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Earlier, we showed how to select the transfer function for a controller that can place

the closed-loop poles given the plants open-loop transfer function. One difculty

of working with polynomials, however, is that the numerical accuracy can quickly

deteriorate as the order of the polynomial increases. State-space description of sys-

tems can lead to numerically superior algorithms. We know provide details on how

state-feedback controller can be used to place closed-loop eigenvalues.

5.1 State-feedback controllers

Suppose that we have a system described by the state-space representation:

x(t) = Ax(t) +Bu(t), x(t) = x

0

y(t) = Cx(t),

where the state-vector x(t) R

n

and the input and output signals, u(t) and y(t)

respectively, are scalars. This means that the matrices satisfy the following dimen-

sionsal requirements:

A R

nn

, B R

n1

, and C R

1n

.

For a given input, the solution is given by:

x(t) = e

At

x

0

+

_

t

0

e

A(t)

Bu() d.

In particular, if the input u(t) 0, the state

x(t) = e

At

x

0

(5.1)

will decay to zero asymptotically for any x

0

if the eigenvalues of the matrix A all

have negative real parts.

28 5 Eigenvalue placement using state feedback

The response described by Eq. 5.1 represents an open-loop response. We can

also consider a closed-loop response under the assumption that the input is given by

state-feedback:

u(t) = Kx(t).

Here K R

1n

is a constant matrix. Under this control input the system is now

described by

x(t) = [ABK]x(t), x(t) = x

0

y(t) = Cx(t),

and the state response is

x(t) = e

[ABK]t

x

0

. (5.2)

As above, the state will decay to zero asymptotically if the eigenvalues of A BK

all have negative real parts. This, of course, will be determined in part by the choice

of K. The state-feedback eigenvalue placement problem is: given A and B and a

monic nth order polynomial

d

(s), nd a K that makes

det(sI [ABK]) =

d

(s)

In the next section we solve this problem.

5.2 Eigenvalue placement

We begin with a particular form of (A, B).

Lemma 1. Suppose that (A, B) is in controllable canonical form, and let

(s) = s

n

+d

n1

s

n1

+ +d

0

for arbitrary d

i

, i = 0, . . . , n 1. Then there exists a

K =

_

k

0

k

n1

such that

det(sI [ABK]) = s

n

+d

n1

s

n1

+ +d

0

.

Proof. Write out the matrix ABK and note that it has the same format as A with

the a

i

replaced with a

i

+k

i

. Because

det(sI A) = s

n

+a

n1

s

n1

+ +a

0

,

it follows that

det(sI A+BK) = s

n

+ (a

n1

+k

n1

)s

n1

+ + (a

0

+k

0

).

Thus, if we pick the k

i

according to

k

i

= d

i

a

i

, i = 0, . . . , n 1,

we get the desired result.

5.2 Eigenvalue placement 29

Theorem 2. Suppose that (A, B) is controllable. There exists a K such that

det(sI [ABK]) = s

n

+d

n1

s

n1

+ +d

0

for arbitrary d

i

, i = 0, . . . , n 1.

Proof. From Lemma 4 , if (A, B) is in controllable canonical form:

A =

_

_

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 0 0 1

a

0

a

1

a

2

a

n1

_

_

, B =

_

_

0

0

.

.

.

0

1

_

_

the matrix

K =

_

k

0

k

n1

i

= d

i

a

i

, for i = 0, . . . , n 1.

Now, suppose that the pair is not in controllable canonical form. We will show

that there exists an invertible matrix T such that

TAT

1

=

A, TB =

B

where

A and

B are in CCF.

Dene

C =

_

A

n1

B A

n2

B AB B

and

C =

_

A

n1

B

A

n2

B

A

B

B

.

Because both (A, B) and (

A,

B) are controllable, the matrices C and

C are invert-

ible (changing the order of the columns does not change the rank). Moreover, as in

Lemma 4, the second of these matrices has the form

C =

_

_

1 0 0

1 0 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1 0

1

_

_

where corresponds to elements whose exact values are not needed.

The claim is that the matrix T =

CC

1

puts the matrix in the correct format. To

show this, we need to show that

TB =

B

CC

1

B =

B (5.3)

and

TAT

1

=

A C

1

AC =

C

1

A

C

1

(5.4)

30 5 Eigenvalue placement using state feedback

For Eq. 5.3, note that

C

1

B =

_

_

0

0

.

.

.

1

_

_

,

because C

1

C = I and B is the last column of C; thus, the product C

1

B gives the

last column of the identity.

Now,

CC

1

B =

C

_

_

0

0

.

.

.

1

_

_

=

_

_

0

.

.

.

0

1

_

_

=

B,

by the form of

C.

We now show Eq. 5.4. First of all, note that

AC =

_

A

n

B A

n1

B A

2

B AB

=

_

a

0

B a

1

AB a

n1

A

n1

B A

n1

B A

n2

B AB

where the last line came from application of the Cayley-Hamilton theorem.

1

Now, note that the matrix AB is the second last column of C; that A

2

B is the

third last column of C, etc. Thus,

C

1

_

A

n1

B A

n2

B AB

=

_

_

0 0 0

1 0

.

.

. 0

0 1

.

.

. 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 0 1

_

_

.

Also, a

0

B a

1

AB a

n1

A

n1

B is

a

0

[nth col. of C] a

1

[(n 1)st col. of C] a

n1

[1st of C]

and, therefore,

C

1

_

a

0

B a

1

AB a

n1

A

n1

B

_

=

_

_

a

n1

a

n2

.

.

.

a

0

_

_

.

1

That is, if det(sIA) = s

n

+a

n1

s

n1

+ +a

0

, then A

n

+a

n1

S

n1

+ +a

0

I = 0,

or A

n

= a

n1

S

n1

a

0

I.

5.3 Tracking in state-space systems 31

Thus, the left-hand-side of Eq. 5.4 is

C

1

AC =

_

_

a

n1

0 0 0

a

n2

1 0

.

.

. 0

.

.

. 0 1

.

.

. 0

a

1

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a

0

0 0 1

_

_

.

However, since the characteristic polynomial of A and

A are the same, following the

exact same procedure leads to

C

1

A

C =

_

_

a

n1

0 0 0

a

n2

1 0

.

.

. 0

.

.

. 0 1

.

.

. 0

a

1

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a

0

0 0 1

_

_

.

which conrms Eq. 5.4.

Note that, if

K is the state feedback matrix that makes

det(sI

A+

B

K) = s

n

+d

n1

s

n1

+ +d

0

,

then K =

KT makes

det(sI A+BK) = det(sT

1

T [T

1

AT] + [T

1

B][

KT])

= det(T

1

[sI

A+

B

K]T)

= det T

1

det(sI

A+

B

K) det T

= det(sI

A+

B

K)

= s

n

+d

n1

s

n1

+ +d

0

,

as required.

Remark 2. This formula for the state feedback matrix is known as Ackermanns

formula. The Matlab commands acker and place nd the required K for a given

(A, B) and a given set of required closed-loop eigenvalues.

5.3 Tracking in state-space systems

Tracking external references in the state-space conguation is not much different

from the case of polynomial systems. Once again, the idea is to augment the plant

with a model of the external signal.

32 5 Eigenvalue placement using state feedback

In what follows, we are considering systems of the form

x = Ax +Bu (5.5)

y = Cx (5.6)

where we assume that A R

nn

. We also consider an external reference r. Our

goal is for the tracking error

e(t) = r(t) y(t)

to go to zero asymptotically for a predetermined r. We will rst deal with steps and

then look at more general inputs.

5.3.1 Tracking steps

In this case, the external signal

r(t) = 1, t 0.

We want this to go to zero asymptotically. One way of ensuring that is to dene a

new state:

x

n+1

(t) =

_

t

0

e(t) dt;

equivalently,

x

n+1

= e(t) = r(t) y(t).

In particular, if the system reaches steady-state, the derivatives of all states (including

x

n+1

) go to zero. The only way for this to happen is for e(t) 0.

It follows that we need to ensure that all the states reach equilibrium. We do this

by dening an aumented state

z(t) =

_

_

x

1

.

.

.

x

n

_

_

x

x

n+1

_

_

Writing the state space description:

z =

_

x

x

n+1

_

=

_

Ax +Bu

r Cx

_

=

_

A 0

C 0

_

. .

A

_

x

x

n+1

_

. .

z

+

_

B

0

_

..

B

u +

_

0

1

_

..

B

r.

5.3 Tracking in state-space systems 33

Thus, the augmented system has the description

z =

Az +

Bu +

Br.

Notice that there are two inputs: the control input u, and the external input r. To

stabilize the system, we seek a

K =

_

K k

I

u =

Kz

can make the eigenvalues of the closed-loop system matrix

A

K

=

A

B

K

stable. In fact, if (

A,

B) is controllable, then the eigenvalues of

A

K

can be set ar-

bitrarily. Note, however, that just because (A, B) is controllable does not imply that

(

A,

B) is controllable.

Example 10. Consider the transfer function

G(s) =

s

(s + 1)

2

.

It has a controllable canonical state space representation

A =

_

0 1

1 2

_

, B =

_

0

1

_

, and C =

_

0 1

.

Clearly, this is (A, B) is controllable since the representation is in CCF. However,

the augmented system has:

A =

_

A 0

C 0

_

=

_

_

0 1 0

1 2 0

0 1 0

_

_

,

and

B =

_

B

0

_

=

_

_

0

1

0

_

_

.

The controllability matrix for this system is

C =

_

_

A

B

A

2

B

_

_

=

_

_

0 1 2

1 2 3

0 1 2

_

_

,

which is of rank 2 (the third column equals minus the rst minus two times the

second) and hence the augmented system is not controllable.

34 5 Eigenvalue placement using state feedback

It is relatively easy to see why augmenting the system with an integrator renders

the state-space system uncontrollable. The open-loop plant has a zero at s = 0.

Adding an integrator, that is, a pole at zero induces a pole-zero cancellation. Hence,

the augmented plants numerator and denominator are no longer coprime. By the

results of the previous chapter, we can expect that the closed-loop poles can not be

set arbitrarily.

Using the state-feedback controller, the system will approach a steady-state,

given by

z = 0 = (

A

B

K)z +

Br z = (

A

B

K)

1

Br.

We have taken the inverse of

A

B

K. We know that this inverse exists, because the

matrix is stable. This means that the eigenvalues all have negative real part eigenval-

ues, and hence can not be at zero.

Suppose that

(

A

B

K)

1

=

_

11

12

21

22

_

.

It follows that

I = (

A

B

K)

_

11

12

21

22

_

=

_

ABK

0

Bk

1

C 0

_ _

11

12

21

22

_

In particular, from the (2,2) element of this product:

C

12

= 1.

Hence:

y =

_

C 0

z

=

_

C 0

(

A

B

K)

1

Br

=

_

C 0

11

12

21

22

_ _

0

1

_

r

= C

12

r

= r. (5.7)

Thus, the system is tracking the constant reference r.

5.3.2 Tracking sinusoids

If you are not paying close attention, you might think that the argument presented

above works for any reference input. After all, Eq. 5.7 says that the output y equals

5.3 Tracking in state-space systems 35

the reference r, and we did not seem to use anywhere the fact that the reference was

a step.

Unfortunately, if you did think this, you would be wrong. The problem is that, to

arrive at Eq. 5.7, we needed to assume that the system reached an equilibrium (i.e.

the derivatives of the states were zero). But this will not be the case in general.

The procedure for getting there is similar when the references are signals other

than steps. However, the argument as to why steady-state tracking is achieved is

somewhat more complicated. Notice that when the reference is a step, we dene the

state

x

n+1

= e(t).

In the Laplace transform domain, this is

X

n+1

(s) =

1

s

E(s).

To track a sinusoid of frequency

0

, we once again augment the state of the

system, but we do so with multiple states. In particular, we dene states:

d

dt

_

x

n+1

x

n+2

_

=

_

x

n+2

2

0

x

n+1

+e

_

=

_

0 1

2

0

0

_ _

x

n+1

x

n+2

_

+

_

0

r y

_

In the Laplace transform domain, this is equivalent to

X

n+1

(s) =

1

s

2

+

2

0

E(s).

Now the procedure is similar. We dene a new state z R

n+2

according to:

z(t) =

_

_

x

_

x

n+1

x

n+2

_

_

_

and state-space description

z =

_

_

x

x

n+1

x

n+2

_

_

=

_

_

Ax +Bu

x

n+2

2

0

x

n+1

+r Cx

_

_

=

_

_

A 0 0

0 0 1

C

2

0

0

_

_

. .

A

_

_

x

x

n+1

x

n+2

_

_

. .

z

+

_

_

B

0

0

_

_

. .

B

u +

_

_

0

0

1

_

_

..

B

r.

36 5 Eigenvalue placement using state feedback

Once again, the augmented system has the description

z =

Az +

Bu +

Br.

Now, if (

A,

B) is controllable, then there exists a

K =

_

K k

1

k

2

such that

A

K

=

A

B

K

is stable.

The error is

e = r y = r Cx

Thus, the whole state-space description of the system, using the external input r and

the error e as the external output is

z =

A

K

z +

Br

e =

Cz +r

with transfer function

E(s)

R(s)

=

C(sI

A

K

)

1

B + 1.

Once again, we can write

(sI

A

K

)

1

=

_

_

11

12

13

21

22

23

31

32

33

_

_

;

then

E(s)

R(s)

=

C(sI

A

K

)

1

B + 1

=

_

C 0 0

_

_

11

12

13

21

22

23

31

32

33

_

_

_

_

0

0

1

_

_

+ 1

= 1 C

13

.

From the (3,3) element of the product

(sI

A

K

) = I

_

_

sI A 0 0

0 s 1

C

2

0

s

_

_

_

_

11

12

13

21

22

23

31

32

33

_

_

=

_

_

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

_

_

5.3 Tracking in state-space systems 37

we get:

C

13

+

2

0

23

+s

33

= 1. (5.8)

Moreover, from the (2,3) element of this product:

s

23

33

= 0.

Substituting this into Eq. 5.8 yields:

C

13

= 1 (

2

0

+s

2

)

23

.

Hence,

E(s)

R(s)

=

C(sI

A

K

)

1

B + 1

= C

13

+ 1

= (

2

0

+s

2

)

23

= (s).

Finally, we know that for a stable transfer function (s), a sinusoidal input leads

to a steady-state sinusoidal output, with magnitude

|(j

0

)| = |(s)|

s=j

0

= (

2

0

+s

2

)

23

s=j

0

= 0.

This shows that, in steady-state, the error goes to zero asymptotically.

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