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Andrew J Benn 7th May 2008
Battery Sizing and design of a user friendly monitor/charger for a bicycle light
Project supervisor: Dr Tim Forcer Second examiner: Dr Paul Lewin
A project report submitted for the award of Electromechanical Engineering MEng
With the increasing utilization of high power density batteries coupled with the technological advances in efficiency, smart power management is becoming an increasingly desirable asset. Most of the uses for this technology do not have a source of constant power instead the power supply and demand are usually in constant flux, requiring advanced power flow control. This control is desirable not only to system developers but also to consumers of electronic and electrical goods. The hybrid electric vehicle is one application for a power management system, where energy can be variably generated, stored or used depending on the state of the car. No pre-fabricated consumer microprocessor currently available can handle all the required tasks. This report intends to show that by using commercially available microprocessors as building blocks, an entire power management system can be built. The issue of DC power management and storage will be introduced with a review of background literature. A design for a bicycle light power management system using commercially available semiconductor devices will be described with models and practical measurements. A reasoned suggestion of further work is given as well as a review of budgeting and project timescale for this project.
Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... 2 Contents .......................................................................................................................................... 3 Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................ 4 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 5
1.1 What is Power Management ................................................................................ 6 1.2 Applications of the Technology .......................................................................... 6 1.2.1 Vibration Energy Harvesting (VIBES) ........................................................ 6 1.2.2 Hybrid Electric Vehicle ................................................................................ 7 1.2.3 Small Scale Renewable Energy Generation ................................................. 8 1.3 Types of Energy Storage ..................................................................................... 9 1.3.1 Kinetic .......................................................................................................... 9 1.3.2 Super-capacitor............................................................................................. 9 1.3.3 Secondary Cells ............................................................................................ 9
2 Design Process ..................................................................................................................... 12
2.1 The System Management Bus (SMBus) ........................................................... 13 2.2 What is a Smart Battery ..................................................................................... 14 2.3 System Design ................................................................................................... 14 2.3.1 System Redundancy ................................................................................... 16 2.3.2 Overall design ............................................................................................ 18 2.3.3 Component Value Calculations.................................................................. 19
3 Modelling, Tests and Measurements ................................................................................... 22
3.1 Testing and Measurement.................................................................................. 24 3.1.1 SMBus Communication ............................................................................. 24 3.1.2 Current and Voltage Limit ......................................................................... 26 3.1.3 Charging the Li-Po Battery ........................................................................ 26 3.1.4 Effect of Loading on the Charger ............................................................... 27 3.1.5 System Stage Three Testing ....................................................................... 28 3.1.6 Transients ................................................................................................... 28 3.1.7 LED Driver General Operation .................................................................. 29 3.1.8 Host Programming ..................................................................................... 29 3.2 Evaluation of Testing ........................................................................................ 30
4 Future Work ......................................................................................................................... 31 5 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 32 6 Project organisation ............................................................................................................. 33 References .................................................................................................................................... 34 Appendix A. General Supporting Documentation ................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Appendix B. Graphs and Measurements ............................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Appendix C. Project Costing and Timescale ......................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Appendix CD. Code and Detailed measurement ……………………………………...45
I would like to thank my supervisor Dr Tim Forcer for all his help and encouragement over the past year, and my housemates Jill Hazelton and Kunal Nirmal for stopping me procrastinating these last few weeks.
A Bicycle light is a good example of a device that has to tackle the issue of portable power storage and efficient use of available power. This project is concerned with establishing the common building blocks that can be used in an application of this type and tries to establish itself within a commercial framework; to do this there is a short exploration of the possible market and range of applications. The overall purpose of the project is to show that a single microprocessor can implement a complete power management topology but it must also demonstrate that it is a commercially attractive product. Bicycle lights initially consisted of a simple battery and bulb arrangement; the design was limited by battery power density and the inefficiency of the incandescent bulb. To solve the problems of bulky and limited life batteries some designs started to use dynamos to create power from the mechanical movement of the bike. A series of improvements in battery technology, as well as light and dynamo efficiencies has produced better designs; the main advantages of these design optimisations are longer life, increased brightness and reduced weight. However there are still some sectors of the cycling community that believe the bicycle light design needs further improvements to extend its range of useful applications (see Appendix A). Current good designs use modern high power density batteries, as well as super bright LEDs. This project attempts to show how a better design may come from the use of a power management system; controlling the flow of power so any excess generated energy is stored, and the stored energy can then be used to reduce the peak load on the dynamo. Using a system like this it may be possible to reduce the dynamo size while increasing the life of the product. This kind of advanced power flow technology has applications in other devices that use a similar configuration, such as the hybrid electric car. In this kind of system the generation could be provided by regenerative breaking or fuel cells, while the energy storage would consist of batteries or a super capacitors . In my opinion there is a large commercial market for compact, cheep and premanufactured power management systems. However despite there being a number of devices that offer some power management functionality there is no one device that can deal with the full complexity of the problem. Instead it is left to the developer to patch together several devices in order to get the desired effect; the initial research found that these devices often have to be sourced from separate manufactures and often have different operational constraints. This report will show that by using commercially available microprocessors as basic building blocks it is possible to create a power management device. Demonstrating that it would be possible to create a single microprocessor that contains all the necessary functionality to implement power flow control.
As part of the power management system the report also investigates the possibility of using energy storage to vary the load on the power source such that the power flow in the system is optimised for its application. The system design is mainly orientated around the consumer requirements of bicycle users, but demonstrates a clear methodology for other applications.
1.1 What is Power Management
Power management system can be described as the implementation of a control structure that balances the power requirements of an electrical system. To do this it must make a series of measurements to detect power sources and load current, from this it decides on the best way to handle the power flow within the system. Advanced Power Management (APM)  is a control structure the Intel Corporation developed to handle power management applications in computing. APM uses power scaling methods to alter load characteristics to suit the system status; it does this by changing the clock frequency or CPU core voltage, known as CPU throttling. Triggering events form the remainder of the system activate a change in power scaling status; a trigger event may be user activated or come from system measurements such as AC power source detection or battery alarm warnings. APM is an important part of modern portable computing in enabling longer operation and size minimisation. For example when not connected to a power source the APM may reduce the power consumption so to increase the battery life, the system may also limit input current from an AC adapter so the adapter rating can be reduced saving money and size. Computer power management is already a well researched area, it can be argued that most power management devices are created for this type of market. This report considers a fundamentally more generic load type but with a dynamic power supply, where the power is not a constant.
1.2 Applications of the Technology
So far the use of this technology has been discussed in relation to a bicycle light and the implementation in computing. In order to put this report in a commercial context it will now conceptualise other possible application areas for this research.
1.2.1 Vibration Energy Harvesting (VIBES)
Mechanical energy harvesters use an inertia generator to extract energy from vibrations in their environment (Fig 1). These devices are being designed to replace battery dependent wireless equipment; the small power generation is limited to very specific applications for embedded sensors. An electromechanical vibration energy harvester developed by the University of Southampton has received interest from the US Navy and the Oil Industry as potential customers. 
Fig 1. Model of inertia generator 
The generation capacity of a vibration energy harvester is usually in the scale of 1mW or less, for this to be useful it is usually stored over a period of time and wireless equipment is used in bursts. If the magnitude of vibration decreases then the available power will decrease, to handle this the power will be stored over a longer period of time; this can vary from seconds to hours. The energy storage device is usually a capacitor or super capacitor. These inertial generators experience a maximum power output at their resonant frequency. For use in practical applications the harvesters must be carefully designed to match the natural frequency of the environment; consideration of the harvesters bandwidth is also needed, as narrower bandwidth generators generally give greater power output at the resonant frequency. A process of tuning the generator using electrical loading can be used; with this a narrow bandwidth can be maintained while resonant frequency can be adjusted to suit the system.  From this description of vibration energy harvesting it is clear that an embedded compact power management system would be well suited to the load management and power conditioning needs. However due to the extreme low or high voltages created, depending on the harvesters transduction mechanism, there needs to be greater consideration of the semiconductor devices than is within the scope of this report.
1.2.2 Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Hybrid electric vehicles are classified according to their use of energy sources; the categories include series and parallel drive chains. Despite the differences in each type the basic concept is the same; a generator is driven from some form of engine, energy storage occurs and the vehicle is driven by an electric motor.  The whole system is linked by a DC power train, which must be controlled as the requirements of the system change. The energy storage device supplies energy during peak loads such as acceleration, and stores energy when there is a low or negative load, i.e. breaking.
When referring to electric hybrid vehicles it is common to think of cars however, this concept of an electrical power train also applies to marine transport. A report on the use of the Integrated Power System (IPS)  in naval prolusion and electrical applications shows a modular design for a power management. The system modules consist of generation, distribution, propulsion, storage and control modules; with this kind of structure it is clear that IPS satisfies all the conditions to implement power management.
1.2.3 Small Scale Renewable Energy Generation
Small-scale renewable generation is not a new concept however, it has only recently become a truly viable consumer option as an alternative source of power. The increase in technology has increased the efficiency of the generation devices; the photovoltaic cell is an excellent example of a generation method that has been hampered by cost and efficiency. Photovoltaic generation units are usually compared by initial investment and time until there is a return on the investment. Because of this a large amount of research in the industry is aimed at obtaining higher efficiency and lower cost. Osahon H Okunbo discusses the application of “maximum power point tracking” in order to obtain higher efficiency from solar systems . This research looks at the dynamic control of the system load in order to extract the maximum available power from the cell (Fig 2).
Fig 2. Graph of cell current (red line) and power (blue line) as a function of voltage 
Again the ability for a power management device to control storage capacity and active load could be an applicable technique to increase efficiency. With the suggested design of a single chip management structure the cost may also be decreased making this type of generation more attractive.
1.3 Types of Energy Storage
Although this project studied the integration of cells in a power management system it is worth considering the use of other storage methods. In this section the report will quickly review alternative options before talking in detail about cell chemistry and sizing issues.
By applying rotational acceleration to a symmetrical mass such as a flywheel energy is stored in the masses inertia. In standard systems the flywheel is made from a heavy mass with enough strength to cope with the mechanical forces during operation; there is a proportional linear relationship between the mass and the energy storage capacity. Because of this relationship most flywheel systems are very heavy and sizable. Recently an article in the IET power magazine  reported the use of lighter but faster flywheels. With the relationship between speed and energy capacity being energy squared, such that “doubling the speed quadruples the energy ” stored, much smaller and lighter designs are possible. It can be argued that this has no real application in portable systems and its usage is fairly limited however, research in 2007 showed it was possible to create a Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) flywheel storage device. The device, sized 100 m x 100 m x 50 m, was capable of 51,000rpm storing 337J. 
Super-capacitors offer an alternative for short term power storage, useful for dealing with power fluctuations as described by Abby and Joos . They perform well compared to different storage mediums such as lead acid batteries with 83% against 63% efficiency. The high efficiency is mainly due to the low electrical series resistance (ESR); this will also allow for very high charge and discharge currents. Comparatively super-capacitors are also preferable in terms of power density.   The main disadvantages to the technology are cost and high self-discharge. The cost is significantly greater per what hour than other storage methods, while the self-discharge rate makes these super-capacitors only useful in short term storage.
1.3.3 Secondary Cells
Secondary cells are reversible electro-chemical reactions, thus they are capable of both supplying and storing energy; conversely a primary cell is a non-reversible reaction and forms the common disposable battery. Secondary cells come in various different arrangements of chemical makeup each with different characteristics that need to be considered for the application. Lead Acid cells are a relatively inexpensive option in that they have the lowest cost per watt-hour, however the unit weight and unit size per watt-hour are considerably less impressive; seriously restricting its use in portable application. A Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) battery is a totally self-contained unit and requires only a small amount of maintenance. 9
Despite having no memory effect the use of lead acid cells in charging and discharging cycles must be very carefully controlled; deep discharges significantly reduce cyclic life of the battery. The optimum temperature is 25°C, the cell voltage can vary considerably either side of this value and even damage the capacity; because of this they usually require a temperature controlled environment for best performance. This type of chemistry will usually be used in large-scale industrial applications where cost takes president.  Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) does not suffer the same drawbacks that the lead acid cells do; much higher power per unit weight values are achievable, a typical value is 50 W/kg. These cells are less sensitive to temperature than the lead acid type, although if stored at high temperatures its performance is compromised. Through normal operation a crystalline build-up occurs on the electrodes creating a „memory‟ effect; to avoid this the battery requires a full discharge/charge cycle. The relatively low cyclic life of a few hundred cycles and higher price prevents the use of this type of cell as an imbedded power source; for maintenance it must accessed relatively regularly.   Lithium Polymer (Li-Po) cells have a high energy density, the energy density of Lithium Ion cells is actually higher but Li-Po cells can give better energy per unit weight. This is because they have no need for a metal case; values well in excess of 100 W/kg are available. This battery chemistry provides better cyclic life than NiMH, it is also maintenance free and does not suffer from any memory affect. The only problematic limitation of Li-Po chemistry is it high manufacturing cost. 
Fig 3. Graph of a battery in a charging cycle, showing charge current and voltage/cell 
It is important to prevent excessive charge and discharge; both of which are easy to provide as protection. When charging there are three key stages, in the first stage a constant current charge is applied. Usually the current is set at 1C or less, however in some fast chargers higher charge currents are used to rush through this stage. The transition to the second stage occurs when the charger voltage reaches the pre-set battery voltage, now a constant voltage charge is applied. The transition to the third stage generally occurs when the charge current falls below 0.03C depending on the charger, the battery is now fully charged. In this third stage a small charge current is supplied in order to counter any self-discharge; this final stage should not be used on all batteries. It is very important that the battery chemistry and design limits are considered before applying a charge cycle. Fig 3 is taken from Batteries in a Portable World online resource page ; this shows a trace of cell voltage and current in the three stages of charging.
2 Design Process
The primary aim of this project was to demonstrate a working power management system for a bicycle light; the minimum requirement of this was to achieve charging of a suitable battery as well as discharging into a load. There was a requirement to identify the best cell chemistry for this application and size the battery pack. It also proved desirable to conduct research into the use of load sharing between the battery and power source; reducing the load on the battery during operation of the bicycle light. The system is in the context of a bicycle light so the first step in designing the system was to identify the consumer requirements and existing designs. A simple questionnaire was used to identify key design aspects consumers found important; bearing in mind this project is only concerned with the electronics aspects. A copy of the data gathered can be found in Appendix A.
While considering this data it is important to note there are several types of cyclist, commuters, touring, racing, and off-road. The different genres of cyclist have different requirements; in particular commuters have less demanding requirements because of the conditions they usually ride in, such as a relatively light environment and short journey times. Also racing cyclists may never actually need a bicycle light so they were discounted from the survey. In general cyclists wanted a better luminescent intensity and greater battery life for a single cycle. After this the results became varied; off-road cyclist classed better weather resistance highly while touring cyclists rated a reduction in weight and the supplementary dynamo option. Cost was a consideration but not as important as the above options. Having searched the UK Intellectual Property Office database there were a few results that I considered good design ideas; one of these was the patent Rechargeable battery unit for bicycle illumination . In this patent the user can switch between a dynamo and a battery pack and includes “indicator lamps” to show the charge status. Although this design publication is old it addresses the issue of light operation during standstill. More current patents such as “Electronic rear lamp for bicycle”  use capacitors to store energy so during standstill they can be discharged keeping the lamp illuminated.
The patent “Bicycle lamp housing nickel cadmium battery”  involved using a dynamo to charge a rechargeable battery which then powered a lamp for a couple of hours. In this design the battery was totally enclosed providing excellent weather proofing, however a fairly crude electrical circuit limited the controllability of the design. As well as using patent searches, commercial solutions were considered; two leading manufactures of bicycle lights are lupine and cateye. Lupine  and cateye  offer products that make use of „Ultra Bright‟ LED technology and offer very high lumens, they use rechargeable battery packs containing Li-Po cells. However neither manufacturer allows for any kind of supplementary supply and as such the battery packs are of a relatively large capacity and weight.
In this report the research into load sharing between the battery and power source is an innovative design that should show a flexibility and optimisation that the above designs do not have.
2.1 The System Management Bus (SMBus)
The SMBus  is an existing two-wire serial bus for communication between system components; this bus is based on the I2C Bus. SMBus and I2C Bus devices are in general interchangeable, however slight changes in architecture can raise some issues if the two are mixed.  The SMBus provides a control bus for system and power management related actions; a system may use SMBus to send messages to and from devices instead using individual control lines. The development of the SMBus was based on the need for a reduced pin count and increased integration between power management devices; this utilized the advantages of serial communication, with a relatively slow baud rate and reduction in wiring a high flexibility was achieved. This project is concerned with showing that a complete management system can be built with standard components, it argues that because of this a single chip system can be developed. In a single chip system only one CPU would be needed, effectively eliminating the need for the SMBus; despite this the Bus makes up a large proportion of the understanding and implementation of this project. Because of this a short technical introduction to the SMBus and its usage is now given. The Bus frequency must be 10 – 100 KHz, the clock and data lines are held high with a current source of 100-350 A and a voltage of 3.3-5V. When a device wishes to writea „0‟ to the bus it must be able to sink this current. Two types of device can access the bus, master and slave devices; master devices must support slave mode and bus arbitration in case there is another master device controlling the bus. The master device must generate a Start condition before sending an address byte, the data line must then be released so the slave can generate an Acknowledge pulse; the master will generate the clock for the acknowledge pulse. Upon receiving an acknowledge the master sends the control byte and then writes or reads commands from the bus. After each byte the slave must generate an Acknowledge pulse, else an error condition is entered. After communication the master must generate a Stop condition; Fig 4 and Fig 5 shows the layout for communication on the SMBus.
Fig 4. SMBus communication format, including Start and Stop conditions 
Fig 5. SMBus write byte to slave protocol, grey area indicates slave in control of data line 
2.2 What is a Smart Battery
A Smart Battery contains a microprocessor that retains information on the battery; it is capable of communicating with the charge over the SMBus and as a minimum supplies the charge with the correct charging algorithm. The Smart Battery Systems (SBS) Implementers Forum  specifies that a smart battery must give information on the battery state of charge as well as the charging algorithm.   Some Smart Battery implementations provide extra functionality such as cell balancing or protection against over-current, short-circuit and deep discharge. Fig 6 shows the usual layout of a Smart Battery system. 
Fig 6. One possible Smart Battery model, for use in notebooks, camcorders and other portable equipment 
2.3 System Design
The system components were selected from popular commercial manufactures including ATmel, Microchip, Maxim and Linear Technology. This report will now briefly introduce the selected devices before giving details of the overall electrical system design.
It was decided to use a Lithium Polymer battery pack, this seems to be the predominant chemistry used in current portable devices; it has one of the highest energy capacities available with next to no maintenance required. As different cell chemistries have different cell voltages and charging tolerances a specific charging scheme must be used; this type of cell has a charged cell voltage of 4.23V and a discharged cell voltage of 2.7V. If the cell experiences overcharging or deep discharge the cell temperature will increase and chemical reactions will cause a metallic plating of lithium on the anode as well as oxidization at the cathode.  In order to prevent heating of the cell my system will implement voltage limits of 3– 4.1V. The battery selected for this project was not a Smart Battery due to cost restraints and difficulty sourcing; if needed a laptop battery can be used to confirm Smart Battery implementation. The battery sourced from „BRC hobbies‟, costing £18.44 (See Appendix C), is an 11.1V 1.3Ah pack consisting of three cells in series; the manufacturer recommends charging at 1C.   The Max8731A Smart Charger was sourced from Maxim, this will provide all the charging functions necessary to charge the Li-Po battery pack. This charger is a level 2 SMBus charger because of this it needs a host device to communicate the charging needs. The device has an 8-26V input rang with the logic voltage being supplied by an internal regulator; this regulator is a good way to confirm power is being supplied. Using two independent feedback loops the charger is able to monitor the charge current to a maximum value of 8A, and an input current of 11A. The control implemented by this device reduces the charge current linearly to zero as load current increases after a set level; this attempts to reduce the maximum input current, reducing the AC adapter rating. As well as this voltage regulation is supplied by a voltage sense feedback. The charger is capable of charging one of two batteries at a time, this can be changed at any time using the battery select pin. The charger uses a Buck topology and has efficiencies in excess of 95%; the charging current over 2A gives the best efficiency values as shown in figure 7. The Max8731A was sourced as part of an evaluation kit after attempts to construct a charging circuit using the Max1647 were unsuccessful; the two devices involve a similar circuit.  
Fig 7. Efficiency Vs Charge Current for the Max8731A 
The host controller is being supplied by Atmel, the ATMega406 like the Smart Charger has a wide input voltage range and uses an internal regulator to supply the logic voltage. This device is designed for integration with the smart battery providing the functions as described previously; it is also capable of hosting the SMBus, efectivly performing the roles of the host and Smart Battery shown in figure 6. To meet the minimum requirements set by the SBS forum the Atmega406 gives information on the correct charging scheme as well as stage of charge information, provided by a coulomb counter. Protection control, cell balancing and temperature sensing are further functions that are offered by this particular device. The device is programmable via the JTAG interface which is supported by AVR studio 4.   Luxeon super bright LEDs were chosen for the system load, simply because of their high efficiency light output. The white K2 emitter is capable of a luminous flux of 100 Lumens (lm = cd·sr, luminous flux = luminous intensity per solid angle) while only consuming approximately 4 watts; giving a luminous efficacy of 25 lm/W.  The K2 datasheet suggests the use of a constant current source to drive the emitters ensuring a stable light intensity. The LT3474  is a variable 1A constant current supply, this is formed of a constant frequency step down converter and will need a number of external components. This device has a maximum input voltage rating of 36V and a variable current output from 35-1000mA. To protect against open circuit conditions the output will clamp at 14V and with the use of additional circuitry an undervoltage lockout can be added. The LED current is controlled via an analogue input, where 1.25V represents 1A and drops linearly to zero; the frequency can also be altered from 200kHz to 2MHz by changing the value of the timing resistor (see Appendix A). The majority of component values need to be calculated specifically for the application from equations given in the datasheet. 
2.3.1 System Redundancy
The system components described in the previous section often have duplicated functions, this is a cause of redundancy in the system increasing the overall footprint and pin count. Table 1 highlights duplicated functions that may be cause of redundancy this is then discussed. Yellow highlight indicates a direct redundancy, green semiredundancy.
Max8731A Smart Charger 
SMBus Slave High Vcc of 25V Internal Voltage regulator for logic supply
Charge current sense Input current sense Battery voltage sense
Atmega406 Smart Battery LT3474 1A constant and protection functionality current driver  AVR  SMBus Host SMBus Slave High Vcc of 25V High Vcc of 36V Internal Voltage regulator for logic supply Detects presents of battery charger Cell Voltage measurements Coulomb Counter Charge / Discharge current Discharge Current Sense sense
Internal Temperature Sense controlled charge controlled charge /discharge controlled charge, including controlled pre-charge trickle charge Cell Balancing Deep under-voltage protection Current limit control loop Charge/discharge over current protection Short circuit Protection Sleep / Idle reduced power modes In system programmable
Internal Temperature Sense
Under-voltage lock out possible Discharge current control Open and closed circuit protection Idle mode reduced power
Table 1. Showing the functionality of system components and possible areas of redundancy.
It is clear from this comparison of component functionality that the selected components result in a larger than necessary footprint, excessive measurement and peripheral components. The semi-redundant functions such as the SMBus and charger detect are necessary in a modular power management system however, if all the functionality was performed in a single chip the communication systems wouldn‟t be needed reducing pin count and complexity. The direct redundancies are created by modular functionality overlap, for example the Max8731A and the LT3474 control the charge and discharge current individually; so this function isn‟t needed in the ATmega406. The only functions specifically needed by the ATmega406 for this design involve cell balancing, coulomb counting and SMBus hosting.
2.3.2 Overall design
The overall modular design seen in figure 8 looks similar to that in figure 6; this section will describe the operation of the modular design before talking in detail about the selection of peripheral components.
Smart Charger Power Source
Host and Smart Battery Implementation
Discharge Fet Power Cell Balancing
Fig 8. Diagram showing modular design including power connections, control lines and SMBus
In this system the Smart Charger will charge the battery pack according to a set scheme dictated by the smart battery; the host in this system will also be implementing the smart battery functionality. The main data flow on the SMBus between the host and the charger will contain voltage and current information; device addresses and ID can be obtained if needed. Ideally the host would be in actual physical contact with the battery so its internal temperature sensor can be used to detect any heating; this was not possible in this prototype design but the battery pack will not operated near its limits to avoid heating. The host will be performing cell balancing to avoid mismatched cells that could damage the performance of the system. Charge and discharge current will be controlled by other modules so are not implemented by the host; similarly the protection functionality of the host is not needed as seen in table 1. Discharging of the battery pack should only occur when a load is present which is to large for the power source to supply, the host will then control the discharge of the battery pack in order to supplement the power source. The only exception to this is the occasional calibration cycles required by the coulomb counter to avoid the „electronic memory‟ effect.  The constant current driver will ultimately control the load however, the control line from the host allows pulse width modulation and shut down. The LED driver will be primarily supplied by the power source; because of the buck topology used by the charger this power supply will have to deliver a higher nominal voltage then the maximum battery voltage. If the supply source is not able to deliver sufficient power a voltage drop will be detected, as shown in figure 9, on detection of this condition the charger should attempt to reduce the system load. Reduction of the system load can be achieved firstly by reducing charge current to zero and secondly by discharging the battery into the load; the diode will prevent back driving the power supply. Smoothing capacitors are used on the power lines to reduce peak current demands and all ground lines are common.
Fig 9. A theoretical model of a non-ideal power supply, a common characteristic of a solar array or dynamo 
The overall system should operate in three modes, charging with no load, charging with load and discharging into load; these three states are studied in further detail in section 3.
2.3.3 Component Value Calculations
So the charger could implement the correct charging scheme the maximum battery voltage needed to be calculated. Vbat-max = #cells · Vcell-max = 3 · 4.1 = 12.3V (1)
Similarly the minimum allowable battery voltage must be calculated for discharge protection; implemented by the LT3474. Vbat-min = #cells · Vcell-min = 3 · 3 = 9V (2)
The battery manufacturer recommended the maximum charge current as 1C while discharge current could be as large as 20C. For safety this system will operate below these values. Charge current = 1.3A Discharge current =26A
In Appendix A the general circuit layout for the LT3474 1A LED Driver can be seen, the component values for this design must be calculated for the application as described in its datasheet.  Firstly it is clear from the efficiency graph (see appendix A) that the step down converter is significantly more efficient when driving two LEDs than when driving one; so the load is chosen to be two K2 emitters. To meet the requirement that the battery must not be discharged below 9V the following undrevolatge lockout will be implemented.
Fig 10. Implementation of undervoltage lockout using the SHDN pin 
Where; (3) Vth=9.5V R1=12kΏ . . R2=4.7kΏ Because this is a fixed frequency DC converter the operating voltage is set by the duty cycle of the system; so the selection of an appropriate switching frequency depends on the voltage range desired. It is desirable to use the lowest possible frequency in order to reduce component size. To calculate the lower voltage limit the following equations are used, where Vout is desired output voltage, Vf the forward voltage drop across the diodes used, Vsw the voltage drop over the internal switch. DCmax is the maximum Duty cycle and can be calculated by equations 5. (4) (5)
Vout = ~7V (as assessed from the K2 emitter datasheet  Vf = 0.38V (as shown in 1N5821 datasheet ) Vsw = 0.4V toff = 200ηs The maximum voltage limit is calculated in a similar way using DCmin instead; simply given by 160ηs · f. Inputting these equations into excel it was possible to optimise the values; the optimum frequency is 600kHz.
Table 2. Equations in excel allowed the manipulation of system values to obtain a suitable frequency. Frequency should be labelled in MHz not kHz
From the log graph in appendix A its can be seen that a value of 60KΏ should be used for the timing resistor in order to achieve the desired frequency. A simple formula in the LT3474 datasheet suggested an inductor size of 12μH, however larger inductor sizes increase maximum load current and reduce voltage ripple. The final inductor value for L1 was 22 μH. The low DCR series resistance of this inductor, 60mΏ, allows for higher efficiency; the maximum DCR benchmark set in the datasheet is significantly larger, 200mΏ. The Smart charger and Host system will be provided by the Max8731A evaluation kit and SMBuscon 2; these devices are supplied in a working condition for development and testing purposes.
3 Modelling, Tests and Measurements
In modelling the system three distinctive stages are considered, firstly charging with no load.
Fig 11. A simple steady state model of the charging state
To illustrate the operation of the system in the first state an ideal power supply is considered. The charger will deliver the most power when approaching the voltage regulated stage of charging; in this model the charging parameters are 12.2V at 500mA giving a total power of 6.1W. If a charger efficiency of 90% is assumed then the total power drawn from the power source is 6.77W; 14V at 0.48A. This model seems straightforward and simple however so far it has been assumed that the power supply can deliver the full amount of power. Figure 12 shows the ideal power supply characteristic as the current limit is reduced from 0.5A and the corresponding power drawn from the system.
Figure 12. graph showing the ideal power supply characteristic and the power drawn by the load
As the current limit is reduced below 480mA the charger enters discontinuous conduction, it can be seen that the voltage falls to ~12.2V reducing the power supplied. While in discontinuous mode the power drawn by the load is not the maximum power available; coupled with the inefficiency of discontinuous conduction the system does not make good use of the power source. If the system was able to detect the voltage drop from the power supply it would be possible to reduce the system load; in this way it would be capable of maintaining the charger in continuous conduction mode and obtain the maximum power from the supply. This maximum power point tracking will be discussed more later in this section.
In the second state the user has activated the load; the system is now charging with load. To start we consider the system when using a dependable supply and discuss the effect and possible coping methods for a non-dependable power supply.
Fig 13. Simple representation of the system under load and charging.
If the power supply can supply 14V at 0.5A, and the system host instructs the charger to allow a maximum input current of 0.5A. As the load is increased this input current limit will be reached, after this the charger reduces the charging current linearly to zero to compensate for the load. This method allows for lower power source current ratings however, it still relies on a dependable power source being available. If the power supply was only able to deliver 0.4A then the input current limit would not help the charger scale the system load; insufficient power would be available and both DC DC converters would enter a discontinuous conduction mode. Again a maximum power point tracking system would be needed to detect a voltage drop and reduce the input current limit to give a real-time representation of what the power supply can deliver. The third stage deals with the controlled discharge of the battery into the load; this stage occurs when the power supply is not able to deliver sufficient power to a load, and charging has already been reduced to zero; possibly detected by the system by a voltage drop to ~12V.
Fig 14. Model of system in stage three, discharging into load
In figure 14 the load is drawing 7.5W, with a converter efficiency of about 90% this will be perceived by the supply as a load of 8.3W. At its maximum power point the power supply can only deliver 7W so a supplementary power supply is needed; this is achieved by a battery discharge. The diode, as represented in figure 14 by an ideal diode in series with a voltage source, prevents the battery back driving the supply. They supply voltage should be represented by a current source where the current is function of the voltage, this is due to the characteristic of the power supply as shown in figure 12. With the ideal power supply current limited at 0.5A the power supply will deliver 6W; the battery will supply the additional 2.3W with a discharge current of 0.19A, see appendix B for this simulation. The actual discharge current will depend on the battery voltage, so it will differ depending on the batteries state of charge; because of the circuit configuration the power supplied by the ideal power supply will also reduce as battery voltage reduces. The scope of this project does not cover the implementation of a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system however, the description of the system states above describe the possible use of MPPT and discussed methods of load scaling. The use of an ideal power supply in the prototyping of this project limits the study to steady state experimentation, so MPPT was manually applied to the prototype via the host system interface during testing. The implementation of a MPPT system is discussed further in section 4 with suggestions for a suitable testing setup. Other modelling included simulation of the LT3474 LED driver, using the demo circuit simulator given by Linear Technology ; this was used to confirm the component values calculated in section 2.3.3. From the simulation, shown in Appendix B, it can be seen that the 1A output is achievable after a 0.5ms transient period. It is also worthy of note that there is a large transient input current response in the first 20μs, it is important that the system is able to support this transient load. Although transient conditions are not studied in detail in this report the effect of a sudden large load on the system will be tested for and commented on.
3.1 Testing and Measurement
3.1.1 SMBus Communication
As a step to building a power system host device a method of SMBus communication needed to be developed, the following test established the successfulness of the algorithms used in hosting the SMBus. Using the assembler programming language a series of routines were implemented in a PIC16F88 in an attempt to access and eventually host the SMBus. With the system design the host would only have to communicate with a Smart charger slave device; because of this the full implementation of the SMBus was not considered necessary, it was sufficient to read and write to the charge. (code is supplied in the appendix CD)
The implementation of „smBus control (1).asm‟ simply implements the in-circuit programming ability of the PIC16F88, and ensures correct addressing of the clock and data pins. The first SMBus communication attempt was made by „smBus control (3).asm‟ this routine repeatedly sent the charger address. By implementing this test it was possible to check the start condition was working properly, the „Byte_out‟ routine operated correctly and that the charger address was correct. Observation of the SMBus was made using a Agilent digital Oscilloscope series 6000, the I2C function could be used to trigger the oscilloscope of a start condition; allowing for easy observation of the serial bus.
Fig 12. Oscilloscope CSV traces showing a START, address send, ACK generated by „smBus control (3).asm‟
The above trace of the SMBus communication confirmed, the routine used was sending the address byte correctly, the slave was generating an acknowledge pulse and that this was detected by the host. This allowed conformation of the Smart Charger slave address as 0001001X; the last bit was reserved for a read or write bit. The routine for reading data from the slave was implemented in „smBus control(5)‟ this confirmed the routine for requesting data from the slave and also confirmed that the host was able to read data off the SMBus. A trace of this can be found on the appendix CD. After some initial problems with loops caused by a misplaced goto command the full implementation of write and read routines was possible with „smBus control(8).asm‟. Implementing the full charging function of the slave device was attempted using this read and write routine however, the device failed and no longer responded to the SMBus even when using a earlier proven communication routine. The failure mode was such that the clock line was held at a semi-high potential of 2.4V. Another characteristic of the failure was a potential of zero on the output from the internal linear regulator (VL) but a correct potential of 3.9v on the internal reference output (REF).
These VL and REF values should not have been possible as REF seems to depend on VL according to the datasheet. After email consultation with Maxim, and the building of a new test circuit a second device failed in the same way. After this it was decided to be in the best interest of the project to use the development kit supplied by Maxim as described in previous sections.
3.1.2 Current and Voltage Limit
To ensure safe controlled charging could take place using the Max 8371A evaluation kit, it was important to check the voltage and current loops worked. To do this the host system and charger were set up and accessed using the computer interface tool provided with the smbuscon2; a supply of 14V and sufficiently high current limit was used. Current and voltage measurements were made by Agilent desktop digital multimeters, while the load was adjusted by the use of the labs variable resistor that was able to dissipate the energy safely. Using the computer interface a current limit of 1A and voltage limit of 12.25V was set.
Figure 13. graph showing the results of a varying load in terms of I and V. The current and voltage limits are clear.
The graph clearly shows the current and voltage limit in effect with a sharp transition between the two. The measured current limit and voltage limit were 1.077A and 12.235V respectively giving error values of 7.7% and -0.12%. It can be seen from the current limit error and voltage limit error graphs in appendix A that these error values are within the design tolerances of the device. The test clearly confirms the devices ability to control voltage and current within the expected error margin. (test measurements on appendix CD)
3.1.3 Charging the Li-Po Battery
With the previous test showing that accurate control of charging voltage and current is possible this test looks at the charging characteristic of the Li-Po battery in a 1A , 12.25V charging regime.
Fig 14. graph of charging characteristic of Li-Po battery , showing cell voltage, charge voltage and charge current.
Measurements were taken simultaneously every 60 seconds by three Agilent desktop digital multimeters triggered by a signal generator. The result of this experiment clearly shows a standard charging characteristic as can be seen if you compare this result to figure 3 in section1. The battery voltage increases from 11.8V to 12.235V and the charger goes through the voltage regulated and current regulated stages. It can also be seen that this charger applies trickle charging when the charge current drops below a minimum value, this should not be used for Li-Po batteries so it is necessary for the host system to terminate charge at this point. (test results on appendix CD)
3.1.4 Effect of Loading on the Charger
By sensing the current drawn by both the charger and the load the smart charger can attempt to limit the supply current demands; it does this by linearly reducing the charge current after a maximum input current set point has been reached. To test this the charger was set up with a 14V power supply and a charging scheme of 0.8A at 12.25V was applied, it was told to limit input current to 1A. An external load was then applied and increased incrementally to study the effect on the system power demand. Figure 15 shows the results of the experiment; when no load is present the full charge current is supplied, the charge current starts to decrease when the input current reaches its limit. When the charger current reaches zero nothing more can be done to reduce system load so the input current increased with the load. When no charge current is present a small negative current is supplied by the battery, this is believed to be due to surface mount LEDs indicating battery status in the charger circuit.
Fig 15. Graph showing load, charger and input currents and system loading is changed
3.1.5 System Stage Three Testing
As discussed in system modelling the load as seen by the power source can be further reduced after the charge current has been reduced to zero by discharging the battery into the load. In this test supply and battery currents were observed to confirm that this system will work. As predicted the battery current increased as the power supply current decreased, ensuring enough power was delivered to the load at all times. This test did highlight the issue of a negative discharge current, for example if the load were suddenly disconnected the current flows into the battery. An uncontrolled charge such as this is dangerous so it is important to include a diode to prevent this. (See appendix CD for stage three test measurements)
Fig 16. Transient of charger activation
Fig 17. Transient of LED Driver activation
The transient currents seen when the charger or LED Driver are first turned on must be delivered by the supply. Figure 19 shows a large peak current in the first 10 s as predicted by simulation earlier on.
3.1.7 LED Driver General Operation
In the general operation of the LED driver the device dissipates a significant amount of heat, if the device is used for any significant period of time forced cooling is required; an internal temperature sensor should disable the device if excessive heating occurs. The undervoltage lockout disables the LED driver when the supply voltage drops below approximately 9.3V. Measurements also show the device is able to supply the 1A current required by the LEDs, this can be reduced but results in visible flashing at the lower levels. During an open circuit test the output voltage was measured at 14.2V.
3.1.8 Host Programming
Several different programming interfaces were tested in an attempt to program the atmega406, this device does not have a usual ISP programming interface used by most AVRs so a different method had to be found. The super pro 580 U programmer supplied in the lab claims to be able to program the AVR with the use of a 48pin QFP to DIL adapter. This was attempted but a correct device signature could not be read. The STK500 has the ability for high voltage parallel programming, according to the AVR datasheet this is a suitable programming interface; however certain start up conditions need to be met and this is not described well by the datasheet, nor is it easy to implement. With the need of over 20 connections to the chip, high voltage parallel programming was not practical. The AVR Dragon, a programmer with the JTAG interface was tested using the AVR studio 4 computer interface from atmel, this proved successful in reading and writing to the device. Using the programming interface the device ID was correctly read as 0x1E 0x95 0x07 (JTAG ID0x05950703F). After some trial and error it was found that Vfet of the target device must be connected to a voltage source of 5.3V minimum for programming to be successful.
3.2 Evaluation of Testing
Experiments 3.1.3 to 3.1.5 clearly show the three main stages of operation of this system, albeit with the majority of control manually implemented. These experiments clearly demonstrated a systematic control of the power follow in the system, further to this experiment 3.1.5 shows how controlled discharge of the battery can supplement the supply voltage and maximise system efficiency. With this technique of load reducing by using the battery to supplying part of the power the power delivered by the supply is maximised, this reduces the load on the storage facility and so maximises the overall life of the system. In terms of non-dependable supply systems this shows significant advantages compared to the common power management implementations. In experiments 3.1.2 and 3.1.7 charge and discharge systems show a suitable level of control and protection, current accurately measured and voltage limits effective. The transient responses shown in 3.1.5 were expected but could create some problems in the implementation of the power management control. A transient study of the whole system would reveal the effects more precisely however, the implementation in this project was only able to look at steady state responses; this is a clear design limitation of the implementation tested. Despite this reasonable suggestions can be made for a fully implemented control structure which can be tested for transient response. For example the LED driver transient suggest that when the load is activated, rather than have the control structure cycle through state 2 before reaching state 3 it may prove better to go straight for state 3. i.e. when the load is activated assume the supply cant deliver enough power, stop charging and discharge the battery into the load, from this the load can be scaled up if needed. Experiment 3.1.5 also raised the issue of current feeding back into the battery via the original circuit arrangement, as this is uncontrolled it could be dangerous. A simple schotty diode would prevent this problem. The use of an ideal voltage regulated power supply with current limit in these experiments is inaccurate; a real power supply would not exhibit this kind of characteristic. Because part of this project wished to look at the effect of a nondependable power supply on the system such as a dynamo the accuracy of some experiments is not 100%. Despite this the use of the power supply voltage and current limits create an adequate representation at this stage, in future work a suitable supply model is discussed. Finally in experiment 3.1.8 an appropriate programming tool was found after a number of attempts, the method of connecting the programmer correctly is also described. Although it was not possible to use this device as a host controller in this project this information should save significant time for any future work on this device.
4 Future Work
As discussed in the evaluation of testing the use of an idea voltage supply limits type of tests that can be performed with accuracy; although this report did consider basic transient conditions it was only able to accurately show the system operation in a steady state. Further experimentation into the transients of the control system are desirable, this could be achieved by using an actual dynamo with some form of controllable mechanical input. A far more reliable and controllable method would be to use a nonideal power supply model. One such model is being developed by D. Spencer to simulate solar arrays, this is a programmable device that can simulate a range of characteristics by changing values such as the shunt or series resistance characteristics. During this project system hosting was provided by the smbuscon2, a computer interface device. This allowed experimentation of the general operation of the device but couldn‟t implement an overall active control structure, thus some of the control was dealt with manually to study the system capabilities. With the information contained in this report it should be possible to program the atmega406 in a suitable was to implement system hosting and control. The first step would be to ensure the device can host the SMBus basic operations and then to implement a form of control to deal with a non-ideal variable power supply. So far this project has shown a very basic method of load scaling using charging and discharging, in an attempt increase operational life and make maximum use of available power, it did not however maintain the maximum power delivered from the supply. Okunbo discuses the process of maximum power point tracking (MPPT)  by varying the load as seen by a solar array, in his report a circuit for maintaining the output voltage at 76% is introduced. Research into the application of MPPT for this power management system may be able increase the effectiveness of the load scaling functionality shown it this project. Using the programmable nature of the atmega406 it would be possible to develop a MPPT system that can be customised for any power source characteristic. This project and research has shown the capacity for using currently available microprocessors to build an entire power management system, implying the possibility of a single chip design. Future work may include trying to use a single programmable microprocessor to implement power management functionality.
This report presented the argument that a complete power management system for a bicycle light can be constructed using commercially available microprocessors, demonstrating a single chip solution is not only possible but it is also commercially attractive. To establish a commercial basis for the report a review of wide ranging power management applications in modern electronic and electrical systems was performed. This demonstrated the extent to which this type of system is being used in modern electronics, highlighting some of the approaches and solutions to power problems. The applications ranged from MEMS devices dealing with µW to hybrid vehicles dealing with kW, clearly showing that power management is an important part of modern electrical and electronic design. The first step in designing the system was the selection of a suitable battery chemistry and capacity, again a review of current products was performed including the most popular cell chemistries; lead-acid, nickel metal hydride and Lithium polymer. The selection of lithium polymer as the projects battery chemistry came from the power density and capacity requirements of the system; as well as the realisation that most portable battery powered devices use this chemistry, making this chemistry perfect in terms of commercial attractiveness. Sizing requirements were assessed from information obtained in the literature review, partly driven by cost considerations. In terms of the design it was required that a full management system could be demonstrated, showing controlled charge and discharge as minimal functionality. From the test applied it was shown that controlled charge and discharge was made possible using the system implementation of host, charger and LED driver. Tests demonstrated the control of charge current and voltage regulation while the LED driver was able to control the discharge current. Extra protection functionality was provided to prevent deep-discharge ensure the system operates safely. A graph generated from measurements made while charging the battery agree with the expected charging characteristic. Although the project failed to implement the atmega406 as system host it was still able to fulfil the project design goals and provide suitable background information for the continuation of this project. The final requirement of the project was to research the application of load sharing between the battery and power supply to make efficient use of the available power. In the literature review MPPT was discussed as a method for extracting the maximum power from solar arrays. The design tried to achieve a similar result by load scaling, reduction of charge current and supplementing the power source with the battery. Not only did the design show this technique works well but also discussed the effect of transient behaviour on this system. Future work could improve this area further. In general the report achieved its goals and shows potential for future progress and optimisation of the design.
6 Project organisation
In the run-up to the interim report the majority of progress involved the review of literature. This involved understanding how a power management system operates and assessing information on current products. This resulted in the sourcing of the Li-Po battery pack and charger using the Max1647 in early December. At the same time the LT3474 was ordered as a sample from linear technology. The first prototype charge was constructed in mid December and programming of the 16F88 began to host the system and confirm the charger address. A sample of the atmega406 was ordered so building of a proper host system could begin. Early January the Interim report was written with an updated gaunt chart (see appendix C). Following this, testing continued on the Max1647 charger, rapid advances were made in the 16F88 routines to allow read and write commands, however the charger inexplicably stopped working and did not respond to proven communication routines. Immediately new components were ordered to build a new charge circuit, the Max1647 sample came in a pack of four so a replacement was already available. While waiting for components system modelling was achieved, and LT3474 components were calculated and ordered. At this point I discovered the atmega406 sample was lost in the post so ordered another sample. By mid February the second prototype was being built, using a totally new circuit and new microprocessor the charge failed. The failure mode was the same as before and after email consultation with maxim it was decided to order the Max8731A development kit and sumbuscon2. During this time the LT3474 was built and tested. The atmega406 sample was taking to long so I ordered the device from RS. The sample and ordered atmega406 ironically arrived at the same time, also the development kit arrived at the start of the Easter vacation, experiments on voltage and current limits, charging characteristic and input current limit were completed as seen in this report. The final part of the project involved the programming of the atmega406, initially it was attempted using the usbasp developed by Dr Tim forcer but the microprocessor was not ISP compatible. During the absence of the project supervisor in the last week of the Easter vacation the super Pro 580U was used, this device claims it supports the atmega406 but was not able to read a correct device ID. It was only by the end of April after several other programming attempts that it was possible to use the AVR Dragon to confirm the atmega406 signature, indicating a correct programming interface. During this time in April other experiments on the system were conducted to evaluate such things as transient response. Details of the project budget and final gaunt chart can be found in appendix C.
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