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Reference Books.

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits.

By:

Charles K. Alexander

Matthew N. O. Sadiku

Any other book of Electric Circuits

9 Heinrich Rudorf Hertz (1857-1894), demonstrated that the

Electromagnetic Waves obeys the same principle as light.

9 Heinrich Rudorf Hertz work is confirmed by the Clerk

Maxwell’s.

9 Heinrich Rudorf Hertz was born in Germany.

9 Hertz did his doctorate under the well-known and prominent

physicist Hermann von Helmholtz.

9 Hertz successfully generated and detected Electromagnetic

waves.

9 It is due to Hertz contribution that Electromagnetic waves

paved the way for practical use of such waves in Radio,

Television and other Communication Systems.

9 The unit of the frequency is given by his name Hertz

9 DC sources were the main sources of providing electric

power un-till the late 1800s.

9 AC ( Alternating Current ) is introduced in the beginning of

1900 century.

9 The biggest advantage of the AC is that is more efficient to

transmit over long distances.

9 Sinusoid is a signal that has the form of the sine or cosine

function.

9 Sinusoid Current is referred as AC, the AC current reverses

at regular time interval and has alternative ( +ve ) and ( -ve )

values.

9 AC circuits are those which are driven by sinusoid Current

or sinusoidal voltages

Why Sinusoid ?

9 Nature it self Characteristically sinusoid.

9 Examples are, Motion of pendulum

9 Vibration of String

9 Water waves or the ripples on the ocean surface

¾ The biggest advantage of the Sinusoid is that it is easy to

generate and transmit

9 Sinusoid signal is in the form of voltage generated

throughout the world, then supplies to homes, factories,

laboratories, universities and so on.

9 Sinusoid signals are easy to handle mathematically, the

derivatives and integrals of the sinusoid are them selves

sinusoid.

Sinusoid Mathematics

Sinusoid Voltage is define as,

v ( t ) = V m sin ω t

Vm = the amplitude of the sinusoid

w = the angular frequency in radian/s

Time Period= Sinusoid Signal repeats itself every T seconds, the T

is called period of the sinusoid.

2 π

T =

ω

In sinusoid the repeat it selves every T seconds, so this can be

replaced by, t+T

v (t + T ) = Vm sin ω (t + T )

2π

v (t + T ) = Vm sin ω (t + )

ω

v (t + T ) = Vm sin( ω t + 2π )

v (t + T ) = Vm sin ω t

v (t ) = Vm sin ω t

v (t ) = v (t + T )

Periodic Function

¾ A Periodic function is define as, the function that

satisfies,

f (t ) = f (t + nT )

For all t and for all integers n.

9 Periodic T of the periodic function is the time of the one

complete cycle, this can be define in other words as number

of the cycles per seconds.

known as frequency of sinusoid

1

f =

T

9 f is in hertz (Hz)

9 The general Expression for the sinusoid signal is given as

v(t ) = Vm sin(ωt + φ )

• The amplitude is Vm

• The phase is φ

• The angular frequency is ω

Examine the two Sinusoids

9 The two sinusoid can be examine as,

v 1 = V m sin ω t

and

v2 = Vm sin(ωt + φ )

Leading and Lagging

v1 v2

9 This can be said as lags by by

9 If φ ≠ 0 then v1 and v 2 are said to be out of phase.

9 It is not necessary that v1 and v2 have the same

apmlitude.

9 A sinusoid can be expressed in either sine or cosine form.

When comparing two sinusoids, it is expedient to express

both as either sine or cosine with positive amplitude. This can

be done by using following identities

cos( A ± B ) = cos A cos B m sin A sin B

By looking at the identities, it can be seen that

sin( ω t ± 90 ) = ± cos ω t , cos( ω t ± 90 ) = m sin ω t

Sinusoids Addition

9 The addition of two sinusoids A cos ωt and B sin ωt ,

A and B are the magnitudes, the resultant sinusoid in cosine

form is given as following.

Here,

B

θ = tan −1

C = A +B 2 2

, A

The example shows the addition of two sinusoid,

(4)

C = (3) + (4) = 5

2 2 θ = tan −1

3

3 cos ωt − 4 sin ωt

5 cos(ωt + 53.1)

Exercise Problems.

Add the following sinusoids,

1 − , 5 cos ω t , 2 sin ω t

2 − , 4 cos ω t , − 3 sin ω t

3 − , 7 cos ω t , 5 sin ω t

4 − , 6 cos ω t , − 5 sin ω t

5 − , − 2 cos ω t , − 3 sin ω t

6 − , − 4 cos ω t , 3 sin ω t

7 − , 7 cos ω t , − 8 sin ω t

8 − , − 5 cos ω t , 2 sin ω t

9 − , − 6 cos ω t , sin ω t

10 − , 5 cos ω t , 4 sin ω t

Problem 2

Find the amplitude, phase , period and frequency of the sinusoid ?

• The amplitude Vm is 12

• The phase φ is 10

• The angular frequency is ω = 50 rad/s

• The period T is 0.1257 s

• The frequency f is 7.958 Hz

Problem 2.1

Find the amplitude, phase , period and frequency of the sinusoid ?

v ( t ) = 5 sin( 4π t − 60 0 )

• The amplitude Vm is 5

• The phase φ is -60

• The angular frequency is ω = 12.57 rad/s

• The period T is 0.5 s

• The frequency f is 2 Hz

Exercise Problems.

Find the amplitude, phase, period and frequency of the sinusoids.

v ( t ) = 10 sin( 33 t + 25 0

)

v ( t ) = 8 cos( 9 π t − 30 0

)

v ( t ) = 4 cos( 5 t − 10 0

)

v ( t ) = 16 sin( 3 π t + 40 0

)

v ( t ) = − 10 sin( 6 π t − 25 0

)

v ( t ) = 12 cos( 10 t − 15 0

)

Problem 2.2

Calculation of phase angle and leading sinusoid ?

ways are by using trigonometric identities, while the

third one is by using graphical method.

Method 1:

Let ,

v1 = − 10 cos( ω t + 50 ) = 10 cos( ω t + 50 − 180 )

v1 = 10 cos( ω t − 130 ), or

v1 = 10 cos( ω t + 230 )

Problem 2.2

Calculation of phase angle and leading sinusoid ? Cont’

v 2 = 12 sin( ω t − 10 ) = 12 cos( ω t − 10 − 90 )

v 2 = 12 cos( ω t − 100 )

We can write V2 as, v 2 = 12 cos( ω t − 130 + 30 )

v 1 = 10 cos( ω t − 130 )

v 2 = 12 cos( ω t − 130 + 30 )

This shows that the phase difference between V1 and V2 is 30.

Problem 2.2

Calculation of phase angle and leading sinusoid ? Cont’

Method 2:

We can express V1 in sine form,

v1 = −10 cos(ωt + 50) = 10 sin(ωt + 50 − 90)

v1 = 10 sin(ωt − 40) = 10 sin(ωt − 10 − 30)

but ,

v2 = 12 sin(ωt − 10)

Comparing V2 and V1 , it shows that V1 lags V2 by 30.

Problem 2.2

Calculation of phase angle and leading sinusoid ? Cont’

Method 3:

From the above it can be express V1 as − 10 cos ω t , with

phase shift of

+50.

with the phase shift of -10

“PHASORS”

A Phasor is complex number that represent the amplitude and

phase of a sinusoid.

expressed in terms of phasors, that are more convenient to

work with than sine and cosine function.

introduced by Charles Steinmetz in 1893

excited by sinusoidal sources, solution of such circuits would

be difficult otherwise.

Mathematics of Phasors

A complex number z can be written in rectangular form

as z = x + jy

where j = − 1, x is real part of z, y is imaginary part of z.

form as,

jφ

z = r ∠ φ = re

r is magnitude of z, and is the phase of z.

Mathematics of Phasors (cont’)

Representation of Phasors.

z = x + jy

o Rectangular Form

o Exponential Form z = re jφ

Where, r = x 2 + y 2 , φ = tan −1

y , x = r cos φ , y = r sin φ

So, x

Mathematics operations on Phasors

9 when dealing with phasors, addition and subtraction of

complex numbers are better perform in rectangular form.

9 Multiplication and division are better done in polar form.

Addition z1 + z 2 = ( x1 + x2 ) + j ( y1 + y2 )

Subtraction z1 − z 2 = ( x1 − x2 ) + j ( y1 − y2 )

Multiplication z1 z 2 = r1r2 (∠φ1 + ∠φ2 )

z1 r

Division = 1 (∠ φ1 − ∠ φ 2 )

z2 r2

Reciprocal 1 1

= (∠ − φ )

z r

Square root z = r (∠ φ )

2

Phasors Representation

9 The idea of Phasor representation is based on the Euler’s

Identity. cos φ = Re(e jφ )

± jφ

given as,

e = cos φ ± j sin φ sin φ = Im(e jφ )

Given a sinusoid, v (t ) = V m cos( ω t + φ )

v ( t ) = V m cos( ω t + φ ) = Re( V m e j ( ω t + φ ) )

v ( t ) = Re( V m e j φ e j ω t )

thus ,

jω t

v ( t ) = Re( Ve )

where ,

jφ

V = Vm e = Vm ∠ φ

Phasors Representation

9 V is the phasor representation of sinusoid of v(t).

9 A phasor is a complex representation of magnitude and

phase of sinusoid.

9 Phasor has magnitude and phase “ direction”, it behaves as

vector.

9 Phasors , V = Vm ∠φ and I = I m ∠ − θ , Graphical

representation of phasor is known as a Phasor.

Phasors Representation

Sinusoid-Phasor Transformation

V m cos( ω t + φ ) V m ∠ φ

V m sin( ω t + φ ) V m ∠ φ − 90

I m cos( ω t + θ ) I ∠ θ

m

I m sin( ω t + θ ) I ∠ θ − 90

m

dv jω V

dt

V

∫ vdt jω

Problems.

Evaluate these complex number.

1

(1); ( 40 ∠ 50 + 20 ∠ − 30 ) 2

solution ,

40 ∠ 50 = {40 (cos 50 + j sin 50 )} = 25 . 708 + 30 . 64

20 ∠ − 30 = {20 (cos (− 30 ) + j sin (− 30 ))} = 17 . 32 − j10

( 40 ∠ 50 + 20 ∠ − 30 ) = {(25 . 708 + 30 . 64 ) + (17 . 32 − j10 )}

( 40 ∠ 50 + 20 ∠ − 30 ) = 43 . 03 + j 20 . 64

where , r = x2 + y2 = (43 . 028 )2 + (20 . 64 )2 = 47 . 72

⎛ y⎞ ⎛ 20 . 64 ⎞

θ = tan −1

⎜ ⎟ = tan

−1

⎜ ⎟ = 25 . 63

⎝x⎠ ⎝ 43 . 03 ⎠

Taking square root.

1

( 40 ∠ 50 + 20 ∠ − 30 ) 2

= 6 . 91 ∠12 . 81

Problems 2

Evaluate these complex number

10 ∠ − 30 + ( 3 − j 4 )

( 2 ),

( 2 + j 4 )( 3 − j 5 ) *

10 ∠ − 30 + ( 3 − j 4 ) 10 (cos (− 30 ) + j sin( − 30 ) ) + ( 3 − j 4 )

=

( 2 + j 4 )( 3 − j 5 ) *

( 2 + j 4 )( 3 + j 4 )

10 ∠ − 30 + ( 3 − j 4 ) ( 8 . 66 − 5 j ) + ( 3 − j 4 ) 11 . 66 − 9 j

= =

( 2 + j 4 )( 3 − j 5 ) *

( 2 + j 4 )( 3 + j 5 ) − 14 + 22 j

⎛ y ⎞

but , θ = tan −1

⎜ ⎟, r = x 2 + y 2

⎝ x ⎠

10 ∠ − 30 + ( 3 − j 4 ) 14 . 73 ∠ − 37 . 66

= = 0 . 565 ∠ − 160 . 31

( 2 + j 4 )( 3 − j 5 ) * 26 . 08 ∠ 122 . 48

Exercise Problems

Evaluate these complex number

(1 ), [( 5 + j 2 )( − 1 + j 4 ) − 5 ∠ 60 ]*

10 + j 5 + 3 ∠ 40

( 2 ), + 10 ∠ 30

− 3 + j4

Problems 2

Transformation

ansformation of sinusoids to Phasors.

where ,

sin(ωt ± 180) = − sin ωt , cos(ωt ± 180) = − cos ωt

sin(ωt ± 90) = ± cos ωt , cos(ωt ± 90) = m sin ωt

.

v = −4(30t + 50 ) = 4 cos( 30t + 50 + 90 )

v = 4 cos( 30t + 140 )

The phasor form of v is,

Problems 2.1

Transformation of sinusoids to Phasors.

i = 6 cos( 50 t − 40 )

The phasor form of I is,

i = 6 cos( 50 t − 40 ), I = 6 ∠ − 40

Problems 2.2

Transformation of sinusoids to Phasors

v = − 7 cos( 2 t + 40 )

solution :

sin(ωt ± 180 ) = − sin ωt , cos(ωt ± 180 ) = − cos ωt

sin(ωt ± 90) = ± cos ωt , cos(ωt ± 90) = m sin ωt

v = − 7 cos( 2 t + 40 ) = 7 cos( 2 t + 40 + 180 )

v = − 7 cos( 2 t + 40 ) = 7 cos( 2 t + 220 )

The phasor form of V is,

V = 7 ∠ 220

Problems 2.3

Transformation of sinusoids to Phasors.

i = 4 sin( 10 t + 10 )

solution ,

sin( ω t ± 180 ) = − sin ω t , cos( ω t ± 180 ) = − cos ω t

sin( ω t ± 90 ) = ± cos ω t , cos( ω t ± 90 ) = m sin ω t

i = 4 sin( 10 t + 10 ) = 4 cos( 10 t + 10 − 90 )

i = 4 sin( 10 t + 10 ) = 4 cos( 10 t − 80 )

i = 4 cos( 10 t − 80 ), I = 4 ∠ − 80

Problems 2.4 i 1 ( 1 ) = 4 cos( ω t + 30 )

Find the sum of Sinusoids

i 2 ( 2 ) = 5 sin( ω t − 20 )

The i1 (t ) can be written as, i1 (t ) = 4 cos( ω t + 30 ), I 1 = 4 ∠ 30

The i2 (t ) is change from sine to cosine form

i 2 ( t ) = 5 sin( ω t − 20 ) = 5 cos( ω t − 20 − 90 )

i 2 ( t ) = 5 cos( ω t − 110 )

Phasor can be written as,

I 2 = 5 ∠ − 110

The addition of i = i1 + i2

I = I 1 + I 2 = 4 ∠ 30 + 5 ∠ − 110

I = {4 cos( 30 ) + j sin( 30 ) } + {5 cos( − 110 ) + j sin( − 110 ) }

I = 3 . 464 + j 2 − 1 . 71 − j 4 . 698

I = 1 . 754 − j 2 . 698

I = 3 . 218 ∠ − 56 . 97

Transforming into time domain,

i ( t ) = 3 . 218 cos( ω t − 56 . 97 )

Problems 2.5

Find the sum of Sinusoids. v 1 = − 10 sin( ω t + 30 )

v 2 = 20 cos( ω t − 45 )

The sinusoid is change from sine to cosine.

v1 = − 10 sin( ω t + 30 ) = 10 cos( ω t + 30 + 90 )

v1 = 10 cos( ω t + 120 ) = − 5 + 8 .66 j

v 2 = 20 cos( ω t − 45 )

v 2 = 20{cos( − 45 ) + j sin( − 45 )}

v1 = 14 .14 − 14 .14 j

v = v1 + v 2

v = ( − 5 + 14 . 14 ) + j (8 . 66 − 14 . 14 )

v = 9 . 14 − 5 . 48 j

⎛ y⎞

φ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 30 . 94 , r = x + y = 10 . 65

2 2

⎝x⎠

v ( t ) = 10 . 66 cos( ω t − 30 . 94 )

Problems 2.6

Using the phasor approach, determine the current i (t ) in a circuit

describe by integrodifferential equation.

di

4 i + 8 ∫ idt − 3 = 50 cos( 2 t + 75 )

dt

Transfer domain from time to phasor.

8I

4I + − 3 j ω I = 50 ∠ 75

jω

Where , ω = 2

I ( 4 − j 4 − j 6 ) = 50 ∠ 75

50 ∠ 75 50 ∠ 75

I = = = 4 . 642 ∠ 143 . 2

4 − j10 10 . 77 ∠ − 62 . 2

Now convert to time domain.

Practice Problems

Using the phasor approach, determine the current v(t ) in a circuit

describe by integrodifferential equation.

dv

( a ), 2

dt

+ 5 v + 10 ∫ vdt = 20 cos( 5 t − 30 )

dv

( b ), + 5 v + 4 ∫ vdt = 20 sin( 4 t + 10 )

dt

Phasor Relationship for Circuit Element

9 Representation of voltage or current in the phasor domain

involving passive elements R,L and C in the circuit, the

requirement is that transform the voltage-current relationship

from time domain to phasor domain.

9 by applying Ohm’s l aw, the voltage across it is given by,

Resistor

VI relationship for R in time domain.

9 for the resistor the current and voltage are in phase.

Phasor Relationship Current-Voltage for

Inductor.

VI relationship for L in time domain.

9 The voltage and current are 90 out of Phase, the current lags the

voltage by 90.

Phasor Relationship Current-Voltage

for Capacitor.

VI relationship for L in time domain.

9 The voltage and current are 90 out of Phase, the current Leads the

voltage by 90.

Summary of Voltage – Current Relationship.

Domain

R v = iR V = IR

L v=L

di

V = jωLI

dt I

i=C

di V =

V jω C

dt

Problems 3.

The voltage v = 12 cos( 60 t + 45 ) is applied to a 0.1H inductor,

Find the steady state current through the inductor.

Solution:

For the inductor, V = jωLI , whereω = 60 rad/sec.

V 12 ∠ 45 12 ∠ 45

I = = =

jω L j × 60 × 0 . 1 j×6

V 12 ∠ 45

I = = = 2 ∠ − 45 A

jω L 6 ∠ 90

I = 2 ∠ − 45 ,

Converting to time domain,

i ( t ) = 2 cos( 60 t − 45 ) A

Problems 3.1

The voltage v = 6 cos( 100 t − 30 ) applied to a 50uF

capacitor, Find the current through the capacitor.

Solution:

I

For the capacitor, V = , where ω = 100 rad/sec.

jω C

v = 6 cos(100t − 30)

I I

v= ,6 ∠ − 30 =

jω C j × 100 × 50 × 10 − 6

I = 6 ∠ − 30 × j 5 × 10 − 3 = 6 ∠ − 30 × 5 × 10 − 3 ∠ 90

I = 30 ∠ 60 mA

i ( t ) = 30 cos( 100 t + 60 )

Impedance

The impedance Z of a circuit is the ratio of the phasor voltage

V to the phasor current I measured in ohms Ώ.

9 We obtained the voltage-current relationship for passive

elements as,

1

V = IR , V = j ω LI , V=

jω C

9 These equation can be written in terms of the ratio of the

phasor voltage to the phasor corrent.

V V 1

= R = jω L V

=

I I I j ωC

9 From the above expression we obtain the Ohm’s law in

phasor form for the above type of elements as,

V

Z = OR V = ZI

I

9 Z is a frequency dependant quantity known as impedance,

measured in ohms.

Impedance

9 The impedance represent the opposition, which the circuit

exhibit to the flow of sinusoidal current.

9 The impedance is the ratio of two phasor it is not a phasor.

9 The impedance for inductor Z L = jωL and for capacitor is

9 Two cases for ω = 0 ( for DC sources), − j

Z =

C ω C

ZL = ∞ ZC = 0

9 The inductor act like short circuit , where as capacitor acts

like open circuit.

9 The two cases for ω=∞ ( for high frequencies)

ZL = ∞ ZC = 0

9 The inductor act like open circuit , where as capacitor act like

short circuit at high frequency.

Impedance

Impedance

9 Impedance is a complex quantity, the impedance may be

expressed in rectangular form as,

Z = R + jX

9 R is Real part of Z is the resistance, X is the Imaginary part

of of Z which is reactance.

9 X may be negative or positive, when impedance is inductive

X is positive, when impedance is capacitive X is negative.

9 The impedance is said to be inductive or lagging since

current lags voltage.

Z = R + jX

9 The impedance is said to be capacitive or leading since

current leads voltage.

Z = R − jX

Impedance

9 The impedance may be expressed in the rectangular form as,

Z = R + jX = Z ∠θ

9 The impedance may be expressed in polar form as,

Z = Z ∠θ

Z = R + jX = Z ∠θ

Where,

X

Z = R +X 2 2

θ = tan −1

R

Admittance

The admittance Y is the reciprocal of impedance, admittance

measured in siemens (S).

The admittance Y of an element (or a circuit) is the ratio of

the phasor current through it to phasor voltage

1 I

Y = =

Z V

9 As a complex quantity admittance can be write as,

Y = G + jB

9 G is the real part of admittance called conductance, B is the

imaginary part of the admittance called susceptance.

1 R

G + jB = G = 2

R + jX R + X 2

By rationalization, R

B = − 2

R − jX R − jX R + X 2

1

G + jB = • =

R + jX R − jX R2 + X 2

Impedances and admittances of Passive Elements

1

R Z=R Y=

R

1

Z = j ωL Y=

L j ωL

1

Z =

C jω C Y = jω C

Problem 4

Find i ( t ) and v(t ) in the circuit shown in Figure?

From the voltage source 10 cos 4t , ω = 4

vs = 10 cos 4t , VS = 10∠0

The impedance is,

1

Z = R + jX = R +

jω C

1 1

Z = 5 + = 5 + = 5 − j 2 .5 Ω

j × 4 × 0 .1 j × 0 .4

Hence the current is,

VS 10 ∠ 0 10 ( 5 + j 2 . 5 )

I = = =

Z 5 − j 2 .5 5 2 + 2 .5 2

I = 1 . 6 + j 0 . 8 = 1 . 789 ∠ 26 . 57 A

I 1 . 789 ∠ 26 . 57

V = IZ = =

jω C j × 4 × 0 .1

C

1 . 789 ∠ 26 . 57

V = = 4 . 47 ∠ − 63 . 43 V

0 . 4 ∠ 90

V = 4 . 47 ∠ − 63 . 43 V

I = 1 . 789 ∠ 26 . 57 A

i ( t ) = 1 . 789 cos( 4 t + 26 . 57 ) A

v ( t ) = 4 . 47 cos( 4 t − 63 . 43 )V

It should be noted that the Current leads the voltage by 90.

Problem 4

Find i (t ) and v(t ) in the circuit shown in Figure?

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