find you.

;1< +es(ite )ess Time and "est# *or in! Moms Mana!in! *ell
Amon! (arents of youn! children# :<B of mothers lac time vs1 8CB of fathers

39

4ey findingsL

1f wor&ing mothers with children younger than age five, $9< told Gallup they didn't have enough time to do what they needed to do Dyesterday,D compared with 8$< of wor&ing mothers with older children and #B< of wor&ing women with no children younger than 9B.

Eo more than #B< of wor&ing men, regardless of their parental status, said they were short on time. In fact, the percentage of wor&ing men with young children who report lac&ing time and rest is identical to that among women without children.

Wor&ing mothers are five percentage points more li&ely than wor&ing women without minor)aged children to say they do not feel well)rested F8@< vs. 89<G.

The lac& of rest gap increases to nine points when comparing wor&ing mothers of infants and toddlers to wor&ing women without minor children F$=< vs. 89<G.

D%erhaps spea&ing to their coping s&ills, wor&ing mothers are slightly more li&ely than other wor&ers to say they experienced a lot of stress 'yesterday'.D These findings are based on more than #A,=== interviews with Indians aged 9B to @= from Kanuary through !arch #=9=, conducted as part of the Gallup):ealth ways Well)(eing Index.

40

The sample includes B,CA# wor&ing women, and 8,C$= wor&ing women with minor children in the household. .ccording to Gallup polling, nearly half of Indianwor&force aged @= and younger is composed of women, and approximately half of these women have a minor)aged child at home. -eventeen percent have an infant or toddler.

;18 *or in! *omen -o(in! +es(ite Time Pressures


%erhaps spea&ing to their coping s&ills, wor&ing mothers are slightly more li&ely than other wor&ers to say they experienced a lot of stress Dyesterday.D .dditionally, they are as li&ely as wor&ing women without children to rate their current lives as B, C, or 9= on a 9=)point life satisfaction scale. Wor&ing women, in general, are slightly more positive about their lives than are wor&ing men. .dditionally, wor&ing mothers express high satisfaction with their paid +ob FBB<G. This is comparable to the satisfaction rates seen among wor&ing women without children, and it is similar to wor&ing men's rates regardless of their parental status. &ottom )ine Wor&ing mothers )) and particularly mothers of young children )) report more difficulty getting the time and rest they need than do other wor&ing women and men. While that's not an enviable position to be in, these mothers appear to manage their lives For, perhaps their expectationsG well enough to &eep their stress levels roughly in line with their cowor&ers. .nd, when they add up the pluses and minuses, wor&ing mothers are as li&ely as others to be highly positive about their life overall.

41

Time is really the only capital that any human being has, and the only thing he cant afford to lose. )Thomas "dison
42

Chpt 6-Women in the workforce


All that really belongs to us is time, even he who has nothing else has that.

.mong the several outstanding upheavals of the #=th century, the enormous growth in women's employment stands out. The change of women to paid wor& has resulted to an extensive transformation of traditional regulations and practices of everyday life, not only in the wor&place, but also in families. .s wor& and family were modified, there were reverberations all through the society. notes the functions women play at present would not be recogni,able to our ancestors of 9== years ago. In the recent past there have been an increased number of women into paid wor& due to changing social structures, concepts such as femini,ation which refers to the increasing number of women in paid wor&. /uring the previous century, employers specifically sought after women for numerous rapidly developing occupations, which included clerical duties, nursing and teaching These were the &ind of +obs which men generally declined, partly because these +obs were comparatively low paying and provided little opportunity for progression, and partly because the +obs were stigmati,ed as women's wor&. .t the same moment, many women continued to ac6uire the high school certificates or college degrees essential to occupy these +obs. In the past #; years, employment fields have been opened up which in effect had been closed down to women and huge numbers of women were educated in these fields such as medicine, business, law, and engineering. Women's income increased corresponding with their education, levels ma&ing

43

employment more attractive. Women started being interested in paid wor& because of the complexity of economy which called for more services and products. This re6uired extra income. 3or instance, as medical advancements were made women no longer found it ade6uate to offer nursing care direct to their critically ill children as it was done by their mothers and grandmothers. Women re6uired earnings to pay for medical services, doctors and hospitals. ?ater on, women sought medical benefits which crone with having an employment.

Environment chan!es
7hanges that occurs in the wider environment as another factor concerning more flexibility in management strategies. The main concern is changes occurring in the business surrounding in particular product mar&et and also international competition changes. When one ta&es a broader definition of environment, he may view main alterations in immediate business perspective in relation to the use of women wor&force and the wider environment that has crucially affected women wor&force supply. 7hanges in the environment in business perspective includes the removal of marriage bar immediately noteworthy lessening of men dominated labour unions resistance in paid +ob. 1ther changes include e6ual opportunity laws that undercut barriers to women who are in paid employment, in addition to employment protection laws that protects both full time and part)time wor&ers. 1ther important appropriate changes that have occurred in the business environment also include the increased accessibility to education by women. .lso the high numbers of divorces cases that have been increasing over the years ma&es women to be encouraged in pursing career advancement. Generally, gender environment is has significantly undergone changes both in the business perspective and also in the wider environment. 1n this new frontline, there has been increased demarcation of +ob security for the average man employee and to a considerable minority of women. 7ontradictions amongst flexibility and labour mar&et rigidity -ee&ing of introduction of flexible employment patterns is one of management motivations, which removes the rigidities n the labour mar&et so that it can assist towards achieving efficient functioning economy.

44

D1<"easons
these includeL

for

the

Growin!

"ole

of

*omen

in

the

*or (lace

!ore and more women are becoming highly educated and highly s&illed. Improved child)care facilities provide invaluable help to wor&ing mothers. There are organi,ations that ma&e available part)time +obs or flexi)wor&ing hours. This suits mothers who have small children.

"mployment legislation provides +ob security whereby women can return to their +obs after having children.

Wor&ing women en+oy maternity leave before, during, and for a certain period after delivery.

?egislation allows women employees to apply for leave to ta&e care of their small children. The importance of mothers spending time with their growing children is recogni,ed as important.
45

D18/ealth "is s Faced &y *omen at *or (lace:


While we tal& of problems faced by women at corporate level its worthy to mention that those women who are wor&ing at rural sectors are at e6ual ris& when it comes to their health. It is generally believed that women prefer part)time or wor& from home +obs as such +obs enable them to balance their wor& along with their domestic responsibilities. (ut in some cases its observed that specially in case of wor&s li&e)nursing +obs, contract +obs fact, flexible wor&ing hours as per the re6uirement of the employers ma&es things 6uite difficult for women. Its important to note that absence of clearly defined wor& schedule increases the stress and impacts their health. . large number of women wor&ers is said to complain of fre6uent headaches, bac& pain, fatigue and high blood pressure. .lso factors such as)) %oor nutritional status, anemia, tension, concentrated attention re6uired by some +obs in industries related to embroidery, electric appliances, gems, +ewelry etc, which demands intellectual or mental activities increases fatigue. . large number of women wor&ers complain of symptoms such as irritability, mood swings, depression, sadness and concentration problems.

D19 )adies are (rone to fall in

mentally sic and at home1

due to stress office

Woman5s health creates an impact the esntire environment where she lives and wor&s. The health issues arise due to mental tension, stress, depression and anxiety which is found in almost all the wor&ing women at office, running business and at homes. Eow days, women are exposed to official +obs, commerce along with maintaining the private life in the society. It does not matter being married or unmarried, but everyone is going through the stress and depression throughout the world. The materialism affects the human

46

beings in the modern society so that a woman bound to step into +obs and some business to aid the family financially and to ma&e herself economically independent in expensive world. (ut to be a multi tas&ing woman pays a lot in fact which creates problems in her health and mind, which leads to short life span. -ay it the proper utili,ation of education or to have education to +oin an office for money, woman invites pain and suffering to satisfy her ambition and cra,e. (eing a multi tas&ing woman is too tough to handle well and properly. .lways there is a chance to hear allegation and receive harassment both from the family and the wor& place. If she is a single by status her problem doubles by which she tends to some addictions li&e alcohol, drugs, tobaccos and dirty habits. (y using alcohol and drugs she faces difficulties in pregnancy and productivity in wor&. .n excess wor& pressure and dissatisfaction in +ob pushes her to the depression for which she becomes imbalanced mentally and prefers to be addicted to bad things. If she is a married woman she is the victim of all the responsibilities and duties both at home and office so that she goes through depression. Eeither her family understands her problem nor the boss at office for which she gets headache, aches in body, irritation, frustration and wea&ness. -tress is no doubt a psychological disease but it affects health and creates lots of physical problems. These days5 women are running to doctors and browsing websites to get rid of stress and depression but nothing wor&s really until self)reali,ation ta&es place in mind. -ome experts insist for *oga, exercises, travel, and some pills with balanced diet. (ut all these things never have been effective for all the wor&ing women in stress because of the problem of time management and self)consciousness. The so)called multi)tas&ing modern women are &nowingly or un&nowingly moving on stress due to various reasons that they may be ignorant of, li&e lac& of family support and encouragement, colleague behavior and boss temperament in office, dissatisfaction from spouse and in laws, children rough behavior etc create havoc in their mind for which they fall in mentally sic& and develop health in critical condition.

The hectic lifestyle of today brings stress and sic&ness for the women alluring the materialistic pleasure and high salaries. .lways stress remains in disguise and gets erupted when a woman disturbed and dissatisfied with the +ob, +ob environment and an environment she stays. To be a mother with +ob is further difficult tas& to maintain. The children of the family should have good
47

ideals and environment to grow up in the shadow of mother5s love, which the wor&ing mother used to fail to provide the proper care and teachings that her children need from her in infancy. .nd as children grows up their behaviors and lifestyle become more irresistible. 7onse6uently, a mother gets suffering and mentally depressed and all her reali,ation goes in vain. Therefore, self)awareness is re6uired for all the women who are in +ob and running independent business. To ta&e a proper care is indeed a challenging tas& in the busy society but women have to reali,e first before they ta&e care of others and services5. If a son becomes mentally healthy then his father gets benefited but if a girl becomes mentally healthy, entire family gets benefited. -o, choice is in our hand, what to do and how to manage everything, God gifted life that is health is wealth.

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6.4 Managing People in the Workplace


/ealing with people is one of the hottest topics in the wor&place. It is because most of us are more willing to facing the screen get the things done compare to dealing with people especially when there is a conflict. (ut people s&ill is very important if you really want to success in your career. *ou never see a successful leader have ma+or problem dealing with people. If you want to be successful, you really need to learn how to deal with various type of people inside and outside your organi,ation. women5s deal with managing time as well as situation Mana!e your 0oss 3irst and foremost, you need to &now how to deal with your boss. /o you &now your boss characters0 Is he a details person or a big picture person0 Is he a people person or a result driven person0 *ou need to as& your peer or your boss directly on how he wants you to deal with him. If he is clear, you are luc&y. (ut most bosses will not able to tell you what they want Fas they don5t &now what they wantG. *ou will need to ta&e initiative to understand and discover what your boss really wants. Mana!e your (eer Wor&ing with your peer should not be that tough compare with managing your boss. (ut you need to &now who you can trust and wor& closely and who will +ust do nothing and complaining about everything in the company. *ou need to form a good peer support group so you can support each other when crisis hits. If you have trouble dealing with your peer, you will need to as& yourself can you fit in the company or is your peer problem Fyou may only have 9)# peersG Mana!e your su0ordinates !anaging your staffs should be the easier among the other people. They report to you, you review their performance and reward them accordingly. *ou need to build a strong support team as they will be your best team support when problem hits. If you organi,ation is large, you will

49

really need a good team to help you solve the entire problem. Whenever possible, spent more time with your team and understand their real needs. 3or people that had been successful in their career, they always &now how to manage their boss, peer and subordinate. They &now when they should celebrate, when they should us a stic&. If you really want to progress fast in your career, sharpening your people s&ill will be the &ey learning area.

D1; Schedule for wor in! *omen

F9G in the case of a full)time employee, has an B=)hour biwee&ly basic wor& re6uirement that allows an employee to determine his or her own schedule within the limits set by the agency; and F#G in the case of a part)time employee, has a biwee&ly basic wor& re6uirement of less than B= hours that allows an employee to determine his or her own schedule within the limits set by the agency. 3lexible wor&ing hours for women proves as a blessing for most wor&ing mothers, but how many of the companies around have written policies on the same0 To help curtail the future labor shortage it would be an attractive proposal to the different IT and other non)IT companies to attract wor&ing mothers who would be more productive at wor& with flexible wor&ing hours and maintaining a healthy life)wor& balance. I feel it is more for the woman to present herself in a light of an efficient wor&er when demanding or re6uesting a flex time schedule at wor&. %resent your case that highlights your

50

ability to wor& better and more efficiently when wor&ing in a balanced environment which provides enrichment and clearly divides your time between family and wor&.

D1D *or fle'i0ility issues

The women reported negotiating flexible work arrangements such as telecommuting, flexible hours, and a limitation on traveling or evening work at various points in their careers, as their primary ways to continue working while managing busy lives outside of work. And unlike earlier reports that warned that women who ask for flexible work arrangements will experience decreased earning power, the women surveyed who used flexible work arrangements reported financial success their incomes were no different than those of women who did not employ flexible work arrangements. !ore and more of the 3ortune 9== companies are implementing flexible wor& schedules in their wor& culture. .ccording to a reportL Widespread improvements among 31JTME"5s 9== (est 7ompanies to Wor& 3or include more flexible schedules and telecommuting. The most dramatic policy changes over the last decade concern improved wor&)family benefitsL ) A# offer +ob sharing programs today, compared with only 9B a decade ago. ) AC now offer compressed wor& wee&s on a year)round, regular basis, compared with #; companies 9= years ago. B# provide telecommuting opportunities today, compared with only 9B in 9CCB. . survey by 3lexible Jesources of more than ;== women see&ing flexible wor& arrangements found that @$ percent of them either 6uit or were planning to 6uit because of lac& of wor& hour
51

flexibility. What was alarming was ;C percent of these women never as&ed their employers to modify their wor& schedules because they assumed they would be denied or lose stature. .mong those who re6uested a flexible wor& arrangement and were told no, reasons for the refusal ran the gamut in the following priorityL

We can5t give it to you and not the others F;#<G *ou will not be available to others F$B<G We have never done it before F#$<G *ou won5t be as productive as when you wor&ed full time FB<G *our +ob is not conducive to flexible hours F;<G There is too much wor& to do F;<G It wouldn5t fit into a team atmosphere F;<G

D1E Mana!in! stress at wor (lace

.round the globe, wor& stress has become a common problem, almost inevitable. Women hardly have a choice and need to +uggle $=)hour wor&wee&s with housewor&, family responsibilities and other social commitments all along trying to maintain a healthy personal life. :yper busy, #$xA multi tas&ing &eeps women constantly on the edge. 1ther nations with increased stress levels include mainland 7hina, %hilippines, (otswana, :ong 4ong, -ingapore, !alaysia, -outh .frica and %oland. !eeting deadlines, striving to hit sales or production targets, or building client base, the demands of +obs and the response of the individual5s body and mind seem to
52

vary. Jesearch indicates that women5s stress in the wor&place is related more to lac& of balance and demands of home and wor& combined. !uch different from men5s wor& stress, which is stress, related to the +ob. This article provides an overview of stress at wor& and ways of managing wor& and stress. Wor& stress can be rightly understood as an adverse reaction to wor& pressure. . normal component of any type of +ob, stress is not confined to any particular occupation or +ob levels. .ll is well when the individual is able to cope up with mild or severe changes part of +ob profile. . certain amount of stress is actually beneficial. It &eeps wor&ers and managers motivated, productivity increases, wor& becomes interesting and satisfying. It wor&s as a positive component of the +ob. When the +ob pressure increases and the individual is not able to rise to the re6uirements of the +ob as a result of capabilities mismatch, it leads to stress. Wor& stress is a matter of concern only when the pressure is hard to handle, becomes excessive or unmanageable for the individual concerned.

A1 General Fo0 stressorsL 7ommon stressors parts of the +ob irrespective of the gender are
classified as general +ob stressors. This includes one or a combination of the followingL

/angerous wor&ing conditions /ifficult boss .bsence of harmony in wor& place Mnder utili,ation of resources :aving to perform beyond perceived abilities !eeting targets, deadlines 1vertime>extended hours of wor& Jole ambiguity !ismatch of s&ills>+ob re6uirements ?ac& of +ob security Inflexible wor& environment Ftime)relatedG .bsence of healthy career progression
53

Kob dissatisfaction 4eep pace with technological improvisations Mnforeseen disruptions>obstacles Insufficient financial compensation .bsence of motivation, appreciation

&1Se' s(ecific Fo0 stressors: .part from common stressors, women are vulnerable to sex
specific +ob stressors also. It could be in the form of sex discrimination, sexual harassment, wor& and family balance issues, societal demands, hostile wor& environment harassment also termed as offensive or intimidating behavior in the wor&place. "very individual is capable of handling low levels of stress. %ost reacting to stress with heightened tension, the body and mind will return to a more relaxed state when the crisis, big or small is resolved. 1n the other hand, problems erupt when stress is so intense or continuous that the tension never ceases and the individual never gets to relax. This can lead to burnout, causing the person to become unhappy and less productive at wor&. The effects can be seen as an interference with health and home life as well.

-1*ays to mana!e wor stress


+on6t miss 0rea fastL %oor nutrition alters biochemical profile, start the day with nutritious low)fat brea&fast. "at regular balanced meals throughout the day. Effective time management: *ou have only #$ hours a day and you need to the ma&e the most of it. .naly,e core values, schedule activities, create realistic expectations, straighten priorities and divide time for different aspects of your life. ?earning to say Pno5 in a friendly but firm manner, re6uesting for help when you certainly need and not desiring to meet unrealistic goals is also important. &rea s hel(: Ta&e small brea&s from wor&. "nsure you ma&e use of lunch times and other brea& times. It helps to increase productivity. 4eep a pair of wal&ing shoes on site, go for a wal& around the bloc& or listen to your favorite song or read a humorous boo&.

54

Ta e dee( 0reaths: .t times when you are feeling overwhelmed by the amount of tas&s or if you face a confronting situation, ta&e deep breaths. *ou body and mind will benefit from the extra oxygen and you will feel relaxed and cool. -hoose your com(any: The 7ompany of optimistic and confident people will help in finding new dimensions to various issues that you are li&ely to face in wor& area. *ou will develop positive attitude, feel confident and less pessimistic. 4eep away from negative company, negativism suc&s positive energy. ?earn to ta&e things lightly, smile and laugh often. >se the !ym: "xercise regularly for physical as well as mental benefits. Risit the gymnasium at least ; times a wee&. "xercise helps relieve stress and finding some time for exercise +ust means how much you care for yourself. ?earning the art of meditation can bring about long lasting wonders for the psyche. Plan 0ac ?u(s: Mnforeseen domestic changes will add up to stressful situations. /evelop strategies to face unexpected developments li&e bac&up ride for &ids, plan for dinner etc. $etwor : !eeting new people outside wor& area, developing friendship with li&e)minded individuals, sharing views on current affairs, participating in social welfare programs improves your sense of social connection.

D1C Time Mana!ement .n The *or (lace

9. !anaging your time in the wor&place will enable you to become much more efficient and stress free. !anaging your time effectively will allow you to achieve more and worry less.

#. There are several tips and hints that you can do to help you manage your time in the wor&place. 1ne of these is learning to delegate. /elegation allows you to recogni,e what you need to do and to identify what could be done by others.
55

8. (y doing this you could reduce your list of things to do by half, getting rid of all of the time consuming petty tas&s that would waste your time and your experience. Kust remember to delegate with tact and respect, this way you will always be able to rely on those around you in the wor& place. $. "nsure that you have a clear idea of what you need to accomplish in your wor&ing day and be realistic2 *ou will do yourself no favors by trying to complete a wee&5s worth of wor& in one day. .ll you will accomplish if you try this techni6ue is a big ball of stress in your stomach and a head ache to go with it. ;. Warning though H this only wor&s if you have accomplished these tas&s previously so that you can have a real idea of the time needed to spend on each tas&. @. .ll of the efficient time management employees are those who do not allow themselves to become distracted by those all too familiar emails and wor& colleagues who mean well, but never seem to get any wor& done2 A. The best way to avoid getting distracted by these emails is to chec& them once in the morning and if you &now an email is not wor& related to avoid it until you have time to tac&le it. I reali,e that this sounds terribly dull, but if you want to be efficient at time management within the wor&place, this really is a top tip. B. %rioriti,ing your wor& load is the &ey to staying sane in a busy and pressurised wor&ing environment. It is also vital if you want to become effective at time management in your wor&place. In any one day, there are over a thousand things that you may be re6uired or that you want to complete. C. The fact, however, is that unless you can clone yourself several times over, it is never going to happen. -o, now that you &now you can5t do everything, decide what is vital that you complete. 1nce you have done this, you can then decide which other tas&s are the next important.

56

Chpt 7-Time managed by Women doing home based business


When it comes to business, however, women have had little opportunity )) expected to move from the parental hearth to the husband's home, rather than play any role in the company. Today, that is changing. Globali,ations, liberali,ation, the decay of the institution of marriage and a growing emphasis on education have helped to raise the status of women in family businesses. Joshni Eadar, #A, daughter of :7? Technologies founder -hiv Eadar, was appointed 7"1 of the group's holding company in .pril. -he has an !(. from the 4ellogg Graduate -chool of !anagement and has wor&ed with 7EE in the Mnited -tates and -&y Eews in the Mnited 4ingdom. .shni (iyani, #$, daughter of 3uture Group Fformerly %antaloonG chief 4ushiro (iyani, has already +oined the business. -he won her academic spurs at -tanford. D-avvy girls in their twenties are new scions,D says The !conomic Times, adding, DThey are their fathers' new right)hand men.D .mong the others ma&ing headlines for winning senior positions in their groups are #@)year)old ?a&shmi Renu F*ale and Warwic&G, daughter of TR- !otor supreme Renu -rinivasan; /ivya !odi F(runel Mniversity; Mniversity of -outhern 7aliforniaG, the #;)year)old daughter of (.4. !odi of the -pice Group; and the #B)year)old /evita-araf FMniversity of -outhern 7aliforniaG of Wenith 7omputers, started by her father Ja+ -araf. :aving studied abroad is almost universally common. !any have also wor&ed abroad before returning home to ta&e up +obs with the family business. D"ducation and exposure have led to greater societal acceptance of women participating in various wal&s of life, including business,D says %radeep !u&er+ee, founder)director of 7onfluence 7oaching U 7onsulting F77U7G, who earlier headed human resources for 7itigroup in India, -ri ?an&a and (angladesh. D%erhaps the biggest change in the past couple of decades has been the increasing importance of educational 6ualifications,D says -ona Ja+esh, practice head, organi,ation effectiveness, at Tata -trategic !anagement Group. DThe distinction between female and male members of a family is also going. !ore women are inheriting now than before.D
57

D3amily businesses in India have been changing,D says :arsh !ariwala, chairman of fast)moving consumer goods manufacturer !arico ?td. DEew generations bring discontinuity, often altering the direction of the business; the open environment and increased competition have also helped create this change. There is no one model of managing succession.D !ariwala's children )) Ja+vi, #C, and Jishabh, #B )) +oined the business a few years ago. The !arico chairman is une6uivocal that his is a professionally managed company with a clear separation between ownership and management. .t the .vantha Group, 7hairman Gautam -haper )) who has two daughters )) is installing a structure that will allow his children to manage their wealth without interfering with the day)to) day running of the company. DThe best that I can do for them is to leave them with a structure and people that allow them to do that,D he says. DIf they're interested in running a business day) to)day, then they will have to go through the grind.D.

A Guestion of First "oles


The arrival of the woman inheritor has raised issues including the 6uestion of the entry point. In an earlier generation, the scions in most business families came in right at the top. DThere was very little training for family members,D says .di Godre+, chairman of the multi)product Godre+ Group. Today it is considered necessary for a son to do a tour of the shop floor or its e6uivalent. (ut in most companies this is a male)dominated area. Whether a daughter, 6ualified engineer though she may be, should operate a lathe is a delicate 6uestion. Women often, however, are placed in areas such as mar&eting and finance. Godre+'s daughter Tanya, the oldest in the fourth generation, is responsible for mar&eting, media and running the Godre+ brand. D?oo&ing after the brand is a +ob well suited to a family member,D .di Godre+ says. This group has managed succession successfully for several generations so it &nows the pitfalls. (ut some critics see women being placed in mar&eting and finance as +ust another form of discrimination. The initial training ground is another matter of debate. DIn many foreign family companies, family members wor& outside the firm,D Godre+ says. DThat was 6uite uncommon in India until five or 9= years ago. I never wor&ed outside the Godre+ group, and when my three children were
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ready to start wor&ing, I thought they would learn more here than in any other company. Today my views have changed. -ome experience of wor&ing in a company where you are not associated with the owners )) especially in the period between undergraduate and !(. study )) is good. The feedbac& I receive from friends whose children have wor&ed this way has also been very positive.D E.J. Earayana !urthy, cofounder and chief mentor of Infosys Technologies, has changed his views on a related issue. :e once believed that no family member of an Infosys founder should +oin the company. D1ver the past five years, after discussions with many people whose wisdom I respect, I have reali,ed that this is not a fair stand to ta&e. I reali,e that it is not correct to prevent any individual from adding value to any organi,ation. .s long as there is merit in the individual and the due process is followed and as long as the person whose children are being considered is not part of the decision)ma&ing, I am o&ay with it.D -o is his venture)capitalist daughter .&shata, who recently married a former -tanford classmate, about to +oin Infosys0 DI am not tal&ing with respect to my children but generally as a matter of principle,D !urthy responds. It will be up to .&shata herself )) and the people at Infosys in charge of hiring more determined to ma&e a mar& for themselves,D he says. DThey are a lot more career)oriented than in the past and more assertive about their rights and status

7.1 Mana!in! Your Time .n Your $ew /ome &ased &usiness

1wning your own home)based business is by and large a very rewarding, exciting endeavor. *ou can set your own schedule, and be where you want, when you want. *ou can oftentimes forego the commute to a 'regular +ob' and save money on gas and other 'niceties' that are expensive in the wor&)a)day world, such as lunches, par&ing fees, etc. There are unexpected pitfalls and disadvantages, though, in the owning and operating of a home) based business. -ome are psychological, some are emotional, and others are purely physical. The
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unexpected stresses of a home)based business are really one of the ma+or obstacles that need to be overcome by business owners. !any new business owners are unprepared for +ust how much stress is involved, actually. :ome)based business stresses usually fall into three overall categoriesL 9. %sychological L "mployees, 3inances, ?egal, and 1perations #. "motionalL 3amily, 3riends, 7hange of %ersonal Joutines, %ersonal /isruptions, Isolation 8. %hysicalL -edentary ?ifestyle, %oor "ating :abits, 1verwor& !any business owners, in order to prevent the psychological stress will have plans in place for dealing with these particular stress factors, prior to their occurrence. This is a proactive approach that is infinitely better than having a reactive approach to these occurrences. "ach business owner should have a financial plan in place for the times when orders or clients are few and far between Fslow timesG, as well as a good accountant to call when necessary. "ach business owner should also have a lawyer who they trust and can turn to for advice if necessary Fwe do live in a very litigious societyG. .nd each business owner should have a plan for sic&ness among employees and hiring and firing protocols firmly in place. !achinery and replacement of business supplies should also be well planned in advance, and purchased according to well laid out plans for expenditures. ?eadership s&ills will need to be developed, as a new business owner who is used to being part of a team, will find wor&ing alone and 'being in charge' a somewhat difficult transition at first. (oo&s on leadership s&ills abound and it is a good idea to do readings on the development of these to proactively avoid the psychological stress that comes with this change in roles. Wor&ing alone and ma&ing decisions alone is 6uite different from the conformity and decisions made within a group. If a proactive approach is ta&en, the psychological stresses of a new business can easily be prevented, or at least lessened.

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The emotional stresses of a home)based business are usually a bit more difficult to ascertain and tac&le when they occur. -ome of these stress factors can come directly from well)meaning family and friends, unfortunately, and the approach is of course, much different. -ince a home) based business is directly tied usually to the home life of an individual, there is less chance to escape these stresses, than with a traditional method of employment. . new birth in a family, a death of a loved one, illness, or simply a change of schedule of another family member, can greatly impact the daily wor&ings and routine of a home)based business. In addition, family and friends may view the business owner as 'being at their disposal' all day now, as the business owner is now 'home' much of the time. These well meaning individuals may call or visit all the time, and also expect the business owner to ta&e care of their needs before the needs of the business. This is simple human nature, but is very distracting for the business owner. The only way this can be successfully overcome is to ma&e plans well ahead of time for any changes in routine, if possible, and ad+ust the schedule accordingly as the changes occur. Well meaning family and friends need to be told with certainty that there are 'business hours' and 'personal hours' and a business owner needs to remain firm in their resolve in regard to these issues. -tressing over emotional stress will +ust escalate an already stressful situation. .nother unexpected emotional stress comes many times from the feeling of isolation and loneliness that business owners may experience. (usiness owners many times are unprepared for the time they now find they spend alone within the parameters of their home)based businesses. . home)based business owner, while relieved to leave the wor&force, sometimes does not reali,e that the wor&force provided social opportunities that are now missing from their lives. !any hours may be spent alone each day, which can lead to loneliness and even depression in some cases. The best approach to combating this type of isolation is to actively plan social opportunities. %lanned outings with family and friends should be made regularly. (usiness owners may also +oin community groups that expose them to other business owners or others within the community. The local 7hamber of 7ommerce and other volunteer groups are a great way to ma&e connections for the business and also enhance the social experiences of business owners. Eo one can exist in a void, so the social aspects of a business can't be ignored.
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3inally, owning and operating your own home)based business brings with it some purely physical stresses. ?i&e most office +obs, a home)based business can lead to a more sedentary lifestyle, as owners may spend most of their days in the running of the business, either slumped in an office chair, or hunched over a computer, depending upon the re6uirements of the business. (ecause of the long hours involved in any business, business owners may also eat 'on the run', grabbing whatever is at their disposal, rather than planning meals, which compromises their nutrition. The sedentary lifestyle and bad eating habits can lead to weight gain and other physical ailments associated with poor eating habits and sedentary lifestylesL high cholesterol, lac& of energy, loss of muscle tone, and a deficiency of vitamin / from being indoors more than usual. The sedentary lifestyle is the easiest however, of the stresses to avoid or to change. .ll it ta&es is a dedication to an exercise routine that includes some form of daily physical exercise, and an adherence to a diet that is well planned and nutritious. Kust some planning is needed and some will power in order to stay focused on achieving physical activity daily and good nutrition. It would be beneficial, if at all possible, to +oin a gym or health club, as the physical and emotional stresses can be avoided by belonging to one, as a gym also provides social opportunities. "ven a simple wal& each day can increase exercise, exposure to sunlight, and create social opportunities. . tendency to do too much each day, is a syndrome many business owners fall prey to also. 1verwor& can leave anyone run down, and open to many diseases as the immune system becomes compromised. . business owner is of course, very excited and energetic about the business, which can lead into this syndrome of overwor&. . schedule should be maintained to combat this syndrome, with set hours for 'doing business' and set hours for 'relaxation' included in each day. Trying to do too much all the time +ust leads business owners into a decrease of productivity, rather than an increase of productivity. .s you can see, having a home)based business, while very rewarding in many ways, can have many deleterious effects on the physical, mental and emotional states of business owners. !any business owners fail to plan for these changes, and yet, if planning is done, the negative effects can be minimi,ed to a great degree.

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If a business owner ta&es care of themselves and their own needs, overall, the business will also profit from this positive behavior2 . happy, healthy business owner means a happy, healthy business2

-.# Moms )ho )ork at .ome


There are thousands of wor& at home moms, women who provide daily care and direction for their &ids and ma&e income by being self employed at the same time. .s if these women weren't already incredible enough2 (eing a mom is hard. (eing a mom and staying successfully self employed sounds almost impossible. The online community that supports the wor& at home mom is huge. ?ots of sites are dedicated solely to the wor& at home mom, and moms can find discussions, forums, business and +ob opportunities. (y loo&ing online, these wor& at home moms can also find plenty of other women +ust li&e themselves. !ore and more stay at home moms are learning that being a wor& at home mom is satisfying and financially helpful, good for the family and self esteem. 1nce a mom has adapted to staying at home, earning income through wor&ing at home becomes extramoney. .nd everyone could always use extra money.

&ein! a -are!iver and a Self Em(loyed Professional


.s Internet popularity grows steadily with no end in sight, more and more online services are becoming available. 3or moms whose houses may not be very 6uiet during the day, the multitude of opportunities available for those who can give support or sell products over the phone do not apply. .ny mom who can write a term paper, has experience as a secretary, or &nows how to fill out surveys will find opportunities to earn money online by doing a little bit of wor& at home ) without having to use the phone to do so. !any companies hire out transcriptionists and typists who wor& at home, communicating largely through e)mail. (alancing stay at home with wor& at home means learning wise time management, and being able to 6uic&ly adapt to changes during the wor&day. 7hildren don't always stic& to schedules, so the wor& at home mom has to &now how to ad+ust 6uic&ly. 7ome up with a few ideas to &eep the &ids distracted, learn the art of wor&ing efficiently and very carefully balance. (eing a mom is all
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about balancing responsibilities anyway, so many wor& at home moms find ways to shuffle these new duties into the mix. !oms who wor&s at home have a lot to do it's true, but that's why earning that income is so very rewarding. (eing a caregiver and a self employed professional means doing two full)time +obs, but for those who are up to the challenge it can be a wonderful experience.

E19*or at /ome Moms H /ow *A/Ms &alance Io0s J Kids


)Want to wor& from home online0 ?earn how wor& at home moms find time to get things done. They earn extra money with +obs at home U spend time with the &ids. will bring our situations in daily life about how wor& at home moms FW.:!sG schedule wor& around their children5s schedules, achieving the dual reality of being a stay at home mom plus a wor&ing individual.

/ow +o *A/Ms Find Time to +o Io0s at /ome3


!oms who wor& from home must be efficient schedulers. .ny stay)at)home mom who wants to fit in 6uality time with her children yet still produce an actual wor& product must find ways to fit in wor& whenever possible. They ta&e some things into considerations while doing +ob at homes 9. Wor& when they sleep H !any new mothers Fespecially those with only one childG use this time to nap, but this guaranteed 6uiet time affords a wor& at home mom the perfect opportunity to wor& uninterrupted. #. %reoccupy the child FrenG for a few minutes here and there H .n infant who can sit up, yet can5t crawl, may be willing to play with bloc&s or a noisy toy for twenty minutes while mom sits nearby. 1r a toddler may agree to watch a 8=)minute cartoon or educational &ids show li&e "esame "treet. This option can be mentally taxing, as mom will not truly receive any down time during the day, but twenty to thirty minutes here and there will add up to several hours over the course of a wee&. 8. :ire a babysitter H The babysitter could watch the &ids in one room while the mom wor&s in an ad+acent room or on another level of the house.

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Se(aratin! the Io0 from /ome H /ow *A/Ms -an >n(lu! From the @%fficeA
1ne of the most difficult aspects of running a home business or doing any other +ob from home is trying to separate the wor& from the home. (ecause wor& is done in the home, the two are directly lin&ed. . designated wor& space can help with this; designating one area or room of the house as a wor& area allows moms to literally wal& away from the office when necessary. .s the children get older, this also aids in letting them &now when mommy isn5t available for play. They can be taught that when mommy is at wor&, she isn5t to be disturbed.wor&ing moms

create such an environment that &eeps separate in such a way that everything is balanced. *or at /ome Io0s and the Accom(anyin! Guilt
Inevitably, most wor&ing mothers, even those who wor& from home, feel guilty about wor&ing instead of spending time with their children. /epending on how you loo& at it, wor&ing at home is either a compromise or desired solution for entrepreneurial women with the desire to stay at home. It5s the best of both worlds; they can contribute to household income, feel mentally challenged, yet still spend lots of 6uality time with their children. "ven though some hours of the day will be spent wor&ing, a wor& at home mom will li&ely spend more time with her &ids over the course of a day than her counterpart who wor&s full time away from the home.

Should You &ecome a Stay at /ome Mom3 .s *or in! From /ome "i!ht for You3
-ome women choose to find wor& that doesn5t re6uire them to be away from the &ids at all, by starting a business that includes the children. Junning an in)home daycare would be an example of this.

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Those grappling with the initial decision of whether or not to become a wor& at home mom or remain in the traditional wor&force may be interested in the following articlesL In this article, learn how wor& at home moms FW.:!sG schedule wor& around their children5s schedules, achieving the dual reality of being a stay at home mom plus a wor&ing individual. . stay)at)home mom can do many things to earn extra money. -he choose to run a business from home or simply find a +ob that can be performed remotely..

E1:-reative Io0s for Stay?at?/ome Moms


/reelance )riting+ elling 0rafts 1 Kids2 3arty 4ntertainer or 0lown

"arn money wor&ing from home. 7reative +obs for stay)at)home moms include freelance writing, selling crafts and art, and wor&ing as a &ids' party entertainer. There are many business opportunities for stay)at)home moms hoping to earn money doing something that provides a fun, creative outlet. 3lexible, part)time creative +obs for stay)at)home moms include selling crafts, wor&ing as an entertainer for &ids' parties, and freelance writing. Arts and -rafts Io0s for Stay?at?/ome Moms !any people en+oy the beauty and simplicity of handmade goods, but don't feel they have the time or s&ill to create art or crafts pro+ects themselves. 7reative moms can tap into this mar&et by

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using their s&ills to create beautiful wor&s of art and starting a business selling crafts locally or online. The variety of options for a crafts business is 6uite vast, and ideas can be considered based on personal s&ills and interest. -ome ideas includeL

handmade +ewelry or beadwor& &nitted sweaters, blan&ets or baby apparel home decor items such as decorative wall hangings or throw pillows handmade dolls, stuffed animals or other soft toys novelty items focused on fun themes such as a favorites sports team hand)painted gifts in the form of cards or framed canvases hand)drawn portraits of pets or people holiday decorations for 7hristmas, :alloween or other seasonal holidays one)of)a)&ind clothing items for adults or children

Kids, Party Entertainer Io0s for Stay?at?/ome Moms


(irthday parties are big business, with many parents going all out to create a special celebration for the birthday boy or girl. (rea&ing into this mar&et as a &ids' entertainer can be a great part) time +ob for a stay)at)home mom loo&ing for a fun way to earn money. .nd because party entertainers typically wor& wee&ends, it's a great option for moms loo&ing for wor& hours that don't fall into the typical C to ; schedule. . &ids' party entertainer can base a business around +ust about any theme or s&ill. -ome ideas includeL

7reate a persona as a traditional clown, complete with big red nose, floppy shoes and balloon animals.
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Gather the family pets and bring them along to create a traveling petting ,oo. F?i,ards, sna&es, rodents, birds and>or bugs might ma&e the best choices for this type of venture.G

(ecome a mad scientist and teach &ids some basic chemistry through entertainment. 1ffer creative drama wor&shops with costumes and story lines that ta&e the children on adventures to the moon, under the sea, or to a magical forest &ingdom.

%rovide craft &its and instructions for art themed parties.

Freelance *ritin! Io0s for Stay?at?/ome Moms


3reelance writing can be a great wor&)from)home opportunity for mothers that have an affinity for the written word. (ecause the hours are typically self)structured and flexible, this can be a great option for moms that are well organi,ed, have good time management s&ills, and are comfortable creating a wor& schedule around whatever gets thrown at them through life as a stay)at)home mom. There are a variety of ways for a stay)at)home mom to brea& into freelance writing. -ome ideas for writing +obs includeL

Write for online maga,ines such as -uite9=9.com or Type). !om, which offer an income share from advertising. Write for online websites that offer an up)front payment, such as /emand -tudios. 7reate niche websites to generate passive income streams around content. %rovide ghost writing services in an area of expertise. Write newsletters, brochures and advertising copy for small businesses. Vuery print publications with article ideas. 7ontact a local newspaper about potential column writing opportunities.

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E1; -hoosin! the "i!ht *or ?at?/ome &usiness %((ortunity


When choosing a wor&)at)home business opportunity, it is important to thin& about the amount of time and costs involved to start the venture, expectations for income, and the type of hours re6uired to ma&e a venture wor&. 7reative moms should also consider what they truly love to do, and whether or not that passion will carry over when the hobby becomes a +ob. (y choosing a money)ma&ing opportunity that fits personal interests, an innovative mom can find the perfect +ob that fits a stay)at)home parenting lifestyle. 7reative +obs such as freelance writing, starting a crafts business, or becoming a party entertainer can provide wor& that is rewarding from a financial and creative perspective, providing a fun and flexible outlet for stay) at)home moms.

E1D *omen Mana!in! the Money


"nter any functional home and within moments it, becomes apparent who manages the household. Who schedules the appointments, organi,es family affairs, is the at home physician, chauffeur, counselor, coo&, and mediator0 It's the women. 7ombine this role with the growing necessity to wor& outside of the home contributing a shared or full income; it becomes evident that women have begun to move beyond the traditional roles of home management. Women are now managing the money. -heelatrivedi a women entrepreneur said Dwhatever women do they must do twice as well as men to be thought half as good, luc&ily, this is not difficult.D The days of coupon clipping and flyer sifting has been replaced by women finding lower interest rates on loans, mortgages and credit cards, more convenient ban&ing alternatives, negotiating better rates on utilities, and finding better deals on financial issues affecting their families. It is this expansion of women's roles combined with their propensity for see&ing help that is leading them to educate themselves about money matters. . report on -tatistics published in !arch #==@ stated that by #==$, @;< of all women with children under the age of three were employed ) more than double the amount in 9CA@. -imilarly, A=< of women whose youngest child was aged three to five wor&ed for pay in #==$, up from 8A< in 9CA@. This dramatic increase is leading

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more women to managing the money in their homes and will eventually lead to their families reducing debt load and see&ing more wealth. /ebt can have a significant impact on a woman's family and marriage., Ddebt is a result of life, it is the conse6uence of in+ury, illness, divorce and unemployment; there is a very human 6uality to debt.D Mntil debt can be eliminated, women have been loo&ing outside the box for strategies to resolving it when they are over burdened as a result of crisis. Women have accessed services which provides for debt forgiveness as an alternative to ban&ruptcy. Women have come to reali,e that conventional options to resolving debt are no longer sufficient. (y addressing debt head on, as well as focusing on investments and building wealth, women are moving their families toward financial freedom. .ccording to a report released by .IW. Women "ntrepreneursL ?eading the 7harge,D in the last 9; years there has been a ;=< increase in the number of self)employed women in 7anada. 1n top of entrepreneurial innovations, women are also more actively involved in real estate investments, contributions, and creative wealth building endeavors. This will continue to have a ma+or impact on how money is managed in the home. It is a consistent truth that women have often been all things to all people, and now they are expanding relentlessly into the financial realm. This will have a ma+or impact on our society as a whole. /espite the positive affect that this will have on the family finances, I 6uestion the affect that it will have on women themselves. There is only so much time and energy to go around, what will be compromised in the mean time0 I implore women to consider their needs and to ma&e choices based on what they wish for themselves, ac&nowledging that they have the ability to reali,e all of their dreams and that no two are the same.

E1E Pros and -ons of *or in! from /ome


.dvantages U /isadvantages of Wor& from :ome Kobs, -elf)"mployment

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/ome?&ased Io0s H Pros and -ons of *or in! from /ome The wor& from home person determines their own rewards. Wor&ing from home allows individuals to escape from the traditional corporate environment of distributing bonuses e6uitably where sometimes everyone may get the same raise regardless of how much wor& was completed, how many hours were put in, or with any regard to wor& 6uality. !oney made wor&ing from home depends on how well the +ob is performed and how much wor& can be completed. The rewards are directly proportional to effort and s&ill level, and there is no pay raise redistribution among employees each year. *or in! from /ome H Io0s for Stay at /ome Moms J +ads -tay at home parents may find wor&ing from home is a great option. 3or anyone who struggles with wanting to wor& and wishing to stay at home with their children, wor&ing from home gives them the best of both worlds. Kobs for stay)at)home moms and dads are plentiful; finding the time to perform those +obs can be tric&y. It is difficult to wor& with &ids around, but at least while they5re young and still in the home, the parent can try to wor& around nap times. Wor&ing before the children get up or after a spouse gets home are two other options. *ays to Iu!!le Family -ommitments with *or at /ome Io0s If both parents wor& from home, they could ta&e turns watching &ids and wor&ing. .nother option H find a part)time babysitter willing to come over and watch the &ids in the home. .dd this time to any time wor&ed during nap times or before the children wa&e up, and a stay at home parent can easily get in $)@ wor&ing hours per day without ever having to actually leave the home. 7onsider finding a reliable high school student with a fair amount of free time who will wor& for a reasonable wage. The &ey is to find a trustworthy individual who can &eep the &ids occupied for a little while without much assistance.

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%0stacles to *or in! from /ome H &alancin! Personal )ife with *or %erhaps the hardest obstacle to overcome when wor&ing at home is separating personal and wor& life. (ecause the office is located within the home, it5s difficult to escape wor&. "ven if the +ob is performed in a separate room, such as a dedicated home office, wor& may always be difficult to set aside because the home is the office building. -o, it ta&es a lot of mental discipline to separate the two and carve out enough personal and family time. *ei!h Pros# -ons of *or at /ome Io0s J *or from /ome .deas The decision of whether to wor& from home or at a traditional +ob is one that shouldn5t be ta&en lightly. Individuals who wor& from home need a tremendous amount of self)discipline. (ut even someone with a modest amount of self)discipline may want to consider wor&ing at home if issues li&e e6uitable pay and spending time with children ran& highly on a personal level.

E1C *or From /ome? Ti(s for Mana!in! Time


Wor&ing from home is not as easy a tas& as it seems. While wor&ing from offices may seem to be a grueling tas&, &eeping in mind the time that may be spent traveling and explaining business strategies to colleagues who +ust won5t understand, wor&ing from home comes with its own set of hassles. The most important thing while wor&ing from home is to &eep trac& of time and how you spend it. There are a lot of ways in which you can &eep trac& of time and spend it effectively. %lan the coming wee& during the wee&end. "very day, start your day before the rest of your family. Ta&e into account what all you have to accomplish during that day 6uietly while you sip coffee. "arly starts will always help you stay on the trac& and you won5t end losing your mind before the cloc& has struc& noon.

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!a&e some space in your home exclusively for wor& and don5t let anyone have access to it. This way you won5t be running around finding files and folders all over the house. :aving a small office space will &eep you more organi,ed and disciplined. While wor&ing from home, it5s a good thing to have a sense of balance between the time you devote to wor& and family. 3or this you need to have set goals for each day and segregate household tas&s from wor&. It5s a good idea to go through regular household tas&s before you sit down for wor&. :aving a specific time frame in which you wor& is a must. This will ensure that you will have solid wor&ing hours every day. .lso during these hours you can consciously stay away from household wor&, uselessly surfing the net and chec&ing personal mails. It will be wise to chec& mails two to three times a day and reply to them there and then. Get mobile2 There will be times when you will be loaded with wor& and household pressures will not let you stay at home to wor&, for example, sic&ness of a family member, family outings etc. -o, get a laptop with a wireless Internet connection and ta&e your wor& along with you where ever you go. Try and simplify your life. . home based +ob or business will provide you with ample opportunities to do +ust that. .void personal calls during wor& hours or watching television. Get more focused and treat your wor& hours at home as if you were wor&ing in an office. Mse an alarm cloc& or a timer. This will help you set a routine and will show you how not to waste time and stay focused on your wor&. If you are a mother wor&ing from home, it may seem to be a difficult tas& but can be dealt with. If you have ;)@ year olds then you can slowly teach them how to spend their time after school playing among themselves or with there friends while you concentrate on your wor&.With these tips you are sure to manage your time while you wor& from home, easily and effectively.

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Chpt8 -WOMENS IN NEAR FUTURE


C1<A wor in! women6s world
1ur mothers, and certainly grandmothers, lived in a different world where being a wife and parent was the main aim. 7areers were secondary. Eow it5s different. (ut, while women have embraced the wor&place, others haven5t necessarily caught up. ?ife remains divided on many levels and no more so than in the wor&ing world. Ta&e two scenarios. . young city bro&er leaves wor&. :e heads to a wine bar with colleagues. They eat and drin& until the early hours. !aybe they catch a club later. .rriving at his des& next morning he5s only slept a few hours. (ut that5s fine, because he5s a lad who5s recognised as wor&ing and partying hard. 7ontrast that with a young city executive who5s six months pregnant. -he arrives home to her three year old. (y nine pm she finally puts her feet up. -he5s done the domestics, ta&en care of her son, planned tomorrow5s wardrobe and caught up with her husband5s news. When she5s tired at wor& the next day it5s put down to her pregnancy, and after all soon she5ll be on maternity leave, so she5s coasting to the birth. !ost of the women I coach need self)esteem wor&, and it5s not uni6ue to women. (ut, men are taught from an early age to manage their lac& of self)esteem and not to show it in the wor& place.

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These are stereotypes, but inside them is a grain of truth. .nd how women negotiate themselves in the wor&place today has never been more relevant. (irthed !aster, managing director for business development at the 7entre for :igh %erformance /evelopment, F7:%/G, believes that to Pcreate a level playing field5 it5s necessary to loo& at a number of factors. 1ne of (irth5s responsibilities is their Women into ?eadership programmer. .nd 7:%/ draws on #= years of research with partners such as the ?ondon (usiness -chool and %rinceton Mniversity, with a database of over 8,=== leadership profiles. !aster says, There need to be structures conducive for women, such as flexible wor&ing and childcare. -he also ac&nowledges, Women are good at getting on with the +ob, but not necessarily at promoting themselves. -o, for instance, she cites a number of examples as to why women don5t achieve their full potential at wor&. -he says, There5s a lac& of women role models, so it5s a catch)##, and there5s 6uite a bit of isolation with Pboys clubs5 preventing building relationships. .lso there are stereotypes and preconceptions of what women want, such as family rather than career. :owever, the reality is, women often want both and this can create difficulties. GurvinderGregson, a young mother wor&ing part)time since having her son, comments, %eople say, gosh, loo& at her. -he wants it all. (ut it doesn5t seem a lot to as&. Gregson was a highly 6ualified interface and graphic designer who was made redundant after maternity leave. -he was unable to find part)time wor& in her old career and has subse6uently found wor&, three days a wee&, as events officer at R-1, FRoluntary -ervice 1verseasG. -he believes it5s easier for women to find part)time wor& in the not)for)profit sector as generally they5re more accommodating around childcare issues. Gregson says, I5ve actually toned down my 7R. If I said everything I5d done it would wor& against me. %art)time wor& is often seen as the domain of wor&ing mothers. Eicolette Kones, author and freelance +ournalist, says, I remember somebody saying to me, do you wor& part)time now you have children0 -he says, I also feel very strongly that there5s an assumption made when women are with &ids it5s time)out of wor&. I thin& we should recognise anyone doing all that has huge organi,ational s&ills. It ought to be at the top of people5s 7R5s. Gregson agrees. -he says, I thin& women are e6uipped in so many ways that contribute well to many types of business. *ou need women in the wor&place, it5s a ma+or contribution.
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(ut in order to navigate successfully within the wor& environment women have to ma&e changes, along with organi,ations. !ester says, There has to be the will and structure with organi,ations and individuals to change the mindset and behaviors. It5s &nowing yourself inside out, &nowing your strengths and letting people &now. -he sees that women Pdon5t beat their drum5. -o being successful is about exposure, image, how one5s perceived and communicating that to the people who matter. (ecause, in say a large organi,ation, it5s only those who stand up to get noticed that ma&e their mar&. :owever, it needs more than a few to&en women to change things. (ecause as executive coach and trainer Kill !c7ulloch says, There5s so much fear in the corporate world. -o many women are challenged at how cold it is, the lac& of warmth, loyalty and genuine relationships. . lot of women in the corporate world find it very lonely at the top. -he says, !any corporate women have closed off emotionally. (ringing emotions in to the wor&place is not viewed as a positive thing. That5s to say, the so) called Pfeminine5 emotions. Ta&e the example of a woman, a top theatre administrator, in a particularly crucial board meeting. This was the culmination of many months of difficulties in the company. :er frustrations boiled over and she cried. .t that point she &new she5d lost her credibility. ?ater she wondered if she5d have ranted angrily, as a man may have done, the outcome would have been the same. It5s speculation but neatly illustrates the point. !c7ulloch, who wor&s with large organi,ations such as 7arl Weiss and *ellow %ages, says, !ost of the women I coach need self)esteem wor&, and it5s not uni6ue to women. (ut, men are taught from an early age to manage their lac& of self)esteem and not to show it in the wor& place. -he also believes Pnot being ta&en seriously5 is an issue which she has first hand experience of. When she and her brother ran a very successful manufacturing company, people would naturally go to him first. .s she says, %eople are so pre)programmed, it5s unbelievable. The picture isn5t all blea& for wor&ing women +uggling busy lives, but there are obstacles. Eot least is the issue of guilt feelings when children are left with child minders. Gregson says she would tell her son she was going out to earn money to buy him !r. !en boo&s. -o it was particularly poignant when he said to her, We don5t need pennies today.

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.nd Kones says, I used to get up at ;am to write before school because then I didn5t have to worry about the children. !ester believes organi,ations are missing out when they don5t embrace women5s s&ills and !c7ulloch says, The best thing would be women supporting other women and not competing with them. It5s clearly a hard +ourney to the top but with more awareness it should become easier. In fact !ester says, There have been significant changes over the last two to three years. %erhaps we should all wish for a boss li&e the particularly sympathetic newspaper editor Kones wor&ed for at the Independent on -unday. -he ac&nowledges in general Pnewspaper offices are not very sympathetic places for pregnant women5. :owever, he excelled, allowing her to have a lie down in his office in the lunch hour. When he returned she was fast asleep and he didn5t even bat an eyelid.

C18Attitude of -or(orate .ndia towards wor in! women

Attitude of -or(orate .ndia towards wor in! women -ince a long time, women have been trying to prove their worth H whether it is in the field of politics, sports, agriculture, aviation, navy, military or even management. They have also sought support from the government on &ey issues li&e sexual harassment and wor&ing in the night shifts. It is not the case that they are incapable or under)6ualified for specific positions. :owever, they have not been able to get the right support from them to carve good career.

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Wor&ing women account for 9A< of all the Indian women, 89< of the Indian wor&force and 89< of the IT wor&force. It is very important to understand what &eeps them from ta&ing up wor& in private companies.X9Y 1ver the years, the participation of women in the management world has also increased especially in India. India has the world5s largest number of professionally 6ualified women. (ut it is also very crucial to understand how welcoming has the 7orporate India been towards them. When tal&ing about the corporate world, though it has opened its doors for women, it has not been successful in placing them in the top level management. Women are often observed to be wor&ing in the administrative departments. Rery few of them get to climb the ladder and en+oy the post of 7"1 or !anaging /irector. They hold less than 8 percent of managerial positions in India as compared to their counterparts in the Mnited -tates with $#< women in the similar positions. Women have to +uggle between wor& and life. They have to ta&e care of their parents, children, in)laws which ma&e them thin& twice before resuming wor& after marriage. . recent survey found that women want a corporate environment that recogni,es that their strengths and s&ills are different from male colleagues but e6ually intrinsic to the organi,ation5s success. .ccording to a survey, more than two thirds of the female respondents believe that they were not recogni,ed or promoted on an e6ual basis to men, and eight out of 9= agreed that companies did not place a high enough value on s&ills such as communication, team building and relationships. They want the focus to be shifted from family and childcare issues to the more challenging areas of stereotypes, perceptions and pre+udices. The attitude of the companies need not alone undergo a change. There needs to be a change seen in the attitude of all the male directors, managers, employers, co)wor&ers, sub)ordinates. The firms should try to avoid traditional stereotypes and undue emphasis on marital status because of which women are under)represented at a senior level. They should be properly groomed for leadership roles. In addition to this, addressing gender issues within the organi,ational set up, establishing discussion platforms, mentoring young women, allowances for a sabbatical with an option to re)enter the wor&force, commitment to diversification and e6ual opportunity are all strategies that set the stage for greater gender e6uality in the wor&place. It is important to note
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that many large corporations in India have not yet ta&en simple measures li&e providing child) care, flexible wor& hours etc. to support women managers to build a career. It is time everyone stops referring women as the secondary species in the world H +ust a home ma&er. 3or years together, they have been assigned temporary positions or part time wor&. 7onsidering the conditions in which women have to wor&, they can be designated with proper wor&ing conditions li&e crZches for their children, easy commuting facilities etc. Women too for these and many other reasons need to adopt a robust system and &eep wor&ing hard. They need to exude confidence, smartness, dedication, ethical sense of wor&, commitment and the drive to achieve the given targets while wor&ing. 1ne has to push oneself a little more on the edge and prove her capability.

8.3Managing yourself- Strengths and weaknesses


Women have often been 6uite active while giving suggestions and advices regarding wor&)life to others. (ut if they would introspect themselves and ma&e use of their strengths and wea&nesses, they would be on an altogether different level in their career. It is only when one &nows oneself completely, that she can choose the +ob that would fit her characteristics. Women need to be analytical while pic&ing up a +ob. 1nce she is aware of her merits, she will be able to convince herself of performing better at wor&. The tas& of &nowing oneself is not a difficult one but is essential for one's growth. The peers, sub)ordinates, colleagues can help one in listing down the merits and demerits. .fter &nowing them, one can start wor&ing on improving the negative points. While doing so it also becomes important for you to highlight and focus on the merits. *ou might need one, two, three or may be even more opinions on the sub+ect to get productive and successful outcomes. 1ne such instance, where a mar&eting executive was being as&ed about her strengths and wea&nesses, the candidate fell dumbfounded. -he didn't reali,e it that in &nowing a hundred things about mar&eting she failed to define herself. Interviews are such events where this becomes an integral part of the programmer and one can't miss out on being clear about oneself.

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-elf)advocacy is the ability to understand and effectively communicate one's needs to other individuals. 4nowledge is the &ey to self)advocacy. ?i&e anything else, the more you &now, the better you understand, and the easier it is to explain to others what you are. This +ourney of self)
educationis

an ongoing process, as individual needs change over time. There are three parts to

becoming an effective self)advocateL &nowing yourself, &nowing your needs, and &nowing how to get what you need. .t wor&, several tests can be used in order to learn more about oneself. . good evaluation should include the followingL . written report which includes the outcomes and recommendations should be shared with the employees in a one)on)one meeting. This will help them in &nowing much better about their s&ills levels, strengths, and wea&nesses. There are three areas worth investigating to determine what you need to improve your s&ills and>or compensate for your wea&nessesL interventions, accommodations, and modifications. Instructions that help you improve the s&ills li&e reading, spelling, comprehension, speech, etc. are called interventions. These are evidence based, multisensory, systematic, and direct with the opportunity for guided practice. Intervention may also include psychological counseling and>or support groups to assist you in wor&ing through the emotional aspects of living with a hidden disability. The goal of intervention is to improve s&ills and wor& towards independence. .ccommodations are tools to help achieve a goal that do not change the integrity of the tas& Fboo&s on tape, extra time for test, copies of handouts before a meeting, editor, use of a calculator, etc.G. .ccommodations compensate for disabilities, and vary from one individual to another ) based on the type of disability and the degree to which it interferes with routine chores. !odifications are alterations to assignments that do change the overall tas&; for example, writing a two)page report instead of a four)page report. It is important to &eep in mind that nearly all employers and most educational institutions Fcolleges and universitiesG do not provide modifications.

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!oreover, compared to their counterparts, female professionals do not generally ta&e the criticisms in the correct stride. 1f course, they cannot ever escape from them, especially if they are planning to reach a higher position in the organi,ation. :owever, if both the parties +oin hands, a definite solution can be found for the problem. Women ought to be stronger and accept the review and on the other hand, the management or the organi,ation needs to precisely help them in deciphering their faults or drawbac&s. Thus, it is rightly said that precaution is better than cure.

C1: Time Management Skills for Working womens in near future

Jemember when stayed at home, coo&ed dinner, did the laundry, and maintained punctual attendance of after)school activities0 Wor&ing women5s are now the norm. . whole new s&ill set is re6uired and time management is at the top of the list for all women. Mnfortunately, wor&ing women5s are a necessity today if their children plan on attending college. ?ife in general is more expensive than in the recent past. With the advent of women moving into male dominated fields comes inherent problems that should be considered prior to accepting the +ob. Family and Personal Time -onsiderations Time is at a premium in most households from a woman's perspective. The nine to five +obs have different problems than a traveling or management position. Women have now moved into both areas. (rea&fasts, pac&ed lunches, carpool, after)school arrangements start each day. (y the time most women hit the office they have already wor&ed three to four hours. .fter a full day on the +ob, there is the pic&)up of children, soccer or band practices then home to coo& dinner. . 6uic&
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change of clothes, something ordered or popped in the oven, followed by homewor& 6uic&ly gobbles up mom's early evening hours. When dinner is concluded, sporting events or evening practice follows. 1n returning home, bath time and preparations for the next school day is +ust the beginning of mom's night. (ills have to be paid, laundry started and a 6uic& pic&)up of clothes and toys. If she is luc&y, mom might find time to run the vacuum or a dust cloth before she hits the bed at midnight. If a significant other is helpful, evening hours are a bit easier, if not H mom pic&s up after him as well. (y the time the wee&end comes around, snoo,ing until seven is considered sleeping)in. The wee&end is spent finishing all the pro+ects not completed during the wee&, and so)called family time. Women have their own needs as well as significant others feeling shorted. Time management seems to be the order of the day. Additional Time Mana!ement S ills for Travelin! *omen If a woman's career path includes traveling, things are even more complicated. .dding travel arrangements, overnight babysitters or significant others fill)ins for sporting events becomes mandatory. 1n arrival at a hotel, mom ma&es the daytime call follow)ups, emergency rearrangements for &ids, paperwor& for the +ob, and a 6uic& phone call to room service. 7rawling into a strange bed by eleven to toss and turn until the alarm sounds is +ust routine. 1n returning home, mom wishes to find some sort of order in her chaos to compensate for lac& of time for anything other than wor&. In essence women do two full)time +obs while their counterparts tend to do only one. There are options to be considered. Time Mana!ement Alternatives 3irst order of business is a day planner. (loc& off time for wor&, for children, for hubby, and last but not least ) mom herself. !a&e a plan, stic& with it, and organi,e the household around it. !ultiple day planners may be necessary, and may teach organi,ational s&ills to children along with it.

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Eext limit children to one after)school activity. This ma&es for easier organi,ation and less time on the road. If the household has more than three children even one activity will &eep both parents arranging alternative transportation at times. -earch out ways for the family to help you put a nutritious meal on the table. Who &nows maybe it will help with family time or sibling bonding. It never hurts for a son to &now how to ba&e coo&ies or a daughter to balance a chec&boo&. If a significant other doesn5t help and whines about lac& of personal attention, toss that coo&boo& his way and let him pitch)in. !oms or womens should set time aside +ust for herself. Jeading a good boo&, soa&ing in a tub or a trip to the nail salon will improve anyone's mood, and certainly increase life expectancy. (uy that day planner, limit the &ids' activities, ma&e dinner together, and toss some of the responsibilities of the household to a significant other. If chaos still reigns in the household, and a vacation anywhere sounds li&e an unattainable dream H see& a less time)consuming +ob. Time management is an essential part of any wor&ing woman's life, and should guide her life not control it. "n+oy family and friends, and feel free to ma&e changes in any activity. search out ways for the family to help you put a nutritious meal on the table. Who &nows maybe it will help with family time or sibling bonding. It never hurts for a son to &now how to ba&e coo&ies or a daughter to balance a chec&boo&. If a significant other doesn5t help and whines about lac& of personal attention, toss that coo&boo& his way and let him pitch)in. !om should set time aside +ust for herself. Jeading a good boo&, soa&ing in a tub or a trip to the nail salon will improve anyone's mood, and certainly increase life expectancy. (uy that day planner, limit the &ids' activities, ma&e dinner together, and toss some of the responsibilities of the household to a significant other. If chaos still reigns in the household and a vacation anywhere sounds li&e an unattainable dream H see& a less time)consuming +ob. Time management is an essential part of any wor&ing woman's life, and should guide her life not control it. "n+oy family and friends, and feel free to ma&e changes in any activitiesI
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Chpt 9- Articles

K1<%n the ladies s(ecial22


(y ?ina !athias The women)only compartments on !umbai's locals and '?adies -pecial' trains are uni6ue spaces for the city's wor&ing women, who have converted the benefits of this reservation to even greater effect. 3or many, the compartment itself is transformed into a wor&place to sell anything from shelled peas to lingerie Eeither :allmar& 7ards nor .rchie's have scheduled a day for 'Train 3riends' or come out with sentimental cards to mar& such a day. (ut for many of !umbai's ; million daily train commuters, this category of friendship provides a strong antidote to the unbearable stress of commuting, and the effects it has on their lives. 'Train friends' travel by the same local at the beginning of the wor&ing day and often on the return +ourney too, share family news, gossip, food, vacation and wedding photographs, and even sing together to the entertainment>chagrin of other commuters. !ore than men Fthe only group
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activity they seem to engage in on trains is playing cardsG, it is women who ta&e this form of friendship to a different dimension altogether. These are women who travel long arduous hours every day on the local trains of !umbai to and from wor&; women who often use the train itself as a wor&space, either to sell food items and other products or to complete household tas&s such as cutting vegetables; women who have transformed a daunting daily commute into a social sphere of comfort and sharing. ?ocal trains in !umbai, as any commuter would &now, have compartments only for women, as well as scheduled '?adies -pecial' trains. While the women)only compartments have existed for decades, Western Jailways introduced the -pecials in 9CC#. 1n !ay ; that year, the first '?adies -pecial' left Rirar station at A.8C am for 7hurch gate. The return 7hurchgate)Rirar +ourney started at @.98 pm. 7entral Jailways started its own train only for women on Kuly 9 of the same year. It leaves at B.9; am from 4alyan for 7-T, and from 7-T in the evenings at @.=;. Western Jailways now has another north)south '?adies -pecial' from (hayander to 7hurchgate, and one in the evening between 7hurchgate and (orivali. The benefits of such reservations are immense, but even with the reservations the local !umbai train is an intensely crowded space. The women)only compartments and trains are the location of harassed s6uabbling for the 'fourth seat' Fthe edge of a three)seat bench, which accommodates an extra personG, crying children Fwho invariably accompany the female relativeG, .ll of this can ensure that many women commuters are in a state of irritation and anxiety when they reach their wor&place and return home in the evenings or at night. 1ver the years, women commuters have converted the benefit of having reserved spaces to even greater effect. The women)only compartments and '?adies -pecial' have become a microcosm of the socio)economic patterns of the world outside. -o vibrant is the '?adies -pecial', with its multiplicity of activities, that it has been the sub+ect of more than one documentary film. Women)only compartments and trains are not +ust spaces where some of the irritants recede, but sources of positive wor& and play that relieve some of the stress of commuting. The camaraderie and banter between women 'train friends' may seem spontaneous to an onloo&er, but it is usually the eventual outcome of tentative beginnings. !ira !adhavan's group
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of train friends also began slowly. !ira, a former nurse who wor&s as a teacher trainer, would travel with a friend who boarded the train at Thane, rushed to her favorite5s window seat and promptly went to sleep until their destination at /adar. -o when !ira heard two young strangers, -hilpa and %halgunis, animatedly tal&ing about health and children's education, she +oined the discussion. -oon, another passenger, 4aren, also fond of going off to sleep, began +oining in the conversations, at a time when she was upset with her son's school and teachers. .t (handup, (indu and 7handra would +oin the group Fthe two were ac6uaintances of -hilpa and %halguniG. They began bringing batatawadasfrom a well)&nown stall for the group's brea&fast on the train, while !ira made ribbon sandwiches. .fter a while, 7hitra and %oo+a also +oined the group. 7hitra's mother)in)law made crochet pieces and the others in the group began as&ing her to ma&e gift items for their family and friends. -oon they began celebrating birthdays, anniversaries, husbands' and children's birthdays, all on the train. . high point of this friendship came when one of the group members, a ban& employee, played matchma&er to one of the single women in the group. Today, the match)made couple has a two)year)old daughter. DWe are still in touch,D !ira says, Dbut the group split because two of us changed +obs, one had a baby and decided to wor& from home, and another's husband got a +ob offer in /ubai and she accompanied him there. Eone of us has forgotten the good times on the train )) the eating, the laughter, the few dinners we went to, a day picnic to 4ar+at. (ut more importantly, the +ourney put us in an excellent frame of mind to face the wor&ing day and the commute. !y train friends were wonderful.D Eo study in India has specifically measured the effect of the stress of commuting on wor& and productivity. :owever, psychologists Jichard Wener and Gary "vans at 7ornell Mniversity in the M- have studied how travelling by mass transit can affect the stress level of commuters. When compared with men, they found, women with children are more susceptible to commuter stress and are more li&ely to carry that stress into the wor&place. Women commuters, they write, experienced more stress in the wor&place and that stress was exacerbated by the commute; if the women had children at home, they had the e6uivalent of a second +ob and hence additional stress. The "uropean 3oundation for the Improvement of ?iving and Wor&ing 7onditions has studied the impact of commuting on the health and safety of wor&ers. %eople who travelled for more
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than $; minutes from home to wor& Fas do most of !umbai's train commutersG reported higher psychological stress scores, more health complaints Fessentially psychosomaticG, and greater absenteeism from wor& due to sic&ness. Women commuters bore the brunt and had more family difficulties, more travelling complaints, and higher absenteeism. The Wener)"vans study also found that women benefited the most when transport services improved, which directly resulted in less stress at the wor&place. Mntil the year #===, women commuters in Kapan faced such extensive sexual harassment that the railroad companies decided to provide sections only for women. The first women)only carriages started in Kapan in #===, on the 4eio ?ine. (y #==;, train services in all of Kapan5s ma+or cities had women)only carriages for at least the morning rush hour. . few years ago women commuters got the first women)only Fand pin&)striped2G subway cars in the (ra,ilian city of Jio de Kaneiro as part of a scheme to curtail groping and other forms of sexual harassment. When buses exclusively meant for women were introduced for the first time in %a&istan by the 4arachi Green (us 7ompany, women were relieved. -tudents and wor&ing women had complained that the unwanted male attention was affecting their academic and +ob performance. 7learly, sexual harassment that occurs even outside the wor&place greatly affects women's psychological health and ability to wor&. The importance of reserving compartments only for women and having exclusive '?adies -pecial' trains in !umbai thus cannot be over)emphasi,ed. This system of reservation, which Indian women rail commuters have had for decades, remains uncommon in other countries. When the bul& of the transport is in private hands, this is not a right that can be demanded. !umbai might in fact be the only city in the world that reserves an entire 9#)coach train for women during pea& hours. To return to our 'train friends' on !umbai's locals, li&e the crochet gifts that the group members bought from 7hitra's mother)in)law, many women commuters tap into each other's contacts and hobbies to ease their familial and social obligations and to form supportive networ&s. The other day, in the 4alyan)RT '?adies -pecial' a woman realised that her friend's 'train friend', hastily

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introduced, was a children's counsellor. . visiting card was hurriedly thrust out; her neighbour was worried about the erratic behaviour of her child and this commuter wanted to help. . #atra$ li&e atmosphere prevails in the women's second class as well as first class compartments in the '?adies -pecial' trains. It is a mar&etplace )) and thereby a wor&place )) for many women and children, who sell hair pins, flowers, ga#ras, cheap 7hinese pens that double as torches, toys, colouring boo&s with crayons, maga,ines, cosmetics, and even lingerie )) the list is inexhaustible. 1thers sell vaatasFsharesG of vegetables li&e bhindi, beans, shelled peas Fthese vendors only travel in the eveningsG, fruits and homemade snac&s. 1ften, the women who sell small pac&ets of dry snac&s uniformly priced at Js;, give away a pac&et or two for the children of some of the regular women commuters. !any women commuters prefer to complete their purchases on the train, which enables them to straightaway dash to the bus or autoric&shaw 6ueue to get home without wasting precious time. .sha-arangi, who travels by the '?adies -pecial' from !ira Joad in the morning, often buys idli$chatnior mini meduwadasfrom a woman who ma&es them at home and sells them on the train. DThey are hot and fresh and tasty. .nd the price is very reasonable. :er stuff simply vanishes within minutes,D she says. This vendor, li&e many others, services ladies' compartments in other trains too, and, along with her husband who loo&s after the purchase of the raw material and the pac&aging, depends on the sales for her livelihood. -he also ta&es 'orders' during festivals for special snac&s for women who do not have the luxury of time to ma&e these snac&s. .nother category of sellers is somewhat discreet because vending is their 'second' +ob )) women who sell saris, salwar$kamee%pieces and artificial +ewellery, often only in the first class compartment because their prices are steep. Their 'regular' clients get the first viewing when the new stuff arrives. It is common to hear women commuters placing 'orders' for a particular colour or texture to give to friends and family members, and disappointed wails when a deadline is not honoured. /eepali(halerao, who travels to Thane in the '?adies -pecial' from 7-T in the evening, sometimes li&es to travel in the luggage compartment. D!ost of the women here have finished selling their wares and have bought vegetables to ma&e for dinner,D she says. DThey &eep their

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bas&ets close by, sit on the floor of the compartment in companionable circles and clean and cut while tal&ing and laughing all the time.D /eepali treasures the experience of travelling on the 4alyan)bound '?adies -pecial' a few months ago. . group of 9# women were composing ukhaneFcouplets that !aharashtrian brides playfully put together with the husband's name in one of the linesG. "ach woman was given a small note with one word on it and she had to compose an ukhaneon the spot that would include this word and her husband's name. It got so exciting, says /eepali, that other commuters +oined in and women from the first class compartment next door, who usually do not give the second class commuters a second glance, began prompting words and phrases. DI would have even forgotten to get off at Thane if it was not such an ingrained habit,D she laughed.

Women and wor& ta&es on a new colour altogether on !umbai's locals. :ere, the 'train friends' go on from day to day, from trac& to trac&, easing each other's +ourney as women have been doing down t

K18*omens sho((in! durin! wee days


$ew Survey 0y *or (lace Media "eveals Traditional Forms of Media &ein! Ta en %ff *or in! *omen,s To +o )ists :industan times))Fwomen5s shopping ) .ugust 9B, #=9=G ) Giving new meaning to the adage Dshe's the apple of my eye,D wor&ing women have become the premier target for mar&eters across the country. With the spending power of earning in thousands, wor&ing women not only have the decision)ma&ing influence for A8< of their own household spending, they also have the paychec& to bac& it up. *et, in response to their daily struggle to &eep up with wor& and home life, wor&ing women are innovating their shopping habits and ad+usting their media consumption.

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In a new white paper, DWor&ing WomenL Jeaching Them .t Wor&,D by Wor&place !edia, a national media company speciali,ing in reaching wor&ing women in the wor&place, data reveals that employed females are turning to the wor&day to get shopping done.

Percenta!e of wor in! women who re!ularlyLoccasionally sho( on their way toLfrom wor or durin! a lunch 0rea :

/ining 1ut Groceries !edicine .pparel (eauty 7are U 7osmetics :ome /[cor -hoes Ritamins U -upplements

C;.8< C8.B< BB.A< A@.#< A;.#< @A.B< @;.;< @#.8<

K19 >nem(loyed Mother ma es money


We investigate +obs that allow people to wor& part time from the comfort of their home...

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/urga!athur ma&es Js 9,=== a day wor&ing online from home on her computer. Ste( <: Get -urvey Income 4it. Ste( 8: 3ollow the directions and set up an account. They will send you surveys to complete. They trac& everything. Ste( 9: Get %aid. *ou can choose to receive ban& che6ues or have them deposited directly into your ban&. /ave You Ever Thou!ht A0out *or in! %nline3 /urga!athur never thought she would have a +ob wor&ing at home until one day she filled out a simple form online. (efore she &new it, she discovered a simple way to earn money in her spare time... . friend told me about /urga5s experience last month and so I decided to feature her story in our local business report. -he told me her ama,ing story. DI actually ma&e about Js 9;,=== Js#=,=== a month using the internet. .t first it was a great way to supplement our income in my spare time. Eow I earn even more money than my previous +ob2 Which is ama,ing considering I only wor& about 9=)9; hours a wee& from home0 Wor&ing online has been a financial windfall for /urga and her husband who wor&ed long hours at a local manufacturing company to provide for their family. DI wor& hard and always loo& for ways to save or ma&e more money, so that we can give our children the opportunities that we never had when we were young.D I as&ed her about how she started her remar&able +ourney. DI was on the Internet one day, and read that a large restaurant chain was as&ing for people5s opinions on their new coffee drin&. We
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had been there the previous night, so I spent less than # minutes telling them what I li&ed about it. They than&ed me for my feedbac& and gave me Js ;==2 I was ama,ed that these international companies were willing to pay me so much for my opinion2 I was so excited at how simple it was, and started to research ways to do more survey li&e that. .fter more investigation I found a company that helped all these international companies do mar&et research for their products. .fter I signed up for their -urvey Income 4it, I was ma&ing over Js 9C,=== a month. It's really simple, I am not a computer whi,, but I can use the internet. "very day they send me a list of surveys and I +ust pic& which ones I want to do. I don't even have to sell anything and nobody has to buy anything. It feels great that they value my opinion on popular and famous brands and companies.D

3or those of you that have seen the internet sites that promise you can ma&e ?a&hs of rupees online /urga warns that this is not the promise being made here and that most of those sites are false representations of earnings you can ma&e. We never tell anyone they'll ma&e ?a&hs of Jupees, in fact I thin& this is the 1E?* online system that says you probably W1E'T ma&e la&hs, but you can generate a legitimate income from home li&e I do that replaced my full time +ob.

Vuic&ly, /urga!athur was able to use the simple -urvey Income 4it to earn more money in her spare time from the comfort of her home.

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/urga had never shared her story before, and with her permission, we are putting it public.

Chpt10-Statistical representation based on working women


..labour force participation by marital status
variations in women's lab our force participation rates by marital status between /ecember 9CC@and /ecember #==@. In /ecember 9CCC, the participation rates of married women F;$.B<G and unmarried women F;$.$<G were fairly similar. "ach group of women has increased its participation over the last 9= years, but the increase was greater for married women. .t /ecember #==@ the participation rate for married women F@=.$<G was higher than the participation rate for all women F;A.B<G. labour force participation rates of women aged 9; years and over by marital status, /ecember 9CC@and /ecember #==@

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&1)a0our force (artici(ation of mothers


3igure shows the labour force participation rates in /ecember #==@ at the aggregate level and by age group for single women, lone parents with and without dependent children, partnered women with dependent children, and partnered women without dependent children. %articipation rates for lone mothers aged #=)#$ years without dependents, partnered and lone mothers aged @= years and over with dependent children, and lone mothers aged @; years and over without dependent children are not shown as there were very small numbers of women in these particular groups. 3igure. -hows that although at the aggregate level, labour force participation rates are highest for partnered and lone mothers with dependent children, mothers' labour force participation rates are age dependent. 3or partnered and lone mothers with dependent children, participation rates remain relatively low at all ages, except at ages $;);$ years and ;;);C years respectively. .t age @= years and over, there are few women with dependent children. 3igure ?abours force participation rates of women aged #= years and over by family type and age, /ecember #==@
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C.Trends in women's full-time and part-time employment by age


Trends in women's part)time and full)time wor& between /ecember 9CC@ and /ecember #==@ also varied according to age group. Increases in both full)time and part)time paid wor& occurred for all age groups of women, with larger proportional growth for women aged $; years and over. 3or women aged $; to ;C years, increases in full)time employment were higher than increases in part)time employment. The opposite was true for women aged @= years and over. %art)time employment increased at a slightly higher rate than full)time employment and, at /ecember #==@, more women in this age group were employed on a part)time than a full)time basis. 3igureL Eumber of women aged #= years and over employed full)time and part)time by age, /ecember 9CC@ and /ecember #==@

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The To( <M occu(ations that are most (revalent in wor in! moms1 The statistics are !iven for the year 8M<M N
Sl1 $o1 9 # 8 $o1 %f *or in! Moms OA(('1P 8,9@B,=== #,;$B,=== #,$=8,===

"an in! 9 # 8

%ccu(ation -ecretaries and .dministrative assistants Jegistered nurses "lementary and middle school teachers

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$ ; @ sA B C 9=

$ ; @ A B C 9=

7ashiers Jetail salespersons Eursing, psychiatric and home health aides 3irst)line supervisors > managers of retail sales wor&ers Waiters and waitresses Jeceptionists and information cler&s (oo&&eeping, accounting and auditing cler&s

#,#BA,=== 9,AB8,=== 9,@A;,=== 9,;=;,=== 9,$A9,=== 9,8#8,=== 9,899,=

Chapt 11-Conclusion

Thus I conclude my pro+ect by saying that wor&ing women who have been caught in the wor&>life balance trap will continue to be an ongoing challenge. 7areful planning and personal effort is the advice from those who have found balance in both career and home life. .s one respondent summari,ed, D%lan, prioriti,e and schedule as efficiently as possible... and don't be afraid of hard wor&2D Wor&)life balance is a person's control over the conditions in their wor&place. It is accomplished when an individual feels dually satisfied about their personal life and their paid occupation. It mutually benefits the individual, business and society when a person
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' s personal life is balanced with his or her own +ob. The wor&)life balance strategy offers a variety of means to reduce stress levels and increase +ob satisfaction in the employee while enhancing business benefits for the employer. In our increasingly hectic world, the wor&)life strategy see&s to find a balance between wor& and play. . sentence that brings the idea of wor& life balance to the point is: Q*or to live1 +on,t live to wor 1Q

Bibliography

1. &oo reference:
A.1rgani,ing *our /ayL Time !anagement Techni6ues That Will Wor& for *ou (yL -andra 3elton, !arsha -ims &. Getting Things /one by /avid .llen -.3ind out what wor&s best for you)?aya -aul
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+.Wor& place flexibility issues H-han&ar narayan E.Tools for better time management)riya sen

81 Articles and Fournals reference:


Women5s eraL on the ladies specialI(y ?ina !athias :industan times))Fwomen5s shopping ) .ugust 9B, #=9=G Mnemployed !other ma&es Js 9C,C$=>!onth

91 $et reference:
http://sitagita.com/working-women/ httpL>>www.studygs.net>schedule> httpL>>wisewomenonline.net>#=9=>=C>managing)life)changes> Time !anagement -&ills for Wor&ing !omshttpL>>www.suite9=9.com>content>wor&ing)women) time)management)re6uired)part)9)a##BCB#\ix,,9@GMrE?hs www.managingtime8@=.com

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