You are on page 1of 39

Orienteering Lesson Plans for High School and Middle School

Unit objective: When finished with this program, the student should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of navigation on topographic maps and compete at the Intermediate (Orange) level in the sport of Orienteering. Teacher objective : This unit has been written slanted toward the needs of the high school OT! instructor who is looking to train a competitive orienteering team. The unit can be adapted for other grade levels, teachers and coaches. It is fairl" important to stick to the prescribed order of the lessons and field trips as each is a prere#uisite for the lessons and field trips that follow. The unit moves rather rapidl" from topic to topic, so it ma" be necessar" to repeat some lessons if the teacher finds the students need the reinforcement prior to moving on to the ne$t lesson plan. It is important to use IO% standard orienteering maps. These can be obtained from orienteering clubs. &lease be careful to respect map cop"rights and be sure to get land manager permissions if practicing or training other than during organi'ed orienteering club events. Whenever possible, use courses designed b" trained orienteers in order to be assured of the accurac" of the course level to the sub(ect matter. Sessions: )* classroom+school"ard, , field trips Instructional reference: -!./ references are to the 0.1. Orienteering %ederation2s (01O%) -!oaching Orienteering/ manual. -p./ indicates page number in te$t, -e$./ indicates suggested classroom and field e$ercises in 3ppendi$ 3 of the manual. 4ote that man" of the manual2s field e$ercises can be adapted to classroom. Evaluation: 3t the end of the unit, the student should be able to successfull" complete an Orange level (Intermediate) course at a 01O%5affiliated club2s orienteering event.

Lesson #1

Introduction to Orienteering and the Orienteering Ma!


6efine the sport of Orienteering. 7$plain the benefits of learning orienteering. ecogni'e Orienteering2s militar" beginnings. Identif" the parts of and s"mbols on an orienteering map.

Lesson objectives"

Instructional aids"
8arious t"pes of topo maps (0191, militar", etc.), if available IO% standard orienteering maps () per student) 8isual aids to illustrate contours and contour intervals, if available !halkboard, chalk Inde$ cards with map legend s"mbols : words as described in !. e$.)

Instruction" #efinition of Orienteering


Orienteering is a challenging outdoor activit" using a detailed topographic map and a compass to navigate through the terrain and find a series of terrain or man5made features indicated on the map. Orienteering is a competitive sport that originated as a militar" e$ercise in 1candinavia in the earl" );<<2s. Orienteering is a motivating recreational activit", which increases love of the outdoors and promotes environmental awareness. It fits into academic goals of curriculum, develops critical thinking skills and increases ph"sical fitness. 3ll abilit" levels can compete in local, regional and national events.

Instruction" Orienteering Histor$


The teacher should go over the following with the intention of giving students a historical perspective of the development of Orienteering from militar" beginnings. )==> ? The term -orienteering/ was being used b" the militar" to mean crossing unknown territor" with the aid of a map and compass. )=;@ ? The world2s first public orienteering competition held in 4orwa". );); ? .a(or 7rnst Aillander of 1weden devised a cross5countr" competition where runners not onl" ran a course but had to choose their own routes using a map and compass. Be is considered the -%ather of Orienteering/ );*)5);*, ? Orienteering events were held at 6artmouth !ollege, organi'ed b" %innish arm" officer &iltti Beiskanen. );*> ? C(orn A(ellstrom of 1weden, the co5inventor of the protractor t"pe, li#uid5damped magnetic compass, moved to the 0.1. and organi'ed man" competitions, the first of his events was held at 6unes 1tate &ark in Indiana. );>) ? The International Orienteering %ederation was formed. 1pring );>> ? 0.1. .ilitar" 3cadem" at West &oint began intramural score orienteering in pairs. 1ummer );>@ ? The 0.1. .arine !orps &h"sical %itness 3cadem" at Duantico, 8irginia, began orienteering activities under assistant director Eim -Foggi/ Bardin. );>> ? The first World Orienteering !hampionships were held in %inland. 4ovember );>@ ? Barald Wib"e of 4orwa" organi'ed an orienteering event at 8alle" %orge, &enns"lvania. October );@< ? The first 0.1. Orienteering !hampionships was held at 1outhern Illinois 0niversit". 3ugust );@) ? The 0.1. Orienteering %ederation was formed in 8irginia. .arines won the first si$ 0.1. men2s orienteering titles. In the earl" and mid5);=<2s, five5time 0.1. elite champion &eter 9agarin of .assachusetts founded and coached the 0.1. Team which has represented the 0nited 1tates at ever" World orienteering championship event since );@*. 3mong the women, not one has achieved the success of 1haron !rawford of .assachusetts, who was the top 0.1. woman at seven straight World !hampionships and in );=; at the age of *G won her eleventh individual 0.1. Orienteering !hampionship.

);== ? Orienteering was accepted as a 0.1. Ol"mpic !ommittee !lass ! sport, later known as an affiliated sport. !urrentl", there are appro$imatel" >< orienteering clubs in the 0.1.

Instruction" The Orienteering Ma!


Band out orienteering maps to students. 7$plain how a topographic map shows the shape of the terrain and detailed features that are not commonl" found on other maps. If possible, have different t"pes of topo maps (0191, militar", etc.) for comparison. Scale ? Bave students find the ):II,<<< scale on the orienteering map. 7$plain that scale shows the si'e relationship of map to earth. &oint out the bar scale and that it is used in con(unction with the compass2 ruler to measure distance to be traveled.(!. p.G<) %ontour interval ? Bave students find the contour interval on the orienteering map. 7$plain that the contour interval is the elevation change between contour lines. If students are not familiar with contour lines, e$plain how elevation lines show the steepness and shape of the terrain. 8isual models or drawings are helpful to illustrate the concepts or illustrate on the chalkboard. (!. p.G<) Legend ? &oint out how the orienteering map legend shows which s"mbols are used on the map. Bave student find several features on the map and identif" them using the map legend. (!. p.*;) Magnetic north lines ? &oint out the parallel lines with small arrows pointing toward magnetic 4orth on the map. These lines are spaced on the map ever" G<< meters on a ):)G,<<< map. %olors ? 4ote and e$plain the colors on the orienteering map: (!. p.*;) o Clue ? water features o Clack ? rock features and man5made features o White ? normal, open woods o 9reen ? thick vegetation, shades : patterns denote t"pe o Fellow ? non5wooded land, shades : patterns denote t"pe o Crown ? natural non5rock features and contour lines E&ercise" !. e$.) ? .ap 1"mbol ela"

'ssess(ent: The student should be able to write a brief description of Orienteering and identif" )< map s"mbols, the scale, control interval and the magnetic north lines on the map.

Lesson #)

Ma! Inter!retation
6emonstrate how to interpret map s"mbols to identif" terrain features. Identif" t"pes of map features.

Lesson objectives"

Instructional aids"
IO% standard orienteering maps () per student) Clank paper and pencils for school "ard map making Jegend of school "ard map s"mbols () per student) !ompleted school "ard map, large scale or via pro(ection Jarge sheets of paper or poster board and markers, if doing !. e$.G@

Instruction" Ma! Inter!retation


What2s on and not on the map ? 7$plain that each map maker has his own criteria of what is significant enough to add to the orienteering map. %or e$ample, a small boulder or ditch man" not be mapped, while a larger one would be mapped. The -busier/ the terrain, the less often smaller features are on the map. 4ew changes, such as fresh rootstocks and new trails, ma" not be on the map. Water features (lakes, seasonal streams) ma" change si'e or disappear entirel" at some times of the "ear. %eature identificationKT"pes of features on an O map: o &oint features ? distinct and usuall" small features, such as boulders, rootstocks and pits. o Jinear features ? followable, long features such as trails, fences and streams. o !ontour featuresKfeatures defined on the map b" contour lines such as reentrants, spurs and gullies.

E&ercise

Ma*e $our o+n Ma! O

The teacher takes the students outside to the school "ard and gives each student a blank sheet of paper, pencil and a legend of map s"mbols for the features to be found in the school "ard. Instruct the students to each draw a simple map of the area, visuali'ing scale and using the map s"mbols provided. The" should get as much detail on the map as possible in about )G5H< minutes. 3fterward, the students should self5 evaluate their maps in the classroom based on a displa" of the teacher2s map. 3fter the" correct their maps, "ou might want to go back outside with the group and have them walk around the school "ard, pointing out features on the map and as the" appear in the terrain. It takes a while to get the idea that the map shows prett" accuratel" what2s on the ground. ain" da" option ? .apping a !lassroom (!. e$.G@)

'ssess(ent: The student2s self5made map should show an understanding of the scale and relative locations of the features depicted.

>

Lesson #,

Ma! -eading S*ills


6efine rough and precision map reading skills. 7$plain how map reading skills are used to navigate.

Lesson objectives"

Instructional aids"
IO% standard orienteering maps () per student) with a Fellow course

Instruction" Ma! -eading S*ills


ough map eading (.ap simplification) ? 4avigating b" larger features while filtering out small map details "ou don2t need to navigate the current leg segment. e#uires map reading in advance of current location and memori'ing upcoming details, but allows the Orienteer to move #uickl" through the terrain. The ma(or pitfall is losing contact with "our location on the map. (!. p.G=) &recision map reading (.ap to terrain identification) ? 4avigation using small map details, usuall" in the vicinit" of the control site or when relocating after an error. e#uires moving more slowl" and e$tra concentration. (!. p.G=)

E&ercise" Tal*in. an O %ourse


This e$ercise is done in the classroom and re#uires that the teacher knows precision map reading. If the teacher cannot do this, he should ask an orienteer from the local club to go through this e$ercise with his students. 7ach student should have a cop" of the same orienteering map with the same Fellow course on it. The teacher describes navigating through the course for the students using precision map reading (map to terrain identification), describing how the map depicts the terrain details and e$plaining how to visuali'e what would be seen on the ground from observing map details. The teacher should describe how to follow the course strictl" via map to terrain identification, checking off terrain features that would be seen along the wa" and pointing out how the" are used to keep on course. This e$ercise should be done without the aid of compass. 'ssess(ent: The student should be able to identif" at least one feature per course leg when map simplification (rough map reading) could have been used to increase speed.

Lesson #/

The Orienteering Event


6escribe purpose of a field trip to an orienteering event. &lan dress and e#uipment needed for an orienteering event. Jearn orienteering event and safet" procedures. 6escribe concept of -%air &la"/

Lesson objectives"

Instructional aids"
&icture of -Well56ressed Orienteer/

Teacher objective" Pre!aring to attend a local orienteering club event


.ap reading skills are the base upon which all other orienteering skills and techni#ues build. It is therefore strongl" recommend that students have the opportunit" to practice map reading skills on appropriate level courses on a good #ualit" orienteering map. Jocal orienteering clubs are the best places to find good #ualit" orienteering courses. .ost clubs have websites with their schedules and directions to events. !lubs can be located through the 0.1. Orienteering %ederation website www.us.orienteering.org Cefore attending an orienteering event, the teacher should familiari'e the students with what to e$pect at an orienteering event so that their attention is directed more toward practicing map reading and the" are not distracted b" unfamiliar procedures.

Instruction" Event !rocedures for orienteering club events


Orienteering gear ? 7ach student should be responsible for dressing appropriatel" and bringing his own wristwatch.

%hoosing a course ? 1tudents will learn more if the" are on the appropriate course for their abilit" level. Ceginners should start on the White course or Fellow course, depending on their previous training. .oving up a level (course color) is recommended onl" once the student demonstrates he can consistentl" complete his current level course at less than )G minutes per km. 3lternativel" for a less fit student: .oving up a level (course color) is recommended onl" once the student demonstrates he can consistentl" complete his current level course successfull", without making an" ma(or errors. =

-egistration ? 7ach person must register, sign a waiver, and pa" a fee. .ost local events have da"5of5event registration, but regional and national events re#uire pre5registration. !heck websites or call for details. 1ome clubs ask school groups to call ahead so the" can be prepared with enough maps. 1tudents under age )= must have a parent, guardian or teacher co5sign their waiver. 1tudents ma" go out individuall" or in pairs, but each should have a map. 0eginner instruction ? If students have not orienteered before, it2s best to allow a club coach to give them beginner instruction, even if the"2ve received in5school instruction. These instructors have special training and gear that da"2s instruction to the conditions and courses at the event. %ontrol descri!tions 1%lues2 ? These are provided either at registration, copied from a master, or are printed on the maps. 3skL Master (a!s ? .an" local events have the competitors cop" their courses onto -clean/ maps instead of providing pre5printed courses on the maps. If so, instruct students to be ver" careful to cop" the triangle, circles, numbers, and lines, e$actl" as the" appear on the master map. .ost clubs also provide map cases to protect the maps. 7ncourage their use. %ontrol Mar*ers ? 3 ,5sided white and orange flag, on or ne$t to the control feature, with attached control code and punching mechanism, for verif"ing the feature was visited. Punch cards 1or Ecards2 ? Once a control marker is found, punch in the correct s#uare on "our punch card. This will prove "ou found the control marker. 3n" missing punches constitutes a result of 64% (did not finish). If 7lectronic punching is used on "our course, "our punch card will be an 7card (finger stick) that "ou can rent from the organi'ers.(!. e$.,=)

Instruction" Safet$
7mphasi'e to the students that orienteering event organi'ers have safet" procedures and rules the" must respect. !ommonl" the" are: 3ll persons must be accounted for b" going through both the 1tart and the %inish, whether or not the" are competitive, or if the"2ve completed the course or not. 3bsolute time limit on the courses is , hours unless otherwise instructed. &lease be sure each student has a watch and respects the time limit. If carr"ing a safet" whistle, it ma" onl" be blown if "ou are in(ured and cannot return without assistance. Clowing the whistle if lost is considered cheating. !ell phones and other communications devices ma" be carried onl" for safet" reasons, not for navigational communication. If "ou go out in a pair or group, "ou must remain with the others until all in the pair or group cross the %inish line.

Instruction" %once!ts of 34air Pla$5


7mphasi'e to students that no matter how advantageous it is to them and their friends to violate -%air &la"/ concepts, it is not allowed and will be considered cheating. 4o following or navigational cooperation with other competitors. 4o helping other competitors unless the" are lost, then give onl" the minimum assistance re#uired to relocate their current position. 4o shouting around controls or bothering other competitors. 0nless the event is a -1core/ format, controls must be visited in numerical order. 6o not move, hide or alter control markers, e$cept to re5hang if it has fallen.

'ssess(ent: 3t the orienteering event, the student should be able to do the following: !omplete his registration for correctl". 3ccuratel" cop" his course from a master map, if needed. Identif" @<M of safet" guidelines and fair pla" concepts.

)<

4ield Tri! #1 66 'ttend a Local Orienteering %lub Event


4ield tri! focus: .ap reading practice

4ield tri! objectives"


6emonstrate the abilit" to do both rough and precision map reading. 6emonstrate how map reading skills are used to navigate.

Teacher objective" Orienteering +ith a local orienteering club


Orienteering club events are open to all and organi'ers welcome school groups. Bowever, please notif" the event director ahead of time of the appro$imate number of students "ou will be bringing and if "ou are coming b" bus. Be ma" need to provide "ou with special instructions and can answer #uestions. 7mphasi'e to the students that the" are there to practice map to terrain identification onl". It2s important that the" master map5to5terrain identification before the" move on to using a compass, speed and an" other more advanced skills and techni#ues. The appropriate first course for most students taking this program of instruction will be the Fellow course. If an" students are having a lot of map reading difficult", the" should start on the easier White course. 1tudents will learn more if the" do the courses individuall", although the teacher has the option of pairing up if so desired.

Procedures for teachers bringing students to a local club event


&lease be sure "ou have the appropriate parental permissions and can sign event liabilit" waivers on behalf of underage students or have parent5signed waivers. If "ou pair up students going out on an orienteering course, please be sure the both students in the pair are of like map reading and navigational skill and that the" understand the" are to remain together at all times while on the course. We strongl" recommend that each student in the pair has his own map. Teachers should 4787 instruct the students to remain on the course until the" have located all control sites. 1tudents should rather be instructed that it is absolutel" mandator" the" return within the event director2s time limit. If at an" time "ou are concerned about an overdue student, please take "our concerns to the event director. 4787 send a part" of students out to look for another student without event director2s permission. &lease be sure "ou have accounted for all "our students and that all students have checked into the %inish before "ou leave the event site.

'ssess(ent: The student should complete the course within the time limit.

))

Lesson #7

Using a %o(!ass

Lesson objectives"
Identif" the parts of a compass. 6emonstrate how to use a compass in con(unction with an orienteering map. Identif" where on a course to use map orientation, precision compass and rough compass.

Instructional aids"
Caseplate compasses with li#uid5filled housing () per student) Orienteering maps with Fellow or Orange courses () per student) 1chool "ard map drawn to scale with magnetic 4orth lines, if available

Instruction" Parts of a co(!ass


Magnetic needle ? The red side alwa"s points north. Housing ? The li#uid5filled housing, which ma" includes a ,><5degrees be'el, turns in order to line up north on the compass with the magnetic declination lines on the map. 0ase !late ? The base plate acts as a protractor in order to line up the compass with the desired route on the map. It usuall" includes a direction of travel arrow and measurement ruler.

Instruction" 8hen and ho+ to use a co(!ass


!ompasses can be used in several wa"s to assist with navigation. %or orienteering, "ou will need a li#uid5filled compass with a baseplate5mounted housing containing the magnetic needle. Jensatic compasses are not appropriate for orienteering. Magnetic north ? &oint out the magnetic north lines on the orienteering map. 7$plain the difference between True 4orth and .agnetic 4orth. &oint out that orienteering maps are drawn to magnetic north, but man" other maps, such as 0191 topos, are drawn to true north with the magnetic declination indicated separatel". (!. p.G<) Ma! orientation ? .aps should alwa"s be read oriented to the terrain in order to minimi'e directional errors. 3 compass2 magnetic needle points north. Instruct the students to turn the map until north on the map matches north on the compass. .ap orientation should occur when leaving the start, when leaving each control site, and when making a change of direction. (!. p.G)) E&ercise: If a school"ard map is available, !. e$.>H ? .ap Orientation. 'ssess(ent: The student should be able to reorient the map to north whenever he makes a change of direction.

)H

Precision co(!ass ? 0sing the compass to follow a precise compass bearing, also called -shooting an a'imuth./ 3lwa"s use precision compass in con(unction with precision map reading to avoid compass drift over distance. 4ormall", precision compass is used for no more than)G< meters.(!. p.G*). E&ercise: 1etting the compass for a precision bearing. o &lace either long side edge of the compass baseplate on the intended line of travel on the map with the direction of travel arrow pointing in the direction "ou intend to travel on the map. o otate the compass housing until the magnetic north orienting lines painted inside the compass housing are parallel to the magnetic north lines on the map 346 the orienting arrow on the compass housing is pointing toward north on the map (4 on be'el points to north on map). o .easure the distance on the map to be traveled on this bearing. o Take the compass off of the map and hold it in the palm of "our hand with "our hand parallel to the ground and with the thumb along the side of the baseplate and the direction of travel arrow pointing the same direction as "our nose. o otate "our entire bod" until the red end of the magnetic needle comes to rest inside the north magnetic orienting arrow on the compass housing. o %ollow the direction of travel arrow on the compass while keeping track of where "ou are on the map. 'ssess(ent: The student should be able to accuratel" set a compass to the desired a'imuth.

-ough co(!ass ? 0sing the compass to follow a general direction, such as 747 or 11W. The compass is used to orient the map, then to determine and follow a general direction. ough compass is used to travel longer distances #uickl". While on rough compass, the orienteer should maintain contact with the map via rough map reading in order to avoid parallel errors.(!. p.GG) E&ercise: 1etting the compass for a rough+general direction. o %old and hold "our map so that "our general direction of travel on the map is the same direction as "our nose. o .easure or estimate the distance on the map to be traveled. o &lace "our compass on the map with one side edge roughl" on, but to the side of, "our planned line of travel with the direction of travel arrow pointing in the direction "ou intend to travel. o otate "our bod" to orient the map using the magnetic needle on the compass. o 4ote "our general direction of travel on the map (747, 11W, 17, etc.) o Bolding the compass and the map in the same hand, follow "our general direction of travel while periodicall" glancing at the compass to re5orient "our map to north. o 0se rough map reading to keep track of where "ou are on the map as "ou move #uickl" through the terrain. 'ssess(ent: The student should be able to determine and set a rough+general compass direction for a leg on a course using the map. ),

Ma! vs9 co(!ass ? 7mphasi'e the compass as a tool to use with them map, not the primar" navigational tool. 4ovices tend to rel" too much on the compass and do not do enough map reading.

E&ercise

Endangered ':i(uth O

7$plain that precision compass (shooting a'imuths) should onl" be used when necessar" as the" waste competition time and detract from the higher skill of map reading. 1tudents will remember this if "ou tell them, -3'imuths are an endangered species because Co" 1couts shoot too man" of themL/ On their orienteering maps, have the students identif" where on the course the" will need to use a compass. The" should use the following compass use ke", writing the appropriate letters on the map at the location where the" will use each method: -O/ where "ou need to orient "our map - / where "ou need rough compass -&/ where "ou need precision compass (shoot an endangered a'imuth)

'ssess(ent: The student should demonstrate the following with at least @<M accurac" during the 7ndangered 3'imuth e$ercise: .ap orientation -O/ at the following map locations: o 1tart triangle o 7ach control circle o 7ach change of direction ough compass - / at the following map locations: o When following a linear terrain feature o When following a long contour feature (ridge, spur, ma(or reentrant) &recision compass -&/ at the following map locations: o When course re#uires precision map reading, but for no longer than )G< meters without resetting the compass between identifiable mapped features. o When crossing an area with little or no features b" which to navigate.

)*

Lesson #; Measure(ent Part 1 Lesson objectives"

Pace %ounting

6emonstrate using a bar scale to measure distance on a map. 6efine pace counting. 6erive "our individual pace counts and demonstrate how the" are used to measure distance.

Instructional aids"
Caseplate compasses with li#uid5filled housing () per student) .asking tape and pens Orienteering maps with Fellow or Orange courses () per student)

Instruction" Measure(ent is ver$ i(!ortant<


-Those who do not measure ever"thing will measure their lost time in minutes. Those who measure ever"thing correctl" and appl" the information properl" will measure their lost time in seconds./ Instruction" Precision (easure(ent ? Eust as there are precision and rough skills in map reading and compass useN there are similar skills in measuring distances. &recision measurement involves taking e$act map measurements and counting "our paces. Putting the scale on $our co(!ass ? In order to use the correct measurement scale for the map, have students place a piece of masking tape over the short front edge of their compass baseplate. !arefull" cop" the bar scale on the map onto the masking tape, marking -)<</, -H<</ etc. under the appropriate tick marks. This enables #uick "et accurate measurements of distance while under competitive pressure. The students should check and change, if necessar", this marked scale each map use.(!. p.GH) E&ercise ? 0sing the orienteering map, have students measure legs using the bar scale the"2ve copied onto the masking tape on the compass. Pace counting 1Pacing2 5 !ounting actual steps. 1ome orienteers count ever" other step and call it a paceN some count ever" third step, etc. The ma(or factor is consistenc" and accurac". 7$plain that whenever precision compass is used, pacing is mandator". (!. p.GH)

E&ercise

Pacing the Sidelines

3 football field, plus one end 'one, is appro$imatel" )<< meters. eferencing !. p.GH5 G,, take the students to the football field and have them do !. e$.)> ? &acing )<< meters, learning their walking, (ogging and running paces. 'ssess(ent: The student should be able to accuratel" recall his own pace count for each speed. 4ollo+6u!: 7ncourage students to practice pacing while doing training running to make it a habit and readil" available during competitions. )G

Lesson #=

Measure(ent Part )

#istance Esti(ation

Lesson objectives"
3c#uire the abilit" estimate distances on the ground. 3c#uire the abilit" to estimate distances on a map.

Instructional aids"
Caseplate compasses () per student) Orienteering map used in Jesson OG for 7ndangered 3'imuth O () per student)

Instruction" Measure(ent and distance esti(ation is ver$ i(!ortant<


-Those who do not measure ever"thing will measure their lost time in minutes. Those who measure ever"thing correctl" and appl" the information properl" will measure their lost time in seconds./

Instruction" Precision vs9 rough (easure(ent


&recision measurement and pace counting is not accurate over distances. It also is time consuming and moving #uickl" is essential for competition. 3 #uick form of measurement is distance estimation. When on rough compass, speed can be increased b" learning to estimate distances on the map. %eature identification is more accurate when distance to the feature can be visuall" estimated. 3c#uiring the abilit" to estimate distances accuratel" is done through practice. The teacher will need to take the students outside and give them the opportunit" to practice estimating distances on the ground. 7stimating distances on a map is ac#uired b" visuali'ing the map bar scale onto the distance to be measured on the map. E&ercise" !. e$.)= ? 6istance 7stimations ? in school "ard

E&ercise

4ar and '+a$ O

Bave students take the map the" used for 7ndangered 3'imuth O and write beside each letter an estimate of how far the" would travel on each -&/ (&recision compass) leg and each - / ( ough compass) leg. Bave students make or check the masking tape bar scale on the compass against the bar scale on the map for accurac". Then have them measure the same routes with the masking tape bar scale on their compasses and write the actual distance beside their estimates. 4ote the difference between estimates and measured distances. 'ssess(ent: The student should be able to: 7stimate visuall" a distance on the ground of up to )<< meters with ;<M accurac". 7stimate a distance on a map with ;<M accurac". .easure a mapped distance b" pace counting to it with ;<M accurac".

)>

4ield Tri! #) 66 'ttend a Local orienteering %lub event


4ield tri! focus: .ap eading along with compass use

4ield tri! objectives"


6emonstrate precision map reading and with precision compass use along with measurement and pacing. 6emonstrate rough map reading and rough compass use with distance estimation. 6escribe how to choose between precision skills and rough skills. Teacher objective : 3t this point, a second field trip to a local orienteering club event is strongl" recommended. 1tudents are now read" to practice compass and distance skills. 7ach student should now be read" to do a Fellow course individuall". 7mphasi'e to the students that the" must determine when precision map reading and precision compass use is needed and when it is more appropriate to use rough map reading and rough compass use.

Procedure re(inders for teachers


&lease notif" the event director ahead of time of the appro$imate number of students "ou will be bringing and if "ou are coming b" bus. Be ma" need to provide "ou with special instructions and can answer #uestions. &lease be sure "ou have the appropriate parental permissions and can sign event liabilit" waivers on behalf of underage students or have parent5signed waivers. If "ou pair up students going out on an orienteering course, please be sure the both students in the pair are of like map reading and navigational skill and that the" understand the" are to remain together at all times while on the course. We strongl" recommend that each student in the pair has his own map. Teachers should 4787 instruct the students to remain on the course until the" have located all control sites. 1tudents should rather be instructed that it is absolutel" mandator" the" return within the event director2s time limit. If at an" time "ou are concerned about an overdue student, please take "our concerns to the event director. 4787 send a part" of students out to look for another student without event director2s permission. &lease be sure "ou have accounted for all "our students and that all students have checked into the %inish before "ou leave the event site.

'ssess(ent: The student will not alwa"s make the best choice, but he should be able to demonstrate an awareness of precision vs. rough in both map reading and compass use and be able to state a reason wh" he made the choice.

)@

Lesson #>

%ontrol #escri!tions
6escribe the purpose and use of !ontrol 6escriptions. ecogni'e the s"mbols used in !ontrol 6escriptions.

Lesson objectives"

Instructional aids"
!ontrol 6escription instruction sheetP from () per student) Clank control description sheetsP () per student) Orienteering maps with courses, control descriptions should be folded back or temporaril" covered up. () per student)
P!ontrol description sheets and instructions follow lesson. !ontrol description sheet created for this lesson and ma" be duplicated for use with it. Instructions reprinted with permission and ma" be duplicated for classroom use. &lease see IO% website for full IO% specifications.

Instruction" %ontrol descri!tions 1%lues2


There ma" be several items inside a control circle on the map. In order to know which item is the control feature and other necessar"5to5have information about the control site, "ou are given control descriptions, collo#uiall" -!lues/. What the" are ? The International Orienteering %ederation (IO%), the world5wide governing bod" for orienteering, established a set of s"mbols and a methodolog" for displa"ing control descriptions in a s"mbol grid, known as a !lue sheet. Ceginner (White and Fellow) courses usuall" also have written5out control descriptions for beginners who do not "et know the s"mbols. Wh" "ou need them ? 7ach control marker has a uni#ue code with which the Orienteer can verif" that he has found the correct marker. This code is found on the !lue sheet. !ontrol descriptions also give "ou other information such as where in relation to the feature the marker is hanging, the si'e of the feature, and whatever other information the course setter deems important so that the marker is found b" navigational skill, not luck.

E&ercise

Haven.t ?ot a %lue O

9ive each student a blank control description sheet and the instructions for the control description s"mbols and methodolog". 9ive each a map with a course on it, but with the control descriptions folded to the back or covered up. Instruct students to use the materials to make a clue sheet for the course, assuming the feature is in the precise center of the circle. 3fterward, compare it to the control description sheet on the map. %or more practice in learning !ontrol 6escriptions, an online #ui' on control descriptions can be found at www.fortnet.org+icd . 'ssess(ent: The student should be able to identif" the correct s"mbol for the control feature and place it in column 6 of the correct row of the description sheet with =<M accurac".

)=

%ontrol #escri!tion Sheets

1tart Q
) H , * G > @ = ; ) < ) ) ) H

1tart Q
) H , * G > @ =

O
1tart Q

) H , *

1tart Q
) H , * G > @ = ; ) <

G > @ = ; ) < ) ) ) H ) , ) * ) G

@
);

H<

IO4 %ontrol #escri!tion S$(bols

H)

IO4 %ontrol #escri!tion S$(bols

HH

Lesson #A

Bavigation Part 1

Lesson objectives"
7$plain the importance of pre5competition stud" of map and control descriptions. 3c#uire awareness of visibilit" of terrain for navigational purposes. 6emonstrate map folding and thumbing as a navigational aid.

Instructional aids"
Orienteering maps with Fellow course () per student)

Instruction" Bavigation Part 1 66 Overvie+


4avigation is the ke" element in orienteering. Orienteering courses are designed to be G<M mental and G<M ph"sical, but most "oung orienteers forget that and, in their hurr" to win a competition, tr" to out5race their opponents ph"sicall". !ourse setters take advantage of that mind5set and design courses to allow those that are not thinking clearl" and navigating carefull" to fail. emember, Orienteering is -The Thinking 1port./ Ma! stud$ ?Cefore orienteering, if there is an e$isting map of the area available, or if he is given the map prior to the 1tart, the student should stud" the map, noting scale, contour interval, t"pes of terrain, map s"mbols. If the control descriptions (!lues) are given ahead, the student should make sure he2s familiar with all the s"mbols and can visuali'e what each description would look like in the forest. (!. p.>)) Thu(bing C folding the (a! ? 4o orienteer can keep his e"es on his map all the time, so it2s important to keep track of where "ou are on the map b" keeping "our thumb on "our current location on the map. This not onl" prevents wasted time, but helps eliminate parallel and similar5terrain errors. %olding the map and keeping it oriented, along with thumbing, will enable the orienteer to maintain a good mental contact with the map. (!. p.G)) Bavigational order ? 0nless the course is a -score/ course, "ou must follow the numerical order of controls. 3 course isn2t reall" a series of control sites, but rather a series of legs to navigate between control sites. (!. p.GG) Disual distance C si:e esti(ation ? 3s "ou move through the woods, "ou need to be aware of the si'e of features and how visible the" will be. 6epending on the terrain and season, visibilit" can change drasticall". (!. p.>))

E&ercise

I %an See %learl$ O

Bave students visuali'e going through the course on the map in the classroom. Bave students estimate, based on current season and nearb" forests, the visibilit" factors the" would face if the" were orienteering that course. 3ssign each student a leg of the course to describe and give students G minutes to stud" the map and control descriptions before taking turns describing legs. 'ssess(ent: The student should be able to describe knowledgabl" what he would see as he mentall" moves along his leg of the course, keeping the map folded and thumb on the location being described. H,

Lesson #1E

Bavigation Part )
7$plain the importance of contours or the map. 6emonstrate the abilit" to read contours and use them for navigation.

Lesson objectives"

Instructional aids"
Worksheet of contours and side5view illustration as described in !. e$.)H Orienteering maps with Orange course () per student)

Instruction" Bavigation Part )

%ontours

On most orienteering maps, the ma(orit" of information is contour information. !ontours are the most important, and most likel" ignored, features on a topo map. !ontours show the shape and steepness of the terrain. The" should be read in groupsN one contour line rarel" gives "ou sufficient information about the terrain. E&ercise: !. e$.)H ? 3rmchair O 'ssess(ent: The student should be able to determine the correct answers on the e$.)H worksheet @<M of the time.

E&ercise

%ontouring M$ 8a$ 'long

Bave students find contour features as the" go through a course on the map in the classroom. 3ssign each student a leg of the course to describe and give students G minutes to stud" the contour information on the legs. Bave each student describe what contour information he would see as he mentall" moves along his leg of the course. emind students to keep the map folded and thumb on the location being described. 7ncourage other students to tr" to spot other contour information that the describer misses. 3fter each leg description, have other students add to the description. 'ssess(ent: The student should be able to identif" at least H contour features he could use when describing navigating his leg during the 7$ercise above.

H*

Lesson #11

Bavigation Part ,
7$plain the importance of stud"ing the control area as part of navigation. 6escribe specific techni#ues for navigating into the control site.

Lesson objectives"

Instructional aids"
Orienteering maps with Orange course () per student)

Instruction" Bavigation Part ,

%ontrol 'rea

The control site and its surroundings are the goal of navigating an orienteering leg. There are certain techni#ues that can help the student make the process of finding the control marker easier. %ontrol enlarge(ent ? 4o control feature is sitting out there b" itselfN there2s alwa"s something around it or nearb" it. 7nlarge "our perception of the control b" making it ph"sicall" bigger and thus easier to find. %or e$ample, see the control feature not as (ust a boulder, but a boulder on a specific hill. %ind the hill first and finding the boulder becomes easier. (!. p.><) Pic*ing attac* !oints ? 3ttack points are features that are near "our control feature but easier to find. &ick an attack point and navigate to it, then precision navigate from there to the control. 0sing attack points is probabl" the most helpful orienteering techni#ue and should be used for ever" control. (!. p.G;) Using the control descri!tions to deter(ine a!!roach ? 1ometimes the location of the marker in relation to the control feature will determine "our attack point. %or e$ample, if the control is on top of a cliff, "ou will want to approach the cliff from above. The location of the marker relative to the control feature is specified on the control descriptions if the course setter deems it will make a significant difference when picking an attack point. (!. p.G)) %ollecting C catching features ? !ollecting features guide "ou into a control. !atching features stop "ou from going too far be"ond a control. 0sing collecting and catching features are wonderful error5prevention techni#ues. Fou ma" want to pick "ou attack point based on the presence of collecting and catching features. (!. p.G;)

E&ercise

%ontrol #iagra((ing

%or each control circle on the Orange course map, have students: &lace an -3/ b" each attack point and a -)/ b" the attack point the" would chose, with an asterisk if the attack point was chosen based on an approach determined b" its control description. &lace a -C/ b" an" collecting features the" could use. &ace a -!/ b" an" catching features the" could use.

HG

'ssess(ent: The student should be able to find at least one attack point for each control circle. The should be able to identif" either a collecting or a catching feature for @<M of the control sites.

H>

Lesson #1)

Bavigation Part /
7$plain the importance of stud"ing the control leg in navigation. 6escribe how to decide upon the best navigation route for their skill level. 6emonstrate specific techni#ues for planning route choices.

Lesson objectives"

Instructional aids"
Orienteering maps with Orange course () per student) Bighlighters () per student)

Instruction" Bavigation Part / -outes and %hoices


0rea*ing legs into leg seg(ents ? C" breaking a leg from control to control into smaller segments, "ou are in effect making the leg simpler to navigate. 7ach segment can be navigated using the skills and techni#ues right for that segment, as well as at different speeds. (!. p.G; -9reen light, "ellow light, red light/) Obvious and subtle handrails ? 3 handrail can be an" features "ou can follow on "our wa" to a control feature. Obvious handrails include trails, streams and edges of clearings. 1ubtle handrails are usuall" contour features such as ridges and edges of hillsides. (!. p.G;) 'i(ing off ? If "ou are taking a compass bearing to find a point on a linear feature, "ou might miss it due to drifting off "our bearing. Tr" setting "our compass to deliberatel" miss the point to the left. Then when "ou hit the linear feature, "ou know to turn right to arrive at "our point. %or e$ample, set "our compass to hit a trail 4orth of a trail (unction, knowing that "ou would onl" have to go a short distance 1outh on the trail to find the (unction. (!. p.><) Planning routesKThe smart navigator begins a leg b" looking first at the control site and working backwards to where he is now. Fou want to plan "our route in the following order: (!. p.>)) o Identif" control on the map and read the control description. o 7nlarge the control and identif" surrounding terrain. o Jook for attack points, collecting and catching features. o Identif" handrails that could help guide "ou to the control vicinit". o &lan at least H routes from "our current location to the control. o Creak each route into leg segments and determine skills and techni#ues needed for each segment. o !hoose the route choice that is within "our navigation abilities with the least amount of error probabilit".

E&ercise

#oing O M$ 8a$

0sing their maps from 6iagram O in Jesson O)), have students decide on and highlight their personal best route choice to their chosen attack point for each course leg, breaking the leg into segments and using handrails when appropriate.

H@

'ssess(ent: The student should be able to show a route choice for the course which uses at least one direction change on =<M of the legs and at least one handrail choice on the course. The student should identif" an attack point for =<M of the control circles.

H=

Lesson #1,

Bavigation Part 7

Lesson objectives"
7$plain the need to balance the ph"sical and mental aspects of orienteering. 7$plain the importance of concentration in navigation. 6escribe how to re5ac#uire "our location on an orienteering map.

Instructional aids"
Orienteering maps with Orange course () per student) &aper, pens or pencils for !. e$.G>

Instruction" Bavigation Part 7

E&ecuting the Plan

7$ecuting outes ? 7$ecuting a route choice re#uires concentration combined with ph"sical effort. Calancing them is importantN "our brain needs o$"gen to think, but "ou won2t do well if "ou don2t move #uickl". If "ou have properl" planned "our route choice, "ou should have no trouble e$ecuting it unless: (!. p.>H) Fou over5estimated "our map reading skills Fou under5estimated how much o$"gen "our brain needs Fou got distracted and wandered off course Fou didn2t properl" evaluate the visibilit" of the terrain Fou didn2t trust "our abilities and followed someone.

Instruction" -ecover$ C relocation


!ontrar" to most claims, the map and compass are most likel" not to be blamed for poorl" e$ecuted routes. Cut there2s hopeN "ou (ust need to determine "our current location and plan "our route again. If "ou don2t know where "ou are: (!. p.>H) 1topL 6on2t make the situation worse. emember "our last know location and mentall" list several features "ou2ve seen since and tr" to find them on the map. 6etermine features around "ou and tr" to find them on the map. 6etermine likel" mistakes and where the" might have led "ou. If "ou have a likel" guess of location, verif" it b" testing that location on a short leg, identif"ing features "ou would find. 4o -creative landscaping/, don2t lie to "ourself. If #uick relocation fails, determine the nearest linear feature "ou can2t miss on a rough compass bearing, run to it, then run along it, looking at features, until "ou can positivel" identif" "our location on the map. Ce aware of time limits and how long it will take "ou to get to the %inish line. 6o not allow "ourself to be overtime. E&ercise: !. e$.G> ? .ap .emor" 0nder 1tress, in school "ard or athletic field.

H;

'ssess(ent: The student should be able to accuratel" draw at least one leg during e$.G>. Jess fit students should be given less ph"sical stress.

Lesson #1/

?oing for the %ha(!ionshi!<


6escribe competition strateg" in orienteering. 6escribe how to evaluate "our competition and determine training needs.

Lesson objectives"

Instructional aids"
!ompetition and training logs and+or diaries Orienteering maps of course students have run &ens or highlighters

Instruction" %o(!etition strateg$ C evaluation


1tudents are now read" to attempt their first Orange !ourse and begin training for winning that championship troph" for their school team. This lesson is an ongoing one that should be repeated for ever" competition until it becomes routine. 1tudents will strongl" desire to move up level to level as #uickl" as possible. Bowever, the" will learn more and compete more successfull" if the" are on the appropriate course for their abilit" level. .oving up a level (course color) is recommended onl" once the student demonstrates he can consistentl" complete his current level course at less than )G minutes per km. 3lternativel" for a less fit student: .oving up a level (course color) is recommended onl" once the student demonstrates he can consistentl" complete his current level course successfull", without making an" ma(or errors. &re5competition 1trateg" (!. p.>H) o 9et plent" of sleep, eat breakfast, h"drate, rela$. o 1et a goal for the event based on previous errors. o 7valuate "our ph"sical and mental well being and ad(ust competition strateg" to compensate for an" weakness or in(ur". o 6ress appropriatel". Tape as recommend b" trainer. o Ce sure "ou have compass, watch, whistle, punch card or 7card. o Take "our time going to O) (don2t blow the first control). o Whenever possible, plan "our routes before "ou need to take them in order to minimi'e standing still. o 3s "ou approach a marker, plan "our e$it, either in the direction of "our ne$t route, or to move awa" from the marker to plan. 6o not give awa" the marker location to "our competitors. o !heck the control code and punch, as efficientl" as possible. o Duickl" move off in the direction "ou have alread" determined. o 6on2t let other competitors distract "ou. o Aeep h"drated, drink water at water stops or carr" "our own. o Aeep track of "our time, don2t panic, breath evenl".

,<

o o o o o o

&ost5competition procedures and 7valuation (!. p.>,) 3fter "ou finish, re5h"drate, then pull out "our map and a pen and a highlighters. 6raw "our route as "ou actuall" ran. 6raw (in another color), an" alternative routes that might have worked better, plus an" attack points "ou should have used and didn2t. .ark where "ou feel "ou made an error. &ut "our name, date and elapsed time on the map. In "our competition log, write a self5evaluation of "our course. 4ote particularl" an" trends or tendencies for error. 1uggest goals for future events and what "ou need to work on in training. 3sk "our coach to go over "our run with "ou and make suggestions for training and future competition strategies and goals. Take "our map home where "ou can stud" it, re5run the course mentall", and think about improvements in navigation.

'ssess(ent" The student should set up and maintain a competition log that the teacher evaluates periodicall".

,)

4ield Tri! #, 66 'ttend a Local orienteering %lub event


4ield tri! focus: 7valuation

4ield tri! objectives"


6emonstrate orienteering skills and techni#ues ac#uired: o &recision map reading and precision compass use along with measurement and pace counting o ough map reading and rough compass use with distance estimation o &re5competition map stud" o %olding and thumbing the map o 8isual distance : si'e estimation o Interpreting and using contour information o !ontrol enlargement o !hoosing and using attack points o 0sing collecting and catching features o Identif"ing route choices o 0se of handrails o 3iming off with a compass o 7$ecuting a route choice o ecover" from a navigational error

Teacher objective" Pur!ose of attending the orienteering event


3 field trip to a local orienteering club event should be done as an evaluation of what the students have learned and in what areas the" need more training. 7ach student should now be read" to do an Orange course individuall". 7mphasi'e to the students that the" are there to practice all the navigational skills and techni#ues the" have learned and to learn from the e$perience in order to ad(ust both ph"sical and mental training for future competitions.

E&ercises" The following should be done after ever" orienteering competition"


!. e$.G= ? &ost .ortem and !ourse 7valuation !. e$.G; ? 6rawing !ourse in eview 'ssess(ent: The student should demonstrate his abilit" to draw his actual route on his course map. Be should be able to knowledgabl" discuss his errors and complete an anal"sis of competition entr" into his competition log. Unit Evaluation: The student should be able to complete an Orange course within )G minutes per kmN or for less fit students, within the time limit without making an" ma(or errors.

,H

'dditional Internet -esources for Orienteering


0.1. Orienteering %ederation (01O%): http:++www.us.orienteering.org International Orienteering %ederation (IO%): http:++www.orienteering.org -%lue/ (download shareware for creating control description sheets, R)<): http:++www.dvoa.org+events+evdir+clue+inde$.php IO% !ontrol 6escriptions: http:++www.orienteering.org+i,+inde$.phpI+iofH<<>+content+download+=,<+,;<,+file +!ontrolMH<6escriptionsMH<H<<*MH<s"mbolsMH<onl".pdf O%'# (Orienteering mapping software, some free downloads): http:++www.ocad.com+ O in 1chools (01O% committee) http:++www.ocin.org+school+ 0.1. 9eological 1urve" (0191) website: http:++www.usgs.gov+ Dirtual 0inder of 01O% documents: http:++www.us.orienteering.org+binder+ 0.1. Orienteering %ederation contact address: 9len 1chorr, 7$ecutive 6irector &O Co$ G<G iderwood 1tation Caltimore .6 H)),;

,,

?lossar$ of Orienteering Ter(inolog$


4or a Disual ?lossar$ +ith (a! e&a(!lesF !lease see
http:++orienteeringunlimited.com+visualglossar".htm

'i(ing Off ? 1et the compass to deliberatel" miss to one side of a point on a linear feature so that "ou know which wa" to turn upon hitting the linear feature to see the desired point. 'ttac* ? The process of getting "ou from the attack point to the control feature. 'ttac* Point ? 3n easier5to5find feature near the control feature from which the control feature can be located. ':i(uth or 0earing ? The numeric degree indicating direction of travel on a compass. 0ar Scale ? 3 measurement aid on a map, showing the length on the map of intervals of a common distance, usuall" )<< meters. 0ase!late ? The clear, usuall" rectangular part of a compass on which the housing is mounted, which acts as a protractor for the compass. 0e:el ? &art of the compass housing printed with the numeric a'imuth directions. 0lue %ourse ? The longest e$pert level orienteering course. 0ro+n %ourse ? The shortest e$pert level orienteering course. %airn ? 3 man5made rock pile, initiall" meant to mark a trail direction. %atching 4eature ? 3 linear feature located be"ond a control feature and perpendicular to the line of travel which is used as a backstop in case the desired feature has been overshot. %hec*6off 4eature ? 3 feature in the terrain which can be positivel" identified on the map, used to verif"ing current location, a landmark. %li(b ? The uphill elevation change of the course setter2s optimal route for an orienteering course. %lues ? 3nother name for control descriptions %ollecting 4eature ? 3 feature which funnels into, occurs (ust before, or otherwise guides "ou to the desired feature. %o(!ass ? 3 device for determining direction, consisting of a magnetic needle which aligns with the earth2s magnetic field. The needle is suspended in a li#uid filled housing, usuall" mounted on baseplate protractor. %ontour Lines 1%ontours2 ? Crown lines on a topo map that connect points of e#ual elevation. %ontour Interval ? The elevation change between contour lines on a map. %ontour 4eature ? 3 feature on the map depicted b" contour lines, such as a reentrant, spur or ridge.

,*

%ontrol ? 3 general term used to designate the control site or control marker. %ontrol Mar*er ? 3 standard ,5sided white and orange flag, on or ne$t to the control feature, with attached control code and punching mechanism, for verif"ing the feature was visited. %ontrol %ircle ? 3 circle drawn around a feature on the map to indicate the location of a control markerN the area in the terrain designated b" the circle on the map. The control feature should be in the e$act center of the circle. %ontrol %ode ? Jetters or numbers on a control marker which identif" the marker. This identification for the control marker is also on the control description sheet. %ontrol #escri!tion 1%lues2 ? 3 list given to each participant which, for each control circle on the map, gives the control code and describes the ph"sical location of the control feature within the circle on the map. 0ses IO% s"mbolog" for mid and upper level courses. %ontrol Enlarge(ent ? The process of mentall" and visuall" e$panding the control feature to include the larger feature on which the control feature sits, including surrounding features, for the purpose of navigation. %ontrol 4eature ? 3 mapped terrain feature which is the navigational goal of the course2s leg. %ontrol Bu(ber ? 3n identif"ing number drawn beside each control circle on a map, which identifies the control and indicates the order in which the controls must be visited. %ontrol Punch ? 3 small plastic device with a specific pin design attached to the control marker and used to verif" the control feature has been visited when manual punching is used. 1ee -!ontrol 0nit/ for electronic punching. %ontrol Site ? The location of a control marker in the terrain. %ontrol Unit ? 3 small electronic bo$ attached to the control maker used to load verification of visit onto an 7card when electronic punching is used. %ourse ? 3 series of circles on the map which indicate the control markers to be visited, or the route in the terrain between the control markers. %ourse Length ? The distance, as the crow flies, of an orienteering course, going through each control feature but around uncross able water (lakes). %ourse Setter ? The designer of the course, the person who places the control markers in the terrain. %reative Landsca!ing ? Talking "ourself into believing that the terrain around "ou matches a location on the map where "ou wish to be when it does not. #irection of Travel 'rro+ ? The painted arrow on the compass baseplate that is used to indicate direction of travel once the compass is set and aligned to magnetic north.

,G

#istance Esti(ation ? 9auging length of travel or b" (udgment rather than measurement. #B4 ? 6id 4ot %inish ? 6esignation for results when all control markers on the course were not visited in the allowed time limit. #o+nload ? Baving "our 7card (finger stick) read into the orienteering event using 7punching. esults computer at

Ecard 1or finger stic*2 ? 3 plastic stick containing an electronic chip, attached to a loop that fits the finger, used to record punches at control when electronic punching is used. E!unching 1electronic !unching2 ? 3 s"stem of electronic verification of visits to control markers. 4eature ? 3 specific terrain detail or ob(ect depicted on a map. 4inger Stic* ? 3nother name for 7card. 4inish ? 3 double circle used to locate the end of the course on the map, the actual location where elapsed time ends on the course. 4ive6%olor ? The IO% standard of ink colors used to depict features on the map, actuall" si$ colors, since the map paper would alread" be white. Clue ? water features Clack ? rock features and man5made features White ? normal, open woods 9reen ? thick vegetation, shades : patterns denote t"pe Fellow ? non5wooded land, shades : patterns denote t"pe Crown ? natural non5rock features and contour lines

4or( Line ? 3 dashed contour line indicating a terrain shape between contour intervals. ?reen %ourse ? 3 medium5length e$pert level orienteering course. Handrail ? 3 linear feature which can be followed during navigation. Housing ? The part of a compass that contains the magnetic needle, usuall" filled with fluid and turnable. Inde& %ontour ? 7ver" Gth contour line, drawn bolder to aid in determining elevation change. IO4 ? The International Orienteering %ederation, which sets standards for map, rules and other methodolog" for orienteering world5wide. Gnoll ? 3 small mound or hill indicated b" a brown dot on the map. Leg ? The portion of a course between two control features. Leg Seg(ent ? 3 portion of the leg, broken down for separate navigation techni#ues.

,>

Legend ? 3 list of the s"mbols use to represent features on the map. Linear 4eature ? 3 feature with measurable length such as a trail, stream or fence. Magnetic #eclination ? The angle between true north and magnetic north. Magnetic Borth ? The direction toward the earth2s magnetic pole, the north indication to which orienteering maps are aligned. Magnetic Borth Lines ? Thin lines running through the map with an arrow on the end of the lines pointing north. These lines are at G<< meter intervals on a ):)G,<<< scale map. Magnetic Borth Orienting Lines ? The part of the compass housing that has painted lines. The housing is turned so these line match the magnetic north lines on the map when taking a precision compass bearing. Magnetic Beedle ? The part of a compass that points to magnetic north. Ma! %ontact ? The process of maintaining awareness of current location on the map. Ma! Me(or$ ? The process of memori'ing details of the map, then associating those details with features in the terrain without having to refer to the map. Ma! Orientation ? The process of turning the map to match magnetic north with the north markings on the map and+or with the surrounding terrain. Ma! S$(bol ? The figure used to represent a feature on a map. Ma! to Terrain Identification ? The process of matching features on the map to features in the terrain, used to maintain awareness of current location. Ma! Si(!lification ? %iltering out detailed map information, looking onl" at the large features on a map. Ma! Stud$ ? Intensive pre5e$amination of a map in order to become as familiar as possible with the mapped terrain and how the map depicts the terrain. Mar*er 1%ontrol (ar*er2 ? The orange and white flag that marks the control point feature, with attached punching mechanism for verif"ing the feature was found. Master Ma! ? 3 map displa"ed near the start from which competitors cop" their courses onto their clean maps if pre5printed courses are not provided. Bavigation ? The process of determining and appl"ing the appropriate skills, techni#ues and route choices to travel from one point to another. Orange %ourse ? The intermediate level orienteering course. Orienteering ? 3 competitive outdoor activit" using a detailed topographic map and a compass to navigate through the terrain and find a series of natural or man5made features indicated on the map, the act of navigating through terrain.

,@

Orienteering %lub ? 3 group of people who work together to make orienteering maps and hold orienteering events in a specific geographical area. Orienteering Ma! ? The two5dimensional topographic depiction on paper of the terrain, drawn to IO% standards. Orienting 'rro+ ? The painted arrow on a compass housing, used for aligning the compass to north on the map and for aligning the compass to the magnetic needle during the process of taking a precision compass bearing. Orienting the Ma! ? Turning the map to match magnetic north with the north markings on the map, matching the orientation of the map to the features in the terrain. Overti(e ? 8iolating the time limit on a course during competition. Pace %ounting 1Pacing2 ? 3 s"stem of counting steps or double5steps to measure distance. Point 4eature ? 3 distinct feature in the terrain that is not linear, a precise location. Precision %o(!ass ? 1etting and following a numeric compass bearing or a'imuth. Precision Ma! -eading ? .ap reading b" careful matching of map to terrain. Protractor ? 3 device for measuring angles to enable a compass to set a direction of travel. Punch %ard ? 3 scorecard which is marked b" a punch at each control marker, verif"ing the marker was visited when manual punching is used. Punch ? 3 small plastic device with a specific pin design attached to the control marker and used to verif" the control feature has been visited when manual punching is used. 1ee -!ontrol 0nit/ for electronic punching. Punching ? The act of marking a punch card or 7card at the control marker to prove it has been visited on the course. -ed %ourse ? The medium5long length e$pert level orienteering course. -ecover$ ? e5planning of navigation after making an error and relocating. -eentrant ? 3 small valle" or draw defined b" contour lines which is a natural water runoff. -elocationH-elocating ? The process of re5establishing location on a map, used when map contact has been lost. -ootstoc* ? The upturned roots of a fallen tree, with or without the trunk. -ough %o(!ass ? %ollowing a general compass direction, such as 747 or 1W. -ough Ma! -eading ? eading onl" the amount of map information needed for the current navigational techni#ue being used. -oute ? The actual line of travel taken on a course. ,=

-oute %hoice ? 3 series of navigational processes for getting from one control feature to another, the actual route on the map to be navigated. Saddle ? The low point between two hilltops bisected b" two reentrants.

Scale

The si'e relationship e$isting between the map and the terrain.

Score Event ? 3 variation of standard orienteering in which control sites can be visited in an" order and all control sites do not have to be visited. Sighting ? &icking out an ob(ect ahead in "our direction of travel and #uickl" moving to it, then picking out another ob(ect aheadN used to eliminate the need for constantl" glancing at "our compass. Si:e Esti(ation ? 8isuali'ing how si'eable and visible a map feature will be in the terrain. S!ur ? 3 slender finger of land (utting out from a hillside. Start ? 3 triangle used to locate the beginning of the course on the map, the actual location of the starting point of the course. Tag lines ? 1mall lines drawn at right angles off a contour line, indicating the downhill direction, used when up and down cannot be clearl" determined. Terrain ? The surface features of an area of land. Thu(bing ? Aeeping the tip of "our thumb on "our current location on the map, a techni#ue for folding and holding the map with the thumb on "our location. To!ogra!hic 1To!o2 Ma! ? 3 map depicting terrain, drawn to scale and showing relative position of features and elevation. Orienteering maps are a t"pe of topo map. True Borth ? The direction toward the earth2s geographic pole. USO4 ? The 0nited 1tates Orienteering %ederation, which is the governing bod" and sets rules and guidelines for the sport of Orienteering in the 013. Detter ? 3n e$perienced orienteer who tests the courses and advises the course setter as to their accurac". Disual #istanceHDisibilit$ ? The sight distance e$isting in the mapped terrain, usuall" changes b" season. 8hite %ourse ? The basic beginning orienteering course and competitive course for those age )H and under. Iello+ %ourse ? The orienteering course for beginners who have some map reading skills, the competitive course for those age ),5)*.

@+H*+H<<;

,;