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M/s Mysore Minerals Limited

(A Govt. of Karnataka Undertaking)


# 39, M.G. Road, Bangalore – 560 001.

Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment


and
Environment Management Plan
(Winter Season Dec. 2006 –Feb. 2007)
FOR

“Chikkashellikeri Limestone Mines”


M. L. NO. - 2494
(Extent:- 64.35 ha.)
(Increase of Production from 0.12 to 0.250 million
tonnes per annum)
at
Chikkashellikeri Village, Bagalkot Taluk, Bagalkote
KARNATAKA
Prepared By
NETEL (INDIA) LIMITED
S. V. Road, Manpada, Thane – 400 607
Tel: 2589 0110/111 (D) 2589 2191 Fax: 022-2589 0976
E-mail: ems@netel-india.com
Website: www.netel-india.com
Rapid – EIA Study Contents

TABLE OF CONTENT
TABLE OF CONTENT.................................................................................................ii
LIST OF TABLES........................................................................................................vi
LIST OF FIGURES .....................................................................................................vii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...........................................................................................1
CHAPTER 1 ..................................................................................................................1
1.1 PREAMBLE ...................................................................................................1
1.2 NEED FOR PROJECT ...................................................................................1
1.3 NEED FOR REIA/EMP .................................................................................1
1.4 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY ............................................................2
1.5 STRUCTURE OF EIA REPORT ...................................................................3
CHAPTER 2 ..................................................................................................................5
PROJECT DESCRIPTION............................................................................................5
2.1 INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................5
2.2 PROJECT LOCATION ..................................................................................5
2.3 ACCESSIBILITY ...........................................................................................5
2.4 APPROVALS ACCORDED ..........................................................................8
2.5 PROJECT COST ............................................................................................8
2.6 PHYSIOGRAPHY..........................................................................................8
2.7 GEOLOGY AND RSERVES .........................................................................8
2.7.1 Black Cotton Soil .................................................................................9
2.7.2 Shale ......................................................................................................9
2.7.3 Dolomitic limestone..............................................................................9
2.7.4 High Calcium Limestone (Grey Limestone)......................................9
2.7.5 Reserves ................................................................................................9
2.7.6 Mineralogy..........................................................................................11
2.8 MINING........................................................................................................11
2.9 MINE DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION .........................................12
2.9.1 Stacking of Mineral rejects and Disposal of Waste .......................12
2.10 BLASTING...................................................................................................13
2.10.1 Burden, Spacing, Depth and Sub Grade Drilling ..........................13
2.10.2 Explosives...........................................................................................13
2.10.3 Secondary Blasting............................................................................13
2.10.4 Explosive Requirement and Storage ...............................................13
2.10.5 Extent of Mechanism ........................................................................14
2.11 MINERAL BENIFICATION .......................................................................14
2.11.1 Mineral Processing.............................................................................14
2.12 ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE REQUIREMENT ................................15
2.12.1 Water...................................................................................................15
2.12.2 Workforce...........................................................................................16
2.10.3 Power Requirement ...........................................................................17
2.10.4 First Aid Station.................................................................................17
CHAPTER - 3 ..............................................................................................................18
BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS ..............................................................18
3.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................18
3.2 STUDY AREA .............................................................................................18
3.3 METEOROLOGY ........................................................................................19
3.4 AIR ENVIRONMENT .................................................................................25
3.4.1 Methodology adopted and Selection of sampling locations ...........26

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Rapid – EIA Study Contents

3.4.2 Details of sampling locations.............................................................28


3.4.3 Sampling and Analytical Techniques...............................................29
3.4.4 Results of AAQM ...............................................................................30
3.5 NOISE ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................33
3.5.1 Selection of Locations for Monitoring..............................................34
3.5.2 Results .................................................................................................34
3.6 WATER ENVIRONMENT ..........................................................................35
3.6.1 Methodology .......................................................................................35
3.6.2 Ground Water Sampling Locations .................................................36
3.6.3 Results of Ground Water Samples ...................................................38
3.6.4 Surface Water.....................................................................................38
3.6.5 Surface Water Sampling Locations..................................................38
3.6.6 Results of Surface Water Samples....................................................39
3.7 LAND ENVIRONMENT .............................................................................39
3.7.1 Mine Drainage....................................................................................41
3.8 LAND USE...................................................................................................43
3.8.1 Core Zone ...........................................................................................43
3.8.2 Buffer Zone.........................................................................................43
3.9 BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT................................................................45
3.9.1 Objectives for Ecological Studies .....................................................45
3.9.2 Ecology of mining site and dumping site .........................................46
3.9.3 Flora ....................................................................................................46
3.9.4 Fauna...................................................................................................47
3.10 DEMOGRAPHY AND SOCIO - ECONOMICS.........................................47
3.10.1 Methodology Adopted for the Study ................................................47
3.10.2 Demographic ......................................................................................48
3.10.3 Socio economic profile .......................................................................48
CHAPTER 4 ................................................................................................................51
IMPACT PREDICTION..............................................................................................51
4.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................51
4.2 IDENTIFICATION OF IMPACTS ..............................................................51
4.2.1 Mining Operations .............................................................................51
4.2.2 Limestone Crushing...........................................................................52
4.2.3 Associated Infrastructure..................................................................52
4.3 CLIMATE.....................................................................................................53
4.4 AMBIENT AIR QUALITY..........................................................................53
4.4.1 Occupational Health Hazards Due to Dust Pollution....................55
4.5 NOISE ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................56
4.5.1 Occupational Health Hazards of Noise Pollution ...........................58
4.6 GROUND VIBRATIONS ............................................................................59
4.7 WATER ENVIRONMENT ..........................................................................60
4.7.1 Impacts on Surface Water.................................................................60
4.7.2 Impacts of Mining on Ground Water ..............................................61
4.8 LAND USE...................................................................................................62
4.8.1 Soil .......................................................................................................63
4.9 SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL........................................................................63
4.10 ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS...........................................................................64
4.11 SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS..................................................................64
CHAPTER 5 ................................................................................................................65
IMPACT EVALUATION ...........................................................................................65

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Rapid – EIA Study Contents

5.1 APPROACH .................................................................................................65


5.2 IMPACT ON AIR ENVIRONMENT ..........................................................65
5.2.1 Quantitative Estimation of Impacts on Air Environment..............65
5.2.2 Sources of Dust Emission ..................................................................66
5.2.3 Emission Details .................................................................................66
5.2.4 Summary of Predicted Ground Level Concentrations (GLC’S) of
SPM .....................................................................................................69
5.2.5 Impact due to Transportation...........................................................70
5.3 ENVIRONMETAL IMPACT MATRIX......................................................71
5.4 PROJECT SPECIFIC EVALUATION ........................................................73
5.4.1 PIV For Environmental Components ..............................................73
5.4.2 Relative Parameter Importance Index (RPII) ................................75
5.4.3 Environmental Impact Index (EII) ..................................................76
5.4.4 Weighted Environmental Impact Index (WEII).............................84
5.5 POTENTIAL IMPACT IDENTIFICATION WITHOUT MITIGATIVE
MEASURES .................................................................................................84
5.6 SUMMARY OF IMPACTS .........................................................................84
5.7 POTENTIAL IMPACT IDENTIFICATION WITH MITIGATIVE
MEASURES .................................................................................................85
5.8 RESIDUAL IMPACT IDENTIFICATION..................................................85
CHAPTER 6 ................................................................................................................86
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN..........................................................86
6.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................86
6.2 AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT............................................86
6.2.1 Controlling Dust Level ......................................................................86
6.2.2 Controlling CO Levels.......................................................................87
6.2.3 Controlling NOX Levels.....................................................................87
6.2.4 Green Belt ...........................................................................................88
6.2.5 Occupational Health & Safety Measures to Control Dust
Inhalation............................................................................................88
6.3 NOISE POLLUTION CONTROL ...............................................................88
6.3.1 Occupational Health and Safety Measures to Control Exposure to
Noise ....................................................................................................89
6.4 CONTROL OF GROUND VIBRATIONS & FLY ROCKS BOULDER ...89
6.5 WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT........................................................90
6.5.1 Water Resources ................................................................................90
6.5.2 Water Management ...........................................................................90
6.6 LAND MANAGEMENT..............................................................................91
6.6.1 Land Reclamation..............................................................................91
6.6.2 Top Soil Management........................................................................94
6.7 AFFORESTATION PLAN...........................................................................95
6.7.1 Afforestation Already Carried Out..................................................96
6.7.2 Afforestation Proposed......................................................................96
6.7.3 Stage Wise Cumulative Plantation ...................................................96
6.8 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ..............................................................97
6.9 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & HYGIENE................................................98
6.10 PROPOSED SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES ...........................102
6.11 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL & MONITORING PROGRAMME ....102
6.11.1 Environmental Management Cell (EMC) .....................................102
6.11.2 Monitoring Schedule and Parameters ...........................................103

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6.11.3 Budget Provision for EMP ..............................................................104


CHAPTER 7 ..............................................................................................................106
DISASTERS MANAGEMENT PLAN.....................................................................106
7.1 DEFINITION..............................................................................................106
7.2 SCOPE ........................................................................................................106
7.3 IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF HAZARDS ......................106
7.4 CONTROL MEASURES FOR HAZARDS/DISASTERS ........................107
7.5 ONSITE EMERGENCY PLAN .................................................................107
ANNEXURES ...........................................................................................................110

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Rapid – EIA Study List of Tables

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1: Survey of Environmental Attributes.............................................................3
Table 2.1: Site Details....................................................................................................5
Table 2.2: Geological Reserves .....................................................................................9
Table 2.3: Salient features of the Mine........................................................................11
Table 2.4: Development and Production Proposals.....................................................12
Table 2.5: Requirement of Mining Machineries..........................................................14
Table 2.6: Water Requirement for the Mining Operations ..........................................15
Table 2.7: Manpower Requirement .............................................................................16
Table 3.1: Meteorological Data monitored at the Project Site....................................21
Table 3.2: Details of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations .................................28
Table 3.3: Details of AAQM Parameters and Frequency of Sampling .......................28
Table 3.4: Methods used for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring...................................30
Table 3.5: Summary of the Ambient Air Quality Monitoring .....................................31
Table 3.6: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) ..................................33
Table 3.7: Details of Noise Monitoring Locations ......................................................34
Table 3.8: Noise Monitoring Results in the Study area ...............................................34
Table 3.9: Ambient Noise Quality Standards ..............................................................35
Table 3.10: Details of Ground Water Sampling Locations..........................................38
Table 3.11: Details of Surface Water Sampling Locations..........................................39
Table 3.12: Details of Soil Sampling Locations ..........................................................41
Table 3.13: Land Use Pattern of Mining Lease Area ..................................................43
Table 3.14: Landuse Pattern of Buffer Zone ...............................................................43
Table 3.15: Distribution of Literates............................................................................49
Table 4.1: Effects of Air Pollutants on Plants and Animals ........................................55
Table 4.2: Summary of Impact Assessment: Air Quality ............................................56
Table 4.3: Noise Exposure Levels and Its Effects .......................................................59
Table 4.4: Summary of Impact Assessment: Water Resources ...................................62
Table 4.5: Summary of Impact Assessment: Soil and Land-use .................................63
Table 5.1: Emissions Details........................................................................................67
Table 5.2: Overall Scenario .........................................................................................69
Table 5.3: Estimation of Tippers for Transport ...........................................................71
Table 5.4: Determination of EII for Category "A" Parameters....................................73
Table 5.5: Determination of EII for Category "B" Parameters....................................73
Table 5.6: Determination of PIV .................................................................................75
Table 5.7: Potential Impact Identification Matrix( Without Environmental
Management Plan) .......................................................................................................77
Table 5.8 : Potential Impact Identification Matrix (With Environment management
Plan i.e. with Mitigative Measures) .............................................................................81
Table 5.9: Impact Matrix Without Mitigative Measures .............................................84
Table 5.10:Impact Matrix with Mitigative Measures ..................................................85
Table 6.1: Stagewise Reclamation/Afforestation plan.................................................93
Table 6.2: Conceptual landuse plan (Post mining) ......................................................94
Table 6.3: Afforestation Already Carried Out .............................................................96
Table 6.4: Afforestation Proposed ...............................................................................96
Table 6.5:Stage Wise Cumulative Plantation ..............................................................97
Table 6.6: Suggested Monitoring Program................................................................104
Table 6.7: Budget for Environmental Protective Measures in Rs. Lakhs..................105

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Rapid – EIA Study List of Figures

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: Location Map............................................................................................6
Figure 2.2: Mine Layout Plan/Surface Plan ..............................................................7
Figure 2.3: Geological Map of Mining Area............................................................10
Figure 2.4: Schematic Diagram of the Tentative Flow Sheet of Crusher .............15
Figure 3.1: Study Area within 10 km Radius from Project Site............................19
Figure 3.2 : Windrose for the Month of December 2006........................................22
Figure 3.3 : Windrose for the Month of January 2007...........................................23
Figure 3.4 : Windrose for the Month of February 2007.........................................24
Figure 3.5 : Windrose for the Month of December 2006 to February 2007 .........25
Figure 3.6: Locations of Ambient Air & Noise Quality Monitoring Stations ......27
Figure 3.7: Locations of Water Quality Monitoring Stations................................37
Figure 3.8: Locations of Soil Monitoring Stations ..................................................40
Figure 3.9: Drainage Plan of Study Area.................................................................42
Figure 3.10: Land Use Plan of Core Zone ...............................................................44
Figure 3.11: Occupational Pattern of the Study Area ............................................49
Figure 4.1: Predicted Noise Levels ...........................................................................58
Figure 5.1: Predicted Ground Levels Concentrations............................................70
Figure 6.1: Conceptual Post Mining Land Use Plan ..............................................95
Figure 6.2: Environment Management Plan ...........................................................99
Figure 6.3: Waste Management Plan for end of mining ......................................100
Figure 6.4: Sections of Waste Management Plan..................................................101
Figure A: Conceptual Mining Plan ........................................................................151

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Rapid – EIA Study Executive Summary

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION
M/s Mysore Minerals Limited is a Government of Karnataka undertaking established
in the year 1966 with main objective of systematic mining and planned development
of mineral resources in the State. The main activities of the company are Exploration,
Development of Mineral Resources, Exploitation and Marketing of Minerals and
granites.
The existing production capacity at Chikkashellikeri Limestone Mine is only 0.12
million tonnes per annum. In view of great demand for Limestone ore and
commitment made for long term agreement, management has decided to increase the
production from 0.120 million tonnes per annum to 0.250 million tonnes per annum at
Chikkashellikeri limestone mine. The following approvals have been obtained from
concerned government departments
• Mining Lease granted : 26-04-1999
• Mining Plan approved by IBM : 10/04/2007
In order to evaluate the potential impacts that would arise due to increase of
production from 0.120 million tonnes per annum to 0.250 million tonnes per annum at
Chikkashellikeri Limestone Mines of MML, studies were carried out by M/s. Netel
India Ltd. during December 2006 to February 2007 covering air, water, Noise, land,
etc., as per the EIA guidelines laid by MoEF and various authorities. The findings of
study carried out during winter season are presented in this report.
LOCATION
Site Details
District & State Bagalkote District, Karnataka State
Taluka Bagalkote
Village Chikkashellikeri
Mine Lease Area 64.35 Ha
Type of the Area Patta Land
Survey of India Toposheet No 47/P/12
Latitude 16°8’00”N to 16°09’11”N
Longitude 75°31’11”E to 75°35’55”E

PROJECT DISCRIPTION
Geology
The mine area falls in Survey of India Topo Sheet No. 47/P/12. The lease area forms a
part of Kaladgi basin sedimentary formation of “Precambrain Era”. The following
geological stratigraphic sequence is identified for this region.

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Rapid – EIA Study Executive Summary

Geological Age Formation Lithology


Recent Precambrain ---- Black cotton soil
Precambrain Kaladgi Group Limestone Shale
Unconformity ----
Archean Granitic Gneises ----
The following geological formations/ exposures are observed in the lease area.
1. Thinly bedded, Soil /Black Cotton Soil
2. Shale
3. Dolomitic Limestone
4. Gray Limestone
Black Cotton Soil
The area is mainly covered by back soil of varying thickness (1 m to 2 m). The
contact between dolomite and high calcium limestone is well exposed. The general
strike of the formation is N 750 W to 750E and dipping 450 to 500 south observed in
the lease area.
Shale
The Shale is exposed in the Northern and Eastern end of the lease area. It exhibits
marine and gray to purple colour, compact less laminated and slaty. These shale bands
are exposed over a distance of 150 m to 120 m. with an average width of 80 m.
Dolomitic limestone
Prominent exposures of dolomitic limestone are observed to the Eastern side of the
lease area under laying the thin layer of black cotton soil it is traversed by a number
of silica veins these are striking almost parallel to the limestone deposit and dipping
450 to 600 South at different places. Dolomites are fine to medium grained and white
to gray in color it is comparatively hard.
High Calcium Limestone (Grey Limestone)
The Limestone bands are well exposed in the eastern and western part of the lease
area. These are intercalated with thin ribbon of shale and dolomite. Thin Veins of
Calcite are noticed at one or two locations in the exposed bands. The High Calcium
limestone presents a weathered surface as a smooth appearance with small potholes
which is very characteristic.
Reserves
Based on the exploration carried out, exposed ore body and other available
information, the geological reserves estimated by standard cross sectional method the
details are given in following table

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Rapid – EIA Study Executive Summary

Geological Reserves
Sr. No. Reserves Type Insitu Reserves Mineable
Reserve in Tonnes
1 Proved 2,57,48,650 2,18,86,360
2 Probable 1,29,78,600 1,10,31,810
3 Total 3,87,27,250 3,29,18,170

Topography and drainage


In general the area is having flat topography. The general ground level varies from
521 to 548 meter above MSL. One seasonal nullah which flows in rainy season cuts
the lease area in two halves from South East corner to North West corner. This nullah
flows in North West direction. Based on observations made in the area, the water
table in the area is around 60-75 m below the ground level
Details of Production
The details of development & production proposed for 3 years i.e. 2006-09 is given
below
Development and Production Proposals
Years
Sr. No. 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09
Particulars
Development
1 4,341 5,346 5,598
(tonnes)
Production
2 1,94,970 2,40,075 2,51,715
(tonnes)

Equipment Details
The list of machinery to be deployed during the mining operation in the subject area is
as follows
Requirement of Mining Machineries
Sr.
Equipment Capacity Numbers of Equipments
No.
Existing Proposed Total
1 Dumpers 10 tonnes 2 4 6
2 Holman compressor 120 CFM 3 - 3
Drilling Machine
3 100 mm - 2 2
WDH
Jack hammer (Ford
4 33 mm 2 3 5
Tractor Atloscapco)
5 JCB 1 1 2
6 Water Pumps 1 1
Tractor trailer with
7 3 tonnes 5 5
hydraulic Tipping
2 (Common
8 Explosive van for group of - 2
mines)
9 Wheel Loader 1.30 CMTR 3 - 3

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Rapid – EIA Study Executive Summary

PRESENT ENVIRONMENT SCENARIO


For the description of the baseline environmental setting, the mining project area
together with the mine lease area have been considered as the core zone, and the area
falling within 10 km from the core zone has been considered as the buffer zone. Core
and buffer zones, taken together, form the study area. Baseline data generation was
performed for a period of 3 months, from December 2006 to February 2007 (winter).
Climate
The study area is part of tropical climate with hot summer, moderately cool winter
and moderate monsoon during June to August. The rains are scanty and average
rainfall of the area is around 560 mm. Hourly micrometeorological data was recorded
at Bagalkote town 25 km from project site for period of 3 months comprising one
Winter season from December 2006 to February 2007.The micrometeorological data
is given in below.
Summary of Micro-Metrological Data

Particulars Maximum Minimum Average


Temperature (°C) 35.2 10.2 21.9
Relative humidity 81 15 45
Wind speed (km/hr) 4.28 3.38 3.85
Predominant wind
From East (Calm Wind :- 10.75%)
direction

Ambient air quality


Total six Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations (1 in core zone and 5 in buffer
zone) were identified and monitored as per the norms. The summary of pollutants
results is as follows.
Results of Ambient Air Quality
Observed values range 24 hourly Standard laid down by CPCB 24
average (μg/m3) hourly average (μg/m3)
Pollutants
For
Core zone Buffer zone For Industrial
Residential
SPM 128.2-225.3 80.6-184.2 200 500
RPM 48.1-95.6 16.6-68.6 100 150
SO2 4.5-12.4 4-11.4 80 120
NOX 9.9-21 9-21.7 80 120

Noise Environment
Noise levels were monitored at six locations. One station representing core zone
activities and the remaining five stations representing buffer zone villages. The main
sources of noise will be due to movement of heavy earthmoving machinery, blasting,

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Rapid – EIA Study Executive Summary

crushing of Limestone, movement of trucks engaged for transportation of Limestone


as well as ore zone waste. The results are shown in the following table.
Summary of the Noise Level
Station Noise level dB (A)
Zone Location Activity
Code Day Night
Source mining
Core Mining area N1 64.6 44.0
activity
Hire shellikeri N2 54.2 44.1
On Hire
Chikkashellikere – N3 54.0 43.6 General, public
Buffer Kaladgi Road and limestone
Chikkashellikeri N4 52.8 43.2 transport
Nir Buddihal N5 54.8 43.7
Yandigeri N6 54.5 43.9

Water environment
Ghataprabha is the main river in study area. Water resources available in the area are
only rain water. The mining area forms a part of the drainage system of the
Ghataprabha river is situated towards Northern side of the mine. One major nullah
which flows during heavy rains cuts the lease area into two halves from South East
corner to the North Western corner of the lease area and flows in the North Western
direction. The ground water is the main source of potable water in the study area.
Quality of water
Water samples from 5 ground water sources and two surface water sources were
characterized. The quality of ground water in the study area varies widely. However,
characteristics of ground water samples from locations are in conformity with the
permissible limits for drinking water.
The analytical report of the water samples are found to be within the tolerance limits
for water specified as per IS: 10500 standards. Hence the water quality in the
surrounding area is good.
Landuse pattern and soil quality
The land is almost plain and cultivated. The major portion of the lease area is brought
under cultivation. The details of existing and proposed land use pattern of mining
lease area is given below.

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Rapid – EIA Study Executive Summary

Land use pattern in Core Zone


Total
Sr. Present
Particulars Proposed for area in
No. Occupation
ha.
End
2006- 5th 10th 15th of
09 year year Year Mine
Life
1 Mining 10.25 1.60 2.00 2.00 2.00 12.15 30.00
2 Road 1.80 0.30 0.20 0.20 - 0.50 3.00
3 Dump Yard 1.90 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 4.00 7.50
4 Stock Yards 0.45 0.60 0.40 0.40 0.40 1.75 4.00
5 Afforestation 0.65 2.00 0.60 0.60 0.60 4.4 8.85
6 Structures/Colony 0.50 - 1.00 - - 0.5 2.00
7 Crushers 2.5 - 0.50 - - - 3.00
8 Area unutilised 48.80 - - - - - 6.00
9 Total 64.35 7.4 5.1 3.6 3.4 23.3 64.35
Land use pattern in Buffer Zone

Sr. No. Land Use Area in ha. %


1 Forest land 2406.46 7.66
2 Irrigated land 5233.90 16.66
3 Un-irrigated land 16999.20 54.11
4 Cultivable waste land 1212.66 3.86
5 Not available for cultivation 2629.52 8.37
6 Infrastructures (road, residence) 2934.26 6.34
7 Total 31416.00 100

The soil pH was observed in the range of 7.3-7.8. The soils are rich in nutrients like
potash, phosphorous, nitrogen and organic matter. The soil appeared light brown to
Black in colour and all soil samples have slit loam structures.
Ecology
Density of trees is very less on mining lease area. Major activities within 5kms radius
of the buffer zone are mining and dry agriculture activities only during rainy season.
However, under the green belt development and plantation programme,
approximately 8 hectares of ML has been brought under plantation. No wild life of
any sort is found within the lease hold area. The fauna found in the area are of
common variety and no endangered or threatened species are reported in the study
area.
Socio-economic condition
The mine is already under operation. There is no habitation within the project area.
Hence, no rehabilitation will be required. In the study area, there are all inhabited
revenue villages. Out of the 25 vilages, 16 fall within Bagalkot Tehsil and 9 under

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Rapid – EIA Study Executive Summary

Badami Tehsil. The total population in these 25 villages is 49,998.The distribution of


population is as under
Population SC ST
Male Female Total Male Female Male Female
24,999 24,999 49,998 2,864 3,003 2,549 2,546
44.58% of total population is literate. Out of these 63.83% are male literate and only
36.17% are female literate. The composition of SC and ST in the study area is 11.7%
and 10.2% respectively. 22% of the total populations are total main other workers,
23% of total main cultivators, 23% of total main agriculture laboures, 3% of
household industries workers and Marginal workers are 29%.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Air quality
The mining operation being open-cast, the dust generation due to excavation of land,
movement of machinery on unpaved surfaces, blasting & handling of rejects, sub-
grade ore & products is common. The impacts on air are mainly due to generation of
dust during loading, unloading and transportation of Limestone and some emissions
from the transporting trucks. The air pollutants are SPM/SO2/NOx emissions from the
activity. The overall scenario after increase in production is given below.
Overall Scenario
Worst
Predicted Total
Station Direction background Standards
max. GLC Concentration
concentration
μg/m3 μg/m3 μg/m3 μg/m3
Core Zone
17.204 W 168.2 185.404 500
(100 m)
Buffer Zone
9.779 W 160.95 170.729 200
(500 m)
Buffer Zone
6.898 W 153.7 160.598 200
(1000 m)

Water resources
No change in drainage pattern will take place due to mining. Ghataprabha river is
situated towards Northern side of the mine. One major nullah which flows during
rainy season only. Since it is open cast mining the quarry pit will receive
accumulation of rain water as direct precipitation. The water table in the area rest at
60 m below the ground level. Therefore the water table will not be cut and no loss of
ground water. Therefore, no adverse impact on ground water regime is expected.
Water quality
There is no discharge of effluent from the mine. Sewage generated from labour
colony and office will be very less and this will be treated in septic tank. Treated
sewage will be discharged in soak pit. Ground water level at the site and its
surrounding area is 60 m below the ground level. The likely chances of the

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contaminants reaching the ground water are very rare. Hence, no deterioration of
ground water or surface water is anticipated.
Land degradation
It is envisaged that about 30 ha area will be disturbed by mining activity during entire
life.
Flora and Fauna
The core zone is agricultural land. The land acquired will need due compensation to
owners as mitigation measure. The impact on flora and vegetation will be mitigated
through a detailed afforestation plan. The fauna found in the area are of common
variety and no endangered or threatened species are reported in the study area.
Noise level, traffic
The application of drilling, blasting, haulage/transportation, crushing is expected to
raise noise level in ML area. The observed noise level will be well within the
prescribed limits for surrounding population due to control measures proposed in
management plan.
The 0.250 million tonnes per annum limestone production per year will contribute to
the traffic density by adding about (84 loaded and 84 empty). 168 trucks, which is a
marginal increase and will warrant control measures as spelt out in management plan.
Socio-economic conditions
The project will provide more direct and indirect job opportunities and better
economic standard to the project affected people and others, through improved
infrastructural, community facilities, etc.
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN.
In order to mitigate the environmental impact due to mining and its allied activities, a
comprehensive environmental management plan (EMP) has been formulated. The
management has already initiated the following steps to contain pollution and the
same shall be continued vigorously in future also. All likely parameters that will be
affected by mining have been addressed and these are briefly mentioned in the
following paragraphs.
Land degradation control measures
The mining and associated operations will disturb about 30 ha. of area which is about
46.62% of the lease hold area at the end of life of mine. It is proposed to convert most
of the land as water ponds and remaining land for plantation out of the void left after
the completion of excavation, since it is not possible to back-fill the area. This top soil
will be utilized for agriculture purposes, by adjacent pattaland owners and remaining
soil will be stacked in stock yard. Waste generation during course of mine will 2.36
million tonnes. Overburden will be stacked in dump yard located away from the
workings. Waste dump will be protected by way of construction of retention wall all
along the toe of the dump to prevent wash offs during rainy seasons.

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Air pollution control measures


• Dust extraction systems to be used in drill machines; and
• Use of sharp drill bits for drilling holes and drills with water flushing
systems (wet drilling) to reduce dust generation.
• Dense plantation of specific more efficient dust collector species
• OB waste dumps, if any, shall be sprayed with water, as they are the major
source of air borne particulate matter/dust.
• Trucks will be covered with tarpaulin and over filling of tippers will be
strictly avoided
• Maintenance of haulage road on regular basis
• Regular water spraying on haulage roads during transportation of
Limestone and waste by water sprinklers;
• Water sprinkling system to be provided to check any fugitive emissions
from the crushing operation.
• Installation of a dust collector at crusher
Control measures for water pollution
• To prevent surface water contamination by oil/grease, leak proof
containers shall be used for storage and transportation of oil/grease.
• During dewatering operations, the water pumped out will be used for
fulfilling the needs of mine and plant related activities
• During excavation and drilling activities effort must be taken to avoid face
collapse at these cracks and fissures.
• Construction of retaining wall to avoid sliding of loose material from
dumps
Noise Control Measures
• Innovative approaches of using improvised plant and machinery designs,
with in-built mechanism to reduce sound emissions like improved
silencers, mufflers and closed noise generating parts;
• Confining the equipment with heavy noise emissions in soundproof cabins,
so that noise is not transmitted to other areas;
• Regular and proper maintenance of noise generating machinery;
• Blasting operations to be carried out only during daytime so as to avoid
high noise intensity in night time;

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• Thick green belt should be provided at the mine periphery, within the mine
lease area along the roads and all around the working areas, to screen the
noise
Ground Vibration
• Use of milli-second detonators,
• Good blasting design,
• Lesser quantity of charge per delay,
• Less frequency of blasting.
Measures to improve socio economic condition
People affected by the project will be paid due to compensation. Land a effected
person of the area will be provided with direct or indirect employment.
Communication, education facilities, health facilities and recreational facilities will be
improved due to mining activity.
Environmental matrix
The modified Leopold matrix was applied to evaluate the impact before adopting
control measures and after adopting control measures. It is observed that the total
score which was originally –453.3 (without mitigative measures) has improved to
–138.406(with mitigative measures). The negative score of 453.3 at pre-mitigative
stage indicates significant adverse and reversible impacts that can be managed by
adopting appropriate pollution control measures (-138.406).
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING ORGANIZATION
An appropriate team has been proposed to take care of pollution monitoring aspects
and implementation of control measures. A schedule has been spelt out for periodical
monitoring. The capital investment on environmental improvement works is
envisaged as Rs. 41.55 Lakhs and recurring expenditure is Rs. 8.31 Lakhs per year.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN
• Entry of unauthorised persons shall be prohibited;
• Fire fighting and first aid provisions in the mines office complex and
mining Area;
• Provision of all the safety appliances such as safety boots, helmets,
goggles etc. would be made available to the employees and regular check
to ensure the use;
• Training and refresher courses for all the employees working in the
hazardous premises;
• Working of mine as per approved plan, related amendments and other
regulatory provisions;

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• Handling of explosives, charging and blasting shall be carried out by


competent persons only;
• Provision of magazine at safe place with fencing and necessary security
arrangement;
• Awareness of safety and disaster through competitions, posters and other
similar drives;
CONCLUSION
Based on the EIA study it is observed that there will be a marginal increase in the dust
pollution, which will be controlled by sprinkling of water and transportation of ore in
closed trucks.
There will be insignificant impact on ambient environment and ecology due to the
mining activities. On the other hand mining operation will lead to direct and indirect
employment generation in the area.
Hence, it can be summarized that the development of Chikkashellikeri limestone
Mines of M/s Mysore Minerals Limited at Chikkashellikeri village, will have a
positive impact on the socio-economic of the area and lead to sustainable
development of the region.

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Rapid – EIA Study Introduction

CHAPTER 1
1.1 PREAMBLE
M/s Mysore Minerals Limited is a Government of Karnataka undertaking
established in the year 1966 with main objective of systematic mining and
planned development of mineral resources in the State. The main activities of
the company are Exploration, Development of Mineral Resources, Extraction
and Marketing of Minerals and granite.
Government of Karnataka has been granted mining lease over an area of 64.35
ha. Under ML No 1593 at Chikkashellikeri Village, Bagalkote Taluk,
Bagalkote District, Karnataka State for a period of 20 years with effect from
26-04-1999 which expired on 25.04.2019. The copy of notification is enclosed
as Annexure I
The Chikkashellikeri limestone mining lease is not attract forest clearance as
the entire area is patta land. The existing production is only 0.120 million
tonnes per annum with open cast mining method. In views of great demand for
limestone minerals, commitments are made for long term supply to local
industries and decided to increase the production from 0.120 million tonnes
per annum to 0.250 million tonnes per annum. The mining plan required under
rule 10(2) of MCDR 1988 has been got approved by IBM GOI vide letter No.
MSH/MAN - 86 (KNT)/GOA/2003-04 Vol. I dated 10/04/2007 for a period of
5 years and its copy is enclosed as Annexure II

1.2 NEED FOR PROJECT


The site is situated in the backward area of the state. This project would
increase the capita income, life style, local employment, socio-economic
aspects, revenue generations to the government as well as company and
industrial development in the state.

1.3 NEED FOR REIA/EMP


In order to increase the production from 0.120 million tonnes per annum to
0.250 million tonnes per annum the size of mining activities needs to be
modernized, required additional infrastructure etc. As per EIA notification
dated 14 Sept. 2006, increase in the production or modernization required
environmental clearance under EPA 1986. Therefore this proposal Category A
1(a), (> 50 ha of mining lease area) of the Environmental Impact Assessment
Notification dated 14 Sept. 2006
The purpose of this Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study is to
provide information on the surroundings and the extent of environmental

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impacts likely to arise on account of the increase in mining activity, and also
to define an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to minimise and mitigate
the likely adverse environmental impacts.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE EIA STUDY

The objective of the EIA study is:


• Environmental monitoring so as to establish the baseline environmental
status of the study area.
• Collection of available secondary data from concerned department.
• Identify various existing pollution loads due to industrial and domestic
activities.
• Prediction of impacts on environmental attributes.
• Evaluate the predicted impacts on the various environmental attributes in
the study area by using scientifically developed and widely accepted
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Methodologies.
• Preparation an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) outlining the
measures for improving the environmental quality.

1.4 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY


Keeping in view the nature of activities, area of mines and various
environmental guidelines, an area covering a radial aerial distance of 10 km
from the centre of the mining area was selected as study area for the purpose
of EIA study. To establish baseline status of air, water, noise, land, biological
and socio-economic environment in the study area, extensive field studies
were undertaken. The various steps involved in the study for a particular
project are divided into three following phases.
• Identification of significant environmental parameters and assessing
the status within the study area
• Prediction of Impacts envisaged due to proposed scheme on various
environmental parameters
• Evaluation of impacts after superimposing the predicted scenario over
the baseline scenario to preparation of Environmental Management
Plan
The approach to data collection is outlined in Table 1.1
Impact of various project activities on the baseline environmental quality was
predicted to identify areas of concern.
Measures for mitigation of adverse impacts were identified and Environmental
Management Plan incorporating these measures was developed.

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Table 1.1: Survey of Environmental Attributes

Sr. Attribute Parameters No. of Locations, Frequency of Monitoring,


No. etc.
1 Ambient air SPM, RPM, SO2, NOx Locations: 6 nos.
quality and CO SPM, RPM, SO2 and NOx - One 24 hourly
sample CO - Three 8 hourly samples, Twice a
week
2 Meteorology Wind speed and direction, Primary data: at Bagalkote town.
temperature relative Secondary data collection from IMD.
humidity and rainfall.
3 Water quality Physical, Chemical and Primary data – Sampling at 2 locations for
Bacteriological surface and at 5 locations for ground water
parameters. quality.
4 Ecology Existing terrestrial and Based on the data collected from secondary
aquatic flora and fauna. sources.
6 Noise levels Noise levels in dB(A) Continuous 24-hourly monitoring at 6
locations during the study period
7 Land use Land use for different Based on data published in Primary Census
categories. abstract 2001 and satellite imagery
8 Socio-economic Socio-economic Based on data collected from secondary
aspects characteristics of local sources.
population
9 Geology Geology of the area Based on data collected from secondary
sources.
10 Hydrology Drainage pattern, nature Based on data collected from secondary
of streams, aquifer sources.
characteristics recharge
and discharge areas.

1.5 STRUCTURE OF EIA REPORT


The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report contains baseline data,
assessment of likely impacts, preparation of environmental management plan
& the disaster management plan. The report is organised in following six
chapters:
Chapter 1 Introduction
This chapter describes objectives and methodology for EIA.
Chapter2 Project Description
This chapter gives a brief description of the location,
approachability, and details of mining activities, equipments
and machinery.
Chapter 3 Baseline Environmental Status of Project Area
This chapter presents details of the baseline environmental
status of all environmental attributes i.e. micro climate
condition, air quality, noise, traffic, water quality, soil quality,
flora, fauna and socio-economic status etc.

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Chapter 4 Impact Identification


This chapter discusses the potential impacts of the proposed
mining and allied activities, which could cause significant
environmental concerns, are identified and discussed. This
discussion will form the basis for environmental management
activities.
Chapter 5 Impacts Evaluation
This chapter discusses environmental impacts due to the
proposed limestone mining activities have been quantified
under two scenarios (1) without environmental management
plan , and (2) with the environmental management plan using
modified Leopold Impact Matrix to establish cause-effect
relationship.
Chapter 6 Environment Management Plan
This chapter deals with the Environmental Management Plan
(EMP) for the proposed expansion of mining activities,
indicates measures proposed to minimize the likely impacts on
the environment. It also describes the proposed environmental
monitoring programme.
Chapter 7 Disasters Management Plan
This chapter deals with the Disasters Management Plan (DMP)
for the proposed expansion of mining activities, indicates
measures proposed to minimize the manmade and natural
disasters.

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Rapid – EIA Study Project Description

CHAPTER 2
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
2.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents the salient features of the project viz. location, process
and details of operation, infrastructure and environmental resource
requirement.

2.2 PROJECT LOCATION


“Chikkashellikere Limestone Mine” of M/s Mysore Minerals Limited over an
area of 64.35 ha under M.L. No. 2494 is located at Chikkashellikeri Village in
Bagalkote Taluka, Bagalkote District, Karnataka.
Table 2.1: Site Details
District & State Bagalkote District, Karnataka
Taluka Bagalkote
Village Chikkashellikeri village
Mine Lease Area 64.35 ha
Type of the Area Patta Land
Survey of India Toposheet No 47 P/12
Latitude 16°8’00”N to 16°09’11”N
Longitude 75°31’11”E to 75°35’55”E

2.3 ACCESSIBILITY
Chikkashellikeri Limestone Mines is situated at 25 km south west of Bagalkot
town in Bagalkot Taluk of Bagalkot District in Karnataka State.
The mining lease area is accessible by Kerkalmatti - Kaladgi road. The
nearest railway station is at Bagalkot, about 25 km away from the mine area.
The nearest airport is at Belgaum, about 120 km away from mining lease area.
The nearest state highway is about 5 km away from site. The general ground
level varies from 521 to 548 meter above MSL.
The location map indicating the project site and Layout Plan/Surface Plan of
mine area are depicted in Figure 2.1 and 2.2 respectively
The photographs of mines and its surroundings is given in Annexure III

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Rapid – EIA Study Project Description

Figure 2.1: Location Map

Karnataka Map

District Map

PROJECT SITE

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Rapid – EIA Study Project Description

Figure 2.2: Mine Layout Plan/Surface Plan

540.630
539
PIT NO. 3

542.128
533.078
542

B. M. 0

PIT NO. 2
MRY
533.640 545

OFFICE
541.128 STORE

AGL
MSY

BORE HOLE
MSY
0

PDY
.45

BORE HOLE
543

TSPY
AGL

528.888

TO V
ILLA
GE

PIT NO. 1
548

526.298
545

533.000 542

539 537.338
.288

HOUSE TO VILLAGE

AGL AGL
535.920

SE
AS
539 ON
AL
NU
LL
AH

542

LEGEND
CONTOUR PLAN 545
AGL

CONCEPTIUAL PIT PLAN

ROADS 548

DUMPS

M. L. BOUNDARY

NULLAH

AGL AGRICULTURE LANDS

RETENTION WALL
Client Name: M/S. MYSORE MINERALS LIMITED.
ELECTRICITY LINE Name of Mine: Chikkashellikeri Limestone Mines
Sheet Title: Surface Plan
PROPOSED DUMPS
Plate No: Scale:
AFFORESTATION Consultant Name: NETEL (INDIA) LTD.
Scale: S. V. Road., Manpada
0 20 40 60 80 100m
Thane (W) - 400 607

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Rapid – EIA Study Project Description

2.4 APPROVALS ACCORDED


Chikkashellikeri Limestone mines does not fall in designated forestland
therefore, forest clearance is not a part of the approval.
The other approvals accorded to Mysore Minerals Ltd. include the following:
• Grant of Mining Lease vide letter no. DMG/MLS/14AML 98/RML –
1593/813 dated 21-04-2004 with effect from 26.04.1999
• Approval of mining scheme by Indian Bureau of Mines, Goa vide
Letter No.MSH/MAN-86(KNT)/GOA/2003-2004 Vol. I dated
10/04/2007

2.5 PROJECT COST


The total cost of the project which includes development cost, Production cost,
Crushing Plant and equipments and all other infrastructure facilities of the
present and proposed expansion works out to be Rs. 70 lakh and 150 lakh
respectively.

2.6 PHYSIOGRAPHY
The mining lease area lies between longitude 750-31’-11” to 750-35’-55” and
160-08’-00” to 160-09’-11 covered under survey of India toposheet no.
47/P/12. The area is generally devoid of vegetation. The land is almost plain
and cultivated. The general contour height observed in the lease area ranges
from 521 to 548 m above MSL. One seasonal nullah which flows in rainy
season cuts the lease area in two halves from South East corner to North West
corner. This nullah flows in North West direction. The average rainfall in the
area is around 400 to 500 mm annually. The maximum temperature attained in
the area is around 380 to 400 during summer.

2.7 GEOLOGY AND RSERVES


The mine area falls in Survey of India Topo Sheet No. 47/P/12. The lease area
forms a part of Kaladgi basin sedimentary formation of “Precambrain Era”.
The following geological stratigraphic sequence is identified for this region.
Geological Age Formation Lithology
Recent Precambrain ---- Black cotton soil
Precambrain Kaladgi Group Limestone Shale
Unconformity ----
Archean Granitic Gneises ----
The following geological formations/ exposures are observed in the lease area.
1 Thinly bedded, Soil /Black Cotton Soil
2 Shale

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3 Dolomitic Limestone
4 Gray Limestone
2.7.1 Black Cotton Soil
The area is mainly covered by back soil of varying thickness (1 m to 2 m). The
contact between dolomite and high calcium limestone is well exposed. The
general strike of the formation is N 750 W to 750E and dipping 450 to 500 south
observed in the lease area.
2.7.2 Shale
The Shale are exposed in the Northern and Eastern end of the lease area. It
exhibits marine and gray to purple colour, compact less laminated and slaty.
These shale bands are exposed over a distance of 150 m to 120 m. with an
average width of 80 m.
2.7.3 Dolomitic limestone
Prominent exposures of dolomitic limestone are observed to the Eastern side
of the lease area under laying the thin layer of black cotton soil it is traversed
by a number of silica veins these are striking almost parallel to the limestone
deposit and dipping 450 to 600 South at different places. Dolomites are fine to
medium grained and white to gray in color it is comparatively hard.
2.7.4 High Calcium Limestone (Grey Limestone)
The Limestone bands are well exposed in the eastern and western part of the
lease area. These are intercalated with thin ribbon of shale and dolomite. Thin
Veins of Calcite are noticed at one or two locations in the exposed bands. The
High Calcium limestone presents a weathered surface as a smooth appearance
with small potholes which is very characteristic.
2.7.5 Reserves
Based on the exploration carried out, exposed ore body and other available
information, the geological reserves estimated by standard cross sectional
method the details are given in Table 2.2
Table 2.2: Geological Reserves
Sr. No. Reserves Type Insitu Reserves Mineable
Reserve in Tones
1 Proved 2,57,48,650 2,18,86,360
2 Probable 1,29,78,600 1,10,31,810
3 Total 3,87,27,250 3,29,18,170

The geological map of mining site is given in Figure 2.3

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Rapid – EIA Study Project Description

Figure 2.3: Geological Map of Mining Area

540.630
539
PIT NO. 3

533.078 542.128
542
B. M.
0

PIT NO. 2
533.640 545

D. H. 1 OFFICE
541.128 STORE

AGL

BORE HOLE
0
.45

BORE HOLE
543

AGL

528.888

TO V
ILLA
GE

D. H. 2

PIT NO. 1
548
D. H. 6
526.298

545

533.000 542

539 537.338
.288

HOUSE TO VILLAGE

AGL AGL
535.920

SE
AS
539 ON
AL
NU
LL
AH

542

545
AGL

LEGEND 548

CONTOUR PLAN
CONCEPTIUAL PIT PLAN

ROADS

HIGH CALCIUM LIMESTONE

DOLOMITE LIMETONE

M. L. BOUNDARY
Client Name: M/S. MYSORE MINERALS LIMITED.
SHALE Name of Mine: Chikkashellikeri Limestone Mines
Sheet Title: Geological Plan
NULLAH Plate No: Scale:
AGL Consultant Name: NETEL (INDIA) LTD.
AGRICULTURE LANDS Scale:
S. V. Road., Manpada
0 20 40 60 80 100m
Thane (W) - 400 607

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2.7.6 Mineralogy
The principal carbonate rocks used by industries are limestone and dolomite.
Limestone and dolomite are sedimentary or metamorphic rocks composed
mostly of the mineral calcite (CaCO3), which has the same chemical
composition as calcite but with a different crystal structure, is economically
important only in modern deposits, such as oyster shells and oolites. Aragonite
is metastable and alters to calcite in time. Some other carbonate minerals,
notably siderite (FeCO3), ankerite (Ca2MgFe(CO3)4), and magnesite (MgCO3),
are commonly found associated with limestones and dolomite.
The average chemical specification of Limestone produced in this mining area
is as follows
Sr. No. Radicals Percentage
1 CaO +40 to +48%
2 MgO 3 to 6%
3 SiO2 3.5 to 6 %
4 R2O3 0.45 to 3 %

2.8 MINING
The lease area is an operative mine with manual open cast mining method for
the production of 0.120 million tonnes per annum. Now it is proposed to carry
out mining work by semi mechanized open cast mining method with capacity
of 0.250 million tonnes per annum production. The work will start from
highest level of 448 m RL at East side and extended towards West & NW side.
The salient features of the proposed mining lease area at Chikkashellikeri are
as given in the Table 2.3
Table 2.3: Salient features of the Mine
Sr. No. Particulars Existing Details Proposed Details
Open cast mining with
1 Method of Mining Manually open cast mining
mechanization
2 Mining leased area 64.35 ha. 64.35 ha.
3 Geological reserves 38.72 million tonnes 38.72 million tonnes
Mineable
4 reserves(based on 32.92 million tonnes 32.92 million tonnes
proved reserves only)
5 Pit slope angle 60◦ to the horizontal 60◦ to the horizontal
Annual Limestone
6 0.12 million tonnes per annum 0.250 million tonnes per annum
Production
7 Life of the Mine 323 Years 155 Years
8 Bench height 3m 5m
9 Bench Width 5m 10 m
Average Quality of
10 CaO +40 to +48% CaO +40 to +48%
Limestone
MgO 3 to 6% MgO 3 to 6%

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SiO2 3.5 to 6 % SiO2 3.5 to 6 %


Al 2O3 0.45 to 3 % Al 2O3 0.45 to 3 %
11 Land lease period - 20 years (Valid up to 2019)
12 Water Requirement 27 m3/day 67 m3/day
13 Working hours One shifts 8 hour One shifts 8 hour
14 No. of employees 49 92

2.9 MINE DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION


A tentative ultimate pit has been conceptualized based on the geological
investigation done so far within the lease area. Once detailed investigations in
the probable and possible reserves areas are completed the ultimate pit limit
within the lease area will need to be modified. The mining lease is valid up to
2019. The mining scheme has been approved up to 2008 - 2009. Due to
increase in demand of Limestone ore the remaining period of 3 years i.e. from
2006-2007 to 2008 -2009 the proposal has been revised. The benches will be
formed at 5 m height and 10 m width with the slope angle of 60° to the
horizontal. The details of development and production proposed for remaining
3 years i.e. 2006-07 to 2008 – 09 is given below.
Table 2.4: Development and Production Proposals

Sr. Years
2006-07 2007-08 2008-09
No. Particulars
Development (tonnes) 4,341 5,346 5,598
2 Production (tonnes) 1,94,970 2,40,075 2,51,715

2.9.1 Stacking of Mineral rejects and Disposal of Waste


During the course of mining apart from the mineral other waste like
overburden and ore zone waste will be generated. The overburden chiefly
consists of shale bands, dolomitic limestone and ore zone waste. The
generation of waste will be 2.36 million tonnes during life of mine. The
overburden will be transported to the dump yard located away from the
workings. This site is considered to be barren as per the field investigation
carried out in the area. The area selected for dump yard is around 7.50 ha is
sufficient to accommodate the waste generated during the course of life of
mine. The height of the dumps will be maintained average 20 m. from the
ground surface taking necessary measures to maintain the dump slope at an
angle of 28° natural slope from the horizontal for proper stability, keeping a
road width of 5 m with 1 to 16 gradient. This waste dump will be protected by
way of construction of retention wall all along the toe of the dump to prevent
wash offs during rainy seasons.

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2.10 BLASTING

2.10.1 Burden, Spacing, Depth and Sub Grade Drilling


The mining method chosen is conventional drilling and blasting followed by
loading. Based on the nature of the Limestone deposit, the blast hole
parameters proposed are as follows:

Details Existing Proposed


Bench height 3m 5m
Burden 0.75 0.75
Spacing 1.20 m 1.20 m
Depth of hole 3.30 m 5.50 m
Sub grade/secondary drilling 0.30 m 0.30 m
Angle of hole 10°- 15° to vertical 10°- 15° to vertical
Primer charge for hole 2/3 of the hole depth 2/3 of the hole depth
Maximum no. of holes blasted at a
8 holes in a day 17 holes in a day
time
2.10.2 Explosives
The types of explosives used are as under
• Nitro-glycerine based (NG) gelatinous explosives. Major usage of this
class will be as boosters;
• Ammonium Nitrate fuel Oil (ANFO) mixture. ANFO will be the chief
column charge during the dry season ; and
• Slurry explosives (AN based), viz., Powergel, Acquadyne, Superdyne,
etc during monsoon season mainly.
• Ordinary detonators/Electrical Detonators
• Safety Fuse
2.10.3 Secondary Blasting
Secondary blasting is not required as the purpose will be fulfilled during
primary blasting itself.
2.10.4 Explosive Requirement and Storage
Average daily requirement of explosive requirement is envisaged as 125
kg/day as per given break-up:
Sr. No. Particulars Explosive Requirements in kg/day
1 Present 42
2 Proposed 83
3 Total 125

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Blasting accessories required are:


Sr. No. Particulars Present Proposed Total
1 Safety Fuse(m/day) 26.4 49.5 75.9
2 Denoters (No./day) 8 9 17
Presently the required explosive are brought from the B type Magazine of
Neralakere Dolomite mines Situated 25 kms from the lease area which is safe
and secured storage of explosives, having a capacity of 100 kg of gelatin 2500
m of safety fuse and 500 numbers of denoters.
2.10.5 Extent of Mechanism
The mine is already producing 0.12 million tonnes per annum of ore. For
increasing the production from 0.12 million tonnes per annum to 0.25 million
tonnes per annum, additional machinery has to be deployed. The machineries
proposed to produce 0.25 million tonnes per annum of limestone and 0.00555
tonnes per annum of ore zone waste per annum is given in Table 2.5
Table 2.5: Requirement of Mining Machineries
Sr.
Equipment Capacity Numbers of Equipments
No.
Existing Proposed Total
1 Dumpers 10 tonnes 2 4 6
2 Holman compressor 120 CFM 3 - 3
Drilling Machine
3 100 mm - 2 2
WDH
Jack hammer (Ford
4 33 mm 2 3 5
Tractor Atloscapco)
5 JCB 1 1 2
6 Water Pumps 1 1
Tractor trailer with
7 3 tonnes 5 5
hydraulic Tipping
2
(Common
8 Explosive van - 2
for group
of mines)
9 Wheel Loader 1.30 CMTR 3 - 3

2.11 MINERAL BENIFICATION


No mineral benification carried out in the mine. Only the ore removed from
the mine will be transported to the respective stock yards / destination. There
are two crushers installed in the area for crushing of minerals as per buyers
specification. The capacity of the crushers are 60 tonnes per shift.
2.11.1 Mineral Processing
It is proposed to set up a crushing unit of 100 tonnes per hour capacity within
lease area on the northern side. Raw material of upto 200 mm will be stacked
in the raw material yard near the crushers and the same will be feed through
hopper to the crusher. The crushers will crush the material to different sizes
and pass on to the screening plant where double deck screen with different

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size meshes of 0 to 10 mm, 10 to 40 mm and 40 to 80 mm through conveyor


belts which are moveable. The materials collected will be loaded to the tippers
and transported to the stack yard for stacking. A schematic diagram of the
tentative flow sheet of crusher is given below as Figure 2.4:
Figure 2.4: Schematic Diagram of the Tentative Flow Sheet of Crusher

200 mm Raw Limestone

Hopper

Feeder
Two Stage
Roller

Double Deck
Screen

Belt Conveyor

2.12 ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE REQUIREMENT


2.12.1 Water
Total water requirement has been estimated as 67 m3/day. Water will be drawn
from bore wells. Details of water requirement are presented in Table 2.6.
Table 2.6: Water Requirement for the Mining Operations
Sr. Purpose Quantity, m3/day Source
No. Present Proposed Total
Bore
1. Dust suppression, sprinkling 11 25 36
well/Tanker
2. Domestic purpose 9 3 12 Bore well
3. Afforestation 7 12 19 Bore well
Total 27 40 67

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Water Balance Chart

Source of Water:
Bore Well/Tanker
Source 67 m3/day

Consumption

Dust Suppression Domestic Green Belt Development


36 m3/day 12 m3/day 19 m3/day

Management
Septic Tank & Soak Pit

Final Discharge Zero Effluent to Environment

2.12.2 Workforce
The workforce required for mining activity comprises of engineers,
administrative, skilled and semi skilled type. At present 49 staff is working in
mining and total of 92 staff would be engaged for the mining activity. Work is
carried out in 8 hr shift with Thursday as non-working day. The details of
manpower requirement is given in Table 2.7
Table 2.7: Manpower Requirement
Sr. No. Manpower Present Proposed Total
1 Mine Manager 1 -- 1
2 Assistant Manager 1 -- 1
4 Cleark 3 -- 3
5 Mineforman 3 1 4
6 Mechanics 1 1 2
7 Supervisor 2 1 3
8 Mine Mate 2 1 3
9 Drivers/Operators 13 15 28
11 Peon 2 -- 2
12 Blaster 2 1 3
13 Workers 19 23 42
Total 49 43 92

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2.10.3 Power Requirement


The required quantity of power will be taken from Karnataka state electricity
board.
2.10.4 First Aid Station
A first aid station will be provided with all necessary medical kit. All
engineers and supervisors will be trained in first-aid treatment to take care of
any emergency. An Ambulance is also proposed for this purpose.

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Rapid – EIA Study Baseline Environmental Status

CHAPTER - 3
BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS
3.1 INTRODUCTION
Baseline data generation forms a part of the Environmental Impact
Assessment study, which helps to evaluate the predicted impacts on the
various environmental attributes in the study area by using scientifically
developed and widely accepted environmental impact assessment
methodologies. This also helps in preparing an Environmental Management
Plan (EMP) outlining the measures for improving the environmental quality
and scope of future expansions for environmentally sustainable development.
Baseline environmental study also helps to identify the critical environmental
attributes, which are required to be monitored after the implementation of
project. Baseline data on environment is important to understand region’s
existing physical, biological, cultural and social environmental characteristics.
This chapter illustrates the descriptions of the existing environmental status of
the study area with reference to the prominent environmental attributes. The
existing environmental setting is considered to be adjudge the baseline
conditions which are described with respect to climate, hydro-geological
aspects, atmospheric conditions, water quality, soil quality, vegetation pattern,
ecology, socio-economic profile, land use, etc.
The environmental monitoring for ambient air quality, water quality, soil
quality, noise level, water quality, meteorology of the study area etc. was
undertaken by Netel (India) Ltd. Thane. The present report incorporates the
data generated for a period of three months, i.e. during the period of December
2006 to February 2007 and secondary data collected from various
Government, Semi-Government and public sector organizations, as well as
from other studies available on the subject.

3.2 STUDY AREA


An area of 10 km radius (aerial distance) from the mine site is marked as the
impact zone of mining activity (as shown in Figure 3.1). As per the survey of
India toposheet no. 47/P/12, the mining lease area lies between longitude 750-
31’-11” to 750-35’-55” and 160-08’-00” to 160-09’-11”. The nearest township
is at Bagalkot and has been provided with the facilities of modern township
including post and telegraph, bank, hospital and school –colleges. The study
area is entirely rural. The study area encompasses 25 villages like Yandigeri,
Karadigudd, Ganganabudihal, Lingapur, Kaladgi, Tulasigeri, Kalasakopp,
Chickka-Shellikeri, Hire-Shellikeri etc. The nearest human settlement from the

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mining site is at village Hireshellikeri, which is located at 0.5 km away from


the Mining lease site in east direction.
Figure 3.1: Study Area within 10 km Radius from Project Site

3.3 METEOROLOGY
Meteorological factors such as wind speed, direction variation in temperature,
humidity etc. play a direct role in dispersion and dilution of pollutants
atmospheric pressure, rainfall and cloud cover also govern this activity. Other
factors such as terrain and local topography also take part in atmospheric
dispersion. The study area is part of tropical climate with hot summer,
moderately cool winter and moderate monsoon during June to August.
The meteorological data recorded during the monitoring period is extremely
beneficial for precise interpretation of the baseline information as well as for
input prediction models for air quality dispersion. Historical data on

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meteorological regime of the region is also important. The year may broadly
classified into four seasons such as:
Winter season : December to February
Pre-monsoon (Summer) season : March to May
Monsoon season : June to August
Post-monsoon season : September to November

The atmospheric temperature ranges from 10.2°C to 35.2°C. The relative


humidity varies from 15 % to 81 % throughout the year with its maximum
during winter months. The rain fall is maximum during July; August average
rain fall is 560 mm per year.
3.3.1 Methodology
The methodology used for the monitoring of the metrological parameters as
per the standards norms laid down by Bureau of Indian Standards (IS: 8829).
Hourly average, maximum and minimum values of wind speed, direction,
relative humidity and temperature were recorded continuously at the
Bagalkote city. This station was in operation from December 2006 to February
2007. Also the historical data on meteorological parameters has been collected
from nearest Indian Meteorological Department, Bagalkote, which is at a
distance of 25 km from the mine site. The same data is used as they will have
similar climatological conditions as that of project area.
3.3.2 Analysis of Meteorological Data recorded at the Project Site
Temperature
It was observed that the temperature ranged from 10.2 °C to 35.2 °C. The
maximum temperature of 35.2 °C recorded in the month of February and
minimum temperature of 10.2 °C was observed to be in the month of
December .The monthly variations in the temperature are presented in Table
3.1. The yearly variation of temperature for the last 15 years is given in
Annexure IV A and during study period is shown in Annexure IV D1-D3
Relative Humidity
During the monitoring period of three months, the relative humidity ranges
from 15 % to 81 %. The maximum humidity (81%) was recorded in the month
of December whereas minimum humidity i.e. 15 % was observed in the month
of January. The monthly variations in the relative humidity are given in Table
3.1. The yearly variation of humidity for the last 15 years is given in
Annexure IV B and during study period is shown in Annexure IV D1-D3

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Table 3.1: Meteorological Data monitored at the Project Site


Temperature (OC) Relative Humidity (%)
Month
Max Min Avg. Max Min Avg.
December 32.8 10.2 21.2 81 26 48
January 33.2 11.4 21.4 74 15 47
February 35.2 12.5 23.2 71 16 40

Rain Fall
The annual and monthly variation of the rainfall recorded for the past 15 years
is given in the Annexure IV- C
Wind Speed and Direction
Winds are light to moderate throughout the study period. The month-wise and
season-wise pattern is discussed below. The monthly and seasonal wind roses
are presented in Figure 3.2 to 3.5.
Wind pattern during December 06
A review of the wind pattern shows that predominant winds are mostly from
East and followed by North and NNE as shown in Figure 3.2. Wind speed
observed during the whole month of December was 0.94 m/s whereas calm
winds are found to be 14.40%
Wind pattern during January 07
Wind pattern for the month of January shows that predominant winds are from
East and NNE direction (Figure 3.3). Wind speed and calm winds observed to
be 1.10 m/s and 10.35% respectively.
Wind pattern during February 07
Wind pattern for the month of February, shows that the predominant winds are
mostly from East direction (Figure 3.4). Wind speed and calm winds observed
to be 1.19m/s and 7.34% respectively.
Wind pattern during the Study Period (December 06 to February 07)
Predominant wind found to be from the direction of East as shown in Figure
3.5. Wind speed observed to be 1.07 m/s where as calm condition are found to
be 10.75 %

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Figure 3.2 : Windrose for the Month of December 2006

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Figure 3.3 : Windrose for the Month of January 2007

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Figure 3.4 : Windrose for the Month of February 2007

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Rapid – EIA Study Baseline Environmental Status

Figure 3.5 : Windrose for the Month of December 2006 to February 2007

3.4 AIR ENVIRONMENT


The baseline studies on air environment include identification of specific air
pollution parameters and their existing levels in ambient air. The ambient air
quality with respect to the study zone of 10 km radius around the proposed site
forms the baseline information. The sources of air pollution in the region are
mostly due to vehicular traffic, dust arising from unpaved village road and
domestic fuel burning. The prime objective of the baseline air quality study
was to establish the exiting ambient air quality of the study area. These will
also be useful for assessing the conformity to standards of the ambient air
quality during the operation of proposed mine. This section describes the

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identification of sampling locations, methodology adopted during the


monitoring period and sampling frequency. The results of monitoring during
the study period (December 2006 to February 2007) representing the winter
season.
3.4.1 Methodology adopted and Selection of sampling locations
The baseline status of ambient air quality has been established through a
scientifically design ambient air quality monitoring network and is based on
the considerations such as:
• Meteorological conditions at the site,
• Topography of the study area,
• Representative of the regional background air quality for obtaining
baseline status, and
• Representative of the likely impact area
The ambient air quality monitoring Stations (AAQM) were setup at six
locations with due consideration to the above-mentioned points and as per the
Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF), Government of India (GoI)
guidelines of AAQM. The location of the selected stations with reference to
the proposed mine is given in Table 3.2. The locations of ambient air & noise
quality monitoring and are shown in Figure 3.6.

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Figure 3.6: Locations of Ambient Air & Noise Quality Monitoring Stations

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Table 3.2: Details of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations

Distance
Locati Directio
w.r.t.
on Name of Stations n w.r.t. Remarks
site in
Code site
km
To assess the air quality at the
A1 Core Zone 0.0 - site which represents mining
area
To assess the air quality in
A2 HireChikkshellikeri 0.5 E upwind direction and represents
rural conditions
To assess the air quality in
A3 Tulasigeri village 6 NE upwind direction and represents
rural conditions
To assess the air quality in
A4 Chekkashellikeri 1 W downwind direction and
represents rural conditions
To assess the air quality in
A5 Yallammana Gudda 2.5 SW down wind direction and
represents rural conditions
To assess the air quality in
A6 West direction 3.5 W
downwind direction

Frequency and parameters of the sampling

The frequency has been adopted for sampling are as follows:

• Ambient air quality monitoring has been carried out with a frequency of
two days per week at six locations for three months during study period.

• The ambient air quality parameters along with their frequency of


sampling are given in Table 3.3.

Table 3.3: Details of AAQM Parameters and Frequency of Sampling

Parameters Sampling Frequency


Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) 24 hour sample twice a week for three months
Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter 24 hour sample twice a week for three months
(RSPM)
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 8 hourly sample for 24 hours twice a week for
three months
Nitrogen Dioxide (NOX) 8 hourly sample for 24 hours twice a week for
three months
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 8 hourly sample for 24 hours twice a week for
three months
3.4.2 Details of sampling locations
• Core Zone (A1)
The locations have been selected to assess the air quality levels in the core
zone area of the mining site. As the site is an open land, therefore no

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residential buildings in the vicinity. The location was away from the village
road and did not experience any frequent vehicular movement.
• Hirechikkashellikere (A2)
Residential area and agricultural fields surrounds the location. It is free from
any obstruction. This location is representing buffer zone sampling location.
Main occupation of this village peoples were agriculture and related business.
• Tulasigeri (A3)
This location is located in residential area of Tulasigiri village which is 6 km
away from mining site in NE direction. This location is representing buffer
zone sampling location. The village is very well connected due to Bagalkot-
Belgaum highway.
• Chikkashellikeri Village (A4)
This location is located in residential area of Chikkshellikere village which is
1 km away from mining site in W. This location is representing buffer zone
sampling location. Main occupation of this village peoples were agriculture
and related business.
• Yellamman Gudda (A5)
The village is located in the SW direction and 2.5 km away from project site.
Residential area and cultivated lands are surrounding the sampling location.
• West Direction – 3.5 km from mine site(A6)
This location is located at 3.5 km from mine site in west direction on barren
land and free from any obstruction.
Micro meteorological monitoring instrument and sensors were also installed
on the top of building in Bagalkot town.
Instrument used for the sampling
Respirable dust samplers (High Volume samplers) were used for the
monitoring for Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Respirable Suspended
Particulate Matter (RSPM) and gaseous pollutants such as SO2, and NOX. For
the Carbon Monoxide (CO) gas monitoring Gas Chromatograph used for
analysis in lab and rubber balloons used for onsite sample collection.
3.4.3 Sampling and Analytical Techniques
RSPM, SPM, SO2, NOX and CO
The blower through the filter paper sucks suspended particulate matter present
in ambient air. A taping is provided on the suction side of the blower to
provide suction for sampling air through a set of impingers. Samples of gases

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are drawn at a flow rate of 1.l/m (LPM). SPM has been estimated by
gravimetric method.
Modified West and Gaeke method (IS 5182 part II, 1969) has been adopted for
the estimation of SO2 and Jacobs Hochheiser method (IS 5182 part V, 1975)
has been adopted for the estimation of NOX. Bladder and Aspirator method
(IS: 5182 Part X) used for the estimation of Carbon monoxide
(CO).Calibration charts have been prepared for gaseous pollutants. The
calibration is carried out whenever new absorbing solutions are prepared.
The methods and test protocol used for the analysis of the ambient air quality
monitoring are mentioned in Table 3.4.
Table 3.4: Methods used for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

Parameters Techniques Technical Protocol


Suspended (SPM) & Respirable
Gravimetric Method IS-5182 (Part IV)
Particulate Matter (RSPM)
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Modified West and Gaeke IS-5182 (Part II)
Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) Jacob & Hochheiser IS-5182 (Part VI)
Carbon Monoxide (CO) Bladder and Aspirator IS: 5182 (Part X)

3.4.4 Results of AAQM


Details of the results of ambient air quality monitoring during the study period
of three months i.e. from December 2006 to February 2007 are mentioned in
Annexure V. Statistical analysis of all the AAQM stations have been
computed and presented also in same Annexure. The summary of these results
for each location is depicted in Table 3.5.

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Table 3.5: Summary of the Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

Village SO2 NOx SPM RSPM CO


Parameters
(Location) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (ppm)
Core Zone Minimum 4.5 9.9 128.2 48.1 0.5
(A1) Maximum 12.4 21.0 225.3 95.6 1.9
Average 8.3 15.8 168.2 72.4 1.0
Std. Deviation 1.6 2.7 27.21 12.7 0.3
98th percentile 12.0 20.5 217.9 94.9 1.8
Hire Minimum 4.0 9.0 80.6 16.6 0.4
Shellikeri Maximum 8.2 14.1 146.6 50.0 1.2
Village Buffer
Zone (A2) Average 5.4 10.3 118.8 31.1 0.8
Std. Deviation 1.0 1.3 16.1 8.1 0.2
98th percentile 7.6 13.6 142.9 46.9 1.2
Tulasigeri Minimum 4.7 9.2 89.2 26.4 0.5
(Buffer Zone- Maximum 10.2 19.4 160.6 54.2 1.3
A3)
Average 7.3 14.5 132.6 39.2 0.8
Std. Deviation 1.5 2.7 20.0 7.2 0.2
98th percentile 10.0 19.0 159.6 52.3 1.2
Chikkashelli Minimum 5.9 16 126.4 29.6 0.69
keri Village Maximum 9.7 19.8 184.2 54.6 1.8
(Buffer Zone-
A4) Average 7.7 17.6 153.7 43.5 1.1
Std. Deviation 0.8 0.9 15.1 7.30 0.30
98th percentile 9.3 19.6 181.4 54.4 1.76
Yellamman Minimum 4.7 9.3 129.9 28.5 0.58
Gudda (A5) Maximum 11 21.7 157.6 58.6 1.68
Average 7.6 15.1 139.9 37.2 1.0
Std. Deviation 1.52 3.12 6.11 6.43 0.24
98th percentile 10.71 21.4 153.4 51.95 1.64
West Minimum 4.0 9.1 98.9 29.2 0.52
Direction – Maximum 9.0 16.6 142.2 40.2 1.54
3.5 km from
mine site Average 6.6 11.5 118.0 35.4 0.94
(Buffer Zone- Std. Deviation 1.24 2.12 11.88 2.82 0.29
A6) 98th percentile 8.96 16.18 141.4 39.81 1.49

Ambient air quality analysis results for the six monitoring locations which
were selected to represent baseline conditions of the region are given below.
Core Zone - Mining Area (A1)
The location comes under Industrial zone. The concentration of SPM ranged
from 128.2-225.3 while that of RSPM was in the range of 48.1-95.6 µg/m3,
SO2 and NOX were in the range of 4.5-12.4 and 9.9-21 µg/m3 respectively.
The CO values were observed in the range of 0.50-1.9 ppm.

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Hire Shellikeri –(Buffer Zone) (A2)


The location comes under residential zone. The concentrations of SPM and
RSPM at this location were in the range of 80.6-146.6 and 16.6-50.0 µg/m3
respectively. While the values of SO2 and NOX were observed in the range of
4.0-8.2 and 9.0-14.1 µg/m3 respectively. The CO values were observed in the
range of 0.40-1.2 ppm.
Tulasigeri Village- (Buffer Zone) (A3)
The location comes in the residential zone. Here the SPM and RSPM
concentrations were in the range of 89.2-160.6 and 26.4-54.2 µg/m3
respectively. The concentrations of SO2 and NOX were observed in the range
of 4.7-10.2 and 9.2-19.4 µg/m3 respectively. The CO values were observed in
the range of 0.5-1.3 ppm.
Chikkashellikeri Village- (Buffer Zone) (A4)
This location comes within the residential zone. The concentrations of SPM
and RSPM at this location were in the range of 126.4-184.2 and 29.6-54.6
µg/m3 respectively. While the values of SO2 and NOX were observed in the
range of 5.9-9.7 and 16.0-19.8 µg/m3 respectively. The CO values were
observed in the range of 0.69-1.8 ppm.
Yellamman Gudda – (Buffer Zone) (A5)
This location comes within the residential zone. The concentrations of SPM
and RSPM at this location were in the range of 129.9-157.6 and 28.5-58.6
µg/m3 respectively. While the values of SO2 and NOX were observed in the
range of 4.7-11.0and 9.3-21.7 µg/m3 respectively. The CO values were
observed in the range of 0.58-1.68 ppm.
West Direction (3.5 km from mine site) (Buffer Zone) (A6)
The concentrations of SPM and at this location were in the range of 98.9-
142.2 µg/m3 while that of RSPM were in the range of 29.2-40.2 µg/m3. SO2
and NOX concentrations were in the range of 4.0-9.0 and 9.1-16.6 µg/m3
respectively. The CO values were observed in the range of 0.52-1.54 ppm.
The summary of the monitoring results including minimum, maximum and
average levels along with the 98th percentile values are presented in Table 3.6.
The results obtained were compared for 24 hrs average standards for
residential areas prescribed by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards
(NAAQS). The analysis results of all the locations carried out during the study
period are presented in Annexure – V. The National Ambient Air Quality
Standards are presented in Table 3.6.

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Table 3.6: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

Concentration in Ambient Air


Sr. (µg/m3 except indicated)
Time Weighted
No Pollutant Residential,
Average Industria Sensitive
. Rural and
l Area Area
Other Areas
Sulphur Dioxide Annual Average * 80 60 15
1
(SO2) 24 Hours** 120 80 30
Oxides of Annual Average * 80 60 15
2
Nitrogen (NOx) 24 Hours** 120 80 30
Suspended Annual Average * 360 140 70
3 Particular Matter
(SPM) 24 Hours** 500 200 100
Respirable Annual Average * 120 60 50
4 Particular Matter
(RPM) 24 Hours** 150 100 75
8 Hourly
5.0 mg/m3 2.0 mg/m3 1.0 mg/m3
Carbon Average*
5
Monoxide (CO) 10.0
1 Hour Average** 4.0 mg/m3 2.0 mg/m3
mg/m3
* Annual arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year
taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval
** 24 hourly/8 hourly values should be met 98% of the time in a year.
However, 2% of the time it may exceed but not on two consecutive
days
The salient observations of the results and their compliance to the 24 hourly
average NAAQ standards are as follows:

• The maximum concentration of SPM observed was 225.3 µg/m3 near core
zone. At all the monitoring stations average concentrations of SPM and
RSPM values are well below the given permissible limits. The peak RSPM
value of 95.6 µg/m3 was also observed near core zone.

• The Sulphur Dioxide levels monitored at all the locations confirms to the
standards of 80 µg/m3, with highest value of 12.4 µg/m3 observed Mining
site Core Zone.

• The Oxides of Nitrogen levels monitored at all the locations also complies
with the stipulated standards of 80 µg/m3.

• The Carbon Monoxide levels also complied with the stipulated standards
of 2.0 mg/m3, The CO levels at all the locations were within the stipulated
limit.

3.5 NOISE ENVIRONMENT


The noise levels measurements were carried out using precision noise level
meter. The noise level survey was carried out at six locations, located within

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the 10 km radius of the proposed project site. The major source of noise
identified in the study area has been predominantly the vehicular movement,
construction activities and the mining activities.
3.5.1 Selection of Locations for Monitoring
Noise monitoring has been undertaken for the duration of 24 hrs at each
location to cover up all the periods of the day to establish the baseline noise
levels and assess the impact of the total noise generated by the operation of the
proposed project. The environment setting of each noise monitoring location is
given in Table 3.7 and depicted in Figure 3.6
Table 3.7: Details of Noise Monitoring Locations

Location Monitoring Distance from Direction w.r.t.


Criteria
Code Location Site (km) Site
N1 Core Zone 0 -- Industrial
N2 Hire shellikeri 0.5 E Residential
On Hire
N3 Chikkashellikere – 2.5 NW Other
Kaladgi Road
N4 Chikkashellikeri 1 W Residential
N5 Nir Buddihal 3 S Residential
N6 Yandigeri 4.5 SW Other

Instrument Used for Monitoring


Sound pressure level (SPL) measurements were automatically recorded with
the help of an Integrated Sound Level Meter to give the equivalent noise level
for every hour continuously for 24 hours in a day
3.5.2 Results
The details of noise level monitoring results are given in the Annexure VI.
Equivalent noise levels viz., Lday and Lnight, at the noise monitoring locations
are provided in Table 3.8 while noise standards are given in Table 3.9.
Table 3.8: Noise Monitoring Results in the Study area

Day Time Night Time


Location
Leq dB(A) Limit dB(A) Leq dB(A) Limit dB(A)
Core Zone 64.6 75 44.0 70
Hire Shellikeri 54.2 55 44.1 45
Tulasigeri 54.0 55 43.6 45
Chikkashellikeri 52.8 55 43.2 45
Nir Buddihal 54.8 55 43.7 45
Yandigeri 54.5 55 43.9 45

From the monitoring survey of noise levels it was observed that the day time
noise levels were observed in the range of 52.8- 64.6 dB(A). The day time
noise shows the values confirming to the standards. Due to Mining, drilling,

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blasting and movement of vehicles like activities at the Project site the noise
level was higher than other locations. The night time noise levels observed at
all the 6 locations were found to be in the range of 43.2 – 44.1 dB(A), which
are found to be within the night time standards prescribed for residential and
industrial zone.
Table 3.9: Ambient Noise Quality Standards

Limits in dB(A) Leq*


Category of Area/Zone
Day Time Night Time
Industrial area 75 70
Commercial area 65 55
Residential area 55 45
Silence Zone 50 40
Day time shall mean from 6.00 a.m. to 10.00 p.m.
Night time shall mean from 10.00 p.m. to 6.00 a.m.
9 Silence zone is defined as an area comprising not less than 100 meters around
hospitals, educational institutions and courts. The silence zones are zones,
which are declared as such by the competent authority.
9 Mixed categories of areas may be declared as one of the four above-mentioned
categories by the competent authority.

3.6 WATER ENVIRONMENT


Water quality of surface and ground water resources in core and buffer zone of
the study area has been studied for assessing the water environment.
Understanding of the water quality is essential in preparation of environmental
impact assessment and to identify critical issues with a view to suggest
appropriate mitigation measures for implementation.
The purpose of this study is to:
• Assess the water characteristics for critical parameters;
• Evaluate the impacts on agricultural productivity, habitat conditions,
recreational resources and aesthetics in the vicinity; and
• Prediction of impact on water quality by this project and related
activities.
The quality and quantity of ground water differ over area, as these depend on
the physical and chemical parameters and also on topographical and hydro
geological characteristics of the area.
3.6.1 Methodology
Reconnaissance survey was undertaken and monitoring locations were
finalized based on:
• Drainage pattern;

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• Likely areas, which can represent baseline conditions


Ground water samples were examined for physico-chemical and
bacteriological parameters in order to assess the effect of mining and other
activities on surface and groundwater. The samples were collected and
analyzed as per the procedures specified in ‘Standard Method for the
Examination of Water and Wastewater’ published by American Public Health
Association (APHA).
Samples for chemical analysis were collected in polyethylene carboys.
Samples for bacteriological analysis were collected in sterilized glass bottles.
Selected physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters have been analyzed
for projecting the existing water quality status in the study area. Parameters
like Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and pH were analyzed at the time
of sample collection.
3.6.2 Ground Water Sampling Locations
Ground Water samples were collected from 5 bore wells, which are commonly
used for drinking purposes. These samples were taken as grab samples and
were analyzed for various parameters and compared with the standards for
drinking water as for IS: 10500. The water sampling locations are listed below
in Table 3.10. The map showing water sampling locations in study area is
depicted in Figure 3.7

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Figure 3.7: Locations of Water Quality Monitoring Stations

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Table 3.10: Details of Ground Water Sampling Locations

Sr.
Locations Description
No.
1. GW – 1 Sample was collected from the Bore well at the Core Zone
2 GW – 2 Sample was collected from the Bore well at the Hire shellikeri village
3 GW – 3 Sample was collected from the Bore well at the Tulasigeri village
4 GW – 4 Sample was collected from the Bore well at the Chikkashellikeri village
5 GW – 5 Sample was collected from the Bore well at the Yandigeri Village

3.6.3 Results of Ground Water Samples


The results of the ground water samples collected at five different sites are
given in Annexure VII. The results for the ground water samples collected
with the study area and compared with standard limits as this well water is
used for drinking purposes as well as other recreational purposes. The data
presented in Annexure is the average of three samples, collected per month at
each location.
As per IS 10500 standards the pH value are within the limits and varies from
7.2 to 7.3. Total dissolved solids were found between 118.2 to 490.4 mg/l and
higher value of TDS in the sample collected at village as compared to other
samples. Calcium and Magnesium are observed to be in the range of 11.81 to
96.71 mg/l and 12.98 to 74.06 mg/l respectively.
The Fluoride parameter analysis results were slightly more and it was revealed
that the parameters like Phenolic Compounds, Mercury, Barium, Cadmium,
Selenium, Salinity, Oil-Grease, Zinc, Nitrate, Chlorides, Copper, Iron values
of the various locations are within the prescribed limits. Dissolved oxygen of
this site samples were found between the ranges of 3.7 to 4 mg/l and it was
good for utilization purpose. MPN values are found between the range of 2-9
No./ml in the collected samples.
3.6.4 Surface Water
There is no perennial surface water resource near the lease area. It is drained
through seasonal contour drains. One seasonal nullah which flows in rainy
season cuts the lease area in two halves from South East corner to North West
corner. This nullah flows in North West direction. The mining area forms a
part of the drainage system of the Ghataprabha river situated towards North –
West of the mine. Yandigeri lake and Ghatprabha river are the sources of
surface water sources in the study area
3.6.5 Surface Water Sampling Locations
Surface Water samples were collected at two locations within the study zone
these sample were taken as grab samples and were analyzed for various

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parameters and compared with the standards IS: 10500. Details of surface
water sampling locations are mentioned in Figure 3.7 and Table 3.11
Table 3.11: Details of Surface Water Sampling Locations

Sr.No. Locations Description


1. SW1 Sample was collected from Yandigeri village
2 SW2 Sample was collected from Ghatprabha River at Kaladgi Village

3.6.6 Results of Surface Water Samples


The results for the surface water samples collected within the study area of 10
km radius and are compared with standard limits of IS: 2490. The data
presented in Annexure VII-A, it is the average of three samples collected per
month at each location.
The pH was found to be ranges between 7.5 - 7.6, Dissolved solids were132 -
356 mg/l, Calcium and Magnesium are found to be ranges between 22.2 –
42.03 mg/l, and 10.1 – 25.96 mg/l, respectively. Total hardness values are
observed to be high in the sample of Kaladgi village which was 211.8 mg/l.
MPN value was more than standard prescribed limits and Dissolved oxygen in
these samples was 4.6 mg /l. All the remaining parameters including trace
elements were within the limits or below detectable limits. This site surface
water is not utilized for drinking or domestic purpose.

3.7 LAND ENVIRONMENT


The term soil refers to the loose materials composed of weathered rock and
other minerals and also partly decayed organic matter that covers large parts of
the earth’s surface. Soil is an essential component of the terrestrial ecosystem.
Soil also acts as a medium of transport of various dissolved materials to the
underlying ground water. Hence the impact of the proposed activities on soil
needs to be understood for proper mitigation measure wherever required.
Soil formation is influenced mainly by climate, geology, relief and other biotic
interactions. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people in the study area.
Hence it is essential to identify the impacts in the study area on the soil
characteristics, which would affect the agricultural and afforestation potential.
Five locations as described in Table 3.12 were selected for soil sampling
within the study area of 10 km. At each location, soil samples were collected
at a depth of 30 cm. Samples were then packed in a polythene plastic bag and
sealed. Samples were transferred to laboratory for analysis and the results are
presented in Annexure VIII. The map showing soil sampling locations in
study area is depicted in Figure 3.8

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Figure 3.8: Locations of Soil Monitoring Stations

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Table 3.12: Details of Soil Sampling Locations

Sr. Locations Soil type Distance w. r. t. Direction w. r. t.


No. project site project site
1. Project site Non Agriculture 0.0 --
2. Tulsigeri Agriculture 5.8 NE
3. Chikkashellikere Agriculture 2.5 W
4. Yandigiri Forest 4.0 SW
5 Hanamaneri Agriculture 7.5 W

The soil pH was observed in the range of 7.3-7.8 suggesting that the soil in
this area is normal. The majority of soil colour was red and all samples slit
loam structures. Water holding capacity of soils was seen in the range between
11.2 to 15.8 %.

Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC) assessments measure the soluble salts in the
soil. EC of soil depend upon the porosity, water content, salinity level, cation
exchange rate and temperature. The EC of soils was observed in the range of
0.066-0.221 mmhos/cm. Heavy metals are not found in soil samples.

The Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of a soil refers to the amount of


positively charged ions which can be held by soil. When dissolved in water,
the nutrients are either positively charged or negatively charged. Examples of
positively charged ions (cations) include: calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++),
potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), hydrogen (H+) and ammonium (NH4+). Soils
contain slightly excessive negative charge sites on it due to the presence of
organic matter. Thus higher the organic matter content, higher is the CEC of
the soil. The CEC analysis of the soil samples were in the range of 32.2–82.5
meq/100gm.
Good concentration of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium like elements
present in the soil is indicating good soil. The NPK of soil sample analysis
result were in the range of 0.189-0.234 mg/gm, 0.169-0.275 mg/gm and 0.28-
0.90 % respectively.
3.7.1 Mine Drainage
In general the area is having flat topography. The general ground level varies
from 521 to 548 meter above MSL. The mining area forms a part of the
drainage system of the Ghataprabha river situated towards North – West of the
mine. One Major nullah which flows during the heavy rainy season cuts the
lease area in to 2 halves from south east corner to north western corner of the
lease area and flow in North Western direction, the water from this seasonal
nullah will be discharged in to the natural water sources. Based on
observations made in the area, the water table in the area is around 60-75 m
below the ground level.

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There would be a small quantity of water accumulated in the mining pits after
heavy rains, which will be pumped out as and when, required. The pumped out
water shall be used for dust suppression, plantation as well as supply to nearby
agriculturists for irrigation. The drainage plan of study area is given in Figure
3.9
Figure 3.9: Drainage Plan of Study Area

Mining
Site

LEGEND

RIVER

STREAMS

DRY RIVER WITH WATER CHANNEL


Client Name: M/S. MYSORE MINERALS LIMITED.
PROJECT SITE
Name of Mine: Chikkshelikere Limestone Mines
PERINNIAL Sheet Title: Drainage Plan of Study Area
Plate No: Scale:
SCALE: Consultant Name: NETEL (INDIA) LTD.
S. V. Road., Manpada
0 1 2 3 4 5km
Thane (W) - 400 607

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3.8 LAND USE


3.8.1 Core Zone
The core zone is predominantly covered by black soil of varying thickness (1
m to 2 m) at places. The land is almost plain and cultivated. The major portion
of the lease area is brought under cultivation. The details of existing and
proposed land use pattern of mining lease area is given in Table 3.13
Table 3.13: Land Use Pattern of Mining Lease Area
Present Total
Sr.
Particulars Occupati Proposed for area
No
on in ha.
End of
5th 10th 15th
2006-09 Mine
year year Year
Life
1 Mining 10.25 1.60 2.00 2.00 2.00 12.15 30.00
2 Road 1.80 0.30 0.20 0.20 - 0.50 3.00
3 Dump Yard 1.90 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 4.00 7.50
4 Stock Yards 0.45 0.60 0.40 0.40 0.40 1.75 4.00
5 Afforestation 0.65 2.00 0.60 0.60 0.60 4.4 8.85
6 Structures/Colony 0.50 - 1.00 - - 0.5 2.00
7 Crushers 2.5 - 0.50 - - - 3.00
8 Area unutilised 48.80 - - - - - 6.00
9 Total 64.35 7.4 5.1 3.6 3.4 23.3 64.35

From the above table it is clear that the minimum part of the area is already
broken for various mining activities leaving maximum portion. Land use plan
is shown in the Figure 3.10
3.8.2 Buffer Zone
The abstract of land use is given in Table 3.14
Table 3.14: Landuse Pattern of Buffer Zone
Sr. No. Land Use Area in ha. %
1 Forest land 2406.46 7.66
2 Irrigated land 5233.90 16.66
3 Un-irrigated land 17941.67 57.11
4 Cultivable waste land 1212.66 3.86
5 Not available for cultivation 2629.52 8.37
6 Infrastructures (road, residence) 1991.77 6.34
Total 31416.00 100

From above table it indicates that majority of surrounding population is having


sources of income other than agriculture also. Agriculture is mainly depending
upon monsoon rain
The major crop in study area is Sunflower, Maize, Onion and Jowar. Along
with these many people grow vegetables during the winter season and summer

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seasons. Along with crop production, horticulture activity in some part also
observed in this district.
Figure 3.10: Land Use Plan of Core Zone

TO V
ILLA
GE

TO VILLAGE

SE
AS
ON
A LN
UL
LA
H

Sr. No. Land Use Area in ha.


1 Mining 30.00
2 Road 3.00
3 Dump Yard 7.50
4 Stock Yard 4.00
5 Afforestation 8.85
Client Name: M/S. MYSORE MINERALS LIMITED.
6 Structures/Colony 2.0 Name of Mine: Chikkashellikeri Limestone Mines
7 Crushers 3.0 Sheet Title: Landuse Plan
Plate No: Scale:
8 Area Unutilised 6.0 Consultant Name: NETEL (INDIA) LTD.
9 Total 64.35 S. V. Road., Manpada
Thane (W) - 400 607

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3.9 BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT


Life on Earth exists in various forms: trees, plants, grasses animals, birds,
insects and innumerable invisible species which we call as microorganisms.
All living beings and the physical environment in which they live constitute
together what we call as ecology. Biotic impact assessment or alternatively
called as ecological impact assessment is concerned with the study of the
impacts of developmental projects or plans or actions on vegetation and
wildlife, their characteristics and habitats and prediction of such effects.

Ecological impacts include all Biological elements including special natural


areas for species. Emphasis will be on fasters like extent and type of
vegetation and wildlife existence of unique natural systems such as streams,
wildlife breeding areas, forest, and wilderness areas on site and nearby it. A
natural eco system is structural and functional unit of nature. It has
components, which exist in harmony and survive by interdependence.
Ecosystem has self sustaining ability and controls the number of organisms at
any level by cybernetic rules. The effect of that is the ecosystem does not get
imbalanced.

An ecological survey of the study area was conducted, particularly with


reference to listing of species and assessment of the existing baseline
ecological conditions in the study area. The main objective of biological
survey is to collect the baseline data regarding flora and fauna in the study
area. Data has been collected through extensive survey of the area with
reference to flora and fauna. Information is also collected from different
Government Departments. Such as Social Forestry and District Forest Office,
Government of Karnataka. On the basis of onsite observations as well as forest
department records the checklist of flora and fauna was prepared.

3.9.1 Objectives for Ecological Studies


The present study was undertaken with the following objectives:

• To assess the nature and distribution of vegetation in and around the


project site (within 10 km. radius of core area / mining site);
• To assess the distribution of animal life spectra;
• To achieve the above objectives a study of the area was undertaken.
The different methods adopted were as follows:
• Compilation of secondary data with respect to the study area from
published literature and various government agencies;

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• Generation of primary data by undertaking systematic ecological


studies in the area;
• Discussion with local people so as to elicit information about local
plants, animals and their uses.
The present report gives the review of published secondary data and the results
of field study conducted.

Primary data was generated through:

• Preparing a general checklist of all plants encountered in study area.


This would indicate the biodiversity for wild and cultivated plants;
• A quadrate study was taken for woody and herbaceous flora in forest
areas (within 10 km. radius of the mining site);
• Noting impact of mining activities on flora, fauna.
3.9.2 Ecology of mining site and dumping site
As per the baseline studies of the ecology of the region it is evident that the
region is minimum quantity of natural resources Site surveys indicate that the
open cast type limestone mining activity of the past as well as continuing open
cast mining activity in the immediate surroundings has shown sown impacts
on the neighbouring environment. Overall the ecology on the site has been
impacted due to the mining activity. Amidst the socio-economic gains,
concerns about agriculture, ecology, human health seem to have taken a back
seat.
The original topography and vegetation of site is inevitably changed by
mining activity. The earlier environmental corridors have been became
fragmented. The environmental management of the dumping site is another
critical issue for mining activities. Therefore, indigenous plantations are
necessary for the regeneration and revival of the mining site towards
improving the diversity of wildlife habitat. This will require appropriate
techniques to be adopted with proper implementation and supervision by
trained experts.
3.9.3 Flora
The vegetation in the surrounding area was studied randomly to assess the
representative flora in and around the project site. The commonly observed
trees were Ala, Babul, Chinch, Umbar, Apta etc. Shrubs like Chadurang,
Lekki, Kavali, Torni etc. and Herbs like Anatmul, Nachike mullu are found in
the study area. The detail list of shrubs, herbs and trees is presented in
enclosed Annexure X.

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3.9.4 Fauna
The list of species found in the study area is given in Annexure X A.
Wild animals - It is found that 7.66 % of land area belongs to reserved forest.
Wild animals like Common Mongoose, Wild pig, Common Jackal are found
in this study region.

Reptiles –Harmless and harmful snakes are found in the study area. Both
species and individuals are numerous, and barren and rocky hills, little
frequented by man, give innumerable hiding places which favour their
existence. Some best-known species found here is Cobra, Rat snake, Russell’s
viper, etc.
Birds – In the study area 17 species of birds are observed. Many loving birds
like Baya, Bulbul, Koel, Peacock, Tailor birds etc. are found in this region.
Butterflies and insects – Varieties of butterflies and insects found here are
commonly observed species in agricultural lands and forest areas. No
endangered and rare butterfly or insect is present in the region.
Amphibians – Amphibians are found in fresh water and marshy places. Frogs,
toads are common.

3.10 DEMOGRAPHY AND SOCIO - ECONOMICS

Socio-economic impacts are integral parts of the overall environmental


impacts caused by governmental and private programmes, policies, actions
and projects. Such impacts may be beneficial in some cases or some
dimensions of socio economic setup of the country or part of it, but in others,
they may be detrimental. It should not be interpreted that all socio–economic
impacts of projects, programmes and actions will be positive or negative.
Normally, along with the positive impacts we do find several negative socio-
economic impacts with developmental projects and programs. In EIA, all such
positive and negative impacts are to be identified, quantified, or described, and
predicted for future.

The term ‘Socio-economics’ may be defined as “being of, relating to, or


involving combinations of social and economic factors. (Rau and Wooten
1985) All developmental activities are undertaken for the social well-being.
This is the focal point in all environmental impacts studies. Social values,
culture, living standard and institutions, etc are included under socio-economic
impacts.

3.10.1 Methodology Adopted for the Study


The general methodology of impact assessment that we have used to assess
socio-economic impacts associated with the project, are as follows.

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• Description of existing socio-economic or human environment in the area


of influence (baseline socio-economic set up of the proposed project area.)
• Procurement of relevant standards and criteria:
1. Review of secondary data, such as district Census data 2001 prepared
by state government, for the parameters of demography, occupational
structure of people and infrastructure facilities available within the
core and buffer zone study area.
2. Limited Socio-economic household survey through a designed
questionnaire within the study area.
3. Secondary data from the Grampanchayat.
• Assessment of socio-economic impact significance.
• Mitigation measures for adverse socio-economic impacts and the
monitoring process
3.10.2 Demographic
As per the Census data for the year 2001, the study area over a radius of 10 km
has a number of villages and the population distribution is as per the chart
given below. The study area consist two Talukas namely Bagalkot and Badami
of Bagalkot district. The summary of village-wise distribution of rural
population in the study area is shown in ANNEXURE XI-A.
The total no of male and female population indicates that the male population
is about 50% and females’ population is about 50% of the total population as
per 2001 census in the study area. Sex ratio in the study area is 1:1. Out of the
study area total population 11.7% are Scheduled Caste and 10.2% are
Scheduled Tribes.
3.10.3 Socio economic profile
The review of the socio economic profile of the villages around the mining
sites is essential for understanding of social impacts due to mining activity.
The census data does not provide information on mining specifically. Hence
this information has been acquired through questionnaires.
Literacy levels
As per census data for the year 2001, the study area over a radius of 10 km
from the proposed mining site has 22,292 no of literates. The summary of
village-wise distribution of male and female literacy is given in ANNEXURE
XI-B.

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Table 3.15: Distribution of Literates


Sr. No. Particulars Study Area (2001) % Literacy
1 Total Literates 22,292 44.58

2 Male Literates 14,228 63.83

3 Female literates 8,064 36.17

Occupational Structure
With reference to the ANNEXURE XI-C chart which have been generated
through the study of secondary occupational data for the villages within 10.0
km radius of the proposed mining site. Employment / occupational pattern in
the study area based on 2001 census are depicted in Figure 3. 11.
Figure 3.11: Occupational Pattern of the Study Area

Occupational Pattern of Study Area

23%
29%
Total Main Cultivators

Total Main Agricultural


Labourers

Household industries
workers

Total Main other


workers

Total Marginal workers


23%

22%
3%

It is observed that in the primary sector predominant activity is agriculture,


cultivators and agricultural labourers. With respect to the occupation pattern
primary sector which involves the agricultural activity is higher than the
occupation in the secondary or tertiary sector.
Basic Amenities

Infrastructure resource base in villages under the study area of proposed


expansion of the existing project at Chikkashellikeri Limestone mine is
satisfactory. Education facility up to primary level is available in all the
villages. Facility up to middle school and high school is also available in some
of the villages. Medical facility includes health centre, primary health centre,
registered private practitioner etc is available in some of the villages. In most

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of the villages medical facility is available at a distance of 5 to 10 km. Post


and telegraph facility available is also available within 10 km radius.

The main drinking water resource is through private dug-wells and bore wells
and canals. Density of houses along the main arterial roads higher compare to
the inner village areas. Houses along the main street have typical commercial
front facade and the rear residential area. For most of the villages bus facilities
is available and approach to villages is by kaccha and pacca roads. Power
supply is available in all the villages & electricity is utilised for agriculture,
domestic and other purposes. Basic amenities available in the villages within
study area are shown in ANNEXURE XI-D.

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CHAPTER 4
IMPACT PREDICTION
4.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter identifies sources of pollution from mining activities and
evaluation of various impacts on environmental attributes in the study area.
"Environmental Impact" can be defined as any alteration of environmental
conditions or creation of a new set of environmental conditions, adverse or
beneficial, caused or induced by the action or set of actions under
consideration.
Generally, the environmental impacts can be categorized as either primary or
secondary. Primary impacts are those, which are attributed directly by the
project, secondary impacts are those, which are indirectly induced and
typically include the associated investment and changed patterns of social and
economic activities by the proposed action.
The impacts have been predicted for the proposed expansion in mining
activities assuming that the pollution due to the existing activities has already
been covered under baseline environmental monitoring.
Various impacts have been studied and are discussed in the subsequent
sections.

4.2 IDENTIFICATION OF IMPACTS


The project activities that are likely to cause potential impacts on environment
are as follows:
• Mining operations;
• Limestone Crushing; and
• Associated Infrastructure.
A brief description of these activities and associated environmental impacts
are discussed below.
4.2.1 Mining Operations

Mining operations involve development of benches, approach roads, haul


roads, drilling, blasting, excavation and handling & transportation of
Limestone and waste materials. The likely effects of these activities are:

• Land degradation;
• Deforestation;

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• Visual intrusion of land;


• Fugitive dust generation;
• Higher run-off during rains;
• Higher noise and vibration levels; and
• Human health risks.
The haulage of Limestone within the mining area, etc will lead to emissions of
fugitive dust and higher noise levels in the mining area. The proposed
expansion of project also includes installation and operation of crushing unit
for sizing of Limestone. These operations generally result in generation of dust
and higher noise levels and thereby poses health hazards. However, it is
proposed that adequate control measures will be provided which include water
sprinkling in area around crusher to reduce the fugitive dust emissions.
Proposed open cast mine will result in disturbance of the land use pattern of
the area and cutting of benches will result in higher chance of erosions effects
due to surface run-offs during heavy rainfall.
4.2.2 Limestone Crushing

It is proposed to set up a crushing unit of 100 tonnes per hour capacity within
lease area on the northern side. Raw material of up to 200 mm will be stacked
in the raw material yard near the crushers and the same will be feed through
hopper to the crusher. The crushers will crush the material to different sizes
and pass on to the screening plant where double deck screen with different
size meshes of 0 to 10 mm, 10 to 40 mm and 40 to 80 mm through conveyor
belts which are moveable. The materials collected will be loaded to the tippers
and transported to the stack yard for stacking
4.2.3 Associated Infrastructure

The associated infrastructural facilities for the MML mining project include:
• Storage and Handling facilities (for fuel oil, lubricating oils and
explosives) and workshops;
• Mine offices and labour colony;
• Water supply;
• Telecommunications; and
The environmental impacts associated with these infrastructural facilities are
described in the following sub sections.

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Storage & Handling


Storage and handling of fuel oils, lubricating oil & grease, and explosives, are
areas of concern from environmental, health and safety point of view. Vehicle
maintenance and repairing workshops (for mining equipment and machines)
would generate waste oils; oil & grease and suspended particles which may
also find their way into the wastewater streams. Oil & grease spillage may also
contaminate the soil in and around the workshop area.
Mine Offices and Colony
Mine office, labor camp and other community facilities will mainly contribute
towards solid waste and sanitary wastewater. A proper collection,
transportation and disposal system will have to be developed for solid waste
management. Also, sanitary wastewater will need treatment to avoid any
health hazards due to water borne diseases.
Water Supply
Water requirement for the expansion of mine and its infrastructure will be met
through borewell and water tanker. Water storage tank with adequate capacity
will be provided both at the mine site as well as in the labor camp. One water
sprinkler is also proposed for dust suppression as well as for supply of water to
any off-site work.
Telecommunications
Telephone facilities have been provided in the offices, workshop, crushing
plant, colony, etc. Besides, for effective supervision, it is proposed to provide
walkie-talkies sets for mine operations.
The telecommunication infrastructure that will be developed as a part of the
project will also improve the telecommunication facilities available in the
study area.

4.3 CLIMATE
Micro-climatic conditions such as temperature, rainfall, wind-speed and
relative humidity, etc are regional phenomenon and are affected only if there
are significant variations in the environmental set up.

4.4 AMBIENT AIR QUALITY


The open cast mining operations will generate high levels of suspended
particulate matter (SPM) and to a very limited extent SO2, NOX, and CO due
to blasting (using explosives), fuel oil combustion, etc. The potential sources
of dust emissions are crusher and fugitive emissions from blasting and
transportation.
The above systems necessitate mine workers and others directly involved in
the mining/ field activity to wear dust mask as a safety precaution. RSPM is

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the main cause of lung diseases and other respiratory disorders amongst the
workers.
The ambient air quality monitoring results show that in the villages around the
mine area, SPM concentrations are within the prescribed limits (CPCB
standards) during the monitoring period. At present the source of pollution is
the domestic activities and mining activities within the study area. Due to
increase of limestone production from 0.12 million tonnes per annum to 0.25
million tonnes per annum, it is anticipated that increase will occur in the SPM
level of the core and the buffer zones. Dust suppression measures are,
therefore, of utmost importance.
Vehicular movements within the mine site will add marginally to the
contribute NOX and CO concentration. Monitored values of SO2, NOX, CO in
the ambient air are reported to be very low.
The prevailing wind direction during the monitoring period was predominant
mainly from East direction. If adequate dust suppression measures are not
provided, the dust particles and RSPM will be transported to villages in the
impact area. SPM levels will be higher within the active operational areas
(mine area) due to blasting, transportation and crushing, however, in the buffer
zone it is not likely to be affected with dust problems, if proper dust
suppression measures are taken.
Probable impacts of air pollutants on plants and animals are listed in the
following Table 4.1

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Table 4.1 Effects of Air Pollutants on Plants and Animals


Sr. Pollutants Principal Anthropogenic Effects
No. Sources
1 Carbon Dioxide Fuel combustion for heating, No direct effect on people,
transport, energy production however, may lead to increase
in global warming
2 Carbon Incomplete fuel combustion Deprives tissues of oxygen.
Monoxide (as in motor vehicles) People with respiratory diseases
3 Sulphur Dioxide Burning of sulphur • Combined with smoke,
containing fuels like fuel oil increases risk and effects
of respiratory diseases
• Causes suffocation,
irritation of throat and
eyes
• Combines with
atmospheric water vapour
to produce acid rain
• Reduces crop yield.
• Leads to acidification of
soils.
• Corrodes buildings
4 Suspended Smoke from domestic, • Possible toxic effects
particulate industrial depend on specific
matter and vehicular sources composition.
• Aggravates effects of SO2
• Reduces sunlight
.
4.4.1 Occupational Health Hazards Due to Dust Pollution

Progressive disintegration of suspended solid particles or dust results in major


health problems. Smaller the particle size (less than 10 µ) higher is the
chemical and biological reactivity, resulting in increased toxicity than the
parent lump. These micron sized particles, once air-borne, are extremely
difficult to be collected or trapped. Due to the `minute size of the particles, the
ambient environment remains clear giving a deceptive sense of security to the
workers and the management.
This restorable dust has serious impact on the health of the workers. Lung
functions are impaired due to both respirable and non-respirable dust particles.
Chronic exposure leads to respiratory illnesses like asthma, emphysema,
severe dyspnea (shortness of breath), bronchitis and in extreme cases
pneumoconiosis or the black-lung disease of miners. There may be several
components of Limestone dust. The effect of dust may be harmful to the
human health.
The summary of likely impacts on the ambient air quality of the study area is
given in Table 4.2

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Table 4.2 Summary of Impact Assessment: Air Quality


Impact Area Nature of Targets/ Magnitude Overall
Impact* Interests# and## significance###
extent
Derogation of For the Nearby villages. Generally *** Major
air quality duration of the Approximately Local/Regional significance
project. 92 workers. No impact. Dust
However, sensitive emissions should
impacts would Interests be quickly
largely be suppressed to
reversible. insignificant
Emissions of levels.
SPM (dust) and Impact on site
to a smaller accommodation
extent SO2, some distance
NOx, would from operational
occur during all areas
stages of the
project
Deposition of Potentially Potential effect Localized *Moderate (In
pollutants, long-term on human health adverse case of human
SPM (dust) in impact due to due to SPM effect. health, as
human beings accumulation deposition in the Magnitude immediate
and in local of lungs; dependent on consequences of
area SPM, SO2 Potential effect emissions and dust will be on
deposition on land and soil management of human beings)
quality of dust ** Minor/
nearby control moderate
agricultural significance, in
fields; case of land,
Marginal effect flora and fauna.
on flora and However,
fauna, because should the
of degraded control
vegetation. measures fail,
the potential
impact
could be of
major
significance)
* Description; short or long term; reversible or permanent; associated with construction,
operation, decommissioning; cumulative, accidental, etc
# Targets and interests potentially affected.
## Adverse or beneficial; small, large, etc; very localised (mine site only), local, regional
national.
### Overall significance against criteria (**minor; *moderate, some significance;
***major)

4.5 NOISE ENVIRONMENT


Different activities in mining such as loading, hauling, drilling, ore handling,
crushing and dumping contribute towards the generation of noise. Mining
operations and the limestone crusher would be the main sources of noise
pollution. Noise due to vehicular movement will be intermittent, but will also
add to the background noise level.

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It has been observed that mechanisation of mining technology generally leads


to higher noise levels if not properly controlled. Operation of drills, shovels,
dumpers, pay loaders and dozers involve noise generation above 90 dB(A),
which is the prescribed Threshold Limit Value (TLV). It is being observed
that at the mine site where heavy earth moving machinery is in operation,
noise level is more than the stipulated 90 dB (A) per DGMS Circular, No 18
(Tech) of 1975. The noise level is within the tolerance limit at a distance of 15
to 20 m or so.
Predictions have been carried out to compute the noise level at various
distances around the working pit due to these noise-generating sources and
output of the same is shown in figure 4.1
Anticipated noise levels at mine boundary resulting from operation of the
excavation have been computed using point source model. Computation of
noise level at the mine boundary is based on the assumption that there are no
attenuation paths between the source and the mine boundary.
Basic phenomenon of the model is the geometric attenuation of sound. Noise
at a point generates spherical waves, which are propagated outwards from the
source through the air at a speed of 1,100 ft/sec, with the first wave making an
ever-increasing sphere with time. As the wave spreads the intensity of noise
diminishes as the fixed amount of energy is spread over an increasing surface
area of the sphere.
The assumption of the model is based on point source relationship i.e., for
every doubling of the distance the noise levels are decreased by 6 dB (A).
Point source propagation is defined by the following equation:

Noise (Receptor) = Noise (Source) – 20 log [Distance (Receptor)/ Distance (Source)]


Noise level at boundary was found to be less than 60 dB (A), no negative
impacts are anticipated at the nearest village Chikkashellikeri and villages
farther than it.

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Figure 4.1: Predicted Noise Levels

Predicted Noise Levels


100
90

Noise Level [dB(A)]


80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

275

300

325

350

375

400
Distance from source (m)
Noise Levels

The noise produced by blasting would be for extremely short duration of


around 0.5 seconds, though with a high intensity. The impacts over the
surrounding habitat can be minimised by adopting adequate precautions
during blasting and also by properly scheduling it as indicated in the
management plan. While considering proper noise prevention and control
measures have been included, the effect of increased noise levels due to
mining over villages such as Chikkashellikeri and Hire Chikkashellikeri in the
immediate vicinity also needs to be considered. Creation of noise bunds near
the periphery is expected to act as an effective barrier against its propagation
of sound waves towards the human settlements.
4.5.1 Occupational Health Hazards of Noise Pollution
The noise levels in many situations would be above TLV. Exposure to noise
levels, above TLV, has been found to have detrimental effect on the workers'
health. Mine workers working for more than 4 to 4.5 hours per shift will be
greatly affected, unless suitable mitigatory measures are taken. The adverse
effects of high noise levels on exposed workers may result in:
• Annoyance;
• Fatigue;
• Temporary shift of threshold limit of hearing;
• Permanent loss of hearing; and
• Hypertension and high blood cholesterol, etc.
Noise pollution poses a major health risk to the mine workers. When noise in
the form of waves impinges the eardrum, it begins to vibrate, stimulating other

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delicate tissues and organs in the ear. If the magnitude of noise exceeds the
tolerance limits, it is manifested in the form of discomfort leading to
annoyance and in extreme cases to loss of hearing. Detrimental effects of
noise pollution are not only related to sound pressure level and frequency, but
also on the total duration of exposure and the age of the person. Table 4.3
below gives frequency levels and associated mental and physical response of
humans.
Table 4.3 Noise Exposure Levels and Its Effects

Noise Levels
Exposure Time Effects
(dB(A))
85 Continuous Safe
85-90 Continuous Annoyance and irritation
Temporary shift in hearing threshold,
90-100 Short term
generally with complete recovery
Above 100 Continuous Permanent loss of hearing
Short term Permanent hearing loss can be avoided
100-110 Several years Permanent deafness
110-120 Few months Permanent deafness
120 Short term Extreme discomfort
140 Short term Discomfort with actual pain
150 and above Single exposure Mechanical damage to the ear

4.6 GROUND VIBRATIONS


Due to blasting, the vibrations can cause damage to the nearby structures if
appropriate control measures are not adopted. Therefore, the control measures
suggested in management plan should be adhered to.
Blasting will also result in flyrocks. The factors, which influence flyrock
production, are long explosive column with little stemming column, improper
burden, loose material or pebbles near the holes and long water column in the
hole. The actual blasts at the mines are to be closely monitored for any fly
rocks and precautions against fly rock are to be taken are as per given in
management plan.
When an explosive charge is fired in a hole, stress waves propagate radically
in all directions and cause the rock particles to oscillate. This oscillation is felt
as ground vibration. The existing mining operations using deep hole drilling
and blasting using delay detonators are bound to produce ground vibrations.
The total explosive consumption is proposed to be 125 kg /day
Blasting, in addition to easing the hard strata, generates ground vibrations and
instantaneous noise. Ground vibrations from mine blasting may be expressed
by amplitude, frequency and duration of blast. The variables, which influence

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ground vibrations are controllable and non-controllable. The non-controllable


variables include:
• General surface terrain;
• Type and depth of overburden; and
• Wind.
Similarly, the controllable variations include:
• Type of explosives;
• Charge per delay’;
• Delay interval;
• Direction of blast progression;
• Burden;
• Spacing; and
• Specific charge and coupling ratio.

4.7 WATER ENVIRONMENT


Ghataprabha is the main river in study area. Water resources available in the
area is only rain water. The mining area forms a part of the drainage system of
the Ghataprabha river situated towards North – West of the mine.
One major nullah which flows during heavy rains cuts the lease area into two
halves from South East corner to the North Western corner of the lease area
and flows in the North Western direction. Pumps will be installed to cater the
flow in the rainy season. The water from the pit will be discharged into natural
water sources.
4.7.1 Impacts on Surface Water
The potential impact on the surface water quality is likely to be due to higher
load of suspended solids. Sources of suspended solids would be:
• Discharge of mine runoff during rains to the surface water channels;
• Wash off from waste dumps and Limestone stock piles during rainy
season;
• Oil spillage from maintenance of machineries;
• Oil effluent from labour colony.
Wash-off from Limestone Dumps
During the heavy rainfall, the wash off from the limestone dumps will lead to
the adjoining surface water body. This is likely to increase the alkalinity of the

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water and also increase the suspended solids within the water samples.
Therefore, landscape of the Limestone dumping area should be shaped, capped
and graded, so as to prevent soil erosion along with the run-off. Waste dump
will be protected by way of construction of retention wall along the toe of the
dump to prevent wash offs during rainy season.
Oil Spillage from Maintenance of machineries
Oil spillage from the machineries in the wastewater will add to the pollution
load resulting in oil and grease contamination of surface water from mine
infrastructural facilities. The quantity of oil required for proposed expansion
of mines is very less, hence it will have negligible impact on environment
Effluent from Labor Colony
Sewage generated from labor colony will be 6.4 m3/day. This sewage will be
treated in septic tank. Treated sewage from septic tank will be discharged in
soak pit. This sewage, if discharged without treatment, will have adverse
impact on the surface and ground water quality and could lead to water borne
diseases, etc.
Impact of Polluted Water
The polluted water generally contains objectionable odour and colour. It may
also be acidic, toxic and highly turbid. Such water is unfit for drinking or any
other use. In some cases these may also contain pathogenic microorganisms,
which pose potential health hazard. The impact of polluted water would be as
follows:
This water may cause various water-borne diseases;
• The polluted water may not be useful for animal husbandry, re-
vegetation and human or animal consumption; and
• High turbidity, oils and grease film on water may not allow proper
oxygenation of the surface water. Further, high turbidity may prevent
sunlight to enter into the water body to promote photosynthesis of
aquatic plants. So polluted water may affect the aquatic life.
As the quantity of water required after expansion of mine is small and there
will be treatment of effluent generated which is proposed to be discharge in
soak pit, hence, open cast mining operation will not disturb the natural
drainage pattern of the core and buffer area both upstream and downstream.
As such the inhabitants of the area depending on rain water and river water are
expected to be unaffected due to mining operations at Chikkashellikeri.
4.7.2 Impacts of Mining on Ground Water
The potential impact of mining would have negligible impact on the ground
water, as the ground water levels at the site and surrounding areas is at 60m
below the ground level. The likely chances of the contaminants reaching the

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groundwater are very rare. The summary of impact assessment on water


resources is given in the Table 4.4.
Table 4.4 Summary of Impact Assessment: Water Resources

Impact Area Nature of Targets/ Magnitude Overall


Impact* Interests# and## significance###
extent
Surface Water
Physical impact Long term Local Local ** Minor
modification to inhabitants
the distribution depending on
of rain water the river water
catchments
Chemical Short term Water bodies, Local, small **Minor
Impact contamination springs and scale
of surface water sink holes
flows due to
run-off
Ground Water
Groundwater Long term, Aquifers along Local/Regional ** Minor
quantity medium the river beds
reduction in the plain
land
Resource Management
Resource Long term, Judicious Regional * Moderate/
Management medium abstraction of Major
reduction water for
usage
* Description; short or long term; reversible or permanent; associated with construction,
operation, decommissioning; cumulative, accidental, etc
# Targets and interests potentially affected.
## Adverse or beneficial; small, large, etc; very localised (mine site only), local, regional
national.
### Overall significance against criteria (**minor; *moderate, some significance;
***major)

4.8 LAND USE


The proposed expansion of mining will change the topography and the
landscape of Limestone bearing area and its immediate vicinity in the core
zone only. The lease area is almost plain and cultivated
The core area of 64.35 ha consists of 30.00 ha for mining, 3.00 ha for roads,
7.50 ha for dump yard, 4.00 ha for stockyard, 8.85 ha for afforestation, 2.00 ha
for structures/colony, 3.00 ha for crushers. The opening of the mine is from
the North side and appropriate location of dumps will give definite advantage
in terms of keeping the land disturbance at the minimum.
No adverse impacts are anticipated on land use of buffer zone due to the
proposed expansion of mining operations, as all the mining activities will be
confined to core zone only, except mine site and colony.

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4.8.1 Soil
Impact on soil will be localised i.e. around the mine site. The lease area is
predominantly covered by black soil of varying thickness (1 m to 2 m). The
top soil generated is stored in soil preservation yard which is located near the
dump site an over of 0.40 ha. This top soil will be utilized for agriculture
purpose by the adjacent pattaland owners. So the impact occurred due to this
activity is short term. The summary of impact assessment on soil and land use
is given in the Table 4.5
Table 4.5 Summary of Impact Assessment: Soil and Land-use
Impact Area Nature of Targets/ Magnitude and## Overall
Impact* Interests# extent significance###

Land use Change in Reduction of Mine lease area * Moderate


original land degraded only, small scale;
use, land vegetation, loss beneficial effect in
degradation of terms of
top soil, visual compensatory
intrusion afforestation with
higher success
percentage
expected
Derogation of Cumulative Soil quality, Localised near **Minor
soil contamination flora and fauna, sources; small
quality with dust, contribution to
surface run-off existing
background
levels, provided
dust control and
overburden is
managed
Physical effects Soil quality, Site areas only *Moderate
on soils due to flora
topsoil removal,
nutrient loss;
irreversible
* Description; short or long term; reversible or permanent; associated with construction,
operation, decommissioning; cumulative, accidental, etc
# Targets and interests potentially affected.
## Adverse or beneficial; small, large, etc; very localised (mine site only), local, regional
national.
### Overall significance against criteria (**minor; *moderate, some significance;
***major)

4.9 SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL


The soild waste generation during the course of mining will be about 2.36
million tonnes. This solid waste includes overburden, ore zone waste. This
will be transported to the dump yard located away from the working area.
The top soil generated is stored in soil preservation yard which is located near
the dump yard an over of 0.40 ha. This top soil will be utilized for agriculture
purpose by the adjacent pattaland owners

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The domestic solid waste from colony and mine is expected to be generated to
the tune of 40 kg/day, which will be disposed of as municipal waste.

4.10 ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS


A study was conducted during the Winter 2006 to survey living natural
resources, both flora and fauna, from the proposed Limestone Mining Area (1
km, the “core area”) as well as a 10 km radius around the site (the “buffer
area)
As the study area does not provide habitation to any rare and endangered
species of flora and fauna, impact on ecology will be mainly due to removal of
green cover. This will be compensated by rejuvenation of mine spoil dumps
and hence, residual impact will be insignificant.
The impact of mining on flora and vegetation will be further mitigated through
a detailed afforestation plan as given in environmental management plan

4.11 SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS

In terms of the major socio-economic impacts, the project will provide more
direct and indirect job opportunities and better economic standards to the
project affected people and others, through improved infrastructural,
community facilities, etc.
Development of residential colony, creation of civic and welfare amenities
like primary health care, communications, educational institutes, recreational
facilities, etc, that will develop along with the project will ensure better quality
of life for the local population.

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CHAPTER 5
IMPACT EVALUATION
5.1 APPROACH
In this chapter, an attempt has been made to quantify the possible
environmental impacts on various features such as air, water, land and
socioeconomic factors. The following aspects have been studied to identify the
possible impacts due to the proposed increase of production. The magnitude
and significance of the environmental pollution caused by mining depends on
method of mining, scale and concentration of mining activity,
Chikkashellikeri Limestone mines present production is about 0.12 million
tonnes per annum. In the proposed expansion scheme the production will be
increased from 0.12 million tonnes per annum to 0.25 million tonnes per
annum. The mine operations will be semi mechanized. This chapter deals with
the impacts arising out of the proposed increase in production of the limestone
from 0.12 million tonnes per annum to 0.25 million tonnes per annum.

5.2 IMPACT ON AIR ENVIRONMENT


The air borne particulate matter is the main air pollutant contributed by
opencast mining. Various emission sources are identified from the mining
operations for the total material handling of 0.255 million tonnes per annum.
An attempt has been made to know the emission rate from each operation of
the mining activity taking into account increase in total material handling.
Resultant ground level concentration for the prevailing meteorological
conditions using the mathematical model were estimated.
5.2.1 Quantitative Estimation of Impacts on Air Environment
An attempt has been made to predict the incremental rise of various ground
level concentrations above the baseline status in respect of air pollution due to
increased material handling by an additional quantity of 0.132 million tonnes
per annum. The mathematical model employed for predictions in the present
study is FDM 93070 model which was approved by United States
Environmental Protection Agency for mining applications.
The Fugitive dust model is a computerized air quality model specifically
designed for computing concentrations and deposition impacts of fugitive dust
sources. The model is based on the well-known Gaussain Plume formulation
for computing concentrations and also the model has been specifically adapted
to incorporate an improved gradient transfer deposition algorithm. Emissions
for each source are apportioned into a series of particle size classes.

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Gravitational settling velocity and deposition velocity are calculated by FDM


for each class.
Salient features of the FDM model are given hereunder.
• Drilling is considered as point source.
• Excavation and dumping operations are considered as area sources.
• Transportation of material on haulage roads has been considered as
line source
The predicted ground level concentrations for winter season is computed using
EPA approved FDM model are plotted as isopleths using the SURFER – 7
package of Golden Software.
5.2.2 Sources of Dust Emission
Mining is carried out by manual opencast method which involves development
of benches, drilling, blasting, loading of blasted material by excavation into
dumpers, transportation of limestone to crusher, and transportation of waste
for backfilling and transportation of top soil for greenbelt development.
MML will adopt the semi mechanism mining methodology for achieving the
increased production in the operating mine. The emissions released depend on
the total material handled.
Based on the various operations involved in the production of limestone, the
various emission sources at each stage have been identified as given below.
• Point sources
• Area sources
• Line sources.
Drilling operations of the mine are considered as point sources. Production of
limestone through various operations in mining area, are considered as area
sources. Transportation of mineral from mining benches to crushing plant is
considered as line source.
Two crushers of 60 tonnes per shift capacity are available on site. It is
proposed to install crusher of 100 tonnes per hour capacity for additional
capacity. At the dumper platform, mist water spray is being sprayed during
unloading of mineral by dumpers into crusher. The dust is totally suppressed
at crusher hopper. Hence for prediction of impact, emission from this source
has not been considered.

5.2.3 Emission Details


Drilling, excavation and transportation through dumper to crusher are the
major operations which are of significance, hence considered for modeling.

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The emissions are computed based on AP-42 emission factors. Operational


hours and activity rate have been considered for estimation of emissions from
point and area sources. For line source, apart from operational hours and
activity rate, moisture and silt content of the haulage road have been
considered. The emissions computed for the additional increased production
are given in the Table 5.1 (Basis – AP-42: Emission Estimation Technique
Manual for Mining)
Table 5.1 Emissions Details
Emission for Area Source Emission – Production
Particulars Unit Present Proposed Incremental
Quantity TPA 120000 250000 130000
Operational hours
2400 2400 ___
per year
Activity rate t/h 50 104.2 54.2
Emission of Dust g/t *0.290
Emission of Dust g/hr 15.71
Area of Influence m2 25
Uncontrolled
g/s/m2 1.7453 x 10-5
Emission Rate
Controlled
g/s/m2 1.7453 x 10-5
Emission Rate

Emission for Area Source Emission - Development


Particulars Unit Present Proposed Incremental
Quantity TPA 2600 5500 2900
Operational hours
2400 2400 -----
per year
Activity rate t/h 1.1 2.3 1.2
Emission of Dust g/t *0.290
Emission of Dust g/hr 0.35
Area of Influence m2 25
Uncontrolled
g/s/m2 3.8935 x 10-6
Emission Rate
Controlled
g/s/m2 3.8935 x 10-7
Emission Rate

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Emission for Line Source Emission – Transport of Limestone


Particulars Unit Present Proposed Incremental
Quantity TPA 120000 250000 130000
Operational hours
2400 2400 ----
per year
Capacity of Each
t/h 10.0 10.0 ----
Dumper
Total No. of
12000 25000 13000
Dumpers/year
Lead length per trip km 1.2
Total VKT per year 15600.0
Emission of Dust kg/VKT *2.6
Total emission kg/year 40840.80
Uncontrolled
g/s/m 0.004726944
Emission Rate
Controlled Emission
g/s/m
Rate 0.000472694

Emission for Line Source Emission – Transportation of Waste


Particulars Unit Present Proposed Incremental
Quantity TPA 2600 5500 2900
Operational hours
2400 2400 ---
per year
Capacity of Each
t/h 10 10 ----
Dumper
Total No. of
No 260 550 290
Dumpers/year
Lead length per trip km 1.0
Total VKT per year 290
Emission of Dust kg/VKT *2.6
Total emission kg/year 759.22
Uncontrolled
g/s/m 8.7872 x 10-5
Emission Rate
Controlled Emission
g/s/m 8.7872 x 10-6
Rate
Note: * Emission factor computed based on wind speed of 2 m/s + emission
factor computed based on silt content of 20% and moisture content of 5%.
Predictions are carried out for the worst-case scenario of simultaneous
operation of excavators (area sources) and tippers. Tippers are used for
transportation of limestone and overburden from mine pit to crusher and
dumping point respectively.
The other mine operations may not be simultaneous and continuous. However,
for the prediction of worst-case concentration, the sources mentioned in the
above paragraph are assumed to be under simultaneous continuous operation
for 24 hours. Hence the concentrations predicted are considered to be the
worst case.

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Particle size concentration assumed in the modeling consisted of five separate


particles size classes 1.25, 3.75, 7.5, 12.5, and 20 micrometers with a particle
concentration of 0.0262, 0.0678, 0.1704, 0.1536 and 0.5820 respectively.
The number of working days has been taken at 300 days per year for one shift
operation. With control measures, the emissions have been taken at 10% of
uncontrolled emissions for handling of ore and overburden material and 10%
of uncontrolled emissions for transportation
5.2.4 Summary of Predicted Ground Level Concentrations (GLC’S) of SPM
Predictions have been carried out using FDM model for Winter season for the
worst case scenario considering all the operations of the mine are under
simultaneous continuous operation of 24-hours for the increased emissions.
The following paragraphs detail the predicted concentrations of suspended
particulate matter.
The maximum worst case predicted value of SPM due to simultaneous
continuous mine operations during Winter for the increase production rate is
about 17.204 µg/m3. This concentration is observed within the core zone of
mining area where mining operations are assumed to be carried out. The
concentration was found to reduce to a value of less than 3 µg/m3 at a distance
of about 3 km from the mining operations. The impact of mining operation
would be negligible beyond 1 km of the mining operations.
Predicted value superimposed on the existing baseline value gives the overall
scenario which would prevail during winter once mine is operated for the
increased production. The Table – 5.2 shows the overall scenario:
Table 5.2 Overall Scenario
Worst
Predicted Total
Station Direction background Standards
max. GLC Concentration
concentration
μg/m3 μg/m3 μg/m3 μg/m3
Core Zone
17.204 W 168.2 185.404 500
(100 m)
Buffer Zone
9.779 W 160.95 170.729 200
(500 m)
Buffer Zone
6.898 W 153.7 160.598 200
(1000 m)

Fig – 5.1 represents the spatial distribution of the predicted ground level
concentrations of SPM due to emissions from mine.

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Figure 5.1: Predicted Ground Levels Concentrations


12000.00

11000.00

17.00

10000.00 15.00

13.00

9000.00 11.00

9.00

8000.00 7.00

5.00

7000.00 3.00

1.00

6000.00

5000.00 6000.00 7000.00 8000.00 9000.00 10000.00 11000.00 12000.00

It could be summarized from the above study that the level of SPM in all the
locations are within the permissible limit of Central Pollution Control Board
standards. Predicted concentrations of CO and HC + NOX beyond 100 m on
either side of the road way were found to be less than 2 μg/m3
5.2.5 Impact due to Transportation
Limestone ore and waste material from mine will be transported to Stock yard
and dumping yard at a distance of about 0.6 km and 0.5 km respectively from
working pit.
The major emissions from the vehicular traffic are carbon monoxide and
Hydrocarbon + Oxides of nitrogen. In order to estimate the incremental raise
of CO and HC+NOX from the additional traffic, a vehicular impact
assessment study has been carried out. The following is the estimation of
trucks for transport of the iron ore and waste.

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Table 5.3 Estimation of Tippers for Transport


Particulars Unit Existing Proposed
Product Develop Total Product Develop Total
ion ment ion ment
Total Quantity TPA 1,20,000 2,600 1,22,600 2,50,000 5,500 2,55,500
Capacity of each
t 10 10 10 10 10 10
Tippers/dumpers
Number of
tippers/dumpers No. 12,000 260 12,260 25,000 550 25,550
for total quantity
Operational
hours for hr. 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400
tippers/dumpers
Number of
tippers/dumpers No. 5 1 6 11 -- 11
per hour

5.3 ENVIRONMETAL IMPACT MATRIX


In this section, environmental impacts due to the proposed expansion of
Limestone mining activities have been quantified under two scenarios:
• Without environmental management plan; and
• With the environment management plan.
Various methodologies are in use for identification and evaluation of the
environmental impacts eg Adhoc, Overlays, Checklists, Matrix method, and
Networks approach. Each method has its own merits and demerits.
Leopold Impact Matrix is the most widely used technique, however, it has an
associated disadvantage of subjective valuation of certain impacts. Therefore,
the improved "Modified Matrix" method has been used in this report which
involves establishment of cause-effect relationship.
This method involves assignment of "Parameter Importance Value" (PIV)
against each environmental impact parameter. These values are determined by
subjective judgment considering the relative importance or significance of
individual parameter. After deciding on PIV, these values have to be
distributed among all the cause-effect relationships established between the
affected environmental parameters and the related project activities by means
of indices which are called "Relative Parameter Importance Indices" (RPII).
The sum of all the indices should be equal to unity. The value of RPII is
decided based on the relative importance of cause-effect relationship and the
most important one is given highest RPII value and the subsequent impact
parameters are assigned RPII values in the descending order.

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Another index which is to be determined for each cause effect relationship is


called "Environmental Impact Index" (EII). The scale for EII varies from zero
to one. The value "1" is assigned to an impact of highest order and "0" is
assigned to an impact of negligible magnitude. For adverse impacts, EII
carries a negative sign, and for beneficial impacts it carries positive sign. For
determining the value of EII, the environmental impact parameters are divided
into two categories, A and B.
Category "A" includes those impact parameters whose quality varies linearly
with the magnitude of impact related to the project activities and includes:
• Surface and ground water resources;
• Socio-economic aspects;
• Land use; and
• Human settlements.
Category "B" includes those impact parameters whose quality varies
logarithmically with the magnitude of the impacts and includes:
• Water quality;
• Hydrogeology and drainage pattern;
• Air quality;
• Noise level;
• Health;
• Flora; and
• Fauna.
In the latter case, a slight change in impact magnitude will have insignificant
change in environmental quality, but as the magnitude increases, the
deterioration in quality increases logarithmically. The basis for determining II
for category A and category B are given in Table 5.4 and Table 5.5
respectively.

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Table 5.4 Determination of EII for Category "A" Parameters


S No Impact Magnitude (in %) EII
1 No Change 0
2 0-4.9% Change 0.05
3 5-14.9% Change 0.1
4 15-24.9% Change 0.2
5 25-34.9% Change 0.3
6 35-44.9% Change 0.4
7 45-54.9% Change 0.5
8 55-64.9% Change 0.6
9 65-74.9% Change 0.7
10 74-84.9% Change 0.8
11 85-94.9% Change 0.9
12 >95% Change 1

Table 5.5 Determination of EII for Category "B" Parameters


Sr. No Impact Magnitude (in %) EII
1 No Change 0
2 0-4.9% Change 0.02
3 5-14.9% Change 0.05
4 15-24.9% Change 0.10
5 25-34.9% Change 0.15
6 35-44.9% Change 0.25
7 45-54.9% Change 0.5
8 55-64.9% Change 0.75
9 >65% Change 1
After determining EII for each cause-effect relationship, the same will be
multiplied with RPII to get "Weighted Environmental Impact Index" (WEII).
These values are once again multiplied with PIV and addition of all these
values gives the impact score for that particular environmental parameter. The
impact score so obtained for all impact parameters is added together to get
total impact score. This total impact score is used for interpretation and
decision making.
Details regarding the PIV, RPII, EII, WEII specific to the Limestone mining
project are described in the following sections, which is followed by the
analysis and evaluation of potential environmental impacts.

5.4 PROJECT SPECIFIC EVALUATION


5.4.1 PIV For Environmental Components
The environmental components listed in the earlier section are assigned with
PIVs so as to convert the environmental impacts into commensurate units,
which could be aggregated easily to get the total score of environmental
impacts. PIVs are assigned by marking and pair-wise comparison procedure.

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This procedure involves preparation of a table containing number of columns


corresponding to the range of values, which can be assigned a "score of
importance" against each impact area. The score of importance is any integer
ranging from one to six. The most affected parameter carries a score of six
and the least affected parameter carries a score of one.
Assigning Importance Ranking:

• Air quality in mines with respect to SPM/RSPM levels is of more


concern, followed by NOx and SO2 levels, which are of lesser
importance. The SPM/RSPM levels are expected to be high within the
mining area. Hence it is given a ranking of 4.
• Although high noise levels are largely confined to the working
environment, this impact increases due to the presence of vehicular
traffic. Hence the ranking is given as 4.
• Ground Vibrations will not have any impact to the surroundings
beyond the safety zone as recommended by GMS. However, the
ground vibrations within the safety zone plays an important role,
therefore, is given a ranking of 2.
• The proposed expansion of mine will source borewell and tanker water
for requirement of approximately 59 m3/day for dust suppression,
domestic supply, and green belt development and 8 m3/day for colony.
There will not be any effluent generated as mine run off except during
rainy season. It is proposed to treat the effluent generated from the
domestic and washing activities. Impact on quality and quantity of
nearby surface water body will be insignificant hence it is given a
ranking of 1.
• Hydrogeological and drainage pattern of the study area is represented
by surface water bodies, aquifers, hilly topography, geology of the area
and rainfall, therefore, is given a ranking of 5.
• The impact of land use is more pronounced because of degradation of
land due to mining activities, disposal of overburden soil, construction
of structures confined to limited area in the region. The landuse
degradation will be one time i.e. during the mine development phase
only, however, in the long run landuse will result in positive impacts
due to improvements in the socio-economic infrastructure and family
earnings. The land use is given a ranking as 3.
• The impact on fauna will be less pronounced, hence the ranking given
is 2.

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• The impact on flora is given a ranking of 4, which would be


significantly affected due to clearing of vegetation in mining and allied
activities during mine development period only, however, in the long
run, there will be positive impact on flora due intensive afforestation
by the project proponent.
• The impacts on human health in the surrounding area will be
insignificant with appropriate mitigative measures. Hence the ranking
for impact on human health is 2.
• The socio-economic aspects of the region will improve with the
development of the project. Hence a ranking of 3 is given.
Determination of PIV
The impact areas considered along with their rankings and the weightage for
each impact area are as given in Table 5.6. The total PIV is assumed to be
1,000 per the standard practice. The value of total PIV is distributed among
each impact area according to its weightage.
Table 5.6 Determination of PIV
Sr. Ranking (on 1
Impact Area Weightage PIV
No. to 6 scale)
1 Air quality 4 4/30 133.33
2 Noise levels 4 4/29 133.33
3 Ground Vibration 2 2/29 66.67
4 Water resources 1 1/30 33.33
Hydrogeology and
5 5 5/30 166.67
Drainage Pattern
Land use, soil
6 3 3/30 100.00
characteristics
7 Fauna 2 2/30 66.67
8 Flora 4 4/30 133.33
9 Health 2 2/30 66.67
10 Socio-economic aspects 3 3/30 100.00
11 Total 30 - -

5.4.2 Relative Parameter Importance Index (RPII)


The RPII indicates the importance of interaction between the action and
environmental components. It is assigned any value between 0 and 1 so that
the sum of all the values of RPII under each environmental component is
equal to 1. The importance of an interaction is related to the significance or
assessment of the consequences of the anticipated interaction. Assignment of
RPII to an interaction is based on the subjective judgement. While deciding on
RPII, first the RPII values are distributed among adverse and beneficial
impacts depending upon their significance. The RPII values so distributed are
once again distributed among the respective interactions depending upon their
individual significance. The most important interaction under a particular

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impact area is given the maximum RPII, whereas the least important one is
given minimum RPII. As the significance increases, the RPII also increases.
The RPII values for all the interactions, along with the criteria for deciding the
same is presented in Table 5.7 and Table 5.8.
5.4.3 Environmental Impact Index (EII)
The EII represents the magnitude of an impact due to the interaction
established between an environmental component and a project activity. This
impact magnitude is represented by a numerical value that is determined from
Tables 5.7 & 5.8. The environmental components are grouped into two
categories viz A and B (Table 5.4 and Table 5.5). EII’S are determined for
each impact area project activity interaction and are given in Table 5.7 and
Table 5.8 along with the remarks.

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Table 5.7 Potential Impact Identification Matrix( Without Environmental Management Plan)

Environmental Adverse/ RPII


Interaction Remarks for RPII
Components Project Activities Impacts Beneficial Values EII
No
Blasting twice in a day
Dust & gases (NOx) are produced
(during afternoon) & -0.1
Air quality Blasting 1 during blasting. High SPM is Adverse 0.20
evening confined to very
observed during these operations.
small area
Loading/Unloading and
Causes dust nuisance as well Continuous operation
Transportation within -0.25
Air quality 2 as NOx pollution due to Adverse 0.35 during the one shifts in a
the
vehicular emissions day
mine area
Dust raised during crushing Batch operation two -0.15
Air quality Limestone Crushing 3 Adverse 0.25
operations shifts a day
Stock Piling of crushed Windy conditions
-0.10
Air quality limestone and disposal 4 Increase in SPM level Adverse 0.20 may add up dust
of solid waste levels
Water required for
mine (dust suppression, Impact due to continuous Insignificant resource
-0.4
Water resources workshop, domestic 1 drawing of water Adverse 0.4 utilisation
supply and green belt)
and colony

Wastewater generated Deterioration in soil and


Workshop wastewater will
from workshop, ground water quality when -0.3
Water resources 2 Adverse 0.3 contain high oil and
domestic discharged untreated in soak pit
grease contaminants
usage from the mine

Deterioration in surface/
Domestic wastewater ground water and soil quality
Solely domestic
generated from the when discharged untreated for -0.3
Water resources 3 Adverse 0.3 wastewater
Colony greenbelt development

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Environmental Adverse/ RPII


Interaction Remarks for RPII
Components Project Activities Impacts Beneficial Values EII
No
Instantaneous blasting Two
times in a day (during
Noise levels Blasting 1 High Impulsive Noise levels Adverse 0.30 -0.15
afternoon & Evening),
confined to very small area
Machine operation
Continuous operation -0.25
Noise levels (including crusher 2 Increase in noise levels Adverse 0.40
during one shifts
operation)
Continuous operation -0.15
Noise levels Transportation 3 Increase in noise levels Adverse 0.30
during one shifts
Instantaneous blasting Two
times in a day (during
-1.00
Ground Vibrations Blasting Operations 1 Impulsive ground vibrations Adverse 1.0 afternoon & Evening),
confined within the safety
zone
Hydrogeology and May change hydrology and Change in hydrology and
Excavation of -1.00
Drainage pattern 1 drainage pattern of the area Adverse 1.0 drainage pattern
limestone
Landuse and soil Impact due to opencast Degradation of land
Excavation of -0.40
characteristics 1 excavation Adverse 0.4 but confined to only
limestone
M.L area.
Solid waste in the
Land degradation due to
Landuse and soil form of waste -0.10
Disposal of solid waste 2 disposal of solid wastes Adverse 0.1
characteristics generated in initial
stage of mining
Operation shall be
Landuse and soil Transportation & Impact due to settling of air borne batch operation for one -0.20
3 Adverse 0.2
characteristics crushing operation dust shifts in a day

Landuse and soil Plantation & No vegetative cover


Impact due to clearing of existing -0.2
characteristics agricultural 4 Adverse 0.3 in premitigative
plantation in the mining area
yield stage

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Environmental Adverse/ RPII


Interaction Remarks for RPII
Components Project Activities Impacts Beneficial Values EII
No
All operations are opencast
Mining & crushing Affects wild life through air &
hence significant impact is -1.0
Fauna operations 1 noise pollution Adverse 0.8
observed but confined to
only M.L area
Adverse effect due to air and Vehicular traffic is mainly
-0.10
Fauna Transportation 2 noise pollution by movement Adverse 0.2 confined to domestic
of vehicular traffic purpose
Impact due to air noise All operations are opencast
Mining & crushing
pollution and loss of existing hence impact is -1.0
Flora operations 1 Adverse 0.8
flora observed but confined to
only M.L area
Adverse impact of dust emissions Vehicular traffic is mainly
-0.10
Flora Transportation 2 due to movement of vehicular Adverse 0.2 confined to domestic
traffic purpose
The maximum importance
Deteriorates workers health
Mining & crushing is given to interaction 1 as
due to air & noise pollution, -0.5
Health operations 1 Adverse 0.5 the workers are exposed to
accidents & injuries
high levels of noise & air
pollutants
Deteriorates health due to air
Mainly confined to the
Health Transportation 2 & noise pollution Adverse 0.3 -0.15
domestic purposes
Affects health through Small quantity of
Provision of civic disposal of sewage on open sewage is being -0.05
Health 3 Adverse 0.1
amenities land which causes mosquito generated.
nuisance water borne diseases
During mining development
stage the plantation exist in the
area shall be removed as it
improves the health of inhabitants No plantation in the
-0.05
Health Plantation 4 by acting as a barrier to air & noise Adverse 0.1 premitigative stage
pollution,
uptake of liquid waste disposed on
land and imparts pleasant
atmosphere

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Environmental Adverse/ RPII


Interaction Remarks for RPII
Components Project Activities Impacts Beneficial Values EII
No
Increased employment
Mining & crushing
Socio-economic opportunities both direct and 0.50
operations 1 Beneficial 0.5 Has a moderate potential
aspects indirect thereby increasing
economic status of people
Increased employment Has less significant
Socio-economic Colony & civic 0.10
2 opportunities both direct and Beneficial 0.1 potential
aspects amenities
indirect
Increased employment
Has less significant
Socio-economic opportunities (mostly indirect 0.10
Transportation 3 Beneficial 0.1 potential
aspects employment) and there by
increase in the economic status
Activities confined
Socio-economic Land acquisition for -0.30
4 Loss of land Adverse 0.3 to small Area
aspects mine site

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Table 5.8 Potential Impact Identification Matrix (With Environment management Plan i.e. with Mitigative Measures)
Environmental Adverse/ RPII
Interaction Remarks for RPII
Components Project Activities Impacts Beneficial Values EII
No
Air quality Blasting 1 Dust & gases (NOX) are Adverse 0.10 By optimization of blasting -0.05
produced after blasting. Dilution of impacts 0.10 Operation and
High SPM is observed during development of green belt
these operations Shall reduce Impacts
Air quality Loading 2 Causes dust nuisance as Adverse 0.2 By using dust preventive -0.10
/Unloading and well as NOX pollution due Dilution of impacts 0.15 and suppression
transportation to vehicular emissions measures shall reduce
within the M.L area impacts
Air quality Limestone Crushing 3 Dust raised during crushing Adverse 0.1 Impacts shall be reduced -0.05
operations Dilution of impacts 0.1 by providing sprinkling

Air quality Stockpiling of 4 Increase in SPM level Adverse 0.15 Provision of green belt -0.10
crushed limestone and Dilution of impacts 0.05 around the site shall
disposal of solid reduce the impacts
waste
Water resources Water required 1 Impact due to continuous Adverse 0.4 Insignificant resource -0.4
for mine(dust drawing of water utilisation
suppression, .domestic
supply and green
belt)and Colony
Water resources Wastewater generated 2 Deterioration in soil and Adverse 0.1 Treated effluent shall -0.1
from workshop,domes ground water quality Dilution of impacts 0.2 meet the statutory
tic usages from the when discharged untreated requirement for discharged
mine water in soak pit in soak pit
Water resources Domestic waste 3 Deterioration in soil and Adverse 0.1 Treated effluent shall -0.1
water generated ground water quality Dilution of impacts 0.2 meet the statutory
from colony when discharged untreated requirement discharged in
water in soak pit soak pit
Noise levels Blasting 1 High impulsive noise Adverse 0.2 By optimising blasting -0.10
levels Dilution of impacts 0.1 operation and adopting
noise preventive measures
shall reduce impacts

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Environmental Adverse/ RPII


Interaction Remarks for RPII
Components Project Activities Impacts Beneficial Values EII
No
Noise levels Machine operation 2 Increase the noise levels Adverse 0.05 By adopting noise -0.05
(including crusher Dilution of impacts 0.35 preventive measures
operation) impacts shall be reduced
Noise levels Transportation 3 Increase in noise levels Adverse 0.1 By adopting noise -0.05
Dilution of impacts 0.2 preventive measures impacts
shall be reduced
Ground Vibrations Blasting operation 1 Impulsive ground Adverse 0.2 By optimising blasting -0.1
vibrations Dilution of impacts 0.8 technique and provision
of green belt
Hydrology and Excavation of 1 May change hydrology and Adverse 0.7 Avoiding mining in -1.0
drainage limestone drainage pattern of the area Dilution 0.3 sensitive areas and
optimising blasting
Landuse and soil Excavation of 1 Impact due to open cast Adverse 0.1 Short term reversible -0.1
characteristics limestone excavation Dilution 0.3 impacts only

Landuse and soil Disposal of solid 2 Landuse degradation due Adverse 0.0 Solid waste generated in 0.0
characteristics waste to disposal of solid waste Dilution 0.1 the initial stage of mining
only
Landuse and soil Transpotation & 3 Impacts due to settling of Adverse 0.1 By adopting dust -0.1
characteristics Crushing operation air borne dust Dilution of impacts 0.1 suppression measures

Landuse and soil Plantation 4 Beneficial effect on land as Beneficial 0.0 By adoption of dense 0.0
characteristics it improves aesthetics Dilution 0.3 afforestation programme

Fauna Mining & crushing 1 Short term reversible Adverse 0.3 By adopting pollution -0.15
operations impacts only Dilution of impacts 0.5 control measures

Fauna Transportation 2 Short term reversible Adverse 0.1 By adopting pollution -0.05
impacts only Dilution of impacts 0.1 control measures

Flora Mining & Crushing 1 Short term reversible Adverse 0.3 By adopting pollution -0.15
operations impacts only Dilution of impacts 0.5 control measures

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Environmental Adverse/ RPII


Interaction Remarks for RPII
Components Project Activities Impacts Beneficial Values EII
No
Flora Transportation 2 Adverse impact of dust Adverse 0.1 By adopting pollution -0.05
emissions due to vehicular Dilution of impacts 0.1 control measures
traffic
Health Mining & crushing 1 Deteriorates workers Adverse 0.3 Adoption of effective -0.15
operations health due to air & noise Dilution of impacts 0.2 pollution control measures
pollution, accidents & injuries

Health Transportation 2 Deteriorates health due to air & Adverse 0.2 By adopting effective -0.1
noise pollution Dilution of impacts 0.1 pollution control measures
Health Provision of civic 3 Affects health through Adverse 0.0 By adopting pollution 0.0
amenities disposal of sewage on open land Dilution of impacts 0.1 control measures
which causes mosquito nuisance
water borne diseases
Health Plantation 4 Greenbelt development Adverse 0.0 By adopting pollution 0.0
shall have positive impact Dilution of impacts 0.1 control measures

Socio-economic Mining & crushing 1 Long term impacts Beneficial 0.5 Increased employment 0.5
aspects operations opportunities both direct
and indirect thereby
increasing economic
status of people
Socio-economic Colony & civic 2 Long term moderate Beneficial 0.10 Increased employment 0.20
aspects amenities impacts opportunities (mostly
indirect employment) and
thereby increase in the
economic status
Socio-economic Transport 3 Increased employment both by Beneficial 0.1 Employment is restricted to 0.10
aspects direct & indirect ways. limited persons
Employment in commercial
services, improved economic
status of people
Socio-economic Land acquisition for 4 Loss of land No Impact 0.0 Adequate compensation 0.00
aspects mine site Dilution 0.3 will be paid

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5.4.4 Weighted Environmental Impact Index (WEII)


It is necessary to establish RPII and EII in order to arrive at WEII. The WEII
is determined by multiplying RPII and EII of the corresponding interactions
[WEII]A=Interaction = [RPII]A=Interaction x [EII]A=Interaction

5.5 POTENTIAL IMPACT IDENTIFICATION WITHOUT MITIGATIVE


MEASURES
After arriving at WEII and PIV values as described above, the environmental
impact matrix incorporating all the environmental components and project
activities (without mitigative measures) are presented in Table 5.9.
Table 5.9 Impact Matrix Without Mitigative Measures

WEII Total
Impact Area PIV
(RPII x EII) (WEII x PIV)
Air quality -0.165 133.33 -21.99
Water resources -0.34 133.33 -45.33
Noise level -0.19 66.67 -12.66
Ground vibrations -1.0 33.33 -33.33
Hydrogeology and
-1.0 166.67 -166.67
drainage
Landuse and soil
-0.3 100.00 -30.00
characteristics
Fauna -0.82 66.67 -54.66
Flora -0.82 133.33 -109.33
Health -0.305 66.67 -20.33
Socio-economic 0.36 100.00 36.00
Total -453.3
The impact is calculated by multiplying the sum of all WEIIs against each
environmental component by its corresponding PIV. Total impact score is
calculated by adding all individual impact scores. The total impact score is
assessed by using the following relative scale:
Upto -200 No significant impact on environment
-200 to –400 Significant but reversible impact; Appropriate control measures are
important.
-400 to -600 Significant and mostly reversible in short term;
mitigation measures crucial.
-600 to -800 Major impact mostly irreversible.
-800 to –1000 Permanent irreversible impact.

5.6 SUMMARY OF IMPACTS


The total impact score is –453.3. This indicates that in the overall
consideration, Significant and mostly reversible impact in short term of the
project. Mitigation measures are crucial to mitigate the impact. The
predominantly affected environmental attributes are air quality, Noise levels
hydrogeology, land use and soil characteristics and health.
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5.7 POTENTIAL IMPACT IDENTIFICATION WITH MITIGATIVE


MEASURES
Components such as PIV, RPII, EII, WEII and sum of the above are arrived at
and the same are shown in Tables 5.10.
Table 5.10 Impact Matrix with Mitigative Measures

WEII Total
Impact Area PIV
(RPII x EII) (WEII x PIV)
Air quality -0.045 133.33 -5.99
Water resources -0.18 133.33 -23.99
Noise level -0.0275 66.67 -1.83
Ground vibrations -0.02 33.33 -0.666
Hydrogeology and
-0.7 166.67 -116.67
drainage
Landuse and soil
-0.02 100.00 -2.0
characteristics
Fauna -0.05 66.67 -3.33
Flora -0.05 133.33 -6.6
Health -0.065 66.67 -4.33
Socio-economic 0.27 100.00 27.00
Total 1000.00 -138.406
It is observed that the total score which was originally –453.3 (without
mitigative measures) has improved to –138.406 (with mitigative measures).

5.8 RESIDUAL IMPACT IDENTIFICATION


As discussed earlier, the negative score of –453.3 at pre-mitigative stage
indicates, significant and mostly reversible impact in short term of the project.
Mitigation measures are crucial to mitigate the impact (-138.406). Thus,
mitigative measures and strict adherence to EMP assumes greater importance.
various control measures such as afforestation programme, land reclamation,
dust suppression measures etc. have been proposed for mitigating the adverse
impacts. With regular monitoring of implementation of the suggested
environmental management measures, it is expected that environmental
quality of various affected parameters would be controlled to a great extent
and it will be possible to maintain the ecological setting of the region.

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CHAPTER 6
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN
6.1 INTRODUCTION
It has been envisaged that the study area will not be adversely affected
significantly and impacts will be confined to the proposed expansion of
mining site.
The Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is a site specific plan developed
to ensure that the project is implemented in an environmental sustainable
manner. EMP also ensures that the project implementation is carried out
taking appropriate mitigative actions to reduce adverse environmental impacts.

6.2 AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Mitigative measures suggested for air pollution controls are based on the
baseline ambient air quality of the area. From the point of view of
maintenance of an acceptable ambient air quality in the region, it is desirable
that air quality is monitored on a regular basis to check compliance of
standards as prescribed by CPCB. In case of non-compliance, appropriate
mitigative measures need to be checked.
As per the results of ambient air quality monitoring data, the background
concentrations of SPM, RSPM, SO2, CO and NOX are within the stipulated
CPCB standards for all of the samples. The proposed expansion of mining
operations and related activities are expected to add to the levels of air borne
particulate mainly during daytime. The addition of gaseous pollutants due to
the proposed expansion of mining activities is expected to be relatively low.
6.2.1 Controlling Dust Level
Dust would be generated during blasting, mining, crushing operations, and
also during handling and transportation of the material. The suggested control
measures are:
Mines
Dust suppression systems (water spraying) to be adopted at:
• Faces/sites before and after blasting,
• Faces/sites while loading; and
• Dust extraction systems to be used in drill machines; and
• Use of sharp drill bits for drilling holes and drills with water flushing
systems (wet drilling) to reduce dust generation.

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• Dense plantation of specific more efficient dust collector species


Stock-pile

• Mist sprays to be provided at appropriate places for preventing dust


pollution during handling and stockpiling of limestone; and
• OB waste dumps shall be sprayed with water, as they are the major
source of air borne particulate matter/dust.
Haulage
• Trucks will be covered with tarpaulin and over filling of tippers will be
strictly avoided
• Maintenance of haulage road on regular basis
• Regular water spraying on haulage roads during transportation of
limestone and waste by water sprinklers;
• Transfer points for transporting limestone to be provided with
appropriate hoods/chutes to prevent dust emissions; and
• Dumping of limestone and waste should from an optimum height
(preferably not too high) so as to reduce the dust blow.
Crusher
• Water sprinkling system to be provided to check any fugitive
emissions from the crushing operation.
• Installation of a dust collector at crusher
6.2.2 Controlling CO Levels
The concentration of CO in the ambient air is found to be below permissible
levels at all the air quality monitoring locations. Expected increase in the CO
concentration is very low as CO emissions from mining operations are less as
compared to other pollutants. Heavy and light vehicles are the major sources
of CO in the mine. All vehicles and their exhausts would be well maintained
and regularly tested for pollutants concentration.
6.2.3 Controlling NOX Levels
NOX emissions in the mine mainly occur during blasting operations. The main
reasons for NOX emissions are:
• Poor quality of explosives having large oxygen imbalance. This may be
due to:
• Manufacturing defect; and
• Use of expired explosives in which ingredients have disintegrated.

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• Incomplete detonation, which may be due to low Primer to Column ratio.


To ensure low NOX levels following control measures would be adopted:
• Use of good quality explosives having proper oxygen balance with regular
monitoring
• Regular updating of the date of manufacture/expiry to avoid confusions. A
normal procedure should be formulated to check/visually inspect all
explosives, and if disintegrated ingredients are spotted, the explosives
won't be used, even if the date has not expired; and
• The Primer to Column ratio would be rationalised so as to produce
minimum NOX.
6.2.4 Green Belt
Even with the various dust suppression measures in place, dust generated from
mine faces, fine dust produced during blasting operations are difficult to
control. Therefore, in addition to the above mitigative measures, it is proposed
to have dense green belt in and around the mine site, crushing, loading and
unloading facilities, mine colony and in abandoned mine area during
reclamation process.
It is expected that plants with 10, 20 and 30 m height can reduce dust pollution
by 50, 70 and 80% respectively. A combination of these would be planted
depending on the requirements and the extent of the problem.
6.2.5 Occupational Health & Safety Measures to Control Dust Inhalation
All the above precautions would be adopted to prevent dust generation at site
and to be dispersed in the outside environment. However, for the safety of
workers at site, engaged at the strategic locations/dust generation points like
drills, loading and unloading points, crushing etc., dust masks would be
provided. Dust masks would prevent inhalation of RSPM thereby reducing the
risk of lung diseases and other respiratory disorders. Regular health
monitoring of workers should be carried out by MML

6.3 NOISE POLLUTION CONTROL


The ambient noise level monitoring carried out in and around the mines shows
that the ambient noise levels are well within the stipulated limits of CPCB.
Within an operational mine, major noise sources are operation of mine
machineries and equipment, blasting, crushing units. Noise generation may be
for an instant, intermittent or continuous periods, with low to high decibels.
To keep noise generation in control, latest sophisticated technology and
equipment have been considered. Drills, loaders, dumpers etc with larger
capacities should be acquired to reduce the number of operational units at a
time, thereby reducing the noise generating sources.

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The equipment systems will include cabins to ensure that the operators and
other work persons, in and around the operating equipment, have comfortable
work stations. To keep the ambient noise levels within the permissible limits
of 75 dB(A), the following measures should be adopted:
• Innovative approaches of using improvised plant and machinery
designs, with in-built mechanism to reduce sound emissions like
improved silencers, mufflers and closed noise generating parts;
• Procurement of drill, loaders and dumpers and other equipment with
noise proof system in operator's cabin;
• Confining the equipment with heavy noise emissions in soundproof
cabins, so that noise is not transmitted to other areas;
• Regular and proper maintenance of noise generating machinery
including the transport vehicles and belt conveyors, to maintain the
noise levels;
• Blasting operations to be carried out only during daytime so as to avoid
high noise intensity in night time;
• Siting of mine colony, buildings and other infrastructure away from the
noise sources with the probability of sound waves being directed
towards them being least;
• Provision should be made for noise absorbing pads at foundations of
vibrating equipment to reduce noise emissions; and
• Thick green belt should be provided at the mine periphery, within the
mine lease area along the roads and all around the working areas, to
screen the noise
6.3.1 Occupational Health and Safety Measures to Control Exposure to Noise
To protect the workers from exposure to high levels of noise, following
measures would be adopted:
• Provision of protective devices like ear muffs/ear plugs to workers who
cannot be isolated from the source of high intensity noise, e.g. blasting;
• Confining the noise by isolating the source of noise as discussed
above; and reducing the exposure time of workers to the higher noise
levels by shift management.

6.4 CONTROL OF GROUND VIBRATIONS & FLY ROCKS BOULDER


General measures to reduce ground vibration & flyrocks resulting from
blasting are given below:

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• Peak particle velocity or ground vibrations for safety of nearby


structures and residential buildings should be well within 12.5 mm/sec;
• To contain fly rocks, stemming column should not be less than the
burden of the hole, and the blasting area should be muffled;
• Short delay detonators should preferably be used in blasting rounds
rather than detonating fuse as trunk line;
• Detonating fuse, if used, should be covered at least with 150 mm thick
cover of sand or drill cuttings.;
• Blasting should be carried out in the daytime, as during the night time
the sound intensity becomes higher;
• Blasting should not be carried out when strong winds are blowing
towards the inhabited areas;
• Each blast should be carefully planned, checked, and executed under
the supervision of a responsible officer. Blasting data/observations
should be recorded

6.5 WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT


6.5.1 Water Resources
The daily water requirement for the mine operations would be approximately
67 m3/day (59 m3/day for mine area and 8 m3/day for the Colony). The water
for mine area and colony is to be sourced from the one borewell outside the
mining lease area and stored in an water- tank provided at each of the
locations.
The generation of domestic wastewater from the colony will be approximately
6.4 m3/day, which will be treated in the septic tanks. The treated domestic
wastewater will be discharged in soak pit.
6.5.2 Water Management
Following measures will be adopted to mitigate the impact on the water
resources:
• The blasting activities will have to take care on the sinkholes, cracks
and fissures in the site activities.
• During excavation and drilling activities effort must be taken to avoid
face collapse at these cracks and fissures.
• To prevent surface water contamination by oil/grease, leak proof
containers shall be used for storage and transportation of oil/grease.
The floors of oil/grease handling area will be kept effectively
impervious.

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To prevent degradation and maintain the water quality during rainy season,
adequate control measures should be adopted to check the mine run-off into
the natural streams. Following control measures are proposed to be adopted
Catchment Area Treatment Plan
A catchment area treatment plan has been developed keeping in mind the
results of the hydrology/ hydrogeology study as well as the climate data. As
there are no perennial water sources running on or through the site, the mine
water discharge is limited to the monsoon season only. To keep water from
entering the mine during this period, a series of independent and un-linked
garland drains will be developed along the mine’s top bench, which will bend
to guide the water to the natural nullah drain which flows only during rainy
season. Bunds will also be provided. In order to prevent infiltration
downwards, blasted materials will be distributed and compacted on the
platforms as they progress and appropriate drains will be provided.
In terms of water quality, good mining practices planned, as well as the natural
state of surrounding areas, should ensure that rain water run-off from the mine
does not contain any toxic elements. As the site has no overburden or excess
clay, potential discharge of sediments is quite limited and any residual clay or
limestone particles which are washed down will be captured by a sump located
at the lowest bench. The sump will be cleaned regularly and discharge water
monitored consistently. If required, based on monitoring, an additional catch
pit can be located at the main garland drain.
Three Check dams are constructed across the nullah of appropriate size to
arrest silt and sediment flows from soil and mineral dumps. The water
collected should be utilised for watering the mine area, roads, green belt
development etc. The drain should be regularly desilted and maintained.
The surface water around the mine, crushing/loading plant and infrastructure
will be regularly tested and appropriate control measures adopted in case of
any pollutant is detected above the prescribed limits.

6.6 LAND MANAGEMENT

Land degradation is one of the major adverse impacts of opencast mining in


the form of excavated voids and also in the form of waste dumps. Land
reclamation plan must, therefore, be implemented simultaneously with the
mining activities.
6.6.1 Land Reclamation
One of the requirement of MMRD Act, 1957 is to ensure simultaneous
reclamation of land along with other mining operations.

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The first step in a successful reclamation programme is to decide the post


reclamation land use. In this case it is considered appropriate to convert the
most of land as water ponds and remaining land for plantation, keeping in
view the following:
• Bagalkote districts receives the lowest rainfall annually in Karnataka
• The climate of area is warm and dry through out the year and rainfall is
scare.
• The area is devoid of large canopy tree vegetation
The area affected by mining operations will be back filled by waste material
from the dumps. Still some voids will remain. Plantation will be undertaken in
the leasehold area, on waste dumps and vacant lands.
The degraded land due to various mining operations within the lease area need
restoration or reclamation by taking up suitable management methods as spelt
out below. The following measures are suggested for brining back the lease
area to near original or better land use.
• Green belt
• Areas to be dumped
• Reclamation of mined out areas.
Green belt:
Planting a suitable combination of trees that can grow fast and also have good
leaf density shall be adopted to develop the green belt. It will act like a buffer
to trap the airborne dust and also reduce the noise levels. From the aesthetic
point of view also, this will have a positive impact.
In the mining project it is proposed to develop a green belt over an extent of
8.85 ha. of the mining lease area. The green belt shall be developed in
consultation with the local forest authorities for selection of site, specific
species, seedling management, and plantation techniques and to up keep by
deweeding, manuring and regular watering.
Area to be dumped temporarily:
During initial stages of mining, some quantity of waste are dumped in the
mining lease area. This pure waste is accommodated in the dumping area of
7.50 ha. allotted for this purpose in a bench like manner in an ascending order.
This helps in the lower slice being consolidated and stabilized using retention
wall, concurrent to mining the slopes are afforested using grass and ageva.
Reclamation of Mined out Areas:
The mineral bearing area will be mined out up to ultimate depth by
maintaining proper bench height and width As a result of mining, an area of
30.00 ha. earmarked for excavation, a large sized pit shall be formed. After

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completion of mining operation about 9.00 ha. mined out area will be
afforested after proper reclamation and remaining 21 ha will be used as a
water pond for recharging of ground water. The benches shall be afforested
with local grass and plants. All along the edge of the pit fencing shall be made
and afforested with good root bearing species.
The reclamation of remaining land will be taken only after exhaust of ore. The
reclamation measures proposed will be back filling in a phased programme
wherever it is necessary. The deep pits after completion of mining which
could serve as a water ponds, will not be considered for back filling and will
be left as it is after taking necessary land scaping and providing protective
measures in the aspect of safety. The stage wise reclamation / afforestation
plan is given in Table 6.1. The post reclamation land use is given in Table 6.2
Table 6.1 : Stagewise Reclamation/Afforestation plan
Total
Sr.
Particulars Proposed for area in
No.
ha.
End of
5 th 10 th 15 th
2006-09 Mine
Year Year Year
Life
Area for
1 -- 1 1 1 27 30.00
excavation
Overburden /
2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 6.7 7.50
Dumps
Mineral storage,
3 including sub- -- -- -- 0.5 3.5 4.00
Grade ore stack
Infrastructure
(Workshop,
4 -- -- -- -- 2.00 2.00
Administrative
bldg)
5 Roads -- -- -- -- 3.00 3.00
6 Green Belt 2.60 0.6 0.6 0.6 4.45 8.85
Crushing Plant
7 &Screening -- -- -- -- 3.00 3.00
Plant
Area
8 -- -- -- -- -- 6.00
Unutililised
9 Total 2.80 1.8 1.80 2.30 49.65 64.35

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Table 6.2 Conceptual landuse plan (Post mining)


Total
Sr. Water
Purpose Infrastructure Afforestation Roads Others area
No. pond
in ha.
Area for
1 21 -- 9 -- -- 30.00
excavation
Overburden /
2 -- -- 7.50 -- -- 7.50
Dumps
Mineral
storage,
3 including sub- -- -- 4.00 -- -- 4.00
Grade ore
stack
Infrastructure
(Workshop,
4 -- 2.00 -- -- -- 2.00
Administrative
bldg)
5 Roads -- -- -- 3.0 -- 3.0
6 Green Belt -- -- 8.85 -- -- 8.85
Crushing Plant
7 &Screening -- -- 3.0 -- -- 3.0
Plant
Area
8 6.00 6.00
Unutililised
9 TOTAL 21 2.00 32.35 3.0 6.00 64.35

6.6.2 Top Soil Management


During the remaining 3 years of proposed plan period of 5 years the
generation of top soil will be 3000 m3 (5400 tonnes) This will be stored in a
top soil preservation yard selected near the dump site over an area of 0.40 ha.
This top soil will be utilized for agriculture purposes, by adjacent pattaland
owners and remaining soil will be stacked in stock yard.
To prevent wash off of dumps during rainy seasons following measures shall
be adopted
• The top soil/waste dump will be protected by construction of retaining
wall all along the toe of the dump.

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Figure 6.1: Conceptual Post Mining Land Use Plan

6.7 AFFORESTATION PLAN


The Afforestation (Restoration) plan has been prepared keeping in view the
land use changes that will occur due to mining operation in the area.
The objectives of the restoration plan are to:
• Reclaim the mined out areas by planting trees which are indigenous in
nature;
• Provide a green belt around the periphery of the mining area to combat
the dispersal of dust in the adjoining areas;

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• Protect the erosion of the soil;


• Conserve moisture for increasing ground water recharging;
• Restore the ecology of the area;
• Restore aesthetic beauty of the locality; and
• Meet the requirement of fodder, fuel and timber of the local
community.
6.7.1 Afforestation Already Carried Out
As per the approved mining plan it was proposed to plant 1250 species of
plant sapling during the 5 years plan period. Against this 2000 saplings
covering an area of 2.00 ha. afforestation carried out in the area for the 2 years
period. However again it is proposed to take up afforestation during next 3
years. The details of afforestation are given in Table 6.3
Table 6.3: Afforestation Already Carried Out
No. of
Sr. No. Year Area Type of Species
Species
1 2004-2005 1 1000 Neem, Tamarind and
2 2005-2006 1 1000 other fruit bearing
species
3 2 Year 2.0 2000

6.7.2 Afforestation Proposed


It is proposed to take up afforestation during next 3 years. (2006-07 to 2008-
2009). The details are given in Table 6.4
Table 6.4: Afforestation Proposed
No. of
Sr. No. Year Area Type of Species
Species
1 2006-2007 0.20 400 Neem, Tamarind and
2 2007-2008 0.20 400 other fruit bearing
species
3 2008-2009 0.20 400
4 3 Year 0.60 1200

6.7.3 Stage Wise Cumulative Plantation


The details of stage wise cumulative plantation plan is given in Table 6.5

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Table 6.5 Stage Wise Cumulative Plantation


Unworked Plantation Plantation Others(After Total
Sr. Plantation
Year area green Outside Along Road Reclaman
No. over dumps
belt dumps Side ation)
Area Area Area Area Area
Trees Trees Trees Trees Trees
(ha.) (ha.) (ha.) (ha.) (ha.)
2006-09
1 2006-07 -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.20 400 -- -- 0.20 400
2 2007-08 0.20 400 -- -- 0.10 200 -- -- -- -- 0.30 600
3 2008-09 0.10 200 0.10 200 0.10 200 -- -- 0.30 600
1st fifth
year
4 2009-10 -- -- -- -- 0.10 200 -- -- 0.10 200
5 2010-11 -- -- -- -- 0.10 200 0.10 200 -- -- 0.20 400
6 2011-12 -- -- 0.10 200 0.10 200 -- -- -- -- 0.20 400
7 2012-13 0.10 200 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.10 200
8 2013-14 0.20 400 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.20 400
2st fifth
year
9 2014-15 -- -- -- -- 0.10 200 -- -- 0.10 200
10 2015-16 -- -- -- -- 0.10 200 0.10 200 -- -- 0.20 400
11 2016-17 -- -- 0.10 200 0.10 200 -- -- -- -- 0.20 400
12 2017-18 0.10 200 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.10 200
13 2018-19 0.20 400 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.20 400
3rd fifth
0.2 400 0.2 400 0.2 400 0.2 400 -- -- 0.8 1600
year
End of
15 4.45 8,900 3.00 6,000 6.7 13,400 3.00 6,000 10.0 20,000 27.15 54,300
mine
16 Total 5.55 11,100 3.5 7,000 7.5 15,000 3.8 7,600 10.0 20,000 30.35 60,700

6.8 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


The generation of waste during the course of mining will be 2.36 million
tonnes. The overburden will be transported to the dump yard located away
from the workings. The area selected for dump yard is around 7.50 hectares is
sufficient to accommodate the waste generated during the course of mine.
The waste dumps will be built in bench systems starting from downwards in
an ascending manner. This helps in forming terraces. Each dump will have a
height of 20 m with a slope of 28°. This waste dump will be protected by way
of construction of retention wall all along the toe of the dump to prevent wash
offs during rainy seasons.
Domestic solid wastes includes kitchen waste, plastic packets, sanitary
napkins, vegetable residuals, fish scales/ bones etc. from the proposed mine
site colony. The colony will contain approximately 14 families. Considering 5
persons per family and each person will generate 0.5 kg of solid waste per day,
i.e. 2.5 kg per family per day. This will result in generation of 35 kg solid

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waste per day. This solid waste will be disposed off through local
municipality.
The Environment and Management plan is given in Figure 6.2.
The Waste Dump Management Plan for the end of mining is shown in Figure
6.3 and the sections are shown in Figure 6.4.

6.9 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & HYGIENE


In order to assess the health and hygiene, the following tests will be conducted
once in 5 years by the organization at Chikkashellikere Limestone Mine.
Blood, Urine, Chest X-Ray , PET, Lung Function Test, ECG, Audiometry,
ENT

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Figure 6.2: Environment Management Plan

TO VIL
LAGE

TO VILLAGE

SE
AS
ON
AL
NU
LL
AH

LEGEND
CONTOUR PLAN
CONCEPTIUAL PIT PLAN

ROADS ALREADY AFFORESTATION

PROPOSED DUMP YARD PROPOSED AFFORESTATION

PRIVATE AREA 60 m BOUNDARY

RETENTION WALL 500 m BOUNDARY Client Name: M/S. MYSORE MINERALS LIMITED.
Name of Mine: Chikkashellikeri Limestone Mines
Sheet Title: Environment Management Plan
M. L. BOUNDARY Plate No: Scale:
Scale:
Consultant Name: NETEL (INDIA) LTD.
0 20 40 60 80 100m
S. V. Road., Manpada
Thane (W) - 400 607

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Figure 6.3: Waste Management Plan for end of mining

540.630
539
PIT NO. 3

533.078 542.128
542

X1'
PIT NO. 2
533.640 545

541.128

50
.4
543

528.888

TO V
ILLA
GE

PIT NO. 1
548

526.298
545

533.000 542

539 537.338
.288

TO VILLAGE

L1 L1'
535.920

SE
AS
539 ON
AL
NU
LL
AH

542

X1
545

LEGEND 548
L2 L2'
CONTOUR PLAN
CONCEPTIUAL PIT PLAN

ROADS

EXISTING DUMPS

PROPOSED DUMPS

M. L. BOUNDARY
Client Name: M/S. MYSORE MINERALS LIMITED.
SECTION LINE Name of Mine: Chikkashellikeri Limestone Mines
Sheet Title: Dump Management Plan
RETENTION WALL Scale:
Plate No: Scale:
0 20 40 60 80 100m
Consultant Name: NETEL (INDIA) LTD.
WORKINGS S. V. Road., Manpada
Thane (W) - 400 607

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Figure 6.4: Sections of Waste Management Plan

610

590

570

ORIGINAL PROFILE
550

530

510
SECTION X1 - X1'

610

590

570

550 ORIGINAL PROFILE


LEGEND
530

510 ORIGIONAL PROFILE


SECTION L1 - L1'
PROPOSED DUMP YARD

610

590

570
ORIGINAL PROFILE
550

530
Client Name: M/S. MYSORE MINERALS LIMITED.
510 Name of Mine: Chikkashellikeri Limestone Mines
SECTION L2 - L2' Sheet Title:Conceptual Sections of Dump Management
Plate No: Scale:
Consultant Name: NETEL (INDIA) LTD.
S. V. Road., Manpada
Thane (W) - 400 607

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6.10 PROPOSED SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES


Apart from the various environmental protection measures, the company is
conscious of its social responsibility and as any good corporate citizen, it is
undertaking the following works in the surrounding areas of the mine.
• Participating in the “Ashraya Yojana Scheme” of Taluk Panchayat by
leveling the ground to build houses for economically weaker sections
of the society.(Rs. 1 lakhs)
• Health camps arrangement and distribution of medicines freely (Rs. 1
lakhs)
• Construction of kitchens at Anganwadi schools of the nearby villages
to help in the hygienic preparation of food for mid-day meals scheme
(Rs. 1 lakhs)
• Supply of sports goods / sponsoring of painting works to schools of the
surrounding villages (Rs. 0.50 lakhs)
• Supporting Cultural Programs, Health Care Camps, Annual Festivals
organized by villagers (Rs. 0.50 lakhs)
• Maintenance of Temples in the surrounding villages (Rs. 0.50 lakhs).
The total expenditure for social development is works out to be 4.5 lakhs

6.11 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL & MONITORING PROGRAMME


For successful implementation of an EMP, it is important that an effective
environmental monitoring cell should be set up whose role would be to check
the efficiency of the organisational set up responsible for implementation of
EMP. The organisational and institutional structure of the proposed
Environmental Management Cell is described below.
6.11.1 Environmental Management Cell (EMC)
A Cell for Environmental Management within MML at the project level, will
take the overall responsibility for co-ordination of the actions required for
environmental management and mitigation, and for monitoring the progress of
the proposed management plans and actions to be taken for the project. The
Cell will be headed by a qualified environmental engineer and the other
members of the cell that will include a Geologist, Mine Manager, Assistant
Manager. The cell will report to CEO of organization directly for regular
compliances.
The EMC will prepare a formal report on environmental management at six-
monthly intervals. Reports on any urgent or significant issues may be prepared

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at shorter intervals. Apart from responsibilities listed above, the EMC will
have the responsibility of the following:
• Collection of water and air samples within and outside the work zone;
• Analysing the water and air samples;
• Implementation of the control and protective measures;
• Land reclamation and vegetation;
• Co-ordination of the environment related activities within MML
• Collection of the statistics of health of workers;
• Green belt development including nursery management;
• Awareness and implementing safety programmes; and
• Monitor the progress of implementation of EMP.
6.11.2 Monitoring Schedule and Parameters
The purpose of environmental monitoring is to evaluate the effectiveness of
implementation of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) by periodically
monitoring the important environmental parameters within the impact area, so
that any adverse affects are detected and timely action can be taken.
A suggested monitoring protocol, based on the predicted impacts, is given in
Table 6.6.

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Table 6.6: Suggested Monitoring Program


Sr. Environmental Locations Parameters Period and Frequency
No. attribute
1. Ambient Air In each active Criteria Pollutants: One sample over 24
Quality mining field SO2, NOX, SPM, PM10, hours continuous
One at centre CO duration, twice in a week
throughout
One Upwind & the year.
One downwind .
location
2. Surface and In the vicinity of Drinking water Once in the three month
Ground water the mine area parameters as per IS
Quality 10500.
3. Ambient Noise Mining Site dB(A) levels Hourly day and night
Level time Leq dB(A) levels
every quarter
4. Treated sewage Septic Tank Outlet Parameters pH, TSS, Twice a week for
water quality TDS, COD, BOD and selected parameter
Oil and Grease.
5 Soil quality Reclaimed areas Organic matter, C, H, Once a year
and adjoining N, Alkalinity, Acidity,
villages heavy metals and trace
metal. Alkalinity,
Acidity.
6 Inventory of Project monitoring Once a year
flora area
7 Socio-economic Nearby areas of Physical Survey Once in two year
condition of mining site
local population

For effective implementation and mid-term corrective measures, if required,


monitoring and control of programme implementation are essential.
For air, water and noise pollution control measures, it has been suggested that
samples would be collected and tested all round the year with appropriate
frequency at strategic places by suitable agencies. In case, it is found that any
of the control parameters exceed the tolerance limit as fixed by the
State/Central Pollution Control Board or any other statuary body, preventive
measures will be taken and if required expert opinion will be sought for proper
remedial measures.
EMC would be responsible for the three major functions such as impact
analysis, environmental pollution control and monitoring.
6.11.3 Budget Provision for EMP
It is necessary to include the environmental cost as a part of the budgetary cost
component. It is proposed to take up protective measures like construction of
check dams and retaining walls near the toes of the dumps. The haul roads
both within the lease and outside the mining lease including roads leading to

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the crushing plant are being watered and good drainage system would be
maintained. The project authorities propose to undertake the following
environmental works to achieve the environmental quality as desired.
Adequate budgetary provision has been made by the company for execution of
Environmental Management Plan. The details of budget is given Table 6.7
Table 6.7: Budget for Environmental Protective Measures in Rs. Lakhs
Capital cost Annual recurring cost
S. No.
Existing Proposed Existing Proposed
Pollution Control
ƒ Dust Collector 0.8 1.5 0.16 0.3
ƒ Water Sprayer 1.5 4.0 0.3 1.0
ƒ Garland Drains 0.6 1.1 0.12 0.22
ƒ Check Dam 0.9 1.6 0.18 0.32
1
ƒ Plantation on dumps 0.5 1.5 0.1 0.3
ƒ Drains along Roads 0.5 1.2 0.1 0.24
ƒ Green belt 0.8 1.0 0.16 0.2
development
ƒ Retention wall 0.9 1.3 0.18 0.26
Total 6.5 13.2 1.3 2.64
2 Pollution Monitoring 0.60 1.70 0.12 0.34
3 Social Development Work 1.50 4.5 0.3 0.9
3 Occupational Health 0.45 2.25 0.09 0.45
4 Community Development 0.75 1.50 0.15 0.3
Reclamation / Rehabilitation of
5 mined out area 0.60 2.0 0.12 0.4
ƒ Dozer
Others (specify)
6 ƒ EIA/EMP Studies -- 6.0 -- 1.2

Grand Total 10.4 31.15 2.08 6.23

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CHAPTER 7
DISASTERS MANAGEMENT PLAN
7.1 DEFINITION
In a open cast mines chances of accidents due to fall of overburden, side
collapses, failure of machineries/ vehicles are some of the causes which derail
the normal activities in the mines resulting in manday’s and financial losses to
the management. These losses vary from place to place, nature, intensity of the
accidents, personal /machinery/involved. In case of this area the incidence is
expected to be minimum as the working will be only by open cast manual
method.
The disasters management is one area where it is necessary for the
management to take charges of situation to avoid the losses and its effects to
the maximum

7.2 SCOPE
In a mining organization the disaster as explained above may be due to human
failure, machinery failure, and natural calamities. All these result in reducing
the efficiency of the organization. The scope of this is to take proper steps to
reduce the impact due to disasters caused by any of the above reason and bring
back the operations to the normal position.
The mining operation shall be carried out under the management control and
direction of a qualified mines manager holding a first class manager’s
certificate of competency to manage a metalluferous mine granted by Director
of Mines Safety (DMS), Margoa DMS/ have been issuing a number of
standing orders and circulars to be followed by the mine management in case
of disaster, if any.

7.3 IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF HAZARDS


Following natural/ industrial hazards may occur during normal operation:
• Slope failure at the mine faces;
• Accident due to explosives;
• Accident due to heavy equipment/machinery;
• Sabotage in case of magazine; and
• Accidents due to fly rocks and boulders.

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7.4 CONTROL MEASURES FOR HAZARDS/DISASTERS


In order to take care of above hazards/disasters, the following control shall be
adopted:
• Entry of unauthorised persons shall be prohibited;
• Fire fighting and first aid provisions in the mines office complex and
mining Area;
• Provision of all the safety appliances such as safety boots, helmets,
goggles etc. would be made available to the employees and regular
check to ensure the use;
• Training and refresher courses for all the employees working in the
hazardous premises;
• Working of mine as per approved plan, related amendments and other
regulatory provisions;
• Cleaning of mine faces shall be done regularly;
• Handling of explosives, charging and blasting shall be carried out by
competent persons only;
• Provision of magazine at safe place with fencing and necessary
security arrangement;
• Suppression of dust on the haulage roads;
• Awareness of safety and disaster through competitions, posters and
other similar drives;

7.5 ONSITE EMERGENCY PLAN


Mysore Minerals Ltd. has been prepared on site emergency plan to control the
disasters /risk. The details of this is given below
Mining Process method. The benches of 5 m height and 10 m width will be
maintained. The bench slope is maintain at 60° to the horizontal to
maintain the stability. The overburden and ore removed is
transported to their respective stock yard.
Control Room Manager office is located 0.25 km from the site
Mine In charge Mines Manager/Mine Foreman
Account for personnel Time keeper/ Mine mate
evaluation
Training The pit In charge are given sufficient training in group vocational
training center for the steps to be followed
Information to Govt. The manager on receipt of information from the pit in charge
Offices about the disasters shall inform the Govt. offices, relatives by
either phone or special message at the earliest time.
Safety in Transportation The road leading to mine/disposal yard, stock yard shall be kept
with a gradient of not more than 1/16 as per the provisions of the
MMR

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Fire Fighter in the plant Provisions have been made to keep portable fire extinguishes in
the control room located near the working area
Safe storage of Presently the required explosives are brought from the magazine
explosives situated at Neralakere dolomite mines belongs to the company.
The distance from magazine to mine is 25 kms the company has
taken all precautions measures stipulated during transportation of
explosives.
Implements Required for Mining Tools, Safety belts, Rope etc.
Repair
Special Duties When ever an accident/disasters takes place, the manager/pit
incharge will arrange for barricading the location to avoid
unwanted people entering in to the area
Relief and Rehabilitation Immediately after the accident/disaster the personal involved shall
be taken to the nearest hospital and medical aid as required shall
be given. Depending upon the nature of the injury the person
shall be given rest/compensation as per the provisions of MMR
and if possible to provide alternate employment to the persons
involved in the accident
Address of the owner M/s. Mysore Minerals Ltd.
No. 39, M. G. Road,
Bangalore - 560001
Adress of the Manager Manager,
M/s. Mysore Minerals Limited,
Chikkashellikeri Limestone Mines
Post: Chikkashellikeri
Tal: Bagalkote
Dist: Bagalkote
Maximum no of persons 92
to be employed
Hazardous Material to be Nil
stored in premises at
quantities
Hazardous operations Nil

Possible Hazards Side / Bench collapse, Break down


Method used for By observation
identification
Nature of Identified Side collapse and failure of machineries
Hazards
Population in 5 km The villages with in 5 kms radius having the details of population
Radius collected as per census 2001 is as follows
Chikkashellikere 1639
Hireshellikere 1912
Govinakoppa 1040
Kalaskoppa 589
Yandigere 1724
Karadigudda 553
Nirbhudihal 2077
Total 9534
List of adjacent Except quarrying no other industries are located in the area
industries
Normal Wind Direction NWW
List of possible Side collapse
Accidents effect for
which remain with in
premises
List of possible Failure of Vehicles
Accidents effect for
which may be felt

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outside
No of people likely to be Maximum 2 to 3
affected
Mechanisation by which Pit incharge/ Mine foreman/ Mine mate
the declarer come to
know of accident
Identification of Control Mine Manager Office
Room
Facilities Available First Aid, Drinking Water, Telephone, Electricity, Stretcher, Etc.
Whether workers are YES
trained
Arrangement for The attendance register maintained by the pit incharge gives the
accounting personal actual no of persons in the mine and the affected persons can be
identified by head counting
Arrangement for First Aid will be provided at the spot/ office and if necessary the
treatment of injured patent shall be shifted to the nearest hospital located at Bagalkote
workers about 25 km by company vehicle/ obtaining ambulance from the
hospital depending upon the emergency.
Details of Hospital/ Bagalkote, which is 25 kms from the site having Govt. Hospital
Clinic and no. of private nursing homes/ clinics have excellent medical
facilities are available
Arrangement to give Immediately after the receipt of information from the pit and
information to relative / depending upon the extent of disaster, the manager will arrange to
official communicate the relatives/ officials concerned of both district and
central Govt. by telephone / Telegram / Fax or through a special
messanger

FOR NETEL (INDIA) LIMITED FOR MYSORE MINERALS LIMITED

Authorised Signatory Mr. H. Sanjeeve Gowda


Asst. General Manager (Env)

FOR MYSORE MINERALS LIMITED

G. Selvakumar, IFS
Executive Director

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ANNEXURES
ANNEXURE – I

MINE LEASE AREA NOTIFICATION

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Rapid – EIA Study Annexures

ANNEXURE – II

COPY OF APPROVAL OF MINING PLAN

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M/s Netel (India) Ltd. 112


Rapid – EIA Study Annexures

ANNEXURE – III

PHOTOGRAPHS OF MINE AND ITS SURROUNDINGS


Adjacent Road to Project Site

Mining Site

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North Side View of Mining site

Approach Road to Mining Pit

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ANNEXURE IV-A

Year wise and Month wise Minimum Temperature (0C) from 1991-2005

MONTH
YEAR Avg
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1991 15.2 16.1 19.7 22.6 22.9 22.1 21.2 20.9 21 20.7 17.7 14.3 19.5
1992 13 16.4 20.1 23.1 23.5 22.2 21.6 20.7 20.6 20.3 19.1 13.7 19.5
1993 13.1 15.2 19.7 22 22.2 21.7 21.1 20.3 20.1 19.9 17.7 13.6 18.9
1994 15 14.4 15.9 17.9 18.5 16.8 17 16.6 17.8 22.7 20.1 13.5 17.2
1995 15 17.5 20.7 23.4 23.5 24.1 22.5 21.1 21.7 21.3 17.5 15.5 20.3
1996 15.5 17.7 20.5 23.2 23.3 22.1 21.4 21.1 21.4 20.5 17.8 15.6 20
1997 15.3 14.7 19.7 21.5 23.3 22.3 21.9 21.2 21.3 21.2 20.1 xx 20.2
1998 xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
1999 xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
2000 xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
2001 15.2 15.2 18.9 21.6 22.5 22.1 21 21.1 20.3 xx xx xx 19.8
2002 14.5 15.6 17 19.9 20.7 19.6 20 20 21 21.3 17.1 14.4 18.4
2003 15.5 17.8 21.4 23.2 24.1 23.9 23.2 22 21.6 21.1 18 15 20.6
2004 14.7 16.7 20.4 23.5 23.5 21.8 22 21.1 21.5 20.4 17.6 13.5 19.7
2005 15.7 16.4 18.9 22.4 23.5 23.4 22.6 21.7 21.4 20.8 16 14.1 19.7
Average 14.8 16.1 19.4 22 22.6 21.8 21.3 20.7 20.8 20.9 18.1 14.3 19.4
Note: XX - Data not available

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Year wise and Month wise Maximum Temperature (0C) from 1991-2005

MONTH
YEAR Avg
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1991 32.5 34.8 38.3 39.3 39.2 32.8 27.9 28.7 31.2 32 28.9 28.5 32.8
1992 29.4 32.3 37 38.8 38.8 32.2 31.3 28.9 31.2 30.5 29.2 27.7 32.3
1993 30 31.5 35.2 38.3 38.8 33 29.5 28.6 29.2 29.7 29.6 27.4 31.7
1994 29.4 31.9 36.7 36.5 39.8 30 28.2 28.1 30.8 29.8 28.3 27.9 31.4
1995 27.7 32.8 35.6 38 35.9 33 28.4 30 29.3 29.2 29.7 28.9 31.5
1996 30.3 32.3 37.1 38.7 39.3 32.2 29.4 28.4 29 28.2 29.3 27.1 31.8
1997 28.4 32.4 36.5 36.5 38.6 32.3 29.8 28.5 32.1 32 30.7 xx 32.5
1998 xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
1999 xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
2000 xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
2001 27.3 31.1 32.3 33 36.8 31.5 31.5 32.1 30.9 xx xx xx 31.8
2002 29.2 29.9 31.7 35.6 36.6 32.2 31.3 31.2 31.5 30.8 29.4 28.7 31.5
2003 28.7 33 35 37.1 38.5 33.2 29.1 29.9 29.9 30.2 29.3 28.3 31.8
2004 29.2 31.3 36.1 37.2 32.8 30.9 29.1 28.3 29.3 29.5 29 27.9 30.9
2005 29.3 31.7 34.7 35 36.6 31 28.3 28.1 28.7 29.1 28.5 28.3 30.8
Average 29.3 32.1 35.5 37 37.6 32 29.5 29.2 30.3 30.1 29.3 28.1 31.7
Note: XX - Data not available

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ANNEXURE IV-B

Monthly Average Relative Humidity (%) at 08:30 hrs.


MONTH
YEAR Total
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1991 69 68 67 73 75 80 81 83 80 75 74 72 74.8
1992 72 69 63 62 70 74 76 79 74 76 73 68 71.3
1993 67 56 61 63 71 76 76 79 79 76 67 66 69.8
1994 73 62 57 60 64 72 73 74 69 75 69 58 67.1
1995 73 68 64 68 73 80 81 78 80 79 65 70 73.2
1996 70 66 59 62 72 79 77 79 81 79 76 75 72.9
1997 73 70 65 69 74 76 75 74 73 73 71 xx 72.1
1998 xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
1999 xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
2000 xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
2001 55 52 57 66 56 59 62 60 61 59 xx 47 57.6
2002 64 65 54 73 70 64 62 61 71 81 70 68 69.9
2003 66 61 58 74 74 77 79 82 80 80 71 70 72.7
2004 76 71 76 80 89 87 89 84 89 78 67 66 79.3
2005 64 58 73 65 83 80 84 81 81 80 61 59 72.4
Average 68.6 63.8 62.8 67.9 72.6 75.3 76.3 76.2 76.6 75.9 69.5 65.4 71
Note: XX - Data not available

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Monthly Average Relative Humidity (%) at 17:30 hrs.

MONTH
YEAR Total
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1991 40 33 40 49 51 65 76 74 61 56 52 42 53.3
1992 38 39 33 40 43 60 57 68 56 58 59 41 49.3
1993 44 33 42 38 41 58 68 67 63 60 54 50 51.5
1994 58 42 29 38 33 68 70 67 54 64 56 40 51.6
1995 54 50 41 44 52 66 74 61 69 66 53 48 56.6
1996 45 50 34 36 38 60 66 67 71 70 58 61 54.7
1997 51 41 40 45 43 63 68 72 58 59 54 xx 54
1998 xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
1999 xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
2000 xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
2001 57 55 58 67 63 59 63 59 53 48 xx 52 57.6
2002 57 50 57 71 66 68 62 46 44 60 45 44 55.8
2003 43 35 34 55 41 58 67 72 73 55 45 49 52.3
2004 57 60 59 59 72 75 75 70 70 54 42 38 60.9
2005 40 34 48 37 38 66 73 67 66 68 43 37 51.4
Average 48.7 43.6 42.9 48.3 48.4 63.8 68.3 65.8 61.5 59.8 51 45.6 54
Note: XX - Data not available

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ANNEXURE IV-C

Historical Data of Rainfall (in mm)

MONTH
YEAR Total
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1991 0 0 5 60 50 233 29 89 47 90 5 0 608
1992 0 0 0 12 7 179 10.2 101 66 56 139 0 570.2
1993 0 0 5 25 115 43 31 66 65 348 24 62 784
1994 0 0 0 43 17 49 41 66 22 144 7 0 389
1995 14 0 0 32 61 64 98.3 43 203 129 0 0 644.3
1996 0 0 0 9 36 163 50 97 308 158 4 10 835
1997 4 0 0 11 25 143 38 30 139.2 xx xx 19 409.2
1998 0 xx 0 0 54.3 136.6 128 66.3 153.3 238.4 13 0 789.9
1999 0 9 0 0 105.8 60 60.2 68.3 82.3 227.3 0 0 612.9
2000 7 0 0 6 62.1 50 19 76.3 101 159.2 8 xx 488.6
2001 0 0 0 8.6 7.8 11.2 13 55 192.9 xx xx xx 288.5
2002 0 0 0 28 14 230.9 26.5 87 1 114.6 8.4 0 510.4
2003 0 0 0 42.4 0 11.3 48 32 5.2 74.2 5.2 0 218.3
2004 0 0 0 0 85 11.1 96 19.8 121.2 72.6 4 0 409.7
2005 0 0 0 40 16.4 66.4 80.9 78 55.2 148.5 0 0 485.4
Average 1.7 0.6 0.7 21.1 43.8 96.8 51.3 65 104.1 150.7 16.7 7 559.5

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ANNEXURE IV-D1

Daily Maximum, Minimum Temperature and Relative Humidity

(December 2006)

Temperature in 0C Relative Humidity in %


Date
Max. Min. Max. Min.
01.12.2006 28.8 13.2 81 29
02.12.2006 29.2 12.4 72 34
03.12.2006 29.8 15.5 73 50
04.12.2006 28.0 20.5 61 59
05.12.2006 27.8 21.7 71 46
06.12.2006 29.2 18.2 58 44
07.12.2006 30.6 16.0 58 37
08.12.2006 28.8 12.7 43 28
09.12.2006 27.8 10.4 41 37
10.12.2006 26.3 11.0 46 30
11.12.2006 28.4 14.9 60 40
12.12.2006 32.8 11.5 46 43
13.12.2006 32.6 17.2 57 39
14.12.2006 28.5 14.8 65 35
15.12.2006 26.5 12.7 62 53
16.12.2006 27.8 13.0 55 26
17.12.2006 28.0 10.2 53 27
18.12.2006 29.3 14.1 57 36
19.12.2006 28.8 12.1 57 39
20.12.2006 28.5 13.9 61 39
21.12.2006 29.2 12.7 62 27
22.12.2006 26.0 15.7 58 36
23.12.2006 29.2 15.5 60 36
24.12.2006 28.5 14.4 73 41
25.12.2006 27.6 17.0 81 40
26.12.2006 26.8 14.0 60 31
27.12.2006 26.0 12.4 51 26
28.12.2006 26.8 10.7 43 27
29.12.2006 27.0 11.3 52 41
30.12.2006 27.6 12.0 60 34
31.12.2006 27.8 12.8 66 41

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ANNEXURE IV-D2

Daily Maximum, Minimum Temperature and Relative Humidity

(January 2007)

Temperature in 0C Relative Humidity in %


Date
Max. Min. Max. Min.
01.01.2007 26.6 12.4 65 34
02.01.2007 26.8 12.5 71 41
03.01.2007 27.3 12.4 67 46
04.01.2007 26.8 13.2 65 52
05.01.2007 26.8 12.8 60 29
06.01.2007 27.8 13.5 65 27
07.01.2007 27.2 13.5 62 29
08.01.2007 27.8 12.9 58 27
09.01.2007 27.2 13.7 45 41
10.01.2007 26.6 17.8 74 47
11.01.2007 29.3 16.0 72 71
12.01.2007 27.0 15.9 70 41
13.01.2007 29.8 15.1 71 35
14.01.2007 30.5 14.0 74 37
15.01.2007 28.3 14.8 68 35
16.01.2007 28.2 13.8 63 30
17.01.2007 31.2 13.5 60 31
18.01.2007 30.6 14.4 60 44
19.01.2007 31.6 15.4 56 30
20.01.2007 33.2 16.2 50 27
21.01.2007 31.0 16.5 61 54
22.01.2007 31.0 14.8 70 30
23.01.2007 32.5 14.5 45 22
24.01.2007 30.6 11.4 44 22
25.01.2007 28.2 14.5 40 19
26.01.2007 27.5 13.4 59 46
27.01.2007 25.6 12.5 45 27
28.01.2007 27.8 12.0 40 15
29.01.2007 28.2 13.3 58 30
30.01.2007 28.6 13.0 43 28
31.01.2007 29.8 14.0 53 19

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ANNEXURE IV-D3

Daily Maximum, Minimum Temperature and Relative Humidity

(February 2007)

Temperature in 0C Relative Humidity in %


Date
Max. Min. Max. Min.
01.02.2007 29.2 13.8 55 21
02.02.2007 30.0 12.9 48 19
03.02.2007 29.2 12.5 62 34
04.02.2007 29.3 14.4 63 37
05.02.2007 30.5 15.5 46 27
06.02.2007 28.3 12.8 38 21
07.02.2007 30.3 12.5 62 20
08.02.2007 30.5 13.0 50 24
09.02.2007 30.5 14.5 33 24
10.02.2007 30.0 14.5 52 22
11.02.2007 29.8 13.8 46 24
12.02.2007 30.5 12.7 56 28
13.02.2007 28.6 14.6 45 40
14.02.2007 29.6 13.5 44 22
15.02.2007 34.5 13.7 51 18
16.02.2007 32.5 14.8 58 26
17.02.2007 32.8 15.4 63 20
18.02.2007 35.2 16.6 54 48
19.02.2007 32.8 17.4 51 21
20.02.2007 33.8 16.2 51 39
21.02.2007 34.0 16.7 45 16
22.02.2007 34.3 17.0 48 19
23.02.2007 34.3 17.4 48 18
24.02.2007 34.0 17.0 44 19
25.02.2007 33.8 16.0 49 28
26.02.2007 33.8 15.5 70 24
27.02.2007 29.3 15.6 71 46
28.02.2007 33.3 16.9 66 53

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ANNEXURE IV-E1

Daily Average Wind Speed and Direction (Winter Season -2006, December)
Calm <1.8 Direction wise Average Wind Speed (km/hr) Excluding Calm Cloud Cover
Date kmph E ENE NE NNE N NNW NW WNW W WSW SW SSW S SSE SE ESE (Octas)
1.12.2006 0.9 4.5 4.4 5.4 4.6 4.6 4.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.1 0
2.12.2006 1 3.5 5.2 3.6 3.9 5.5 4.2 4 2.2 0 0 0 2.8 0 2.4 4.1 2.2 1
3.12.2006 0.9 4.7 3.6 2.3 3.2 2.7 2.7 3.2 2.8 0 0 3.1 0 0 0 0 2.4 0
4.12.2006 1.2 4.4 1.9 3.8 5.2 2.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.7 4.8 0 0 4.6 2
5.12.2006 1.4 5.8 0 2.1 0 0 3.9 5 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.4 0 0 0 0 0 3
6.12.2006 0.6 3.2 2.1 2.4 2.3 0 4.7 5.8 4.7 4.6 5.4 5 0 2.1 2.6 0 2.3 2
7.12.2006 0.8 5.2 0 3.2 0 3.5 5 5.2 4.9 5 0 4.7 0 0 0 0 0 1
8.12.2006 1.5 5.1 2.5 4.7 6.1 0 0 0 4.1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2.2 0
9.12.2006 0.6 3.3 0 0 0 0 2.8 3.3 2.3 2.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
10.12.2006 0.4 4 4.2 4 4.5 4.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.1 5.2 4.2 3
11.12.2006 1 3.8 0 0 2.7 0 4.1 4.1 0 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
12.12.2006 0.9 2.8 2.1 3.1 0 2.4 2.8 3.1 3.4 3.7 3.8 0 0 0 2.4 0 0 3
13.12.2006 0.8 3.3 3.1 2.7 5 3.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.1 2
14.12.2006 0.8 2.4 4.3 5.1 5.8 4.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.7 0 3.2 0 0 1
15.12.2006 1.3 4.8 5 4.6 4.7 3.7 5.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.4 4.3 2
16.12.2006 1 4.9 4.9 3.9 6.2 4.2 5.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.2 4.8 0
17.12.2006 0.5 3.8 3.8 2.6 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.7 2.9 4
18.12.2006 1.7 2.5 3.2 3.3 0 4.3 0 0 0 0 0 2.4 0 1.9 2.8 2.1 4.2 0
19.12.2006 0.6 3.5 4 3.6 4.7 4 3.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.4 1
20.12.2006 0.8 5.5 4.5 3.7 0 4.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.8 2
21.12.2006 0.5 3.6 4.6 0 3.2 4.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0
22.12.2006 0.6 2.8 0 4.1 0 4.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.6 4.6 4.2 4.6 1
23.12.2006 0.9 3.2 5.2 3.9 4.6 6 0 3.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0
24.12.2006 1.1 5.2 5.1 4.4 4.1 4.8 0 0 0 0 0 2.6 0 0 0 1.9 3.9 1
25.12.2006 0.8 4.1 5 0 0 5.5 0 0 2.4 0 0 0 0 0 2.1 0 5.6 0
26.12.2006 1.2 3.3 4.5 5.2 5.4 5.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
27.12.2006 0.8 4.7 4.8 4.4 5.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.2 0 3
28.12.2006 1 2.1 3 4.2 0 4.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.2 1
29.12.2006 0.8 4.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
30.12.2006 0.9 4.2 4.6 3.8 6.2 4.8 0 0 0 0 2.5 0 0 4.8 0 4.1 3.2 0
31.12.2006 0.7 3.2 4.7 3.3 4.8 3.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.2 0

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ANNEXURE IV-E2
Daily Average Wind Speed and Direction (Winter Season -2007, January)
Calm Direction wise Average Wind Speed (km/hr) Excluding Calm Cloud
Date <1.8 Cover
km/hr E ENE NE NNE N NNW NW WNW W WSW SW SSW S SSE SE ESE (Octas)
01.01.2007 1.2 2.8 0 4.1 0 0 0 2.5 5.6 5.5 6.5 5.7 5.7 5.6 0 0 0 1
02.01.2007 1 1.9 2.1 0 0 2.4 0 0 0 4 4.3 4.3 4.5 4.1 5 3.6 2.5 0
03.01.2007 0.9 3.7 0 3.1 2.2 0 5 5 4.1 0 5 0 5.6 0 0 0 0 0
04.01.2007 0.4 5.2 0 0 0 0 0 5.1 4.2 5.1 4.5 5.5 4.7 5.8 0 2.1 0 0
05.01.2007 0.6 4.8 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.4 4.9 6 5.5 4.5 5.3 4.4 0 0 0 0 3.1 1
06.01.2007 0.5 2.3 0 2.6 0 0 5.7 5.8 4.7 5.6 5.1 5.5 0 0 0 0 0 2
07.01.2007 0.4 5.2 2.3 0 3.4 2.8 4.9 6.2 5.9 6 0 4.7 0 0 0 1.8 2.8 1
08.01.2007 0.9 6.1 0 3.7 7.1 0 0 0 1.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
09.01.2007 1 4.3 3 0 0 2.4 3.8 4.3 3.3 3.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
10.01.2007 0.7 5 4.2 4.1 4.6 5.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.1 5.2 4.2 0
11.01.2007 1.4 4.8 2.2 0 3.1 0 5 4.4 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
12.01.2007 1.3 3.8 0 2.8 1.9 0 3.8 4.1 4.4 4.7 4.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
13.01.2007 0.6 4.3 4.1 3.7 6 4.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.4 4.1 1
14.01.2007 0.9 1.9 5.3 5.1 5.8 5.3 0 0 4.1 0 0 0 2.5 0 0 0 0 1
15.01.2007 1 5.8 4.5 5.6 6 4.7 6.1 2.1 0 0 2.4 0 0 0 0 4.4 4.3 2
16.01.2007 1.1 4.9 5.9 4.9 7.2 4.5 5.6 0 3.1 2.2 0 5 5 0 0 6.2 5.8 0
17.01.2007 1.7 4.8 4.8 3.6 6 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.1 0 0 4.7 3.9 0
18.01.2007 0.6 1.9 4.8 4.3 0 3.5 0 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.4 4.9 4.2 3 3.8 3.1 5.2 0
19.01.2007 0.8 4.5 5 4.6 5.7 5 4.3 0 2.6 0 0 5.7 5.8 0 0 0 4.1 1
20.01.2007 0.7 6.5 5.2 4.7 0 3.4 0 2.3 0 3.4 2.8 5.9 4.2 0 0 0 4.9 0
21.01.2007 0.5 2.1 4.6 0 3.1 4.8 0 0 5.7 7.1 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 4
22.01.2007 0.6 3.1 0 2.7 0 3.9 0 3 0 0 2.4 3.8 4.3 5.6 4.6 5.2 5.6 0
23.01.2007 1.1 2.3 6.2 4.9 6.6 4 0 5.2 5 5.6 5.3 0 0 0 0 0 6 0
24.01.2007 0.7 6.2 5.6 5.4 6.6 5.8 0 2.2 0 3.1 0 5 4.4 0 0 0 4.9 2
25.01.2007 0.9 2.8 6 0 0 4.6 0 0 2.8 1.9 0 3.8 4.1 0 0 2.9 5.3 1
26.01.2007 0.7 6.3 5.5 6.2 6.4 4.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
27.01.2007 1.3 5.7 5.5 5.4 6.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.3 0 2.7 0 0
28.01.2007 1.1 2.1 4 5.2 3.5 3.1 6.1 2.1 0 0 2.4 0 0 0 0 0 2.9 0
29.01.2007 0.8 4.6 0 2.5 0 0 6.6 0 3.1 2.2 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 0
30.01.2007 0.7 5.2 5.6 4.8 7.2 5.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.1 0 0 2.4 4.2 0
31.01.2007 0.8 2.8 5.7 4.3 5.8 4.9 0 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.4 4.9 6 0 0 0 6.2 2

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ANNEXURE IV-E3

Daily Average Wind Speed and Direction (Winter Season -2006, February)
Calm Direction wise Average Wind Speed (km/hr) Excluding Calm Cloud
Date <1.8 Cover
km/hr E ENE NE NNE N NNW NW WNW W WSW SW SSW S SSE SE ESE (Octas)
01.02.2007 1.4 4.4 5.2 0 4.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.4 1
02.02.2007 0.7 4.8 4 4 0 4.6 0 4.9 6.2 5.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.9 0
03.02.2007 0.5 3.9 4.8 5.3 0 0 0 0 0 1.9 0 0 0 3.3 4.7 5.3 6.1 0
04.02.2007 1.3 6.4 5.8 6 0 0 0 3.8 4.3 3.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
05.02.2007 1.1 4.5 4.6 3.6 5.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.4 0
06.02.2007 1.2 4 3.1 4.8 0 0 0 5 4.4 0 0 4.8 0 0 5.6 5.2 4.3 0
07.02.2007 0.6 4.5 3.8 4 0 3.3 0 3.8 4.1 4.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.9 1
08.02.2007 1.8 6.3 5.9 6.6 0 5.5 6.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.8 5.1 0
09.02.2007 0.9 5 4.3 4.1 6.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.7 0
10.02.2007 1.2 4.8 4.1 4.5 0 0 0 3.4 2.8 4.9 6.2 5.9 6 0 5.2 0 4.5 0
11.02.2007 1.1 4.5 4.8 4.6 0 0 0 7.1 0 0 0 1.9 0 0 0 5.2 5.6 0
12.02.2007 0.5 4.5 5.2 4.3 5.2 0 0 0 2.4 3.8 4.3 3.3 3.2 0 0 6.1 4.1 2
13.02.2007 0.8 5.7 6 5.6 0 0 0 4.6 5.3 0 0 0 0 0 4.8 0 0 1
14.02.2007 0.9 6.1 5.5 5.3 5.2 0 0 3.1 0 5 4.4 0 5 5 0 4.5 3.9 0
15.02.2007 1.2 6.2 5.2 5.2 0 5.1 0 1.9 0 3.8 4.1 4.4 4.7 4.8 0 0 5.4 0
16.02.2007 1.5 6.1 5.1 4.9 4.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.7 4.8 4.7 0
17.02.2007 0.9 6.2 6.1 5.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.4 0
18.02.2007 1.1 5.9 5.6 5.8 5.8 5.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.9 0 6.1 0 3.4 0
19.02.2007 0.5 5.8 6 6.5 0 0 5.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 1
20.02.2007 1.4 5.7 5.5 5.5 0 5.7 0 5.2 0 4.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.8 0
21.02.2007 0.8 5.9 5.4 5.6 4.7 6.1 0 0 0 0 0 6 4.7 0 5.9 0 4.9 0
22.02.2007 1.2 2.9 2.9 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.8 5.3 0 0 4.1 5.1 0
23.02.2007 1.3 3.8 4.3 3.2 0 0 0 0 5.2 0 0 6 4.7 6.1 4.1 0 0 0
24.02.2007 1.1 4.5 4.9 0 4.8 0 0 0 0 0 5.4 7.2 4.5 5.6 0 3.1 4.2 0
25.02.2007 1.6 4.2 4.9 5.1 0 3.8 0 4.3 0 0 0 6 5 0 0 0 3.2 0
26.02.2007 1.4 4.9 5.2 5.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.5 0 5.9 2.1 5.3 1
27.02.2007 0.8 2.9 2.8 2.3 0 0 3.9 0 0 0 0 5.7 5 4.3 0 2.6 3.9 0
28.02.2007 1 3.9 3.8 5.2 5.7 3.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.7 0 4.2 0

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Rapid – EIA Study Annexures

ANNEXURE V - A1

Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Results

Project: Chikkshellikeri Limestone Mines Station Code: A1 (Core Zone)


Season: Winter 2006-2007 Location: Mining Area

SO2 NOx SPM RSPM CO


Date
(μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (ppm)
01.12.2006 9.2 16.4 210.5 65.2 0.89
05.12.2006 7.5 14.1 198.3 73.9 0.81
08.12.2006 8.7 16.8 175.8 65.2 1.02
12.12.2006 8.7 17.6 180.3 68.5 1.54
15.12.2006 8.2 14.2 192.7 91.6 1.32
19.12.2006 7.9 16.1 132.1 87.4 0.64
22.12.2006 8.4 15.5 225.3 75.7 0.98
26.12.2006 9 16.5 169.5 82.4 1.01
29.12.2006 11.7 20 159.3 74.3 0.88
02.01.2007 7 15.3 170.5 60.1 1.65
05.01.2007 7.9 16 128.3 68.2 0.56
09.01.2007 9.8 17.7 130.2 62.3 1.45
12.01.2007 5.1 10 145.6 56.2 0.7
16.01.2007 10 19.5 138.4 75.2 1.22
19.01.2007 8.6 16 162.2 82.1 1.03
23.01.2007 8.3 16.2 129.4 80.1 0.86
26.01.2007 7.8 18.3 170.6 76.2 1.52
30.01.2007 6.8 12.4 180.4 95.6 1.95
02.02.2007 8.5 15.7 177.2 75.4 0.99
06.02.2007 8.7 16.1 210.2 78.5 0.87
09.02.2007 12.4 21 192.2 72.2 1.45
13.02.2007 7.8 14.4 128.2 94.3 1
16.02.2007 6.7 15.5 170.3 48.1 1.02
20.02.2007 9.8 18.6 170.5 70.1 0.78
23.02.2007 4.5 9.9 154.6 55.5 0.94
27.02.2007 7.5 12.2 172.6 48.2 1.23
Note: BDL = Below Detectable Limit

Statistical Data

Average 8.3 15.8 168.2 72.4 1.0


Min 4.5 9.9 128.2 48.1 0.5
Max 12.4 21 225.3 95.6 1.9
Std 1.6 2.7 27.21 12.7 0.3
10 pctl 6.7 12.3 129.8 55.8 0.7
30 pctl 7.8 15.4 156.9 66.7 0.8
50 pctl 8.3 16.0 170.5 74.1 1.00
90 pctl 9.9 19.0 204.2 89.5 1.5
95 pctl 11.2 19.8 210.4 93.6 1.6
98 pctl 12.0 20.5 217.9 94.9 1.8

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Rapid – EIA Study Annexures

ANNEXURE V – A2

Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Results

Project: Chikkshellikeri Limestone Mines Station Code: A2 (Buffer Zone)


Season: Winter 2006-2007 Location: HireChikkshellikeri Village

SO2 NOx SPM RSPM CO


Date
(μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (ppm)
02.12.2006 6.1 11.1 136.2 50 1.24
06.12.2006 5.8 10 116.3 19.1 0.84
09.12.2006 4 9.7 131.5 27.2 0.72
13.12.2006 4.2 9.4 126.2 31.5 1
16.12.2006 6.5 BDL 126.7 31.3 0.97
20.12.2006 5 9.1 138.9 29.4 0.64
23.12.2006 5.2 10.3 123.2 29.3 0.92
27.12.2006 5.1 11.5 109.3 43.7 0.78
30.12.2006 BDL BDL 90.9 16.6 0.4
03.01.2007 BDL 9 106.2 21.2 0.74
06.01.2007 5.6 9.7 118.2 31.8 0.86
10.01.2007 4.8 9.4 116.2 31.1 0.62
13.01.2007 BDL BDL 119 21.2 0.53
17.01.2007 4.1 9.1 104.8 25.5 1.01
20.01.2007 6.7 10.8 128.2 36.9 0.93
24.01.2007 4.1 9 116.4 23 1
27.01.2007 5.9 10.5 134.2 27.8 1.2
31.01.2007 6.2 11 101.2 30.2 0.99
03.02.2007 7 14.1 146.6 37.3 1.1
07.02.2007 6.2 11.8 134.2 31.2 1.04
10.02.2007 8.2 12.9 91.3 43 1.1
14.02.2007 4.6 BDL 126.2 31.2 0.85
17.02.2007 5.4 9.4 128.6 41.8 1.01
21.02.2007 5.7 9.9 119.3 39.3 1.1
24.02.2007 4.2 9.1 80.6 27.6 0.5
Note: BDL = Below Detectable Limit
Statistical Data

Average 5.4 10.3 118.8 31.1 0.8


Min 4 9 80.6 16.6 0.4
Max 8.2 14.1 146.6 50 1.2
Std 1.0 1.3 16.1 8.1 0.2
10 pctl 4.1 9.1 95.2 21.2 0.5
30 pctl 4.8 9.4 116.2 27.6 0.7
50 pctl 5.5 9.9 119.3 31.1 0.9
90 pctl 6.6 11.8 135.4 42.5 1.1
95 pctl 6.9 12.9 138.3 43.5 1.1
98 pctl 7.6 13.6 142.9 46.9 1.2

M/s Netel (India) Ltd. 127


Rapid – EIA Study Annexures

ANNEXURE V – A3

Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Results

Project: Chikkshellikeri Limestone Mines Station Code: A3 (Buffer Zone)


Season: Winter 2006-2006 Location: Tulsigiri Village

SO2 NOx SPM RSPM CO


Date
(μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (ppm)
04.12.2006 7.3 16.1 154.4 41.4 1.03
07.12.2006 8.1 18.5 135.2 28.2 1.1
11.12.2006 7.9 17 140.5 49.8 0.92
14.12.2006 8.8 14.3 139.5 44.3 1.01
18.12.2006 9.2 15.1 148.5 38.2 1.21
21.12.2006 7.8 17.2 128.2 44.3 0.94
25.12.2006 6.8 16.3 135.5 30.9 0.84
28.12.2006 9.8 15.4 143.2 40.1 0.99
01.01.2007 6.3 9.4 89.2 33.2 1.2
04.01.2007 8.6 15.1 112.2 41.9 1.32
08.01.2007 5.9 14.3 138.2 35.1 1.06
11.01.2007 8 13.6 136.2 41.3 0.87
15.01.2007 6.1 12.7 129 40.1 0.64
18.01.2007 7.6 12.8 124.8 37.2 0.58
22.01.2007 6 12 135.1 49.2 0.65
25.01.2007 8.7 14.9 136.4 35.9 0.82
29.01.2007 5.8 15.5 154.2 50.4 0.74
01.02.2007 7 16.3 116.2 36.2 1.01
05.02.2007 9.1 17.2 160.6 54.2 1.11
08.02.2007 10.2 19.4 154.2 46.2 0.74
12.02.2007 9.5 18.7 103.1 30.1 0.51
15.02.2007 5.2 11.2 146.3 37.1 0.68
19.02.2007 5 10 158.6 38.7 0.82
22.02.2007 6.4 12.1 139.3 40.2 0.51
26.02.2007 4.7 9.2 90.6 26.4 0.68
28.02.2007 6.4 13.8 100.2 28.7 0.69
Note: BDL = Below Detectable Limit

Statistical Data

Average 7.3 14.5 132.6 39.2 0.8


Min 4.7 9.2 89.2 26.4 0.5
Max 10.2 19.4 160.6 54.2 1.3
Std 1.5 2.7 20.0 7.2 0.2
10 pctl 5.5 10.6 101.6 29.4 0.6
30 pctl 6.3 13.2 128.6 36.0 0.7
50 pctl 7.4 15 136.3 39.4 0.8
90 pctl 9.3 17.8 154.3 49.5 1.1
95 pctl 9.7 18.6 157.5 50.2 1.2
98 pctl 10.0 19.0 159.6 52.3 1.2

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Rapid – EIA Study Annexures

ANNEXURE V – A4

Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Results

Project: Chikkshellikeri Limestone Mines Station Code: A4 (Buffer Zone)


Season: Winter 2006-2007 Location: Chikkshellikeri Village

SO2 NOx SPM RSPM CO


Date
(μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (ppm)
01.12.2006 8.6 18.9 168.2 54.2 0.72
05.12.2006 8.2 19.5 164.1 52 1.5
08.12.2006 9 18.7 156.6 45.2 0.98
12.12.2006 9.7 19.8 164 51.2 1.01
15.12.2006 7.3 17.5 126.4 29.6 1.68
19.12.2006 7.1 17 130.3 30.8 1.23
22.12.2006 7.8 16.8 129.3 32.6 1.08
26.12.2006 5.9 16.1 142.6 35.2 0.96
29.12.2006 8.5 16 146.2 32.4 0.87
02.01.2007 7.8 17.4 156.1 46.0 0.99
05.01.2007 8.6 16.7 158.6 36.1 1.8
09.01.2007 8.3 17.1 148.9 44.3 1.03
12.01.2007 7.7 17 136.2 46.2 0.92
16.01.2007 8.1 17.8 164 40.8 1.53
19.01.2007 7.9 18.6 164.8 39.7 0.94
23.01.2007 7.5 17 138.6 42.5 1.09
26.01.2007 6 16.9 184.2 54.6 1
30.01.2007 7.9 18.5 178.7 51.2 1.12
02.02.2007 6.2 17.3 160.2 48.1 0.97
06.02.2007 7.5 17.4 164.8 50.0 1.52
09.02.2007 8.6 19.1 168 49.5 1.72
13.02.2007 8.1 18 144.6 42.6 0.69
16.02.2007 7.2 17.7 146.2 42.2 0.94
20.02.2007 7.4 17.4 142.3 42.5 1.02
23.02.2007 6.9 16.8 166.2 49.9 0.93
27.02.2007 7 17.1 146.5 42.1 1.05
Note: BDL = Below Detectable Limit
Statistical Data

Average 7.7 17.6 153.7 43.5 1.1


Min 5.9 16 126.4 29.6 0.69
Max 9.7 19.8 184.2 54.6 1.8
Std 0.8 0.9 15.1 7.30 0.30
10 pctl 6.5 16.7 133.2 32.5 0.89
30 pctl 7.3 17 145.4 41.45 0.96
50 pctl 7.8 17.4 156.3 43.45 1.01
90 pctl 8.6 19 168.1 51.6 1.60
95 pctl 8.9 19.4 176.0 53.65 1.71
98 pctl 9.3 19.6 181.4 54.4 1.76

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Rapid – EIA Study Annexures

ANNEXURE V – A5

Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Results

Project: Chikkshellikeri Limestone Mines Station Code: A5 (Buffer Zone)


Season: Winter 2006-2007 Location: Yellamman Gudda Village

SO2 NOX SPM RSPM CO


Date
(μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (ppm)
02.12.2006 9.9 19.5 145.1 58.6 1.27
06.12.2006 6.8 15.6 135.8 45.1 1
09.12.2006 7.6 16.1 140.4 45.3 0.89
13.12.2006 7.8 14.4 145.2 31.8 0.99
16.12.2006 7.2 16.2 133.2 30.2 0.89
20.12.2006 4.7 9.6 129.9 31.7 1.23
23.12.2006 6.9 14.7 141.2 34.5 1.11
27.12.2006 6.8 13.4 142.5 38.3 0.96
30.12.2006 BDL 9.3 137.1 32.2 0.87
03.01.2007 6.8 14.1 140.8 38 0.99
06.01.2007 4.9 10.3 130.5 30.2 1.68
10.01.2007 10.4 19.1 145.2 36.1 1.39
13.01.2007 6.8 12.8 135.9 36.3 1.1
17.01.2007 7.7 16.9 143.8 42.2 1.09
20.01.2007 7.6 15.3 157.6 36 0.96
24.01.2007 6.3 14.9 139.5 35.9 0.74
27.01.2007 10.1 16.7 141 38.4 1.6
31.01.2007 6.8 13.4 137.9 36.2 1.02
03.02.2007 7.6 11.7 132.6 29.9 0.58
07.02.2007 7.7 13.2 137.8 34.3 1.02
10.02.2007 11 21.7 134.3 42.8 1.29
14.02.2007 6.8 15.4 145.2 36.3 0.89
17.02.2007 7.6 16.8 142.4 44.5 1
21.02.2007 7.8 17 149.2 38.2 1.15
24.02.2007 7.2 15.4 139.1 28.5 0.74
Note: BDL = Below Detectable Limit
Statistical Data

Average 7.6 15.1 139.9 37.2 1.0


Min 4.7 9.3 129.9 28.5 0.58
Max 11 21.7 157.6 58.6 1.68
Std 1.52 3.12 6.11 6.43 0.24
10 pctl 6.5 11 132.9 30.2 0.80
30 pctl 6.8 13.75 136.5 34.4 0.96
50 pctl 7.6 15.35 139.95 36.25 1.01
90 pctl 10.02 19.3 145.2 44.8 1.34
95 pctl 10.34 20.7 148.2 45.25 1.54
98 pctl 10.71 21.4 153.4 51.95 1.64

M/s Netel (India) Ltd. 130


Rapid – EIA Study Annexures

ANNEXURE V – A6

Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Results

Project: Chikkashellikeri Mines Station Code: A6 (Buffer Zone)


Season : Winter-2006-2007 Location: West Direction (3.5 km
from mine site)

SO2 NOx SPM RSPM CO


Date
(μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (ppm)
04.12.2006 8.9 15.7 108.2 34.1 0.56
07.12.2006 BDL 9.2 105.9 36.3 0.86
11.12.2006 6.5 11.7 118.2 40.2 0.7
14.12.2006 6.6 12.1 102.8 35.1 0.77
18.12.2006 6.8 11.2 131.4 34.9 1.22
21.12.2006 6.2 10 98.9 32.2 1.45
25.12.2006 7.6 11.8 142.2 38.3 0.68
28.12.2006 BDL 9.1 114.5 35.6 0.87
01.01.2007 6.1 11.3 106.4 34.6 0.91
04.01.2007 5.7 11.4 110.1 36.2 0.52
08.01.2007 5.9 10.5 118.4 37.4 0.68
11.01.2007 9 16.6 130.3 39.4 1.21
15.01.2007 5.7 11.4 102.2 31.2 0.87
18.01.2007 BDL BDL 119.8 35.2 0.69
22.01.2007 5.5 10.5 112.1 36.8 1.23
25.01.2007 5.2 11.2 140.7 38.8 1
29.01.2007 8.3 15.1 115 35.3 1.26
01.02.2007 7.4 10.4 110.4 37 1.1
05.02.2007 6.5 10.3 125.6 36.1 1.09
08.02.2007 6.6 11.6 128.9 29.9 0.98
12.02.2007 8.3 15.7 132.3 39 1.35
15.02.2007 BDL 9.2 126.2 35.4 0.68
19.02.2007 6.5 11.2 118.1 29.2 0.99
22.02.2007 6.7 12 124.2 34.6 1.54
26.02.2007 4 9.1 109.6 32.4 0.53
Note: BDL = Below Detectable Limit

Statistical Data

Average 6.6 11.5 118.0 35.4 0.94


Min 4 9.1 98.9 29.2 0.52
Max 9 16.6 142.2 40.2 1.54
Std 1.24 2.12 11.88 2.82 0.29
10 pctl 5.5 9.2 104.04 31.6 0.60
30 pctl 6.1 10.49 110.16 34.66 0.71
50 pctl 6.5 11.25 118.1 35.4 0.91
90 pctl 8.3 15.52 131.94 38.92 1.31
95 pctl 8.9 15.7 139.02 39.32 1.43
98 pctl 8.96 16.18 141.48 39.81 1.49

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Rapid – EIA Study Annexures

ANNEXURE VI-A

Noise Monitoring Data


Period : Winter, December 2006

Locations and Station code no.


Hours
N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6
1 56 50 49 48 49 47
2 58 54 52 54 52 48
3 61 55 56 55 54 52
4 68 56 56 56 56 55
5 69 58 58 52 59 57
6 70 58 58 54 54 57
7 70 57 58 52 55 56
8 64 54 56 50 55 56
9 66 56 55 52 57 57
10 62 54 55 53 58 58
11 68 56 57 54 55 58
12 70 58 56 54 56 58
13 69 55 55 56 58 58
14 68 56 53 56 55 56
15 60 52 52 55 53 54
16 58 51 50 53 51 52
17 52 50 50 50 50 54
18 48 48 48 46 48 49
19 46 47 44 44 46 45
20 44 40 42 42 42 41
21 41 41 40 40 41 40
22 40 40 40 41 42 40
23 42 41 42 42 41 41
24 47 48 46 44 45 44
Day
Equivalent 64.8 55 54.7 53.3 54.8 54.9
dB(A)
Night
Equivalent 45 44.6 44 43.6 44.3 44.2
dB(A)
Day Night
Equivalent 58.2 51.4 51.1 50.1 51.3 51.3
dB(A)

N1 : Core Area
N2 : Hire Shellikeri
N3 : On Chikkashellikere-Kaladgi Road
N4 : Chikkashellikeri
N5 : Nir Budihal
N6 : Yadigeri

M/s Netel (India) Ltd. 132


Rapid – EIA Study Annexures

ANNEXURE VI-B

Noise Monitoring Data


Period : Winter, January 2007

Hours Locations and station code no.


N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6
1 56 49 47 48 48 48
2 58 53 51 52 51 49
3 61 54 54 54 53 50
4 68 55 55 55 55 54
5 68 57 56 51 58 56
6 69 58 58 54 54 57
7 70 56 58 52 56 56
8 65 53 57 50 56 56
9 65 55 56 52 58 57
10 61 53 54 53 58 58
11 67 55 55 54 56 58
12 70 57 54 54 58 59
13 69 54 54 56 58 58
14 68 55 52 55 56 56
15 60 51 51 54 54 54
16 57 50 50 52 51 50
17 50 49 49 50 50 54
18 48 48 48 46 48 49
19 44 47 44 44 46 45
20 42 40 42 42 42 41
21 41 41 40 40 41 40
22 40 40 40 41 42 40
23 41 41 42 42 41 41
24 45 48 46 44 45 44
Day
Equivalent 64.5 54.0 53.8 52.8 55 54.7
dB(A)
Night
Equivalent 43.8 44.2 43.8 43.6 44.3 44.2
dB(A)
Day Night
Equivalent 57.6 50.7 50.5 49.7 51.4 51.2
dB(A)

N1 : Core Area
N2 : Hire Shellikeri
N3 : On Chikkashellikere-Kaladgi Road
N4 : Chikkashellikeri
N5 : Nir Budihal
N6 : Yadigeri

M/s Netel (India) Ltd. 133


Rapid – EIA Study Annexures

ANNEXURE VI-C

Noise Monitoring Data


Period : Winter, February 2006

Locations and station code no.


Hours
N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6
1 56 50 48 48 48 47
2 59 52 50 50 50 49
3 62 53 54 52 52 50
4 69 54 54 55 54 52
5 68 56 55 52 59 54
6 68 57 57 55 54 58
7 70 56 57 52 56 57
8 69 54 58 51 55 56
9 66 54 56 52 58 57
10 62 52 55 53 59 58
11 66 54 54 54 56 58
12 69 58 54 54 57 58
13 68 56 53 55 58 56
14 67 55 52 54 56 54
15 58 52 52 52 54 52
16 56 49 51 50 52 51
17 49 48 48 49 48 50
18 48 48 47 45 44 48
19 42 44 42 41 41 44
20 41 40 42 41 41 41
21 41 41 40 40 40 40
22 40 40 40 41 41 40
23 40 41 41 40 42 41
24 45 48 45 43 44 43
Day
Equivalent 64.5 53.8 53.7 52.4 54.8 54.1
dB(A)
Night
Equivalent 43.2 43.7 43.1 42.5 42.6 43.3
dB(A)
Day Night
Equivalent
57.4 50.5 50.2 49.1 50.7 50.5
dB(A)

N1 : Core Area
N2 : Hire Shellikeri
N3 : On Chikkashellikere-Kaladgi Road
N4 : Chikkashellikeri
N5 : Nir Budihal
N6 : Yadigeri

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Annexure VII

Ground Water Quality Analysis Results


Hirechik
Sr. Project Hanamn Standards
Parameters/Location Units Tulsigiri Kaladgi k-
No. area eri IS - 10500
shellikeri
1 pH 7.2 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.3 6.5 to 8.5
0
2 Temperature C 24 24 23 24 24 --
3 Conductivity ms/cm 1.33 0.199 1.101 0.372 0.894 --
4 Turbidity NTU <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 10
5 Colour Unit <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 10
6 Odour Odourless Odourless Odourless Odourless Odourless Odourless
7 Taste Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable
8 Alkalinity CaCO3 mg/l 286.35 103.5 244.95 230 297.85 --
9 Total Dissolved solids mg/l 490.4 118.25 451.63 222.51 341.91 500
10 Total suspended
mg/l 10.0 5.0 10.0 5.0 10.0 --
solids
11 Salinity % BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL --
12 Oil & Grease mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL --
13 Dissolved oxygen mg/l 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 4 --
14 Clorides (Cl) mg/l 344.82 8.05 246.66 15.1 157.05 250
15 Residuel free chlorine mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL --
16 Total Hardness
mg/l 546.48 132.66 365.3 162.36 453.42 300
(CaCO3)
17 Calcium (Ca) mg/l 96.71 31.72 11.81 38.06 81.67 75
18 Magnesium (Mg) mg/l 74.06 12.98 45.19 16.35 60.58 30
19 Sulphate (SO4) mg/l 33 0.6 31 8 17 150
20 Flourides (F) mg/l 0.789 0.858 0.809 1.11 0.942 0.6 to 1.2
21 Nitrate (NO3) mg/l 0.279 0.188 0.257 0.215 0.245 45
22 Iron (Fe) mg/l 0.299 0.193 0.382 0.261 0.364 0.3
23 Copper (Cu) mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL 0.05
24 Phenolic Compounds
mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL 0.001
(C6H5OH)
25 Mercury (Hg) mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL 0.001
26 Barium (Ba) mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL --
27 Cadmium (Cd) mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL 0.01
28 Selenium (Se) mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL 0.01
29 Arsenic (As) mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL 0.05
30 Cyanide (CN) mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL 0.05
31 Lead (Pb) mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL 0.05
32 Zinc (Zn) mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL 5
33 Chromium (Cr) mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL 0.05
34 Anionic Detergents
mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL --
(MBAS)
35 Polynuclear Aromatic
mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL --
Hydrocarbons (PAH)
36 Mineral Oil mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL --
37 Pesticides mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL --
38 Aluminum (Al) mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL --
39 Manganese (Mn) mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL 0.1
40 Boron (B) mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL --
41 Total coliform Nos/100ml 9 2 6 5 9 10

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ANNEXURE VII-A

Surface Water Quality Analysis Results

Ghatprabha
Sr. Standards
Parameters/Location Units Yandigiri River at
No. IS - 10500
Kaladgi
1 pH 7.5 7.59 6.5 to 8.5
0
2 Temperature C 26 26 --
3 Conductivity ms/cm 0.221 0.545 --
4 Turbidity NTU <10 <5 10
5 Colour Unit <10 <5 10
6 Odour Odourless Odourless Odourless
7 Taste Disagreeable Agreeable Agreeable
8 Alkalinity CaCO3 mg/l 86.25 235.7 --
9 Total Dissolved solids mg/l 131.99 356 500
10 Total suspended solids mg/l 10.0 10.0 --
11 Salinity % BDL BDL --
12 Oil & Grease mg/l BDL BDL --
13 Dissolved oxygen mg/l 4.6 4.6 --
14 Clorides (Cl) mg/l 7.04 88.5 250
15 Residuel free chlorine mg/l BDL BDL --
16 Total Hardness (CaCO3) mg/l 97.02 211.8 300
17 Calcium (Ca) mg/l 22.2 42.03 75
18 Magnesium (Mg) mg/l 10.09 25.96 30
19 Sulphate (SO4) mg/l 16 30 150
20 Flourides (F) mg/l 0.345 0.945 0.6 to 1.2
21 Nitrate (NO3) mg/l 0.129 0.198 45
22 Iron (Fe) mg/l BDL 1.443 0.3
23 Copper (Cu) mg/l BDL BDL 0.05
Phenolic Compounds BDL
24 mg/l BDL 0.001
(C6H5OH)
25 Mercury (Hg) mg/l BDL BDL 0.001
26 Barium (Ba) mg/l BDL BDL --
27 Cadmium (Cd) mg/l BDL BDL 0.01
28 Selenium (Se) mg/l BDL BDL 0.01
29 Arsenic (As) mg/l BDL BDL 0.05
30 Cyanide (CN) mg/l BDL BDL 0.05
31 Lead (Pb) mg/l BDL BDL 0.05
32 Zinc (Zn) mg/l BDL 0.01 5
33 Chromium (Cr) mg/l BDL BDL 0.05
Anionic Detergents BDL
34 mg/l BDL --
(MBAS)
Polynuclear Aromatic BDL
35 mg/l BDL --
Hydrocarbons (PAH)
36 Mineral Oil mg/l BDL BDL --
37 Pesticides mg/l BDL BDL --
38 Aluminum (Al) mg/l BDL BDL --
39 Manganese (Mn) mg/l BDL BDL 0.1
40 Boron (B) mg/l BDL BDL --
41 Total coliform Nos/100ml 77 110 10

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ANNEXURE VIII

Soil Quality Analysis Results

Locations
Sr
Parameters Unit Project
No. Tulsigiri Kaladgi Hanamneri Yandigiri
site
1 Appeaence Black Red Red Light brown Red
2 Texure Silt loam Silt Loam Silt loam Silt Loam Silt Loam
3 Sand % 36.1 39.3 40.3 38.9 34.3
4 Silt % 50.7 48.1 48.1 48.5 51.4
5 Clay % 13.2 12.6 11.6 12.6 14.3
6 Water Holding
% 15.3 14.8 15.8 14.5 11.2
Capacity
7 Permeability cm/sec 0.062 0.059 0.057 0.066 0.064
8 Cation exchange
meq/100gm 32.6 32.22 33.89 93.4 82.5
capacity
9 Moisture % 1.434 1.034 0.39 1.186 0.458
10 Sodium Absorption
1.737 3.01 1.794 2.327 3.655
Ratio (SAR)
11 pH 7.4 7.5 7.4 7.3 7.8
12 Electrical
ms/cm 0.105 0.066 0.221 0.073 0.102
Conductivity
13 Chlorides (Cl) mg/gm 0.057 0.066 0.291 0.028 0.0713
14 Calcium (Ca) mg/l 0.572 0.376 0.675 1.161 0.478
15 Magnesium (Mg) mg/l 0.944 0.086 0.415 0.305 0.639
16 Sodium % 1513 1447 1325 1993 2732
17 Potassium % 0.55 0.90 0.74 0.320 0.280
18 Alkalinity (HCO3) mg/gm 0.326 0.214 0.206 0.239 0.354
19 Sulphate (SO4) mg/gm 0.309 0.308 0.315 0.207 0.366
20 Available Nitrogen 0.206 0.244 0.198 0.189 0.234
21 Total Phosphate mg/gm 0.275 0.169 0.206 0.169 0.153
22 Mercury (Hg) ppm BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
23 Barium (Ba) ppm BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
24 Lead (Pb) ppm BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
25 Zinc (Zn) ppm BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
26 Copper (Cu) ppm BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
27 Chromium (Cr) ppm BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
28 Cadmium (Cd) mg/gm BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
29 Total Hydrocarbons ppm BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
BDL: Below Detectable limit

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ANNEXURE IX

LIST OF FLORA IN THE STUDY AREA

Sr.
Local Name Botanical Name
No.
1 Ala, Alad Ficus bengalensis
2 Ankul, Ankole Alangium lamarkii
3 Ari, Apta Bauhinia recemosa
4 Anjan, Karachi (Planted) Hardwickia binata
5 Atti, Umbar Millingtonia hortenis
6 Belpatri, Bal Aegle marmelos
7 Belwal Feronia elephantum
8 Banni, Shami Acacia arabica
9 Biligali, Bellaui Jali Acacia leucophloea
10 Babul, Jali Acacia arabuca
11 Bor, Barigid Zizyphus jujuba
12 Bhicky gidda Gardenia gummifera
13 Chinch, Hunse Tamarindus indica
14 Chandan, Sandalwood, Gandha Santalum album
15 Dindal, Dhavda Gardenia lucida
16 Gorvi Ixora parviflora
17 Ghatbor, Godchi, Ghoting Zizyphus xylopyra
18 Hanmanki Flacourtia ramontchi
19 Ippi, mari Bassia latifolia
20 Khair, Katinamara Acacia catechu
21 Kari Randia dumetorum
22 Kakki, Bava Capparis species
23 Mulmuttal, Pangara Erythrina indica
24 Muttal, Palas Butea frondosa
25 Mashwal Chloroxylon swietenia
26 Nekri Ximena americana
27 Neem, Bevu Melia azadirachta
28 Niral, Jambul Eugenia jambolana
29 Nelli Emblica officinalis
30 Sitaphal Anona squamosa
31 Tugli Albizzi
32 Tapasi Holoptelia integrifolia
33 Gajag Ceasalptina bonduce
SHURBS
1 Chadurang Lantana camara
2 Honnambri, Tarwad Cassia auriculata
3 Henkal Gymnosporia montana
4 Kalli, Sher Eupnorbia tirucalli
5 Kavli, Karwand Carissa Spinarum

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Sr.
Local Name Botanical Name
No.
6 Lekki, Nirgudi Vitex negundo
7 Pargi Toddalia aculata
8 Revdi Capparis divaricata
HURBS
1 Anantmul (Indian sarsaparila) Hemidusmus indicus
2 Nachike mullu Mimosa pudica
CLIMBERS
1 Bondwel Lettsomia elliptica
2 Gulganj Abrus precatorius
3 Kusri, Wildjasmin, Advimallige Jasminum species
4 Palaswel Butea superba
5 Wagati Wagetea spicata

(Source: District Forest Office Bagalkote.)

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ANNEXURE X

LIST OF FAUNA IN THE STUDY AREA

Sr.
Common Name Scientific Name
No.
WILD ANIMALS
1 Common Jackal Canis- aureus
2 Common Wolf Canis-lypus pallipes
3 Common Mongoose Herpestes-edwardsi
4 Indian Hare Lepur-Nigricollis
5 Pangolin Manis- crassi caudata
6 Wild pig Sus-screfa
7 Cobra Naja-naja
8 Rat snakes Ptyas Mucosus
9 Viper Vipera russelli
AVIFAUNA (Birds)
1 Baya – weaver Bird Ploceus philppinus
2 Small –Barbets Capitomidae
3 Bulbuls Pycnonotidae
4 Bustard Qualis Turnicidae
5 Common Myna Acridotheres tristis
6 Cuckoos Cuculidae
7 Doves Columbidae
8 Magpies Corvidae
9 Munias Estrildinae
10 Parakeets Psittacidae
11 Pigeons Columbidae
12 Sun birds Nectarinidae
13 Koel Eudynamys scolopocea
14 Peacock Pavo ciristatus
15 Yellow throated sparrow Passez domesticus
16 Tailor Bird Orthotomus -
17 White Backed vulture Gyps-bengalensis

(Source: District Forest Office Bagalkote.)

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ANNEXURE XI-A

POPULATION BREAKUP WITHIN BUFFERZONE (As per 2001 Census)

Sr. No. I II III IV V VI VII VII IX


Hanamaneri
1 Rural 618 316 302 9 6 0 0
Inam
2 Yandigeri Rural 1724 850 874 58 72 24 27
3 Karadigudd Rural 553 264 289 3 7 37 34
4 Neerabudihal Rural 2077 1039 1038 76 46 10 9
5 Ganganabudihal Rural 1135 565 570 67 65 3 2
6 Kerakalamatti Rural 2079 1018 1061 96 106 117 129
7 Bandakeri Rural 855 418 437 63 58 79 95
8 Jalageri Rural 1554 790 764 61 66 105 97
9 Kalabandakeri Rural 997 509 488 28 30 76 75
10 Anawal Rural 2976 1493 1483 139 138 301 285
11 Yaragoppa Inam Rural 935 472 463 132 125 155 144
12 Lingapur Rural 895 437 458 34 49 1 1
13 Ankalagi Rural 1032 507 525 130 157 43 35
14 Kaladgi Rural 12135 6098 6037 536 570 417 430
15 Govindkopp Rural 1040 540 500 28 39 0 0
16 Hire-Sansi Rural 1020 496 524 12 21 0 0
17 Chikk-Sansi Rural 574 293 281 35 22 21 32
18 Devanal Rural 1852 954 898 74 80 36 28
19 Simikeri Rural 2879 1466 1413 183 153 359 359
20 Tulasigeri Rural 3731 1843 1888 296 306 347 373
21 Khajjidoni Rural 2575 1316 1259 148 155 143 126
22 Kalasakopp Rural 589 295 294 61 53 36 35
Chickka-
23 Rural 1639 798 841 102 110 9 7
Shellikeri
24 Hire-Shellikeri Rural 1912 974 938 83 82 229 221
25 Siraguppi Rural 2622 1248 1374 410 487 1 2
Total 49,998 24,999 24,999 2,864 3,003 2,549 2,546
Note:
I – Village VI - Male Scheduled Caste
II- Rural or Urban VII - Female Scheduled Caste
III- Total Population VII - Female Scheduled Caste
IV- Total Male Population IX - Female Scheduled Tribes
V- Total Female Population

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ANNEXURE XI-B

POPULATION & LITERACY BREAKUP WITHIN BUFFERZONE

(As per 2001 Census)

Sr. No. I II III IV V VI VII


1 Hanamaneri Inam 618 316 302 230 161 69
2 Yandigeri 1724 850 874 785 512 273
3 Karadigudd 553 264 289 233 151 82
4 Neerabudihal 2077 1039 1038 1148 718 430
5 Ganganabudihal 1135 565 570 408 283 125
6 Kerakalamatti 2079 1018 1061 708 479 229
7 Bandakeri 855 418 437 317 216 101
8 Jalageri 1554 790 764 616 420 196
9 Kalabandakeri 997 509 488 228 177 51
10 Anawal 2976 1493 1483 1230 784 446
11 Yaragoppa Inam 935 472 463 439 295 144
12 Lingapur 895 437 458 295 210 85
13 Ankalagi 1032 507 525 504 311 193
14 Kaladgi 12135 6098 6037 6350 3771 2579
15 Govindkopp 1040 540 500 429 302 127
16 Hire-Sansi 1020 496 524 346 236 110
17 Chikk-Sansi 574 293 281 349 220 129
18 Devanal 1852 954 898 887 577 310
19 Simikeri 2879 1466 1413 1186 794 392
20 Tulasigeri 3731 1843 1888 1545 971 574
21 Khajjidoni 2575 1316 1259 1445 916 529
22 Kalasakopp 589 295 294 209 137 72
23 Chickka-Shellikeri 1639 798 841 716 448 268
24 Hire-Shellikeri 1912 974 938 676 458 218
25 Siraguppi 2622 1248 1374 1013 681 332
Total 49,998 24,999 24,999 22,292 14,228 8,064
Total Literacy Percentage (%) 44.58 56.91 32.25
Note:
I- Village V- Total Literates
II- Total Population VI - Total Male Literates
III- Total Male Population VII- Total Female Literates
IV- Total Female Population

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ANNEXURE XI-C

OCCUPATIONAL PATTERN WITHIN BUFFERZONE (As per 2001 Census)

Sr. No. I II III IV V VI VII


1 Hanamaneri Inam 117 1 1 10 81 210
2 Yandigeri 146 35 2 66 583 832
3 Karadigudd 61 9 5 26 47 148
4 Neerabudihal 229 167 12 163 279 850
5 Ganganabudihal 218 157 11 72 1 459
6 Kerakalamatti 237 347 13 183 229 1009
7 Bandakeri 81 32 7 65 257 442
8 Jalageri 103 21 16 99 459 698
9 Kalabandakeri 26 160 15 116 159 476
10 Anawal 396 532 65 141 412 1546
11 Yaragoppa Inam 65 31 6 87 337 526
12 Lingapur 158 4 41 94 170 467
13 Ankalagi 163 296 2 18 112 591
14 Kaladgi 569 1293 229 2241 389 4721
15 Govindkopp 221 166 14 27 130 558
16 Hire-Sansi 208 84 0 22 185 499
17 Chikk-Sansi 129 32 0 6 148 315
18 Devanal 396 107 1 90 513 1107
19 Simikeri 210 239 22 462 575 1508
20 Tulasigeri 613 557 42 312 423 1947
21 Khajjidoni 446 461 27 168 260 1362
22 Kalasakopp 83 203 0 46 12 344
23 Chickka-Shellikeri 147 150 92 197 242 828
24 Hire-Shellikeri 245 200 25 303 376 1149
25 Siraguppi 287 118 30 126 639 1200
Total 5,554 5,402 678 5,140 7,018 23,792
Note:
I - Village V - Total Main other workers
II - Total Main Cultivators VI - Total Marginal workers
III - Total Main Agricultural Labourers VII -Total workers
IV - Main workers in Household industries

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ANNEXURE XI-D1

AMENITIES AVAILABLE WITHIN BUFFERZONE (As per 2001 Census)

Sr.
EDUCATION MEDICAL DRINKING WATER
No. VILLAGE
A B C D E F A B C D E F A B C D E F G H
1 Hanamaneri I 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
2 Yandigeri 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
3 Karadigudd 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
4 Neerabudihal 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
5 Ganganabudihal 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
6 Kerakalamatti 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
7 Bandakeri 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
8 Jalageri 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
9 Kalabandakeri 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
10 Anawal 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
11 Yaragoppa I 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
12 Lingapur 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0
13 Ankalagi 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
14 Kaladgi 1 1 2 1 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
15 Govindkopp 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
16 Hire-Sansi 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
17 Chikk-Sansi 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
18 Devanal 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
19 Simikeri 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
20 Tulasigeri 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
21 Khajjidoni 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
22 Kalasakopp 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
23 Chickka-Shellikeri 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
24 Hire-Shellikeri 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
25 Siraguppi 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0
Note:
Where: 1- for Yes/Availability 2- for No/Non availability 3- for Nil information
EDUCATION MEDICAL FACILITY DRINKING WATER
A - Primary Schools A - Materity & child Welfare Centre A - Tap Water
B - Middle School B - Primary Health Centre B - Well Water
C - Secondary School C - Primary Health Sub Centre C - Tank Water
D - Senior Secodary School D - Regd. Private Medical Practitioners D - Tubewell
E – College E - Community Health Workers E – Handpumps
F - Adult Literacy centre F - Other Medical Facilities F - River Water
G – Canals
H - Lakes

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ANNEXURE XI-D2

AMENITIES AVAILABLE WITHIN BUFFERZONE (As per 2001 Census)

Sr. PO & TELE COMMUNICATION POWER


No. VILLAGE
A B C D A B C D E A
1 Hanamaneri I 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 1
2 Yandigeri 1 0 0 1 1 0 2 2 1 1
3 Karadigudd 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 1
4 Neerabudihal 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 1
5 Ganganabudihal 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 1
6 Kerakalamatti 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 1 1
7 Bandakeri 1 0 0 2 1 0 2 2 1 1
8 Jalageri 1 0 0 2 1 0 2 2 1 1
9 Kalabandakeri 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 1
10 Anawal 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1
11 Yaragoppa I 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 1
12 Lingapur 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 1
13 Ankalagi 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 2 1 1
14 Kaladgi 2 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
15 Govindkopp 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 2 1 1
16 Hire-Sansi 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 2 1 1
17 Chikk-Sansi 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 2 1 1
18 Devanal 1 0 0 1 1 0 2 2 1 1
19 Simikeri 1 0 0 1 1 0 2 2 1 1
20 Tulasigeri 1 0 0 1 1 0 2 2 1 1
21 Khajjidoni 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 2 1 1
22 Kalasakopp 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 2 1 1
23 Chickka-Shellikeri 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 2 1 1
24 Hire-Shellikeri 0 0 0 2 1 0 2 2 1 1
25 Siraguppi 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 1
Note:
Where: 1- for Yes/Availability 2- for No/Non availability 3- for Nil information
POST & TELEGRAPH COMMUNICATION POWER
A- Post Office A- Bus Services A- Electricity
B- Telegraph Office B- Railways Services
C – Post & Telegraph Off C- Banking Facility
D- Telephone Connections D- Recreational & Cultural Facilities
E- Public Approach Road

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ANNEXURE XII

HOURLY MEAN METROLOGICAL DATA OF WINTER SEASON

Mixing
Wind Speed Temperature
Hours. Wind Direction 0 Stability Height
m/s k
m
1 E 0.93 290.9 6 400
2 E 0.92 290.6 6 300
3 E 0.90 290.2 6 300
4 E 0.99 289.9 6 200
5 ESE 1.03 289.5 6 100
6 ESE 1.08 289 6 100
7 ESE 1.09 288.7 6 50
8 E 1.07 288.5 6 50
9 E 1.03 289 2 200
10 ESE 1.19 290.4 2 500
11 ESE 1.21 292.3 1 800
12 E 1.33 294.1 1 1000
13 E 1.25 297.95 1 1200
14 E 1.10 298.65 1 1300
15 SE 1.30 300.35 1 1200
16 ENE 1.30 302.65 1 1200
17 ESE 1.14 303.71 2 1000
18 E 1.21 299.85 2 700
19 E 1.14 297.35 6 700
20 E 1.09 295.2 6 650
21 E 1.04 294.2 6 600
22 E 0.95 293.4 6 500
23 ESE 0.86 292.1 6 400
24 E 1.00 291.3 6 400

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ANNEXUERE XIII

TOR, MoEF (Govt. of India)

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ANNEXUERE XIV

TOR EXPLANATION

With reference to the TOR (Annexure XIII), herewith MML submitting the
clarification for the same.

i) Conceptual mining plan for every five years:

Conceptual mining plan for every five years, upto end of life of
Chikkashellikere Limestone mine is enclosed at the end of this explanation as
a Figure A.

ii) Green Belt Development:

► Green belt around site improves the aesthetics and provides a thick canopy
that helps in noise abatement, breaks wind-speed and improves soil conditions.
The greenbelt around the plant premises would also reduce the noise levels
and dust levels.
► The Afforestation (Restoration) / Green Belt plan has been prepared keeping
in view the land use changes that will occur due to mining operation in the
Chikkashellikere Mines area.
► Provide a green belt around the periphery of the mining area to combat the
dispersal of dust in the adjoining areas;
► In view of the multiple applications of the greenbelt provided, local evergreen
tree species with thick canopy and leaves of more surface area will be selected
to trap the pollutants. MML proposes to stagewise develop a greenbelt within
30.35 ha. area.
► To ensure scientific support for environmental management programmes, the
major effort aimed at promotion of environmental conservation and Green belt
development will continue.
► Maintenance of green belt will be prime responsibility of MML and for this
purpose it is propose, expert committee from professional agencies, academic
institution and Govt officers appointed.
► On the basis of various references, government guidelines, local climatic
conditions and environment point of view it is proposed the following species
are suitable for plantations;
1) Trees- Neem, Chinch, Umbar, Apta, Dhavda and other fruit bearing plants
2) Shrubs –Karwand, Kalli, Honnambri, Pargi, Nirgudi etc
3) Herbs – Anantmul, Nachike mullu, Wagati etc

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► Details of present and proposed afforestation / Green belt activities given in


the Chapter 6 (sub point 6.7).
iii) Occupational Health and Safety measures:

MML propose the aim for Occupational health and safety, as a discipline with a broad
scope involving many specialized fields like:

• the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and
social well-being of workers in all occupations;
• the prevention among workers of adverse effects on health caused by their
working conditions;
• the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from
factors adverse to health;
• the placing and maintenance of workers in an occupational environment
adapted to physical and mental needs;
• the adaptation of work to humans.

► For the successful occupational health and safety practice requires the
collaboration and participation of both employers and workers in health and
safety programmes, and involves the consideration of issues relating to
occupational medicine, industrial hygiene, toxicology, education, engineering
safety, ergonomics, psychology, etc.

► Effective workplace health and safety programmes can help to save the lives
of workers by reducing hazards and their consequences. Health and safety
programmes also have positive effects on both worker morale and
productivity, which are important benefits. At the same time, effective
programmes can save employers a great deal of money.

► For all of the reasons given above, it is crucial that MML, workers and unions
are committed to health and safety and that:
• workplace hazards are controlled - at the source whenever possible;
• records of any exposure are maintained for many years;
• both workers and employers are informed about health and safety risks in the
workplace;
• there is an active and effective health and safety committee that includes both
workers and management;
• worker health and safety efforts are ongoing.

► In order to develop a successful health and safety programme, it is essential


that there be strong management commitment and strong worker participation
in the effort to create and maintain a safe and healthy workplace. An effective
management addresses all work-related hazards, not only those covered by
government standards.

► In each workplace, the lines of responsibility from top to bottom need to be


clear, and workers should know who is responsible for different health and

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safety issues. For the better health of MML employees, the following activities
will be proposed by the organization at Chikkashellikere limestone mines:
• establishment of full fledged occupational health centre
• trained full time qualified Doctor and Nurses in this centre
• regular monitoring facilities for toxic gases
• all essential testing facilities in this centre
• this facility centre will be open for nearest village peoples in emergency at
free of cost
• periodic training and inspections about prevention of diseases like malaria,
HIV etc. by facility centre to MML workers
• collaboration with nearest Govt and Private hospitals for emergency major
treatments like operations etc.
• One Hospital Proposed in the Bagalkot for MML Bagalkot sector Mines
• Celebration and participation in various health days like world health,
occupational health day etc. and other related activities
• educate the workers about health by informing, motivating and helping people
to adopt and maintain healthy practices and lifestyles.
• arrangement of safety campaigns, lectures by experts to MML workers and
nearby villagers.
• School health programme for promotion of healthy lifestyles.

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Figure A: Conceptual Mining Plan

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