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Pipeline Design and Inspection



Group Name
Ahmed Mohamed Ibrahim Suliman 110510 Mohamed Ibrahem Halawa 109895


Mahmoud Abdelhamid Elshorfa 110895 Mohamed Abdel-Mohsn kotb 111572



All thanks to Dr. Atef Abdel Hadi for solidarity with us to solve all the problems related to the department as head of the Department of Petroleum. We would thank him for his efforts to provide a production module in petroleum engineering.



Surface production facilities are one of the important modules in petroleum engineering. Pipeline is playing an important role in oil and gas fields because it effect to flow a gas or crude oil in production process. This project contains a pipeline planning and construction, design of pipeline, types of pipeline and the capacity for each type. Also contain problems related to pipelines and appropriate solutions of these problems. There are a part of safety and how to inspection for pipes. The document contains components of pipe line and explanation each component. Dry pipes are important section in design especial in offshore fields. There is a case study on the pipelines and it consist a problem which company faced it in production process and mention the inspection and recommendations thats must be followed.


Table of contents

Acknowledgement2 Abstract ....3 Lists of figures..7 Chapter 1: Introduction 8 Chapter 2: Major problems in pipeline and solution...9 2.1: Waxing9 2.2: Corrosion10 2.3: Scaling11 2.4: Heavy crude oil transportation...11 Chapter 3: General design and criteria12 3.1 Fluid Characteristics and Properties12 3.1.1 Facilities Description.13 3.1.2 Flow Control..14 3.1.3 Isolation of the pipes..14 3.1.4 Pressure Monitoring and Relief..14 3.1.5 Start-up...14 3.1.6 Flow Constraints15 3.1.7 Normal Operations.15 3.1.8 Planned and Unplanned Shutdown of Pipeline(s) 15


Chapter 4: Pipeline planning and construction.16 4.1 Process of planning and construction16 4.1.1 Procedures which follow in planning and construction..16 4.1.2 Procedures to allow pipelines expands16 4.2 Bending of pipes17 4.2.1 Steel pipe bending methods.18 4.3 Pipeline connections..20 4.3.1 Disadvantages Pipeline Welding.22 Chapter 5: Types of pipe lines and component......24 5.1 Crude oil and natural gas gathering lines...24 5.1.1 Crude oil trunk lines.24 5.2 Natural gas transmission lines ..24 5.3 Pipeline components..24 5.3.1 Transmission pipes line........25 5.3.2 Valves of pipelines..........26 5.3.3 Metering station....26 5.3.4 Pig launcher and receiver.27 5.3.5 Compressor stations27 5.3.6 Control system, Scada.28 Chapter 6: INTEGRATED CONTROL AND SAFETY SYSTEM (ICSS)..29 6.1 Introduction..29 6.2 Process Control System (PCS) 29 6.3 Safety Instrumented System (SIS) ..29 6.4 Fire Detection System (FDS) ..29

6.5 Communication System..29 Chapter 7: pipeline drying methods.30 7.1: introduction...30 7.2: Techniques of pipeline drying...30 7.2.1: METHANOL AND GLYCO SWABBING..30 7.2.2: Air drying...31 7.2.3: Vacuum dry...32 7.2.4: Evacuation..32 7.2.5: Evaporation32 7.2.6: final drying.32 Chapter 8: case studying33 8.1: introduction .......33 8.2: Pipeline Design ..33 8.3: Pipeline upgrading..34 8.3.1: UPGRADING BASIS COMPAIRED WITH CURRENT PRODUCTION ..34 8.3.2: Users current daily costs................35 8.4: Recommendations..36 8.5: Pipeline system after upgrading 37 8.5.1: User shipping data...38 8.6: Pipeline maintenance..39 8.7: Inspection of pipeline by intelligent pig.39 8.8: Conclusion...39



List of figures
Figure.1 wax formation in pipeline..9 Figure.2 external pipeline corrosion10 Figure.3 internal pipeline corrosion10 Figure.4 shows scale formation inside pipeline...11 Figure 5: generic pigging facilities..13 Figure: 6 courtesy Tulsa tube bending companies...17 Figure 7: compression bending18 Figure 8: draw bending19 Figure 9: Ram bending19 Figure 10: Courtesy of Tulsa tube bending.20 Figure 11: Long distance pipe..21 Figure 12: Ditching..21 Figure 13: welding...22 Figure 14: Transmission pipe...25 Figure 15: valves..26 Figure 16: Compress station27 Figure 17: SCADA system..28 Figure 18: pipeline routes33 Figure 19: Pipeline system before upgrade..34 Figure 20: current pipeline system...35 Figure 21: pipeline system after upgrade.37 Figure 22: users storage capacity.38


Chapter 1: Introduction

As, the Hydrocarbon resources become variable and costly source of power , studying and planning should take place for a perfect project without any loss (human , equipments , resources,etc.).

One of the major planning to keep the hydrocarbon in safe mode and to prevent it from losses and its bad effect on environment, is the planning for a suitable pipeline design that can wise stands the extreme climate ( pressure , temperature ,soil,etc.) , to be safe with the environmental changes and to reduce the project costs. Produced oil, gas and water will be from the well and it will be sent to a Production Facility where gas, oil and water will be separated by a production facility. Pipeline should take its criteria from the fluid moving through it , as each type of fluid got its properties , this will reduces risk and prevent pipeline from sudden cracking or any other risk. The pipeline may be buried, exposure or in the seabed so its very important to take in consideration the media and climate a pipeline is in it.

Safety and insurance is most important part in the pipeline design a pipeline construction should carry valves and its types, should be having a monitoring system in a control room that works only on the pipeline and to be monitoring it all over the time.


Chapter 2: Major problems in pipeline and solutions

2.1 Waxing
The wax is formed due to presence of paraffin or naphthenic hydrocarbons flowing inside the pipelines. Was can be formed in a form of (gas, liquid or solid) this is related to temperature and pressure, when the wax is cooled up it forms crystals. A hydrocarbon is a condition state that has its own melting and boiling points which should be noticed in the laboratory to prevent from wax which has a very bad effect on pipelines in plugging and blocking it and preventing the flow of the fluid (gas or oil) to flow properly, as shown in figure.2 wax is blocking pipe interior. Another type of wax, is waxy crude oil .it is not pure but it have many impurities like asphalting, this type doesnt have a specific freezing point. (Wax.and.Waxy.Crude, 1993)

Figure.1 wax formation in pipeline

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2.2 Corrosion
Corrosion is one of the major problems happened to a pipeline. Hydrocarbons all over the world are not the same they are different in properties and characterization. The main reasons for causing corrosion to pipelines is the presence of carbon dioxide (co2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and also the presence of water. (g, 2005) Gas condensate pipeline had mush ability forming corrosion, and to prevent it the PH of the water phase must be increased. This is known as corrosion rate stabilization and this method had used many times ago and had a rate 0.1 mm/year. Also pipeline under sea (subsea pipeline) can easily affected if there is not a good study for the environmental impact such as: temperature, pressure and Ph. And other conditions like: fluid velocity and contents. The pipeline is a very important part in oil and gas production. Its a major way to transport oil and gas. So a proper study and design can minimum and save it from corrosion.figure.3 and figure.4 shows external and internal pipeline corrosion. (g, 2005)

Figure.2 external pipeline corrosion

Figure.3 internal pipeline corrosion

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2.3 Scaling
As long the Production of hydrocarbons there is impurities as salts and inorganic matters. These salts precipitate cause blocking in the pipeline which will affect the flow of the fluid badly and will decrease it figure.5 shows how can scale precipitate causing decreasing in production types of scales are: CaSO4, BaSO4. Formation of scale have an economical impact as it costs much in removing scales as it can precipitate in valves and safety valves which will cause it to not working properly and some scales are radioactive that it have a special way to be treated with. The removing of scale needs to monitor the quantity and its type, the cleanup process should be quick as possible with taking in consideration the environmental impacts and to prevent forming it again in the future.

Figure.4 shows scale formation inside pipeline 2.4 Heavy crude oil transportation
Crude oil all over the world is not the same, different viscosities are one of these changes. It ranges between 200cp 500 000 Heavy crude oil got high viscosity. However some combines in Canada got the same problem and to solve it they added C4+ hydrocarbons and synthetic crude.

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Chapter 3: General design and criteria

3.1 Fluid Characteristics and Properties
The materials compositions that shipped with and in the north east slope oil pipeline cannot all be described immediately at that time, as all the developments are in exploratory or conceptual phases. The quality if the sales crude oil will be transported in the pipelines. All the crude oil has to be conforming to the specifications of the Trans Alaska pipeline system, which gives a vapor pressure control and a maximum BS & W of 0.35%. And the minimum BS and W, the properties are shown down will be developed for design and engineering: MW Enthalpy (BTIJ / 1b) Cp (BTIJ / 1b-F) Density (1b / ft3) Thermal Conductivity (BTU / hr ft - F) Viscosity (cP) at 0 psig and 100F

Where suitable, the values up will be in the standard conditions (60 F and 1 atmosphere) or operating design conditions (pressure and temperature). The gas condensate will be considered as a hydrocarbon fluid for purposes of the stress analysis. The code of the gas pipeline and related coding within the stress programs as assuming that the contents have a fiddling weight. So the liquid of the pipe line consists of condensates have to be stress analyzed as a B 31.4 pipeline.

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3.1.1 Facilities Description

All the facilities will start at a point which is defined example flange connection or butt weld on the shipping pump discharge the downstream piping from the shipping pumps or from the compressors, including the pressure relief facilities and flow control. Any related block valves and pig launcher and piping are considered part of the subject facilities. Cleaning, gauging, dewatering pigs and in line inspection devices are a required facilities for the pipe line to have as to set and receive both maintenance pigs. The ILI device is such as the smart pigs, geopigs and anomaly detection devices.

All the facilities will end and terminated at the defined point at the tie-in between the pump station one and the Eastern North Slope oil pipeline. All associated VSMs and the pipelines between the two points of the start and end of the facilities is considered as a part of facilities.

Figure 5: generic pigging facilities

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3.1.2 Flow Control

At the facility of processing, the shipping pumps will be used to pump fluid. This equipment is used to get higher pressure in the pipe line as wanted as to have the target flow rate.

3.1.3 Pipeline Isolation

The installation of the isolation valves is very important as to facilitate emergency response. Usually, these will be found upstream of the pig receiver and downstream of the pig launcher at the termination of the pipeline tie in.

3.1.4 Pressure Monitoring and Relief

A real time monitoring will be making for the pressure on the discharge of the compressors or the shipping pumps. To prevent the over pressuring the pipe line, the compressors or the shipping pumps will have high pressure shutdowns. A multiple independent pressure control methods will be required on pipelines as to conform the regulations. Where convenient, downstream pipelines backpressure control shall be included. Moreover, a pressure-relief capability must be found in the pipeline, added with drains and vents, where convenient. Liquid pipelines preferred not to have (BOP) bottom of pipe drains, because of the potential of collecting water and freezing.

3.1.5 Start-up

The beginning start-up will be made by the production fluid. A developed to the start up procedures will be made during the design of the system and submitted to the natural resources department. Personnel from DNR may monitor the startup of the pipeline by himself.

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3.1.6 Flow Constraints

Engineers and designers must considering in the flow construction and consist of the following There are requirements must be delivered of minimum and maximum of temperatures. The maximum temperature and the minimum to keep the properties of the process Minimum pressure for delivery to downstream facilities. Under / over pressure conditions and the effects at the end of the pipeline. How to operate the pipeline as to avoid excessive tar, paraffin and other deposits.

3.1.7 Normal Operations

Engineering and design shall evaluate the monitoring of the flow rates, pressures and temperatures, and how this information will be used by the SCADA, control room and other control and reporting functions.

3.1.8 Planned and Unplanned Shutdown of Pipeline(s)

The pipe line design should help it or used as it can be shutdown at any time for unplanned or planned events without any additional work. The line would only need to be de-inventoried to make repairs. The restart process have to be designed to make no problems even if the fluid is at the minimum ambient temperature (-50F).

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Chapter 4: Pipeline planning and construction

4.1 Process of planning and construction
There are some of factors depending on any new pipeline system planning 1- Fluid type which movement by the pipeline such as (oil , water, gas, sewage, capsules or another fluids or solids) 2- Pipeline length 3- Environmental factors (whether the pipeline in development country, offshore or land, worm climate or cold climate) 4- More similar than dissimilar in construct more types of pipelines 5- When the technical determined the type of pipelines built it is not difficult to determine another type must be built

4.1.1 Procedures which follow in planning and construction

There are many steps will be used for oil pipelines and steel gas 1- Primary planning 2- Route selected 3- Consider the right way 4- Testing of soil and other formation gathered 5- Pipelines designing 6- Take a legal license 7- Construction beginning this step is very important to focus and containing (The right way to preparing, String, Ditch and trench, Boring, Tunnel, River cross, weld, coat and wrapping, Pipe laying, Bridging the gaps and restoration of land) 8- For pipe line which has high diameter and lengths the previous procedures are taken carefully as a partition 9- Same producers are applied as previous

4.1.2 Procedures to allow pipelines expands

- Places impacted by thermal expansions, earth shake, soil settlement. To prevent a high pressure in pipelines could allow the pipeline expands - This is applied on plastic pipes or concrete pipes and changes of temperature degree thus expands more than steel pipes - For steel pipes that are above ground, nor instead must be made for expansion and contraction resulting by seasonal weather changes - Curvy instead of building a pipeline directly to the provision of instead for thermal expansion or contraction - Zigzag move as a free out by expands or in by contraction
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- This is same for under and above ground - Above ground pipelines often used U or loop instead this. - Special joints are obtainable for expands Spigot and bell joints are ready Swivel joints and Slip joints Some of mechanical joints Flexible pipe joint is used for pipeline which has small diameter

4.2 Bending of pipes

Pipes able to follow the changes in gradient or the change in horizontal direction of pipe Hot bending is better than cold in produces but more difficult and costly When the pipes is bent, the cross-section of the pipe deformation From circular to oval shape, and thickness It also reduced the pipe wall on the outer side of the bend Due to extend This is process called thinning

Figure: 6 courtesy Tulsa tube bending companies

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4.2.1 Steel pipe bending methods

There are some of methods can use to bending a steel pipe 1- Compress bending: Pressure on the pipes with an impressive Against the reel around a fixed die 2- Draw bending: same as compress bending but mandrel will be insert through the one of the end pipe 3- Ram bending: a ram with a semispherical head is compressed versus one of the supported pipes at two neighboring points by two hinged blocks clamps or rollers 4- Internal roll bender (Rotor form): A French tool that using a roll head rotate inside a pipe. 5- Induction bending: pipes passes through a special parts and there be a strong magnetic generated to heat a pipes

Figure 7: compression bending

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Figure 8: draw bending

Figure 9: Ram bending

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Figure 10: Courtesy of Tulsa tube bending

4.3 Pipeline connecting

Pipes is provides a segments of 20 ft The maximum sections for steel pipes length is always 40 ft Segments been transmits to a constructions site Before the pipes put in ditches sections are connected together to give a form pipelines There are many methods to connecting a pipeline such as 1- Flanged connection 2- Other mechanical connecting 3- Welding

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Figure 11: Long distance pipe

Figure 12: Ditching

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Figure 13: welding 4.3.1 Disadvantages Pipeline Welding

Under cutting Due to techniques wrong Accumulation of interruptions The higher time in welding track cleft Retraction the metal cause metal gas pocket or porosity Comes from the metal properties Slag inserting There are non metal material already exist between pipe metal and welding Burn through error occur when choose the materials

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Fusion not complete The moving of the welding is very high Surface of the pipe is foul Gas present in welding Insufficient penetration bevel end is not completed The moving of the welding process is very high

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Chapter 5: Types of pipe lines and components

5.1 Crude oil and natural gas gathering lines Gathering line work as a collector as it collect all the gas or the oil from different multiple flow lines and transport it to a centralized points, such as tanks or processing facilities. The gathering lines are pipes medium in size made from steel having a diameter lower than 18 inch diameter, which carry the raw oil or gas. 5.1.1 Crude oil trunk lines Trunk lines are considered as the main pipe lines, which are the bigger lines, carrying the production of more than one of wells of one field. As the characteristics of the crude oil change, the problem faced in these lines varies: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Waxing Corrosion Scaling Fouling Sludge Viscosity

5.2 Natural gas transmission lines

The transmission lines are the longest pipe lines as it carry oil or natural gas across a long distance to the storage facility or a distribution center. The transmission lines are large pipes from 10 to 42 inch diameter made from steel. They carry oil or gas at a pressure from 200 to 1200 psi.

5.3 Pipeline components

There are some of components the pipelines contained it. Pipeline composed of numbers of component which provides a reliability and qualification. This is component include the following 1- Transmission pipe 2- Valves 3- Compressor stations 4- Pig launcher and receiver 5- Metering station 6- Control system and Scada All previous components will explain deeply following.

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5.3.1 Transmission pipe

Figure 14: Transmission pipe Pipelines can measure anywhere 6-48 inches in diameter, depending on the function. Some sections in the pipe has small diameter. The diameter for small section may be 0.5 inches. The small section diameter of the pipeline is used in collection and distributions. The major pipelines and pipeline standard in a particular system are generally between 16 and 48 inches in diameter. Sidelong pipelines, which provide natural gas or of a major and is usually between 6 and 16 inches in diameter. Often pipes ranging in major countries between 24 and 36 inches. The actual pipeline itself and so-called pipeline , consists of a strong material, carbon steel and designed to meet the standards set by the American Petroleum Institute (API). On the other hand, some are made of plastic pipe distribution is extremely advanced, and because flexibility needed and the change be easy. The pipes are produced in the transfer of steel mills, which is specialized in some cases to produce pipeline only. There are two methods for production. One of method specialized for small diameter pipes and other for large diameter pipe. The large diameter pipes ranging between 20 to 42 inches in diameter, and is produced pipes of sheet metal which is tucked in the pipe, with the ends welding come together to section of pipe formed. The small diameter pipes can be production easily. This mean that the metal rod is heating by high temperature then punch the hole over the middle of the rod to producing a blank tubes. In all of cases there are test stage been before ship from the steel factory to assure if the pipe has the ability to bear the pressure of the natural gas.

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Pipe line is additionally secured with a particular covering to guarantee that it doesn't erode once set in the ground. The motivation behind the covering is to secure the pipes from dampness, which causes consumption and rusting. There are various distinctive covering strategies. Previously, pipelines were covered with particular coal tar finish. Today, pipe is regularly ensured with what is regarded as a combination bond epoxy, which gives the channel a recognizable light blue color. Moreover, cathode security is regularly utilized; which is a method of running an electric present through the channel to ward off consumption and rusting.

5.3.2 Valves

Figure 15: Valves

A pipe line consists of a high number of valves on over lengths. The valves acting like portal. The valves opened and allow the natural gas to flowing. The valves could used to prevent flow a gas on certain portion. Very important that the valves can close to prevent gas to flow because there are many causes to prevent gas to flow in certain zones. in case of a part of pipes need a repair or changed thus the valves closed and engineers can do all they needed. These valves are very large and can set every 15 miles under condition of the environmental regulations.

5.3.3 Metering station

Metering station is added to compress of the natural gas to decrease the volume and pushing it over the pipes. Metering stations are positioned regularly along natural gas pipelines. These stations permit pipeline companies to control natural gas in the pipes of their own. Basically, this Metering stations measure the flow of gas along the pipeline, and to allow pipeline companies to 'route' the natural gas also flowing along the pipeline. This meter stations used to measure the specialist meters of natural gas also flows through the pipeline, without obstruction movement.

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5.3.4 Pig launcher and receiver

Pig launcher and receiver are fixed on the pipes to initiate received the pigs of the pipes. Pig launcher and receiver are provides a secure and efficient ways to inserted. Also the advantage is to remove the pigs from the pipe line. Pipe line engineering is manufacture pig launchers and receivers to achieve a certain needs for pipelines.

5.3.5 Compressor stations

Figure 16: Compress station

Compressor station used to compress the natural gas very high to transfer by pipelines. The natural gas flowing must be assure that flow through pipes as carefully. This is may know by compressor stations and it set ranging 40 to 100 miles on the pipe line length. Then the gas is go to compressor station and pressurized by engine or turbine. The turbo compressor gained a power from the small percentage of gas which arrives to it. The turbine is acting on centrifugal compressor. The turbine compressor consist of certain type of fan which working on pump and compressor the gas into pipelines. Some of compressors use an electrical motor to act the same process of centrifugal compress. Compressor station also composed a liquid separator which used previously in dehydration of the gas. Commonly separators are contains a scrubber and filtrate to remove unneeded molecules from the gas.

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5.3.6 Control system, Scada

Figure 17: SCADA system Supervisory control and data acquisition as known Scada has some of functions. The system is commonly developing communications systems that take measurements and gather data along the pipeline to transmit it to central control station. The temperature and the operation pressure are using to evaluate the pipes condition at same time. Scada system has much other function such as able to control some of equipments remotely. This feature is very useful to engineers because they have the ability to control on pipelines flow through it.

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It is a safety system that is used in the pipeline operating system to control and to insure the safety for the fluid to flow through it, it consists of systems:

6.2 Process Control System (PCS)

This is called the primary system, it is used to monitor and control all the operation facilities, the larger production facility will used to monitor the pipeline from the (CCR) centralized control room located at the processing facilities. The controlled rooms are used the tools and the equipments of the processing facility also the remote, faraway well heads and valves, some of them. Also to monitor and control the upstream and downstream pipelines. The one who controls computers is the operating engineer should be standardized and the computers system should be manufactured recognized under Federal regulations.

6.3 Safety Instrumented System (SIS)

(SIS), Safety Instrumented System Oil Pipeline is an integrity system; it is used to provide safety annunciation of all critical processes and shutdown. This system is used to protect the pipeline, personnel, equipment and from process emergency conditions and the sudden release of hazardous hydrocarbon gases and vapors.

6.4 Fire Detection System (FDS)

Fire Detection System , is a an alarm system to give an attention for a fire detection and its independent system , it provide early detection of a fire hazard and also it gives notification of a fire condition or activation , so it had the ability to shutdown the system.

6.5 Communication System

Communication system is a system connect the pipeline design, the start and the end of it, with the control center and it also connect the downstream facilities .this enable a quick response if a sudden emergency situation raised.

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Chapter 7; pipeline drying methods

7.1: Introduction
There are many reasons which give the answer of the need of drying the pipelines and these reasons is different which depends on the product and the use of it. Many of the gas pipelines is dried in order to prevent hydrate formation. Not only this process is applied to natural gas but also is applied to products such as ethane, carbon dioxide, and ethylene. Also hydrate is a white crystalline substance which is formed from the combination of temperature and pressure which will cause a reaction between gas and water. It will be appeared in the pipeline as a snow and could be occurred easily in sufficient quantities to block a line and causing freezing to regulators, instrument pipe work. By decreasing the pressure or increasing the temperature, it is easily for hydrate to decompose. There are many products in which their reactions with water form acids and also there are corrosive compounds which corrode the steel of the pipeline very fasting. This when the pipeline carrying a carbon dioxide, chorine and sour natural gas that contain traces of hydrogen sulfide or carbon dioxide. Also there are petrochemical pipelines which is needed to be dried as they carry products which is highly purity that are in a chemical process at the intermediate stage of it that could not afford the presence of water and these products are propylene, butane, and ethylene.


Monoethylene glycol and methanol are used in the operations of pipeline drying but there are propane, ethanol and triethylene glycol which are other glycols and alcohols that could be used as effectively. And if we talk about hydrates we can said that they are a class of compounds which are called catharses, a lattice of hosted water molecules with gas molecules in the cavities that can stabilize the compound. And if we talk about chemical swabbing, it is the process which consists of a serious of batches of hydrate inhibiting fluid which are running down through the pipeline in order for the absorbing of water in the system and also it will leave a film of the residual liquid of inhibitor of high enough concentration, so hydrates would not form. Also for all the hydrating fluids, they are fully miscible with water and also are hygroscopic. The process has two variations which depends on if the pipeline is bulk dewatered as a separate operation or if it is included in chemical swap.

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It is a wide range term that covers many activities from blowing air through the line to the run of hundreds of pigs through the line. There are a technique which is developed and patented by pipeline dehydrators Inc. This technique developed from drying of carbon dioxide lines and high purity petrochemicals. It is suitable for onshore lines that could be sectional dried. It also has the advantage that it clean the line optionally to standard which is higher than any other drying techniques. This technique has basis which is running a series of light which has 2Ib/ polyurethane foam swabs which is through the pipeline with super dry air that has dew point of -90F. The pigs are launched on regular basis so. there is many pigs at the pipeline at any time. There are special low pressure, launchers, quick action that are used, that allow the launching an loading of a swab in less than a minute and also it has no disruption to the air flow. The swab absorb large quantity of water initially and also it ensure that water at the pipeline is spreading out in thin film, and the evaporation into the dry air stream is facilitated. The pipeline will be dried from the end of the launch and progress gradually down the pipeline. Also to be sure that the pressure of air is above the atmospheric pressure, pigs are received in a bottomless receiver. As the pressure is low, the air could absorb more water vapor and the pipeline is getting quicker dried.

The main disadvantages of the technique of the air drying are: 1) The length of the section that has to be dried is limited and it depends on the diameter. 2) It is required for the equipment a large area on large diameter lines. 3) For running compressors, it requires the consuming of large amount of fuel. 4) This technique is not well suited to offshore pipelines.

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7.2.3 Vacuum drying

Its main aim is physically removing the water from the pipeline. Its evacuated out in contrast to drying air which is blown out. It depends on the concept of the boiling point of water varies with the pressure, and water boils at 100 C at the atmospheric pressure at 1013mbara, and at 8.72mbara, the water wil boil due to the ambient pressure, so the water could be removed from the pipeline by boiling it and removed it as a gas with a vacuum pump from the pipeline.

7.2.4 Evacuation
The pressure of the pipeline is drawn down from the atmospheric pressure to the saturated vapor pressure, and according to the ambient pipeline temperature there will be a variation and this is at the first phase. During this phase, most of the air is removed from the pipeline. During the first phase also, there is a test that will be done during the first phase to check for leaks that must be repaired.

7.2.5 Evaporation:
Water would start evaporation and maintain the pressure equilibrium, as the pressure reach the saturated vapor pressure. During the trying of the pressure to fall, also water evaporates and the pressures stay constant. So, the vacuum pump sucked out this vapor of the line, and there is more water that evaporates to take its place, and the continue of this process will last until all the free water evaporated from the pipeline.

7.2.6 Final drying

The pressure will start to fall when all the free water evaporated from the pipe line, and there is no water in the pipeline to be evaporated and maintain equilibrium. And all the air in the pipeline has long for all purposes and intents, and assuming the pressure in the line to be made up of the only the water vapor pressure. The pressure in the pipeline could be correlated to dew point. The pressure which is 1.032mbara is equivalent to dew point of -20 C, and obviously the pipeline is dry, once these pressures have been obtained through the pipeline.

(Andrew J Barden, 1996)

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Chapter 8: Case study

8.1: Introduction
In 1986 the pipe line capacity for Meleiha Company is 90000 BPD and the company would like to magnification the capacity to 175 BPD. In this page the action taken will be discussed and there are more diagrams to show the procedures to magnify the pipeline capacity.

8.2: Pipeline Design

Designed to handle Length Diameter Volume Design/operating working pressure Cathode protected : 90,000 BPD : 165.8 KM : 16 : 125,655 BBls : 1440/960 psi : impressed current

Pumping Station at Meleiha: 3 pumps Connected in series ( In / Out pressure : 85/880 psi) Receiving station at El Hamra: 2 meter runs (Capacity = 40,000 BPD Each) Five Tie-In Points along the P/L starting from Meleiha side at (@ 28 Km, @ 55 Km, @ 83 Km, @ 111 Km, @ 138 Km)

Figure 18: Pipe line routes

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Figure 19: Pipeline system before upgrade

8.3: Pipeline upgrading

To increase the pipeline capacity from 90,000 BPD to 120,000 BPD Normal operating rate = 115,000 BPD Added fourth shipping pump at Meleiha Constructing a boosters of station at Mid point (PK 83) (3 booster pumps Two in duty & one St-By) Installed a third run to meter skid at El-hamra.

8.3.1: UPGRADING BASIS COMPAIRED WITH CURRENT PRODUCTION Users 1998 design basing Current production AGIBA 23,000 28,000 KHALDA 25000 43000 SALAM 3000 12000 TAREK 3000 10000 SUMPETCO 5000 27000 BAPETCO 55000 20000 TOTAL 114000 14000
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Figure 20: Current pipeline system

8.3.2: Users current daily SHIPPING

Agiba (W.D.) Khalda Obaiyed Total

+/- 28000 BPD +/- 92000 BPD +/- 20000 BPD +/- 140000BPD

Average daily Shipping

Meleiha ZARIF AGHAR TOTAL +/- 15000BPD +/- 500BPD +/- 5000 BPD +/- 28000 BPD

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8.4: Recommendations
Short Term: 1- Upgrade Khalda crude oil shipping pumps to be capable for commingle shipping with Salam & users (not done). 2- Increasing shipping hrs to be 23.5 hrs/day instead of 23 hrs/day. 3- Switch back Faras Shipping to be through Bapetco pL 12 to increase window for khalda. Done. 4- Diverted raml shipping to dabaa line 12, done. 5- Using drag reducer to increasing flow rate, done. LONG TERM STUDY THE FEASIBILITY OF THE FOLLOWING OPTIONS: 1- Up grading electrical motor of 3 old pumps at meleiha. Under progress, end time may 09. 2- Install forth booster pump at PK 83 pumping station under study. 3- In any of the above options metering skid at El Hamra Terminal is required up grading. Under progress . 4- Duplication Meleiha Elhamra pipeline. 5- New booster pumping station.

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8.5: Pipeline system after upgrading

Figure 21: pipeline system after upgrade

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8.5.1: User shipping data

No of tanks Storage capacity Dead stock Daily production

5 2 3 4 4 3 3 9 2 --

135,000 32,000 22,000 9,400 200,000 45,000 45,000 173,000 160,000 821,400

12,000 2,000 9,000 2,000 36,000 6,000 6,000 5,0000 20,000

5,000 8,000 5,000 43,000 12,000 10,000 27,000 20,000 153,000

13.00 18.00 14.00 18.00 23.5 8.00 8.00 9.00 11.00 32.50

Users storage capacity

Figure 22: users storage capacity

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8.6: Pipeline maintenance

1234Regular pigging Periodic inspection by intelligent pig Cathode protection Regular patrolling survey

8.7: Inspection of pipeline by intelligent pig


8.8: Conclusion
The company is succeeding to achieve the pipeline upgrading and this is a great progress. They upgrade the diameter of impellers and install bigger electric motor. Construct midpoint station. Finally construct 2 loops until the Flow is divided into 2 loops to reduction the loading on the on loop.

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Andrew J Barden, M. D. (1996). Evaluation of pipeline-drying techniques. g, R. o. (2005). Controlling Internal Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines. Wax.and.Waxy.Crude. (1993). Retrieved 12 11, 2013, from Wax.and.Waxy.Crude:

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