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amplitude modulation A form of modulation in which the amplitude of a carrier wave is varied in accordance with some characteristic of the modulating signal. amplitude-shift keying Modulation in which the two binary values are represented by two different amplitudes of the carrier frequency. analog data Data represented by a physical quantity that is considered to be continuously variable and whose magnitude is made directly proportional to the data or to a suitable function of the data. analog signal A continuously varying electromagnetic wave that may be propagated over a variety of media. analog transmission The transmission of analog signals without regard to content. The signal may be amplified, but there is no intermediate attempt to recover the data from the signal. angle modulation Modulation in which the angle of a sine wave carrier is varied. Phase and f requency modulation are particular forms of angle modulation. antenna That part of a transmitting or receiving system that is designed to radiate or to receive electromagnetic waves. attenuation The reduction of strength of a signal as a function of distance traveled. aperiodic A function or signal that is not periodic. application layer Layer 7 of the OSI model. This layer determines the interface of the system with the user. asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) A form of packet transmission using fixed-size packets, called cells. atmospheric absorption The loss of energy in transmission of radio waves, due to dissipation in the atmosphere. automatic repeat request A feature that automatically initiates a request for retransmission when an error in transmission is detected. bandwidth The difference in Hertz between the limiting (upper and lower) frequencies of a spectrum. bit error rate The probability that a transmitted bit is received in error. block error correction code A technique in which a k-bit block of data is mapped into an n-bit block (n > k) called a codeword, using an FEe (forward error correction) encoder. broadband In data communications generally refers to systems that provide user data rates of greater than 2 Mbps, up to 100s of Mbps. burst error A burst error of length B is a contiguous sequence of B bits in which the first and last bits and any number of intermediate bits are received in error.
carrier frequency A continuous frequency capable of being modulated or impressed with a second (information-carrying) signal. cell relay The packet-switching mechanism used for the fixed-size packets called cells.ATM is based on cell relay technology. cellular network A wireless communications network in which fixed antennas are arranged in a hexagonal pattern and mobile stations communicate through nearby fixed antennas. channel A single path for transmitting electric signals. Note: The word path is to be interpreted in a broad sense to include separation by frequency division or time division. The term channel may signify either a one-way or a two-way path. channel capacity The maximum possible information rate through a channel subject to the
and permits the automatic correction of some or all of the errors. Doppler shift The effective change of frequency of a received signal due to the relative velocity of a transmitter with respect to the receiver. digital data are sent as a continuous stream of bits. that carries information sufficient for routing from the originating data terminal equipment (DTE) to the destination DTE without the necessity of establishing a connection between the DTEs and the network. checksum An error-detecting code based on a summation operation performed on the bits to be checked. error-detecting code A code in which each expression conforms to specific rules of construction.constraints of that channel. downstream Refers to the direction of transmission from a base station to a subscriber in a cellular or wireless local loop system. determined by the wave nature of radiation. digital transmission The transmission of digital data. electric dipole An elementary radiator consisting of a pair of equal and opposite oscillating electric charges an infinitesimal distance apart. cyclic redundancy check An error detecting code in which the code is the remainder resulting from dividing the bits to be checked by a predetermined binary number. or 20 times the log of the ratio of the voltageof two signals. and occurring when the radiation passes the edge of an opaque obstacle. error correction code A code in which each expression conforms to specific rules of construction. circuit switching A method of communicating in which a dedicated communications path is established between two devices through one or more intermediate switching nodes. downlink The communications link from satellite to earth station. in which the digital data are recovered and repeated at intermediate points to reduce the effects of noise. independent of other packets. using either an analog or digital signal. encapsulation The addition of control information by a protocol entity to data obtained from a protocol user. code division multiple access A multiplexing technique used with spread spectrum. the resulting expression will not conform to the rules of construction and thus the presence of the errors is detected.The number of decibels is 10 times the log of the ratio of the power of two signals. dipole antenna Anyone of a class of antennas producing a radiation pattern approximating that of an elementary electric dipole.and delay is essentially limited to propagation time. such as voltage pulses. so that if certain errors occur in an expression. diffraction Deviation of part of a beam. digital signal A discrete or discontinuous signal. decibel A measure of the relative strength of two signals. direct sequence spread spectrum A form of spread spectrum in which each bit in the original signal is represented by multiple bits in the transmitted signal. a packet. . so that departures from this construction can be automatically detected. Unlikepacket switching. The telephone system uses circuit switching. using a spreading code. crosstalk Undesired energy appearing in one signal path as a result of coupling from other signal paths. Bandwidth is guaranteed. digital data Data consisting of a sequence of discrete elements. datagram In packet switching.
(2) The ground wave is refracted because of variations in the dielectric constant of the troposphere. frequency domain A characterization of a function or signal in terms of its component frequencies. to the radiation intensity that would be obtained if the power accepted by the antenna were radiated isotropically. The code serves to check for errors upon reception of the data. flow control The function performed by a receiving entity to limit the amount or rate of data that is sent by a transmitting entity.863 miles above the surface.fading The time variation of received signal power caused by changes in the transmission medium or path(s). fundamental frequency The lowest frequency component in the Fourier representation of a periodic quantity. hopping from frequency to frequency at fixed intervals. free space loss Loss in signal energy caused by the dispersion of the signal over distance. with each conductor approximately a quarterwavelength long. forward error correction Procedures whereby a receiver. frequency Rate of signal oscillation in hertz. forward channel In a cellular or cordless network. or optical fiber. frequency-hopping spread spectrum A form of spread spectrum in which the signal is broadcast over a seemingly random series of radio frequencies. guided medium A transmission medium in which the waves are guided along a solid medium. frequency division multiplexing (FDM) The division of a transmission facility into two or more channels by splitting the frequency band transmitted by the facility into narrower bands. Notes: (1) The ground wave include all components of a radio wave over the earth except ionospheric and tropospheric waves. in a given direction. frame check sequence An error-detecting code inserted as a field in a block of data to be transmitted. using only information contained in the incoming digital transmission. a receiver corrects bit errors in the data. each of which is used to constitute a distinct channel. the communications link from the base station to the mobile unit. frequency-shift keying Modulation in which the two binary values are represented by two different frequencies near the carrier frequency. copper coaxial cable. ground wave A radio wave propagated over the earth and is ordinarily affected by the presence of the ground and troposphere. half-wave dipole A wire antenna consisting of two straight collinear conductors of equal length. Hamming distance The number of digit positions in which two binary numbers of the same length are different. this point is 35. such as copper twisted pair. gain (of an antenna) The ratio of the radiation intensity. separated by a small feeding gap. geosynchronous The Clarke circular orbit above the equator. geostationary Refers to a geosynchronous satellite angle with zero inclination so the satellite appears to hover over one spot on the earth's equator. frequency modulation Modulation in which the frequency of an alternating current is the characteristic varied. For a planet the size and mass of the earth. . flat fading That type of fading in which all frequency components of the received signal fluctuate in the same proportions simultaneously.
including PCs. packet A group of bits that includes data plus source and destination addresses. millimeter wave An imprecise term. the method of determining which device has access to the transmission medium at any time. microwave Electromagnetic waves in the frequency range 1 to 40 GHz. Generally. short-duration noise pulse. and servers. generally twisted pair. called a carrier.hash function A function that maps a variable length data block or message into a fixedlength value called a hash code. it provides an authenticator to the data or message. noise Unwanted signals that combine with and hence distort the signal intended for transmission and reception. multiplexing In data transmission. header System-defined control information that precedes user data. ionosphere That part of the earth's outer atmosphere where ionization caused by incoming solar radiation affects the transmission of radio waves. between the individual subscriber andthe nearest switching center of the public telecommunications network. workstations. millimeter wave systems operate in a region between 10 GHz (wavelength = 30 mm) and 300 GHz (wavelength = 1 mm). modulation A process whereby certain characteristics of a wave. isochronous The time characteristic of an event or signal recurring at known. always odd (odd parity) or always even (even parity). The packets are then transmitted as in message switching. . infrared Electromagnetic waves whose frequency range is above that of microwave and below the visible spectrum: 3 X 1011 to 4 X 1014 Hz. packet switching A method of transmitting messages through a communications network. multipath The propagation phenomenon that results in signals reaching the receiving antenna by two or more paths. Internet Protocol An internetworking protocol that provides connectionless service across multiple packet-switching networks. network layer Layer 3 of the OSI model. Generally refers to a network layer (layer 3) protocol. internet A collection of packet-switched networks connected via routers. when protected. local loop Transmission path. used to connect various data processing devices. Also referred to as a message digest. are varied or selected in accordance with a modulating function. parity bit A binary digit appended to an array of binary digits to make the sum of all the binary digits. periodic time intervals. Usually. medium access control For broadcast networks. The function is designed in such a way that. intermodulation noise Noise due to the nonlinear combination of signals of different frequencies. impulse noise A high-amplitude. in which long messages are subdivided into short packets. It generally extends from a height ofabout 50 km to about 400 km above the earth's surface. typically a single building or cluster of buildings. a function that permits two or more data sources to share a common transmission medium such that each data source has its own channel. Responsible for routing data through a communication network. packet switching is more efficient and rapidthan message switching. local area network (LAN) A communications network that encompasses a small area. including the parity bit.
personal area network (PAN) A communications network within a small area in which all of the devices attached to the network are typically owned by one person or perhaps a family. presentation layer Layer 6 of the OSI model. The router makes use of an internet protocol. personal digitalassistants (PDAs). scattering The production of waves of changed direction. frequency. mechanical. pulse code modulation A process in which a signal is sampled. reflection Occurs when an electromagnetic signal encounters a surface that is large relative to the wavelength of the signal. protocol A set of rules governing the exchange of data between two entities. and timing aspects of signal transmission over a medium. or polarization when radio waves encounter matter. cell phones. the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. and possibly user data of that layer. protocol data unit A set of data specified in a protocol of a given layer and consisting of protocol control information of that layer. periodic waveform A waveformf(t) that satisfies f(t) = f(t + nk) for all integers n. phase For a periodic signal f(t). reverse channel In a cellular or cordless network. the fractional part tiP of the period P through which t has advanced relative to an arbitrary origin. the distance from the antenna to each point on the radiation pattern is proportional to the power radiated from the antenna in that direction. radiation pattern A graphical representation of the radiation properties of an antenna as a function of space coordinates. Provides for the selection of a common syntax for representing data and for transformation of application data into and from the common syntax. Typically. period The absolute value of the minimum interval after which the same characteristics of a periodic waveform recur. and the magnitude of each sample with respect to a fixed reference is quantized and converted by coding to a digital signal. phase-shift keying Modulation in which the phase of the carrier signal is shifted to represent digital data. such as PCs. pseudonoise A sequence of numbers that are apparently statistically random. peripherals. this value is measured in volts. Devices on a PAN may include portable and mobile devices. router A device used to link two or more networks. physical layer Layer 1 of the OSI model. selective fading Fading that affects unequally the different spectral components of a radio signal. phase modulation Modulation in which the phase angle of a carrier is the characteristic varied. Concerned with the electrical. the communications link from the mobile unit to the base station. refraction The bending of a beam in transmission through an interface between two dissimilar media or in a medium whose refractive index is a continuous function of position. and consumer electronic devices. typically. The origin is usually taken at the last previous passage through zero from the negative to the positive direction. . pagers. service access point A means of identifying a user of the services of a protocol entity.peak amplitude The maximum value or strength of a signal over time. which is a connectionless protocol operating at layer 3 of the OSI model. with k being a constant.
uplink The communications link from earth station to satellite. upstream Refers to the direction of transmission from a subscriber to a base station in a cellular or wireless local loop system. vacuum.A protocol entity provides one or more SAPs for use by higher-level entities. synchronous time division multiplexing A method ofTDM in which time slots on a shared transmission line are assigned to I/O channels on a fixed. in which an antenna is employed for transmission and reception. with transmission alternating between the two directions. such as air. vacuum. or water. Provides reliable. and returned from. time division duplex A link transmission technique in which data are transmitted in one direction at a time. Manages a logical connection (session) between two communicating processes or applications. the spectrum of infrared is 3 X 1011 to 4 X 1014 Hz. subscriber loop Synonymous with local loop. transmission medium The physical path between transmitters and receivers in a communications system. thermal noise Statistically uniform noise due to the temperature of the transmission medium. For example. The troposphere occupies thespace from the earth's surface up to a height ranging from about 6 km at the poles to about 18 km at the equator. sky wave A radio wave propagated obliquely toward. transport layer Layer 4 of the OSI model. time division multiplexing (TDM) The division of a transmission facility into two or more channels by allotting the facility to several different information channels. All packets follow the same route. spread spectrum A technique in which the information in a signal is spread over a wider bandwidth using a spreading code. . the ionosphere. predetermined basis. transparent transfer of data between endpoints. need not carry a complete address. and arrive in sequence. session layer Layer 5 of the OSI model. clouds form. or water by means of an antenna. time domain A characterization of a function or signal in terms of value as a function of time. wavelength The distance between two points in a periodic wave that have the same phase. wireless Refers to electromagnetic transmission through air. one at a time. Also called a spreading sequence or a chipping code. spectrum Refers to an absolute range of frequencies. virtual circuit A packet-switching service in which a connection (virtual circuit) is established between two stations at the start of transmission. and convection is active. troposphere That portion of the earth's atmosphere in which temperature generally decreases with altitude. spreading code A sequence of digits used to spread bandwidth in a spread spectrum system. unguided medium A transmission medium.
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