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The ultimate objective of using the FEA as a design tool is to change the design process from repetitive cycles of "design, prototype, test" into streamlined process where prototypes are not used as design tools and are only needed for final design verification. With the use of FEA, design iterations are moved from the physical space of prototyping and testing into the virtual space of computer simulations (figure 1-1).

Ansys Nastran Solid works- Cosmos Hypermesh Ls dyna (3D) Fempro

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TYPES OF ANALYSIS:

The various jobs that can be performed by the ANSYS software are Structural analysis Thermal analysis Electric Circuit analysis Electromagnetic problems Six sigma design Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modal analysis Vibration analysis Nonlinear analysis STAGES OF ANALYSIS IN ANSYS: 1)PREPROCESSOR: i) Real Constant:

The calculation of the element matrices requires material properties, nodal coordinates and geometrical parameters. Any data required for the calculation of the element matrix that cannot be determined from the nodal coordinates or material properties are called 'Veal constants" in ANSYS. Typically, real constants are area, thickness, inner diameter, outer diameter, etc. Not all element types require real constants.

ii) ELEMENT TYPE: The nodes and elements are the essential parts of a finite element model. Before starting meshing, the element type{s) to be used must be defined (Otherwise ANSYS refuses to create the mesh). The ANSYS software contains more than 100 different element types in its element library. Each element type has a unique number and a prefix that identifies the element category, such as BEAM3, PLANE42, SOLID45, etc. The elements that are available in ANSYS can be classified according to many different criteria, such as dimensionality, analysis discipline, and material behavior. ANSYS classifies the elements in 21 different groups. In this section, the elements from four of these groups

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specifically, structural, thermal, fluid, and FLOTRAN CFDare considered for different analysis objectives iii) MATERIAL PROPERTIES:

For each element type, there is a minimum number of required materials properties. This number depends on the type of analysis. The material properties may be: Linear or nonlinear. Isotropic, orthotropic, or anisotropic. Temperature dependent or independent. All material properties can be input as functions of temperature. Some properties are called linear properties because typical solutions with these properties require only a single iteration. This means that the properties being used are neither time nor temperature dependent, and thus remain constant throughout the analysis. In the presence of variable material properties, the nonlinear characteristics of the properties must be specified. For example, a material exhibiting plasticity, viscoplasticity, etc., requires the specification of a nonlinear stress-strain relation. iv) MODELLING: The geometrical representation of the physical system is referred to as the solid model. In model generation with ANSYS, the ultimate goal is to create a finite element mesh of the physical system. There are two main paths in ANSYS to generate the nodes and elements of the mesh: (1) direct generation and (2) solid modeling and meshing. In direct generation, every single node is generated by entering their coordinates followed by generation of the elements through the connectivity information. Since most real engineering problems require a high number of nodes and elements (i.e., hundreds or thousands), direct generation is not feasible. Solid modeling is a very powerful alternative to direct generation. Solid modeling involves the creation of geometrical entities, such as lines, areas, or volumes, that represent the actual geometry of the problem. Once completed, they

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can be meshed by ANSYS automatically (user still has control over the meshing through user-specified preferences for mesh density, etc.). A solid model can be created by using either entities or primitivesThe entities refer to the keypoints, lines, areas, and volumes. The primitives are predefined geometrical shapes. There is an ascending hierarchy among the entities from the keypoints to the volumes. Each entity (except keypoints) can be created by using the lower ones. When defined, each entity is automatically associated with its lower entities. If these entities are created by starting with keypoints and moving up, the approach is referred to as "bottom-up'' solid modeling. When primitives are used, lower-order entities (keypoints, lines, and areas) are automatically generated by ANSYS. Since the use of primitives involves the generation of entities without having to create lower entities, it is referred to as the "top-down" approach. Boolean or similar operations can be applied to the primitives to generate the complex geometries. The bottom-up and top-down approaches can easily be combined since one may be more convenient at a certain stage and the other at another stage. It is not necessary to declare a preference between the two approaches throughout the analysis. V) MESHING: One of the most powerful features of ANSYS is automatic mesh generation. ANSYS meshes the solid model entities upon execution of an "appropriate" single command. With automatic meshing, the user can still provide specific preferences for mesh density and shape. If no preferences are specified by the user, ANSYS uses the default preferences. ANSYS allows the user to control the mesh density of the domains defined by solid model entities. The desired mesh density can be achieved by: Defining a target element edge size on the domain boundaries. Defining a default number of element edges on all lines. Defining the number of element edges on specific lines. Using smart sizing.

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Using mapped meshing. 2) SOLUTION: After preprocessing, the model generation, including meshing, is complete. The user is ready to begin the solution phase of the ANSYS session. First, the analysis type is specified from among the three main types: Static. Transient (time-dependent). Submodeling and substructuring If the problem under consideration falls into the Structural Analysis discipline, then there are additional analysis types, such as modal, harmonic, spectrum, and eigenvalue buckling. There are two main deciding factors in choosing the analysis type: Loading conditions: If the boundary conditions change as a function of time or there are initial conditions, then the analysis type is Transient. However, if the analysis discipline is structural and if the loading is a sinusoidal function of time, then the analysis type is Harmonic. Similarly, if the loading is a seismic spectrum, the analysis type is Spectrum. Results of Interest: If the analysis discipline is structural and if the results of interest are the natural structural frequencies, then the analysis type is Modal. Similarly, if the interest is in determining the load at which the structure looses stability (buckles), then the analysis type is eigen value buckling. 3) GENERAL POSTPROCESSOR: In the General Postprocessor, the results of a solution at a specific time (if the problem is time dependent) are reviewed. Available options for review include graphical displays and a listing

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of results. It is also possible to perform sorting and mathematical operations on the results. i) PLOT RESULTS: After the desired results set is read into the database, the result quantities can be reviewed through graphics displays. The types of graphics displays include deformed shapes (structural analysis), contour plots, vector displays (thermal), and path plots. ii) LIST RESULTS: Results of an ANSYS solution can be reviewed through lists. Although there are numerous different options for listing the results under postprocessors, only two of them are discussed in this section: nodal and element solutions. In order to list results computed at the nodes, the following menu path is used: Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Soln This brings up the List Nodal Solution dialog box. Once the user makes a selection as to what result quantities are to be reviewed and clicks on OK, the list appears in a separate window. Similar to nodal solution listings, the element results are listed by using the following menu path: Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Element Soln The usage of this option is similar to the nodal solution lists.

Hot Spots: Hot spots are the locations on entity that identify it for retrieval picking. For e.g.: If there are two adjacent elements the element that is picked is the one whose hotspot is closest to the mouse pointer for areas, volume and elements. The hotspot is the centroid location lines that have three spots, one is at the middle and one each nearer to the two ends.

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If the hotspots of two or more entities are coincident picking that location will bring up the multiple entities dialog box by pressing the next or previous button. You can cycle through the coincident entities until the desired entities is highlighted. Then press ok to pick that entity.

STRESS ANAYSIS OF A PLATE WITH CIRCULAR HOLES Perform FEM analysis using ANSYS for a given problem of a plate with circular holes with static load and compare the result with analytic method. Find the maximum stress and the total deflection. Compare the result with the analytical solution.

All dimensions in mm

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EX NO: 1/ STRESS ANAYSIS OF A PLATE WITH CIRCULAR HOLES AIM: To perform FEM analysis using ANSYS for a given problem of a plate with circular holes with static load and compare the result with analytic method.

SOFTWARE USED: ANSYS 11.0 PROCEDURE: 1. PREFERENCE: Preference structural ok 2. PREPROCESSOR Modeling To create rectangle preprocessor modeling create areas rectangle by 2 corners X1 = 0 Y1 = 0 Create circle Preprocessor modeling create areas circle solid circle X 50 150 Y 50 50 RADIUS 10 10 X2 = 200 Y2 = 100

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Element type Preprocessor element add solid 8 node 82 ok option plate stress w/thk Real constants Preprocessor real constant add plane z thickness of 10 Material property Preprocessor material property material models structural linear elastic isotropic Ex(2e5) PRxy (0.3) ok Mesh the area Preprocessor meshing mesh tool areas free pick all ok 3. SOLUTION: Define analysis type Solution analysis type new analysis static Apply constraints Solution define loads apply structural displacement on lines select line ok select all DOF ok Apply loads Solution define loads apply structural pressure on lines apply in constant uniform of -200 on the top of the area Solution solve current LS ok

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4. GENERAL POSTPROCESSOR: General postprocessor plot result nodal solution contour plot stress von mises stress Utility menu plot ctrl style graph Utility menu plot ctrl animation deformed shape

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RESULT: Thus the stress analysis of plates with circular holes is performed using ANSYS and the results are plotted.

STRESS ANALYSIS OF L-BRACKET Perform FEM analysis using ANSYS for a given problem of L- Bracket ( A36 steel with a young modulus of 2e5 psi & Poisson ratio of 0.27)with static load and compare the result with analytic method. Find the maximum stress and the total deflection. Compare the result with the analytical solution.

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EX NO: 2/ STRESS ANALYSIS OF L-BRACKET AIM: To perform FEM analysis using ANSYS for a given problem of LBracket with static load and compare the result with analytic method. SOFTWARE USED: ANSYS 11.0 PROCEDURE: 1. PREFERENCE: Preference structural ok 2. PREPROCESSOR Modeling To create rectangle preprocessor modeling create areas rectangle by dimensions Enter dimension for 1st section X1 = 0 X2 = 6 Y1 = -1 Y2 = 1 st Enter dimension for 2 section X1 = 4 X2 = 6 Y1 = -1 Y2 = -3 Modeling create area circle solid circle Enter X = 0 Y=0 R = 1 apply X=5 Y = -3 R = 1 ok Modeling operate Boolean add areas pick all ok Modeling create lines line fillet(enter radius 0.4) click both line Modeling create area arbitrary by lines (pick curve & two lines ) apply Modeling operate Boolean add areas pick all ok

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Modeling create area circle solid circle Enter X = 0 Y=0 R = 0.4 apply X=5 Y = -3 R = 0.4 ok Modeling operate Boolean subtract select base area pick area to be subtracted (holes) Element type Preprocessor element add solid 8 node 82 ok option plate stress w/thk ok Real constants Preprocessor real constant add / edit set thickness of 0.5 Material property Preprocessor material property material models structural linear elastic isotropic Ex(2e5) PRxy (0.3) ok Mesh the area Preprocessor meshing mesh tool click set in gobal size ctrl type 1.0 ok choose area meshing click on mesh pick all for area to mesh & close mesh tool ok 3. SOLUTION: Define analysis type Solution analysis type new analysis static Apply constraints Solution define loads apply structural displacement on lines pick 4 lines around left hand hole ok Apply loads Apply tapered pressure load to the bottom right pin hole pressure tapered from maximum value from 500 psi & minimum value 50 psi Solution define loads apply structural pressure on lines pick left part of the bottom circle Enter value = 50 optional value = 500

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Pick right part of the bottom circle Enter value = 500 optional value = 50 ok Solution solve current LS ok

4.GENERAL POSTPROCESSOR: General postprocessor plot result nodal solution contour plot stress von mises stress Utility menu plot ctrl style graph Utility menu plot ctrl animation deformed shape

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RESULT: Thus the stress analysis of L bracket is performed using ANSYS and results are plotted. STRESS ANALYSIS OF CANTILEVER BEAM Perform FEM analysis using ANSYS for a given problem of beam with static load and compare the result with analytic method. Find the maximum stress and the total deflection. Compare the result with the analytical solution.

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EX NO: 3/ STRESS ANALYSIS OF CANTILEVER BEAM AIM: To perform stress analysis using ANSYS for the given cantilever beam. SOFTWARE USED: ANSYS 11.0 PROCEDURE: 1. PREFERENCE: Preference structural ok 2. PREPROCESSOR Element type Preprocessor element type add beam 2node188ok Material property Preprocessor material property material model structural linear elastic isotropic Ex (2e5) PRxy (0.3) ok close Modeling Preprocessor section beam common section section ID-1 select sub type rectangle enter L*B (34* 92) ok Preprocessor modeling create keypoints in active CS KEYPOINTS 1 2 X 0 2000

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Y 0 0

Z 0 0

4000

Preprocessor modeling create line straight line draw the lines b/w the keypoints

Meshing Preprocessor meshing mesh tool set line option pick line 1 apply ok Select mesh pick all ok 3. SOLUTION: Solution define loads apply structural displacement on keypoints select first keypoint ok select all DOF ok Solution define loads apply structural force / moment select third keypoint 3 select Fy (20e3) ok Solution define loads apply structural pressure select element1 enter value 6 Solution solve current LS ok 4. GENERAL POSTPROCESSOR: General postproc plot result deformed shape & undeformed shape General postprocessor list result nodal solution Utility menu plot ctrl animation deformed shape

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RESULT: Thus the stress analysis of cantilever beam is performed using ANSYS and results are plotted.

ANALYSIS OF AXI SYMMETRIC COMPONENT The model is a closed tube made from steel. Point load will be applied at the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. The cross section of the tube.

Rectangle 1. 2. 3.

X1 0 15 0

X2 20 20 20

Y1 0 0 95

Y2 5 100 100

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EX NO: 4/ STRESS ANALYSIS OF AXI-SYMMETRIC COMPONENT Aim: To perform an FEM Analysis using ANSYS for an given Axi-symmetric model. Software Used: ANSYS 11.0 (Academic Utility Version) Procedure: 1.Preferences ANSYS Main menu Preferences structural ok 2. Preprocessing stage: (i). Element type: Preprocessor Element type Structural solid 8 node 82 (or) triangle 6 node. (ii). Turn on Axi-symmetry: Preprocessor Element type Element behavior (k3) select axisymmetric ok. (iii). Define Material Properties: Preprocessor Material Property Material model structural linear elastic isotropic EX=2e5, PRXY = 0.3 (iv). Modelling:

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Create Areas: Preprocessor Modelling Create areas rectangle by dimension Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1. 0 20 0 5 2. 15 20 0 100 3. 0 20 95 100 Add areas together: Preprocessor Modelling operate Booleans add area click the pick all button to create a single area

(v). Meshing: Define Mesh size: Preprocessor Meshing Size control Manual size area all area edge length = 2. Mesh the frame: Preprocessor Meshing Mesh area free pick all. 3. Solution stage (i). Define Analysis type: Solution Analysis type new analysis static. (ii). Apply constraints: Solution define loads apply structural displacement symmetry B.C. on lines. Pick top left edge and bottom left edge and constrain X = 0 Utility menu select entities. Select node by location, click Y co-ordinate Solution define loads apply structural displacement on nodes pick all. Utility menu select entities. (iii). Apply loads: Solution define loads apply structural pressure load on lines. Select top line of the area apply load of 200 in Fy direction.

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(iv). Solve: Solution solve current LS ok. 4. Post Processing Stage: (i). Determine the stress through the thickness of the tube: Utility menu select entities Nodes by location Y co-ordinate & type 45, 55 General post processor list result nodal solution stress components scomp. (ii). Plotting the elements as axi-symmetric: Utility menu plot ctrls style symmetry expansion 2D axi-symmetric expansion.

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RESULT: Thus the static analysis on an axi-symmetric component is solved and the stress distribution is analyzed and the results are obtained. STRESS ANALYSIS OF SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM A distributed load of 1000N/m will be applied to a solid steel beam with rectangular cross section as shown in figure below. The cross section of the beam is 10*10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa and Poissons ratio 0.3.

Keypoints 1. 2.

X 0 1000

Y 0 0

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EX NO: 5/ SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM WITH ONE END FIXED AND END IS ROLLER Aim: To perform FEM analysis for a given problem of simply supported beam. Software Used: ANSYS 11.0 (Academic Utility version). Procedure: 1. Preferences: ANSYS main menu Preferences structural ok. 2. Preprocessor: (i). Create key points: Preprocessor Modeling create key points in active CS Key points 1. 2. (ii). Define lines: Preprocessor Modeling create lines straight lines join key points 1&2. (iii). Element types: Preprocessor Element type add beam BEAM3. X 0 1000 Y 0 0

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(iv). Define real constant: Preprocessor Real constant add real constant for beam area = 100, Izz = 833.33, height (h) = 10.

(v). Define element material properties: Preprocessor Material Properties Material models structural linear elastic isotropic EX = 2e5, PRXY = 0.3. (v). Meshing: Preprocessor Meshing mesh tool smart size 3quad & free mesh mesh

3. Solution:

1. Define Analysis Type

Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained). 3. Apply Load We will apply a distributed load, of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm, over the entire length of the beam. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. As shown in the following figure, enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'. 4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current L

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4. General Postprocessor:

General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape General postprocessor list result nodal solution Utility menu plot ctrl animation deformed shape

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Result: Thus the stress analysis of simply supported beam is performed using ANSYS and results are plotted

STRESS ANALYSIS OF FIXED BEAM

A beam of cross section 60 mm x 60 mm and 6 m span is built in at the ends. A uniformly distributed load of 3 kN/m runs over the left half of the span and there is in addition a concentrated load of 4kN at right quarter as shown in fig

Poissons ratio,

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EX NO: 6/ STRESS ANALYSIS OF FIXED BEAM Aim: To perform FEM analysis for a given problem of fixed beam. Software Used: ANSYS 11.0 (Academic Utility version). Procedure: 1. Preferences: ANSYS main menu Preferences structural ok. 2. Preprocessor: (i). Create key points: Preprocessor Modeling create key points in active CS

X 0 3 4.5 6

Y 0 0 0 0

Preprocessor Modeling create lines straight lines join key points 1, 2, 3&4. (iii). Element types:

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Preprocessor Element type add beam BEAM3. (iv). Define real constant: Preprocessor Real constant add real constant for beam area = 3.6e-3, Izz = 1.08e-6, height (h) = 0.06.

(v). Define element material properties: Preprocessor Material Properties Material models structural linear elastic isotropic EX = 2e11, PRXY = 0.3. (v). Meshing: Preprocessor Meshing mesh tool smart size 3quad & free mesh mesh

3. Solution:

i. Define Analysis Type

Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ii. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix all DOF on keypoint 1 and keypoint 4 iii. Apply Load We will apply a distributed load, 3 kN/m of, over the entire length of the beam. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. A window appears ,In it enter a value of 3e3 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'.

Solution define loads apply structural force / moment select third keypoint 3 Fy =-4e3 ok

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4. General Postprocessor:

General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape General postprocessor list result nodal solution Utility menu plot ctrl animation deformed shape

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Result: Thus the stress analysis of fixed beam is performed using ANSYS and results are plotted. MODE FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF A 2D COMPONENT

Find five mode frequencies of 1 m x 1 m plate of thickness 1mm with a hole at the centre of radius 0.2 m. Take E=210 GPa ,Poissons ratio = 0.3, Density = 7800 Kg/m3.

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All dimensions in m

Software Used: ANSYS 11.0 (Academic Utility version). Procedure:

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1. Preferences: ANSYS main menu Preferences structural ok. 2. Preprocessor: (i). Element types: Preprocessor Element type add shell 8 node 93. (ii). Define real constant: Preprocessor Real constant add thicknsess0.001 m (iii). Define element material properties: Preprocessor Material Properties Material models structural linear elastic isotropic EX = 2e9 N/mm2, PRXY = 0.3. density 7.8e3 Kg/m3. (iv). Create Area: Preprocessor Modeling create area rectangle by 2 corners X=0, Y=0, H=1, W=1. Preprocessor Modeling create area circle solid circle X=0.5, Y=0.5, R=0.2. Preprocessor Modeling operate Booleans subtract areas subtract the circle from the plate by selecting it.

3. Solution stage (i). Define Analysis type: Solution Analysis type new analysis modal Solution Analysis options Block Lanczos No of modes to extract =5 No of modes to expand=5 Start frequency =0

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End frequency =1000 (ii). Apply constraints: Solution define loads apply structural displacement on lines. Left and right edge = Ux and UZ as constant Top and bottom edge =Uy and Uz as constant (iv). Solve: Solution solve current LS ok. 4. Post Processing Stage:

General post processor read results first set (select next set by picking next set in read result) General post processor plot results contour plot nodal solution DOF solution displacement vector sum.

Result: Thus the modal analysis of 2D component has been done and five different frequencies have been got.

CONDUCTION ANALYSIS ON SLAB The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.

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EX NO: 8/ CONDUCTION ANALYSIS ON SLAB Aim: To analyze the conductive heat transfer of a slab. Software used: ANSYS 11.0

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Procedure: 1. Preferences: ANSYS main menu Preferences Thermal ok. 2. Preprocessor: i. Modeling: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0, Y=0, Width=1,Height=1 ii. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid, Quad4Node 55 iii. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 iv. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.05 v. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All 3. Solution stage:

i. Define Analysis Type

Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ii) Solution > Define Loads > Apply >Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click top line & constrain value of 500 0C Remaining 3 sides to a constraint value of 1000C iii) Solve:

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4. Post Processing Stage: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF solution, Temperature TEMP

RESULT: Thus the conductive heat transfer of slab has been performed and results are plotted.

The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long):

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EX NO: 9/ CONVECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SLAB Aim: To analyze the convective heat transfer of a slab. Software used:

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ANSYS 11.0 Procedure: 1. Preferences: ANSYS main menu Preferences Thermal ok. 2. Preprocessor: Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0, Y=0, Width=1,Height=1 4. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid, Quad 4 Node 55 5. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 6. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.05 7. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All

3. Solution stage: 1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State

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2. Apply Conduction Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 0 C Using the same method, constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 1000C 3. Apply Convection Boundary Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block. Film coefficient =10 W/m2 0C Bulk temperature =100 0C 4. Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block. Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0. This will eliminate convection through the side, thereby modeling an insulated wall. Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature 4. Post Processing Stage: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF solution, Temperature TEMP

RESULT:

Thus the convective heat transfer of slab has been performed and results are plotted

HARMONC ANALYSIS OF CANTILEVER BEAM

Conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 - 100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

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\\

EX NO: 10/ HARMONC ANALYSIS OF CANTILEVER BEAM Aim: To conduct simple harmonic analysis on a cantilever beam.

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Software used: ANSYS 11.0 Procedure: 1. Preferences: ANSYS main menu Preferences structural ok. 2. Preprocessor: Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x,y) 1 (0,0) 2 (1,0) Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add Beam 2D elastic 3(BEAM 3) Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... i. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: AREA: 0.0001 ,IZZ: 8.33e-10 and HEIGHT: 0.01

Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic EX: 2.068e11, PRXY: 0.3 To enter the density of the material, double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7830 .

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Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Contrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 3. Solution stage: i. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ii. Set options for analysis type: Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. A window will appear Select the Full Solution method, the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' A window will appear. Use the default settings . iii. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > on keypoints Constrain all DOF of left end of the beam. iv. Apply Loads: Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On keypoints Apply Fy=-100 at the right end of the beam. v. Set the frequency range Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... In the window appearing, specify a frequency range of 0 - 100Hz, 100 substeps and stepped ok

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We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applied) as a function of frequency. 4. Post Processing Stage: i. Open the TimeHist Processing Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. ii. Define Variables Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer.. A window will appear, in it Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and a window will appear We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Click OK. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK. The 'Time History Variables' elected will be displayed in the window. iii. Plot UY vs. frequency In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button, 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' iv. List Stored Variables In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button, 3 buttons to the left of 'Add'

RESULT: Thus the harmonic analysis of cantilever beam has been done and the results have been plotted.

MODAL ANALYSIS OF CANTILEVER BEAM

Conduct a mode frequency test on a cantilever beam for a frequency range of 01000 Hz

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EX NO: 11/ MODAL ANALYSIS OF CANTILEVER BEAM Aim: To conduct simple modal analysis on a cantilever beam.

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Software used: ANSYS 11.0 Procedure: 1. Preferences: ANSYS main menu Preferences structural ok. 2. Preprocessor: Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x,y) 1 (0,0) 2 (1,0) Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add Beam 2D elastic 3(BEAM 3) Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: AREA: 0.0001, IZZ: 8.33e-10, HEIGHT: 0.01 Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic EX: 2.068e11, PRXY: 0.3 To enter the density of the material, double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window

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Enter a density of 7830 Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Contrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 3. Solution stage: i. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ii. Set options for analysis type: Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. A window will appear select the BLOCK LANCZOS method and enter 5 in the 'No. of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. of modes to expand' Click 'OK' A window will appear, in it enter Start frequency= 0 End frequency =1000 Click ok iii).Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). iv. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS 4. Post Processing Stage:

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i. Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions Select: General Postproc > Results Summary... ii. View Mode Shapes Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set.This selects the results for the first mode shape Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . Select 'Def + undef edge'.The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window. To view the next mode shape, select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . Select 'Def + undef edge'.

iii. Animate Mode Shapes Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape

RESULT:

Thus the modal analysis on cantilever beam is done and the results have been plotted. MODAL ANALYSIS OF FIXED BEAM Conduct a mode frequency test on a beam for a frequency range of 0-500 Hz

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Poissons ratio,

EX NO: 12/ MODAL ANALYSIS OF FIXED BEAM Aim: To conduct simple modal analysis on a fixed beam.

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Software used: ANSYS 11.0 Procedure: 1. Preferences: ANSYS main menu Preferences structural ok. 2. Preprocessor: Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x,y) 1 (0,0) 2 (2,0) Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add Beam 2D elastic 3(BEAM 3) Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: AREA: 0.0004, IZZ: 13.33e-9 and HEIGHT: 0.02

Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic EX: 2e11, PRXY: 0.3

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To enter the density of the material, double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7800 Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Contrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify 20 element divisions along the line. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 3. Solution stage: i. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ii. Set options for analysis type: Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. A window will appear select the BLOCK LANCZOS method and enter 5 in the 'No. of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. of modes to expand' Click 'OK' A window will appear, in it enter Start frequency= 0 End frequency =500 Click ok iii).Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 and keypoint 2 (ie all DOFs constrained).

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iv. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS 4. Post Processing Stage: i. To view result summary: Select: General Postproc > Results Summary... ii. View Mode Shapes Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set.This selects the results for the first mode shape Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . Select 'Def + undef edge'.The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window. To view the next mode shape, select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . Select 'Def + undef edge'.

iii. Animate Mode Shapes Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape

RESULT:

Thus the modal analysis on fixed beam is done and the results have been plotted.

MODAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM Conduct a mode frequency test on a cantilever beam for a frequency range of 0-250 Hz

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Poissons ratio,

EX NO: 13/ MODAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM Aim: To conduct simple modal analysis on a simply supported beam.

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Software used: ANSYS 11.0 Procedure: 1. Preferences: ANSYS main menu Preferences structural ok. 2. Preprocessor: Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x,y) 1 (0,0) 2 (4,0) Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add Beam 2D elastic 3(BEAM 3) Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: AREA: 0.0012, IZZ: 125e-9 and HEIGHT: 0.04. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic EX: 2e11, PRXY: 0.3 To enter the density of the material, double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window

Page5 3

Enter a density of 7800 Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Contrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify 40 element divisions along the line. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 3. Solution stage: i. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal

ii. Set options for analysis type: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. A window will appear select the BLOCK LANCZOS method and enter 5 in the 'No. of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. of modes to expand' Click 'OK' A window will appear, in it enter Start frequency= 0 End frequency =250 Click ok iii).Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Constrain Ux, Uy and Uz in keypoint 1 and keypoint 2. iv. Solve the System

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Solution > Solve > Current LS 4. Post Processing Stage: i. To view result summary: General Postproc > Results Summary... ii. View Mode Shapes Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set.This selects the results for the first mode shape Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . Select 'Def + undef edge'.The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window. To view the next mode shape, select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . Select 'Def + undef edge'. iii. Animate Mode Shapes Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape

RESULT:

Thus the modal analysis on simply supported beam is done and the results have been plotted

Page5 5

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