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Running From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Runner" redirects here. For other uses, see Runner (disambiguation).

This article is about the type of locomotion in humans. For runnin 6 Running events 6.1 Limits of speed 6.2 Running speed over increasing distance b 4 Running injuries 5 Benefits of running 6 Running events 6.1 Limits of speed 6.2 Running speed over increasing distance based on world record times 6.3 Events by type 6.4 Events by distance 7 See also 8 References 9 External links History It is thought that human running evolved at least four and a half million years ago out of the ability of the ape-like Australopithecus, an early ancestor of hu mans, to walk upright on two legs.[4] The theory proposed considered to be the most likely evolution of running is of early humans' developing as endurance runners from the practice of persistence h unting of animals, the activity of following and chasing until a prey is too exh austed to flee, succumbing to "chase myopathy" (Sears 2001), and that human feat ures such as the nuchal ligament, abundant sweat glands, the Achilles tendons, b ig knee joints and muscular glutei maximi, were changes caused by this type of a ctivity (Bramble & Lieberman 2004, et al.).[5][6][7] The theory as first propose d used comparitative physiological evidence and the natural habits of animals wh en running, indicating the likelihood of this activity as a successful hunting m ethod. Further evidence from observation of modern day hunting practice also ind icated this likelihood (Carrier et al. 1984). [7][8] According to Sears (p. 12) scientific investigation (Walker & Leakey 1993) of the Nariokotome Skeleton prov ided further evidence for the Carrier theory.[9] Competitive running grew out of religious festivals in various areas such as Gre ece, Egypt, Asia, and the East African Rift in Africa. The Tailteann Games, an I rish sporting festival in honour of the goddess Tailtiu, dates back to 1829 BCE, and is one of the earliest records of competitive running.[10] The origins of t he Olympics and Marathon running are shrouded by myth and legend, though the fir st recorded game took place in 776 BCE.[11] Running kinematic descriptionyopathy" (Sears 2001), and that human features such as the nuchal ligament, abundant sweat glands, the Achilles tendons, big knee j oints and muscular glutei maximi, were changes caused by this type of activity ( Bramble & Lieberman 2004, et al.).[5][6][7] The theory as first proposed used co mparitative physiological evidence and the natural habits of animals when runnin g, indicating the likelihood of this activity as a successful hunting method. Fu rther evidence from observation of modern day hunting practice also indicated th is likelihood (Carrier et al. 1984). [7][8] According to Sears (p. 12) scientifi c investigation (Walker & Leakey 1993) of the Nariokotome Skeleton provided furt her evidence for the Carrier theory.[9] Competitive running grew out of religious festivals in various areas such as Gre ece, Egypt, Asia, and the East African Rift in Africa. The Tailteann Games, an I rish sporting festival in honour of the goddess Tailtiu, dates back to 1829 BCE, and is one of the earliest records of competitive running.[10] The origins of t he Olympics and Marathon running are shrouded by myth and legend, though the fir st recorded game took place in 776 BCE.[11] Running kinematic description Running gait can be divided into two phases in regard to the lower extremity: st

ance and swing.[12][13][14][15] These can be further divided into absorption, pr opulsion, initial swing and terminal swing. Due to the continuous nature of runn ing gait, no certain point is assumed to be the beginning. However, for simplici ty it will be assumed that absorption and footstrike mark the beginning of the r unning cycle in a body already in motion. Footstrike Footstrike occurs when a plantar portion of the foot makes initial contact with the ground. Common footstrike types include forefoot, midfoot and heel strike ty pes.[16][17][18] These are characterized by initial contact of the ball of the f oot, ball and heel of the foot simultaneously and heel of the foot respectively. During this time the hip joint is undergoing extension from being in maximal fl exion from the previous swing phase. For proper force absorption, the knee joint should be flexed upon footstrike and the ankle should be slightly in front of t he body.[19] Footstrike begins the absorption phase as forces from ig in horses, see Horse gait. For locomotion in dogs, see Gait (dog). For general locomotion, see Gait. For other uses, see Running (disambiguampetitive racing date back to the Tailteann Games in Ireland in 1829 BCE,[citation needed] while the first rec orded Olympic Games took place in 776 BCE. Running has been described as the wor ld's most accessible sport.[3] Contents [hide] 2.7 Stride length, hip and knee function 3 Elements of good running technique 2.1 Footstrike 2.2 Midstance 2.3 Propulsion phase 2.4 Swing phase 2.5 Upper extremity function 2.6 Footstrike debate 2.7 Stride length, hip and knee function 3 Elements of good running technique 3.1 Upright posture and a slight forward lean 3.2 Stride rate and types 2.5 Upper extremity function 2.6 Footstrike debate 2.7 Stride length, hip and knee function 3 Elements of good running technique 3.1 Upright posture and a slight forward lean 3.2 Stride rate and types 4 Running injuries 5 Benefits of runningnitial contact are attenuated throughout the lower extremit y. Absorption of forces continues as the body moves from footstrike to midstance due to vertical propulsion from the toe-off during a previous gait cycle. Midstance