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Essay Question 1 1. Figure 1.1 shows the human circulatory system.

Figure 1.1 (a) Describe the meaning of double circulation based on Figure 7.1. Ex lain how the two arts of double circulation different from each other. !" mar#s$

Figure 1.% (b) & and ' in Figure 1.% are cross sections of blood (essels from the circulatory system. )om are both blood (essels. !* mar#s$

(c) Figure 1.+ shows the organs and effectors in(ol(ed in regulating human blood ressure.

Figure 1.+ , student has -ust com leted a 1. #m run. /ased on Figure 1.+0 ex lain the mechanism in(ol(ed in the regulation of the students blood ressure. !1. mar#s$

ANSWERS: Essay Question 1 (a) 1 2n a double circulation0 blood asses through the heart twice in one com lete circulation in the body. !1 mar#$ 1 3here are two se arate circulations4 the systemic circulation and the ulmonary circulation. !1 mar#$ 1 2n the systemic circulation0 blood is um ed from the heart and then to other arts of the body exce t the lungs0 and bac# to the heart again. !1 mar#$ 1 2n the ulmonary circulation0 blood is um ed from the heart to the lungs and from the lungs bac# to the heart. !1 mar#$ 1 3he ulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs which return oxygenated blood to the heart through the ulmonary (eins. !% mar#s$ Total: [6 marks] (b) & is a (ein while ' is an artery. 3he differences between both blood (essels are as follows. Characteristic 5essel 6all 7i8e of lumen :resent of (al(e /lood ressure Artery 3hic#0 muscular0 elastic 7mall ,bsent ;igh Vein 3hin0 less muscular0 less elastic 9arge :resent 9ow Total: [ marks] (c) mar#$ 1 3his results in an increased rate of ner(e im ulses sent to the cardio(ascular centre in the medulla oblongata. !1 mar#$ 1 3he cardio(ascular centre sends ner(e im ulses to the effectors. !1 mar#$ 1 3he cardiac muscles will ha(e a lower force of contraction. !1 mar#$ 1 3his results in a lower heartbeat rate and lower cardiac out ut !1 mar#$ 1 3he smooth muscles of the arteries relax and this lowers the resistance of blood flow in the blood (essels. !% mar#s$ 1 3he widening of the blood (essels is #nown as (asodilation. !1 mar#$ 1 ,ll these actions bring the blood ressure bac# to the normal le(el.!1 mar#$ Total: [1! marks] 1 /lood ressure increases after a 1.#m run. !1 mar#$ 1 3he barorece tors in the arch of the aorta and carotid arteries are stimulated. !1

Essay Question " %. Figure % shows two different systems in the human body.

Figure %

(a) Ex lain how both systems com lement each other.

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, healthy cardio(ascular system de ends on a ersons lifestyle and diet

(b) <i(e your o inion on the abo(e statement with exam les.

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ANSWERS: Essay =uestion 1 1 Dissol(ed substances such as oxygen and nutrients from the blood (circulatory system) enter body cells through a networ# of ca illaries that surround them. !1 mar#$ 1 /lood that enters the ca illaries is under high ressure0 and this ressure is sufficient to cause the fluid to lea# continuously from the blood lasma into the s aces between the body cells. !1 mar#$ 1 3his fluid is #nown as the interstitial fluid. !1 mar#$ 1 >utrients such as glucose and amino acids together with oxygen diffuse out of the blood in the ca illaries into the interstitial fluid0 and from there into the body cells. !1 mar#$ 1 6aste roducts such as urea and carbon dioxide formed in the body cells diffuse out into the interstitial fluid0 and from there diffuse into the blood in the ca illaries. !1 mar#$ 1 ,t the (enous end of the ca illary networ#0 most of the interstitial fluid is reabsorbed into the ca illaries. !1 mar#$ 1 ;owe(er0 about 1?@ of the fluid still remains in s ace between cells. !1 mar#$ 1 3his fluid must be returned to the circulatory system. 3his is done through the lym hatic system. !1 mar#$ 1 3he lym hatic system com liments the function of the circulatory system by collecting most of the excess interstitial fluid from the s aces between the cells and returning it to the circulatory system. !1 mar#$ 1 Ance inside the lym h ca illaries0 the collected fluid is #nown as lym h. !1 mar#$ 1 From the lym hatic (essels0 lym h e(entually asses into either one of two main channels4 the thoracic duct or the right lym hatic duct. !1 mar#$ 1 3he thoracic duct em ties its lym h into the left subcla(ian (ein and the right lym hatic duct em ties its lym h into the right subcla(ian (ein. 2n this way0 lym h drains bac# into the blood. !1 mar#$ Total: [1! marks] 1 , healthy cardio(ascular system de ends on a ersons lifestyle and diet !1 mar#$ 1 , erson who leads a sedentary lifestyle0 lac#s exercise and smo#es a lot is more li#ely to suffer from diseases related to the cardio(ascular system. !% mar#s$ 1 , diet rich in animal fats and cholesterol results in high cholesterol le(els and increased de osition of fats on the walls of the blood (essels. !% mar#s$ 1 3he cholesterol or fat de osits may build u on the walls of the coronary arteries0 narrowing the arteries. 3his condition is #nown as atherosclerosis. !% mar#s$ 1 , bloc#age in the artery may lead to a heart attac#. !1 mar#$ 1 3o reduce the ris# of cardio(ascular diseases0 one has to restrict the inta#e of animal fats and cholesterol0 a(oid excessi(e weight gain0 refrain from smo#ing and exercise regularly. !% mar#s$ Total: [1! marks]

Structure# Question 1 1. <ra h (a) and gra h (b) in Diagram + show the changes in the concentrations of antibodies in the blood of indi(iduals & and '.

(a) )oncentration of antibodies in indi(idual &

(b) )oncentration of antibodies in indi(idual '

(a) /ased on the gra hs0 state two differences between the immunity obtained by indi(iduals & and '. !% mar#s$ BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB (b) (i) >ame the ty e of immunity acCuired by indi(iduals & and '. !% mar#s$ BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB (ii) >ame the substances that are in-ected into indi(iduals & and '. !% mar#s$ BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB (c) 7tate the difference between the contents of the substances stated in (b) (ii). !% mar#s$ BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB

(d) 2ndicate with arrows on both gra hs the oints at which the second in-ections are. !% mar#s$ (e) 6hy is a second in-ection reCuired by indi(idual &D !% mar#s$

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(a) 3he immunity acCuired by indi(idual & is immediate but tem orary. 3he immunity acCuired by indi(idual ' is slow but ermanent. (b) (i) 2ndi(idual & acCuires artificial assi(e immunity. 2ndi(idual ' acCuires artificial acti(e immunity. (ii) 2ndi(idual & is in-ected with an antiserum. 2ndi(idual ' is in-ected with a (accine. (iii) ,n antiserum is a serum which contains s ecific antibodies against a disease. , (accine is a re aration of wea#ened0 dead or nonE (irulent forms of a athogen that is no longer harmful to a erson who recei(es it. 6hen in-ected0 it acti(ates the body to roduce antibodies. ()) (i)

(a) )oncentration of antibodies in indi(idual &

(b) )oncentration of antibodies in indi(idual '

(ii) 3o increase antibody roduction to a le(el of immunity that rotects the erson against the diseases.