Wastewater treatment simulation

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Wastewater treatment simulation

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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SYSTEMTEKNIK

AVDELNINGEN FOR

BC,PSA 9809, Last rev August 19, 2002

SIMULATION OF SIMPLE

BIOREACTORS

W4

1. Microbial growth in a "Monode" reactor

2. Microbial growth in a "Haldane" reactor

3. A simple activated sludge process

Preparation exercises:

2. Sec 3, Exercise 3.1

3. Sec. 4, Exercise 4.1

Name

Program

Comments by supervisor

Year entering the program

Date

Lab passed

Sign

CONTENTS

Contents

1

Introduction

2.2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1 The model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1 The model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

2

5

5

6

7

1 Introduction

1 Introduction

Modeling and simulation studies become more and more common in the biotechnical

eld including biological wastewater treatment.

Typical applications of a simulation study are:

Design of the process. The choice of size and conguration of a wastewater

plant may be determined more easily by means of simulations. Also the impact

of changing a plant conguration may be more easily predicted.

Process control. Ecient control strategies are often model based. Also a good

dynamic model can be used to test and evaluate dierent control strategies.

Forecasting

Education. Models used in simulators can be used for education and training.

This may require special types of simulators where the interface is adapted to

the actual plant

and test hypotheses in all kinds of research work.

Research

In all simulation studies it is of fundamental importance to be aware of model approximations and the validity of the model. Note that dierent needs often lead to

dierent requirement of the accuracy of the underlying model.

In this laboratory work you will rst simulate two types of simple bioreactor using

a Java applet designed for this purpose. You will study how dierent
ows, growth

rates, and concentrations aect the process. Finally, an activated sludge process for

carbon removal is studied (in the next computer lab. work you will study a more

complex model, based on the Activated Sludge Model No 1)

2.1

The model

We will consider the dynamics of a completely mixed tank reactor shown in Figure

1. The in
uent
ow rate is equal to the euent
ow rate Q [volume/time]. Hence,

the volume V is constant. The dilution rate is D = VQ . The in
uent has a substrate

concentration Sin [mass/volume]. The in
uent biomass is assumed to be neglectable

(Xin = 0).

2.2

Exercises

Outflow Qout, S, X

S, X

Volume V

The biomass growth in the reactor is assumed to follow the Monode kinetics

(S )

= max

S

KS

(1)

+S

where

max

S

KS

is the concentration of substrate

is the half saturation constant

By applying a mass balance, the following dynamic model can be derived 1

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2.2

Exercises

dX

dt

= ((S )

dS

dt

1

Y

D )X

(2)

(S )X

+ D(Sin

S)

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Derive the stationary values2 (X , S) of the biomass and substrate

concentration from (1){(2). Also show how the yield factor Y can be estimated from

knowledge of X , S and Sin .

Exercise 2.1

ANSWER:

1

2

A derivation can be found in the course material "An introduction to modeling of bioreactors".

dS

This is obtained by solving dX

dt = dt = 0.

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2.2

Exercises

The denition for wash-out (all biomass is washed out from the reactor)

is X = 0. What is the corresponding value on S?

Exercise 2.2

ANSWER:

Hint: The condition for non wash-out is that Sin > S, where S is calculated in

Exercise 2.1.

Exercise 2.3a

ANSWER:

and Dlim (see Exerc. 2.3a) for the case: max = 2, KS = 1:2, Y = 0:8, Sin = 1 and

D = Q=V = 0:5. (the units are \appropriate")

Exercise 2.3b

ANSWER:

Next you shall use a small simulation program written as a Java applet. The simulator has the default values given in Exec 2.3b. The initial3 values

are: Xo = 0:1, So = 1:1.

The default simulation length Tmax is 40 time units.

Exercise 2.4

http://www.syscon.uu.se/JASS

The applet has three tabs. Select the Monode tab. From the plot, estimate the

stationary values of biomass and substrate. Also estimate the yield factor from those

values. Compare the results with the calculated values in Excercise 2.3b.

3

The concentrations at time t=0 in the reactor, these values should not aect the nal concentrations if the simulation length is suciently long.

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2.2

Exercises

ANSWER:

D is wash-out obtained? Compare with Exercises 2.3b. Compare also S with the

result in Exercise 2.2.

Exercise 2.5

ANSWER:

by dierent values on max , KS , Y , Sin and D = Q=V

Exercise 2.6, Optional

ANSWER:

The exact value may be hard to see from the plot, increase the simulation time if necessary.

3.1

The model

In this section we will brie
y consider the case when the same tank conguration as

in the previous section is used but the biomass growth is modeled with the Haldane

kinetics

S

(S ) = o

(3)

K1 + S + S 2 =Kh

Here, o , K1 and Kh are parameters describing the growth rate. This model takes into

account possible substrate inhibitory eects at high concentrations of the substrate.

3.2

Exercises

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The Haldane law gives two possible stationary values of the substrate

denoted S1 and S2 . See Exercise 1 in "Rakneuppgifter V". Calculate S1 and S2 for

the case:

o = 1:5, K1 = 1:2, Kh = 2, Y = 0:8, and D = Q=V = 0:5.

Exercise 3.1

ANSWER:

o = 1:5, K1 = 1:2, Kh = 2, Y = 0:8, and D = Q=V = 0:5, Sin = 1.

From the user interface, the above parameters can be changed except o which is

xed to 1.5. The initial values are: Xo = 0:5, So = 0:5.

In the simulator, select the tab labeled Haldane. From the plot, estimate the stationary values of the substrate and verify that one of the possible

stationary points calculated in Exercise 3.1 is achieved.

Exercise 3.2

ANSWER:

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and notify conditions for wash-out. Does wash out only occur for low values of Sin ?

Explain!

Exercise 3.3

ANSWER:

Concluding remarks: A basic feature of many nonlinear systems like bioreactor models is that the stationary points can be stable or unstable. For the Haldane example

above, only one stationary point is stable. In order to further analyze this behavior,

phase plane representation may be useful, compare with the course in ODE.

In this exercise you will study a simple model for an activated sludge process.

4.1

The model

The process to be modeled is a simple activated sludge process with recycled sludge

and wasting (removal of excess sludge) from the recycle line. In the clarier, the

biomass is separated from the treated water. A layout of the process is shown in

Figure 2.

Influent, Qin, Xin=0, Sin

Qin+Qr, X, S

Clarifier

are denoted Q, substrate concentration S , and biomass (microorganism concentration) X .

The biomass growth in the aeration tank is modeled as

V

dX

dt

= V X + Qr Xr

(Qin + Qr )X

where

= max

S

KS

+S

dS

1

V

=

V X + Qin Sin + Qr Sr

dt

(Qin + Qr )S

4.2

Exercises

(Qin + Qr )X = (Qr + Qw )Xr

S = Se = Sr

Qe = Qin Qw

The expression for the sludge age in an ideal settler is (see "See Exercise 5 in

Rakneuppgifter V"):

Qr + Qw

s = V

(4)

Qw (Qin + Qr )

Note that s does not depend on the sludge content X .

4.2

Exercises

Derive the stationary values (X , S). S should be written as a function of sludge age s , max and Ks. X should be written as a function of the sludge

age s , yield Y , D=Qin =V and Sin S.

Exercise 4.1a

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Hints:

Use the sedimentation model to simplify the biomass and substrate models.

Use the steady state relation between sludge age and specic growth rate (this will

directly give S).

ANSWER:

max = 6=24 h 1 , KS = 20, and Y = 0:8.

The following parameters can be changed from the program interface, their nominal

values are also given:

In
ow Qin = 2000 m3 /h

Return sludge
ow: Qr = 2000 m3 /h

Excess sludge
ow rate Qw = 83 m3 /h,

Aerated basin volume V = 4000 m3

BOD concentration in in
uent water : Sin = 150 g/m3

In the simulator the sludge age is presented using the unit days (common practice).

Remember to make the necessary unit conversions.

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4.2

Exercises

Calculate numerically the stationary values X and S, and the sludge

age s using the nominal values above.

Exercise 4.1b

ANSWER:

In the simulator, select the tab labeled ASP. From the plot, estimate

the stationary values of biomass and substrate. Compare the simulated results with

the ones obtained from Excercise 4.1.b.

Exercise 4.2

ANSWER:

&

Qw

2s

V

V =Qin

(5)

During a non-trivial steady state, we must have that5

s

1

(S)

(6)

4.2

Exercises

Select a desired value (less than Sin ) of the euent substrate S. Then

use (6) to calculate the needed sludge age and (5) to nd the excess sludge
ow rate

Qw . Simulate the process with this choice6 of Qw and check if the system behaves

as expected. Try some dierent substrate levels. What happens with the biomass

concentration when S is decreased?

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Exercise 4.3

ANSWER:

Exercise 4.4

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Calculate the limiting sludge age which gives wash out. Simulate the process using

this sludge age and verify that wash out is achieved. Try also slightly larger and

smaller values. Comment shortly on the result.

Hint: The limiting condition for wash-out is S = Sin .

ANSWER:

Play around with the simulator, try dierent parameter values, for example, eects of

volume changes. Try to predict the simulation results by using the previously derived

equations.

ANSWER:

Due to the discrete character of the slide bar in the user interface it may be impossible to exactly

implement the desired
ow rate .

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