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UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries[edit]

The entry-level first professional degree in these countries for the practice of medicine is that of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, MB, MB BCh BAO, BMBS, MBBChir, or MBChB). This degree typically requires between four and six years of study and clinical training, and is equivalent to the North American MD degree. Due to the UK code for higher education, first degrees in medicine comprise an integrated programme of study and professional practice spanning several levels. These degrees may retain, for historical reasons, "Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery" and are abbreviated to MBChB [13] or MBBS. In the UK, Ireland and many Commonwealth countries, the M.D. is a postgraduate research degree in medicine. At some universities, this takes the form of a first doctorate, analogous to the Ph.D., awarded upon submission of a thesis and a successful viva. The thesis may consist of new research undertaken on a full- or part-time basis, with much less supervision (in the UK) than for a Ph.D., or a portfolio of [14] previously published work. NHS Medical Career Grades

Old system

New system (Modernising Medical Careers)

Year 1:

Pre-registration house officer (PRHO) - one year Foundation Doctor (FY1 and FY2) - 2 years

Year 2:

Senior house officer (SHO) a minimum of two years, although often more

Year 3:

Specialty Registrar (StR) in a hospital speciality:

Specialty Registrar (GPST) in general practice: three years

Year 4:

Specialist registrar four to six years

GP registrar- one year

minimum six years

Year 5:

General practitioner total time in training: 4

Years 68:


General practitioner total time in training: 5 years

Year 9:

Consultant total time in training: minimum 7-9 years

Consultant total time in training: minimum 8 years

Optional Training may be extended by pursuing

Training is competency based, times shown are a minimum.

medical research (usually two-three years), usually with clinical duties as well

Training may be extended by obtaining an Academic Clinical Fellowship for research or by dual certification in another speciality.

In order to be eligible to apply for an M.D. degree from a UK or Commonwealth University one must hold either an MBBS, MBChB, or an equivalent US-MD degree and must usually have at least 5-years of postgraduate experience. Therefore graduates from the MBBS or MBChB degrees do not hold doctorates; however, physicians holding these degrees are referred to as 'Doctor' as they are fully licensed as medical practitioners. In some commonwealth nations these interns are designated as House Officers. At some other universities (especially older institutions, such as Oxford, Dublin, Cambridge and St Andrews), the MD is a higher doctorate (similar to a DSc) awarded upon submission of a portfolio of [15] published work representing a substantial contribution to medical research. The University of Cambridge is proposing to introduce a new degree of Med.Sc.D. (more akin to the ScD degree) awarded on the basis of a career's contribution to the science or art of medicine, rather than a thesis, for which a [16] candidate may be awarded the M.D. degree. In the case where the MD is awarded (either as a first or higher doctorate) for previously published research, the candidate is usually required to be either a graduate or a full-time member of staff, of [17] several years' standing of the university in question.

See also: List of medical schools in Denmark In Denmark, basic medical education is given in four universities: University of Copenhagen, Aarhus University, University of Southern Denmark and Aalborg University. The duration of basic medical education is six years and the course leads to the degree of Candidate of Medicine (rated equally to master degree). Students are given the degree Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) after swearing the Hippocratic [18] Oath upon graduation. Medical school is usually followed by a year residency called clinical basic education (Danish: Klinisk basisuddannelse or just KBU) which upon completion grants the right to practices medicine without supervision.

Main article: Medical school in France Medical studies in France are organized as follow: Right after graduating from High School with a Baccalaureat, any student can register at a university of medicine (there are about 30 of them throughout the country). At the end of first year, an internal ranking examination takes place in each of these universities in order to implement the numerus clausus. First year consists mainly of theoretical classes such as biophysics and biochemistry, anatomy, ethics or histology. Passing first year is commonly considered as challenging and requires hard and continuous work. Each student can only try twice. For example,

the Universit Ren Descartes welcomes about 2000 students in first year and only 300 after numerus clausus. The second and third year are usually mainly quite theoretical although the teachings are often accompanied by placements in the field (e.g. internships as nurses or in the emergency room, depending on the university). During 4th, 5th and 6th years, medical students get a special status called 'Externe' (In some universities, such as Pierre et Marie Curie, the 'Externe' status is given starting in the 3rd year). They work as interns every morning at the hospital plus a few night shifts a month and study in the afternoon. Each internship lasts between 3 and 4 months and takes place in a different department. Med students get 5 weeks off a year. At the end of sixth year, they need to pass a national ranking exam, which will determine their specialty. Indeed, the first student gets to choose first, then the second et cetera. Usually students work pretty hard during 5th and 6th years in order to train properly for the national ranking exam. During these years, actual practice at the hospital and some theoretical courses are meant to balance the training. Such externs' average wage stands between 100 and 300 euros a month. After that ranking exams, students can start as residents in the specialty they have been able to pick. That is the point from which they also start getting paid. Towards the end of the medical program, French medical students are provided with more responsibilities and are required to defend a thesis; however, unlike a PhD thesis, no original research is actually necessary to write a MD thesis. At the conclusion of the thesis defense, French medical students receive a State Diploma of Doctor of Medicine (MD) or diplme d'Etat de docteur en mdecine. Every new doctor must then proceed to a Diploma of Specialized Studies (diplme d'tudes spcialises) to mark their specialty. Some students may also receive a Diploma of Complementary Specialized [19] Studies (diplme d'tudes spcialises complmentaires).