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Chapter 1

COMPLEX ANALYSIS
Jean-Fu Kiang
Department of Electrical Engineering and
Graduate Institute of Communication Engineering
National Taiwan University
Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
Abstract In this Chapter, fundamental concepts and theories of complex functions
are reviewed, and skills of complex analysis are practiced.
Keywords: Riemann sheet, branch, branch point, branch cut, singularity, pole, zero,
limit, continuity, analyticity, Cauchy-Riemann equations, harmonic func-
tion, elementary function, analytic continuation, contour integral, ML
theorem, Greens theorem, Cauchys theorem, Cauchys integral for-
mula, Taylor series, geometric series, convergence test, Taylors theorem,
Laurent theorem, residue theorem, improper integral, principal value,
Kramers-Kr onig relation, Landau damping, inverse Laplace transform,
conformal mapping, boundary-value problem, potential, streamline, bi-
linear transformation, Schwarz-Christoel transformation, Poisson inte-
gral formula.
1. Basic Operations
A complex number z is represented as z = x+iy with real part x and
imaginary part y. Both x and y are real numbers and are independent
of each other, i =

1 is an imaginary unit to mark the imaginary part.


The complex conjugate of z is dened as z

= xiy, which has the same


real part as z, and imaginary part of opposite sign to z. Hence, the real
and imaginary parts of z can be retrieved as x = Re(z) = (z +z

)/2 and
y = Im(z) = (z z

)/(2i), respectively.
Let z
1
= x
1
+iy
1
and z
2
= x
2
+iy
2
. Two complex numbers are equal
if and only if both their real and imaginary parts are equal. In other
words, z
1
= z
2
if and only if x
1
= x
2
and y
1
= y
2
. The operation of
addition(subtraction) is performed by adding(subtracting) the real part
2 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
and imaginary part, respectively, of the two operands, namely, z
1
z
2
=
(x
1
x
2
) + i(y
1
y
2
).
Since a complex number is consisted of two independent parts, the
multiplication of two complex numbers renders four items as z
1
z
2
=
x
1
x
2
+ x
1
iy
2
+ iy
1
x
2
+ iy
1
iy
2
= (x
1
x
2
y
1
y
2
) + i(x
1
y
2
+ y
1
x
2
). The
division of z
1
by z
2
is facilitated by multiplying both the numerator and
the denominator with z

2
to make a real denominator, namely,
z
1
z
2
=
z
1
z

2
z
2
z

2
=
(x
1
x
2
+ y
1
y
2
) +i(y
1
x
2
x
1
y
2
)
(x
2
2
+y
2
2
)
The operations of addition and multiplication follow the commuta-
tive rule that the operation outcome is independent of the order of
the operands, namely, z
1
+ z
2
= z
2
+ z
1
and z
1
z
2
= z
2
z
1
. They also
satisfy the associative rule that when three operands are operated in
two steps, the outcome is independent of the order of steps, namely,
z
1
+(z
2
+z
3
) = (z
1
+z
2
) +z
3
and z
1
(z
2
z
3
) = (z
1
z
2
)z
3
. The distributive
rule is dened between the two operations as z
1
(z
2
+z
3
) = z
1
z
2
+z
1
z
3
.
Figure 1.1. A complex number viewed as coordinates or position vector.
Geometrical Interpretation. The real and the imaginary parts can
be marked as the x and y coordinates, respectively, of a point P on the
two-dimensional Cartesian plane as shown in Fig.1.1. A two-dimensional
vector

V can be dened by setting the origin as the starting point, and
point P as the ending point. Then, the complex number z = x +iy, the
coordinates (x, y), and the vector

V = OP = xx+ yy, are commensurate.
In other words, the basic operations and rules dened for the complex
numbers are also observed by the Cartesian coordinates and the two-
dimensional vectors.
Some properties of complex numbers can be appreciated from the
geometrical point of view. For example, the modulus or absolute value
Complex Analysis 3
of z, [z[, is equivalent to the length of the vector,

OP

, or the distance
from O to P.
The triangle inequalities [z
1
+z
2
[ [z
1
[ +[z
2
[ and [z
1
+z
2
[ [z
1
[ [z
2
[
can be interpreted geometrically as: the sum of the lengths of any two
sides of a triangle is larger than that of the third side, the dierence of
the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is less than that of the third
side.
A complex number can be expressed in the polar form as z = r(cos +
i sin) = r

, where r = [z[ =
_
x
2
+ y
2
is the magnitude or modulus of
z, and = arg(z) = tan
1
(y/x) is the argument of z. Note that there
are an innite number of arguments for the same z, which are related to
a uniquely dened principal argument Arg(z) by arg(z) = Arg(z)+2n,
where n is any integer and < Arg(z) .
The multiplication of z
1
and z
2
can thus be succinctly expressed as
z
1
z
2
= r
1
r
2
[cos(
1
+
2
) + i sin(
1
+
2
)], and the division of z
1
by z
2
as
z
1
/z
2
= (r
1
/r
2
)[cos(
1

2
) +i sin(
1

2
)] if z
2
,= 0. By induction, we
have z
n
= r
n
(cos n + sinn). By setting [z[ = r = 1, the de Moivres
formula, (cos + i sin)
n
= cos n +i sinn, is recovered.
Dene the nth root of z as w = z
1/n
if z ,= 0, or equivalently, w
n
=
z. Let w = (cos + i sin) and z = r(cos + i sin), the denition
implies that
n
(cos n + i sinn) = r(cos + i sin), or = r
1/n
, =
( + 2k)/n with k = 0, 1, 2, , n 1. These n distinctive roots can
be expressed as w
k
= r
1/n
[cos(/n + 2k/n) +i sin(/n + 2k/n)] with
k = 0, 1, 2, , n 1, among which w
0
is called the principal root of z.
2. Analytic Functions
Figure 1.2. Neighborhood of z0.
Point Set. As shown in Fig.1.2, the -neighborhood of z
0
= x
0
+iy
0
is dened as an open disk of radius , centerd at z
0
. It is symbolized
as N

(z
0
) = z[ [z z
0
[ < . A point z
0
is an interior point of a set
S if and only if there exists a neighborhood N

(z
0
) that belongs in S.
4 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
A set S is open if and only if every z in S is an interior point. The set
S = z[
1
< [z z
0
[ <
2
is called an open annulus.
A point z
b
is called the boundary point of S if every N

(z
b
) contains
at least one point in S and at least one point not in S. The boundary
of S contains all the boundary points of S.
An open set S is called connected if any pair of points, z
1
and z
2
, in
S can be connected by a polygonal contour that lies entirely in S. A set
S is called a domain if and only if S is an open connected set.
A function w = f(z) is a rule of mapping a complex number in a set D
on the z-plane into another complex number in a set R in the w-plane.
The set D is called the domain of f, and the set R = w[ w = f(z), z
D is called the range of f.
Figure 1.3. Neighborhoods used to demonstrate limit.
Limit. Assume function f(z) is dened in N

(z
0
), except possibly
at z
0
itself. This function is said to have a limit at z
0
, lim
zz
0
f(z) = L,
if and only if that for any innitesimal > 0, there exists another in-
nitesimal > 0 such that [f(z) L[ < whenever 0 < [z z
0
[ < . As
demonstrated in Fig.1.3, for all N

(L) = w[ [w L[ < , there exists


an N

(z
0
) = z[ 0 < [z z
0
[ < such that w = f(z) falls in N

(L)
whenever z falls in N

(z
0
).
If lim
zz
0
f(z) = L
1
and lim
zz
0
g(z) = L
2
, then lim
zz
0
[f(z) + g(z)] = L
1
+L
2
,
lim
zz
0
f(z)g(z) = L
1
L
2
, and lim
zz
0
f(z)/g(z) = L
1
/L
2
if L
2
,= 0.
Continuity. Function f(z) is continuous at z
0
if lim
zz
0
f(z) = f(z
0
),
namely, the limit of the function at z
0
is the same as the value of f(z)
at z
0
. Note that as taking the limit of a function, the argument z never
reaches z
0
although it can be as close as desired to z
0
.
Complex Analysis 5
If two functions f(z) and g(z) are continuous at z
0
, then f(z) + g(z)
and f(z)g(z) are continuous at z
0
, and f(z)/g(z) is continuous at z
0
if
g(z
0
) ,= 0.
Derivative. The dierential of a complex number z is dened as
z = x + iy. Assume function f(z) is dened in N

(z
0
). The
derivative of f(z) exists at z
0
and is expressed as f

(z
0
) if and only if
f

(z
0
) = lim
z0
[f(z
0
+ z) f(z
0
)]/z is the same with arbitrary choices
of x and y. The function f(z) is dierentiable at z
0
if f

(z
0
) exists.
If f(z) and g(z) are dierentiable at z and c is a constant, then the
same rules of dierentiation as in real variables apply, namely,
dc/dz = 0, [cf(z)]

= cf

(z), [f(z) + g(z)]

= f

(z) +g

(z)
[f(z)g(z)]

= f

(z)g(z) +f(z)g

(z)
[f(z)/g(z)]

= [g(z)f

(z) f(z)g

(z)]/g
2
(z)
(d/dz)f[g(z)] = f

[g(z)]g

(z)
Analyticity. Function f(z) is analytic at z
0
if and only if f(z) is
dierentiable at z
0
and at every point of N

(z
0
). The function f(z) is
analytic in a domain D if and only if f(z) is analytic at every point in
D.
Note that analyticity at a point is a property prevailing over its neigh-
borhood, while dierentiability is a property which is required only at
that point. For example, f(z) = [z[
2
is dierentiable at z = 0, but
nowhere else is dierentiable. By denition, it is nowhere analytic. Take
another example, f(z) = z
2
is dierentiable everywhere in the z-plane,
hence is also analytic everywhere. Function f(z) is called an entire func-
tion if and only if it is analytic over the whole z-plane.
3. Cauchy-Riemann Equations
Function f(z) can be explicitly decomposed into real and imaginary
parts as f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y), where both u(x, y) and v(x, y) are
real functions of x and y. If f(z) is dierentiable at z, the derivative of
f(z) dened as f

(z) = lim
z0
[f(z + z) f(z)]/z exists for arbitrary
z. Firstly, let y = 0, then z = x, and f

1
(z) = u(x, y)/x +
iv(x, y)/x. Next, let x = 0, then z = iy, and f

2
(z) = iu(x, y)/y+
v(x, y)/y. Since f

1
(z) = f

2
(z) by denition, we have
u
x
=
v
y
,
u
y
=
v
x
(1.1)
These are called the Cauchy-Riemann equations, which are the necessary
conditions of the analyticity of f(z) at z.
6 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
Next, to prove that (1.1) are also the sucient conditions of the an-
alyticity of f(z) at z, assume that the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold
at all points in D, for example, at z
0
= (x
0
, y
0
), then
f(z
0
+ z) f(z
0
) = [u(x
0
+ x, y
0
+ y) u(x
0
, y
0
)]
+i [v(x
0
+ x, y
0
+ y) v(x
0
, y
0
)]

_
u
x
(x
0
, y
0
)x +u
y
(x
0
, y
0
)y +u
xx
(x
0
, y
0
)(x)
2
+2u
xy
(x
0
, y
0
)xy +u
yy
(x
0
, y
0
)(y)
2
_
+i
_
v
x
(x
0
, y
0
)x + v
y
(x
0
, y
0
)y +v
xx
(x
0
, y
0
)(x)
2
+2v
xy
(x
0
, y
0
)xy +v
yy
(x
0
, y
0
)(y)
2
_
[u
x
(x
0
, y
0
) +iv
x
(x
0
, y
0
)] (x +iy) (1.2)
where

is the rst derivative of with respect to with = u, v,


= x, y, and

is the second derivative. The second approximation


is obtained by imposing the Cauchy-Riemann equations and neglecting
the second-order terms when x and y are suciently small. Eq.(1.2)
implies that f

(z
0
) = lim
z0
[f(z
0
+ z) f(z
0
)]/z exists at every point
in D. Thus, f(z) is analytic in D. The Cauchy-Riemann equations are
often used to check the analyticity of a complex function.
Harmonic Functions. Function (x, y) is called a harmonic func-
tion in D if the derivatives of (x, y) up to the second order is continuous
and (x, y) satises the Laplace equation
_

2
x
2
+

2
y
2
_
(x, y) = 0
An analytic function f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) satises the Cauchy-
Riemann equations. Thus, we have

2
u
x
2
=

x
_
u
x
_
=

x
_
v
y
_
=

y
_
v
x
_
=

y
_

u
y
_
=

2
u
y
2
By denition, u(x, y) is a harmonic function, and v(x, y) can be proven
to be a harmonic function in a similar way. Since u(x, y) and v(x, y) con-
stitute an analytic function in D, they are called the conjugate harmonic
function of each other.
4. Elementary Functions
Exponential Function. The complex exponential function is de-
ned in the same way as its real counterpart. By denition, e
z
= e
x+iy
=
Complex Analysis 7
e
x
e
iy
= e
x
(cos y + i siny). Since e
z
is analytic for all z, it is an entire
function.
When y = 0, e
z
is reduced to the real exponential function e
x
. Such
an extension of domain from the real axis to the whole complex plane
is called analytic continuation, which is commonly practiced as long as
the denition is consistent with the original one when z is reduced to x.
Function e
z
is periodic with a complex period of 2i, namely, e
z+2ni
=
e
z
e
2ni
= e
z
for all z. Thus, the z-plane can be divided into hori-
zontal strips S
n
= z = x + iy[ (2n 1) < y (2n + 1) with
n = 0, 1, 2, . Each S
n
is called a branch of e
z
, and the functional
values over S
n
are replica of those in the other branches. The strip
S
0
= z = x +iy[ < y is called the principal branch of e
z
.
Logarithmic Function. The logarithmic function w = ln z can be
dened in terms of the exponential function as e
w
= z. Let w = u + iv,
then z = re
i
= e
w
= e
u+iv
= e
u
e
iv
. By comparison, we have u = ln r =
log
e
[z[, v = =
0
+ 2n, where = arg(z), <
0
= Arg(z)
, n = 0, 1, 2, . In short, lnz = ln[z[ + i[Arg(z) + 2n] with
n = 0, 1, 2, . The principal branch of lnz is dened as Ln z =
ln[z[ +iArg(z).
If a point is rotated counterclockwise in the z-plane along a circle
centered at the origin, it will return to where it starts. The value of
z remains the same, but the argument of z is incremented by 2, and
lnz is incremented by i2. It can be understood as if the point sweeps
across a branch cut and moves into another branch or another Riemann
sheet. The denition of the principal branch with < Arg(z)
implies that the branch cut is chosen at Arg(z) = . The branch cut
can be arbitrarily chosen for convenience. However, its position should
be xed throughout the whole derivation to maintain consistency. The
end points of a branch cut is called the branch points.
Note that Ln z is not continuous across the branch cut, Arg(z) ap-
proaches when z approaches the branch cut from the upper half-plane,
and Arg(z) approaches when z approaches the branch cut from the
lower half-plane, hence a discontinuity exists across the branch cut.
Other than the branch cut, Ln z is analytic in D = z[ z ,= 0, <
Arg(z) < .
The complex power z

with z ,= 0 and complex can be manipulated


as z

= e
ln z
which has an innite number of branches. The principal
branch can similarly be denoted as e
Ln z
.
Trigonometric and Hyperbolic Functions. The complex trigono-
metric functions can be extended from one of the denitions of real
8 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
trigonometric functions as
sinz =
e
iz
e
iz
2i
, cos z =
e
iz
+e
iz
2
, tanz =
sinz
cos z
cot z =
1
tanz
, sec z =
1
cos z
, csc z =
1
sinz
Likewise, the complex hyperbolic functions can be extended from their
real counterparts as
sinhz =
e
z
e
z
2
, cosh z =
e
z
+e
z
2
, tanhz =
sinhz
cosh z
cothz =
1
tanhz
, sech z =
1
coshz
, csch z =
1
sinh z
The same dierential rules for the real functions apply as
d
dz
sinz = cos z,
d
dz
cos z = sinz
d
dz
tanz = sec
2
z,
d
dz
cot z = csc
2
z
d
dz
sec z = sec z tanz,
d
dz
csc z = csc z cot z
d
dz
sinhz = cosh z,
d
dz
cosh z = sinhz
The inverse trigonometric functions can be dened in terms of the
complex trigonometric functions. For example, the inverse sinusoidal
function w = sin
1
z is equivalent to z = sinw. Thus, we have z =
sinw = (e
iw
e
iw
)/(2i), or e
2iw
2ize
iw
1 = 0. The solutions are
e
iw
= iz

1 z
2
= iz + (1 z
2
)
1/2
. Note that

is the principal
value of
1/2
.
By dierentiating both sides of z = sinw with respect to z, we have
1 = (d sinw/dw)(dw/dz) = cos w(dw/dz), or dw/dz = 1/ cos w = (1
z
2
)
1/2
.
5. Contour Integrals
The parametric representation of a curve in the z-plane is C = z[ z(t) =
x(t) + iy(t), a t b with t as the parameter. Curve C is a smooth
curve if x

(t) and y

(t) are continuous on a t b. Curve C is piece-


wise smooth if C can be decomposed into pieces of smooth curves C
j
as
C =
n

j=1
C
j
. Curve C is called a simple curve if C does not cross itself.
Curve C is a closed curve if its starting point and ending point are the
same.
Complex Analysis 9
Figure 1.4. Partition of a contour in the z-plane.
A contour is dened as a piecewise smooth curve. Given a contour
C = z [ z(t) = x(t) +iy(t), a t b, and f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) is
a complex function dened at all points on C. Fig.1.4 shows that the
contour C is partitioned into many innitesimal curves as C =
n

j=1
C
j
with a = t
0
< t
1
< < t
n
= b. Let the value of z at t
k
be z
k
= z(t
k
)
with k = 0, 1, 2, , n, and z
k
= z
k
z
k1
with k = 1, 2, , n.
The mean-value theorem states that a z
k
on C
k
can be found such
that
_
C
k
f(z)dz = f( z
k
)z
k
where z
k
= z(

t
k
) with t
k1

t
k
t
k
. Dene
the norm of a partition as [[P[[ = [z
k
[
max
. The integral of a complex
function f(z) along the contour C can thus be calculated as
_
C
f(z)dz = lim
||P||0
n

k=1
f( z
k
)z
k
(1.3)
Expressing f(z) as u(x, y)+iv(x, y), then the contour integral in (1.3)
can be calculated as
_
C
f(z)dz = lim
||P||0
n

k=1
(u
k
+iv
k
)(x
k
+ iy
k
)
= lim
||P||0
n

k=1
[(u
k
x
k
v
k
y
k
) + i(v
k
x
k
+u
k
y
k
)]
=
_
C
(udx vdy) +i
_
C
(vdx + udy) (1.4)
which is the sum of two contour integrals of real functions. Furthermore,
if both x and y are expressed in terms of the parameter t, namely,
10 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
dx = x

(t)dt and dy = y

(t)dt, then (1.4) can be reduced to


_
C
f(z)dz =
_
C
f[z(t)]z

(t)dt
=
_
C
_
u(x(t), y(t))x

(t) v(x(t), y(t))y

(t)

dt
+i
_
C
_
v(x(t), y(t))x

(t) +u(x(t), y(t))y

(t)

dt
The dierential path length can be expressed as ds =
_
(dx)
2
+ (dy)
2
=
_
[x

(t)]
2
+ [y

(t)]
2
dt = [z

(t)[ dt = [dz[, The total length of C can thus


be expressed as L =
_
b
a
[z

(t)[dt.
ML Inequality. If C is a smooth curve with total length L, f(z) is
continuous on C and has a maximum value of M on C, we have

k=1
f( z
k
)z
k

k=1
[f( z
k
)[ [z
k
[ M
n

k=1
[z
k
[
M
n

k=1
L
k
= ML
In other words,

_
C
f(z)dz

lim
||P||0
n

k=1
f( z
k
)z
k

ML, which is re-


ferred to as the ML inequality.
Greens Theorem. Let domain D be simply connected, C is a
simple closed contour in D, R is the region enclosed by C, u(x, y) and
v(x, y) are functions whose rst derivatives are continuous in D. The
Greens theorem relates the contour integral of u(x, y) and v(x, y) with
the surface integral of their derivatives as
_
C
[u(x, y)dx +v(x, y)dy] =
__
R
_
v
x

u
y
_
dxdy (1.5)
By analog, consider a two-dimensional electric eld distribution

E(x, y) =
xu(x, y) + yv(x, y). The Stokes theorem states that
_
C

E d s =
__
R


E d a
where C is a closed contour on the xy-plane encircling a region R. The
expansion gives the same results as (1.5).
Complex Analysis 11
6. Cauchys Theorem
The Cauchys theorem states that if f(z) is analytic in a simply
connected domain D, and C is any simple closed contour in D, then
_
C
f(z)dz = 0.
The proof is straightforward. Since f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) is an-
alytic, the Cauchy-Riemann equations imply that u/x = v/y and
u/y = v/x. The contour integral thus is reduced to
_
C
f(z)dz =
_
C
(u + iv)(dx + idy) =
_
C
(udx vdy) +i
_
C
(vdx +udy)
=
__
R
_

v
x

u
y
_
dxdy + i
__
R
_
u
x

v
y
_
dxdy = 0
where the Greens theorem is applied to transform the contour integrals
into surface integrals.
Figure 1.5. Close contours in domain D with two holes.
Contour Deformation. If f(z) is analytic in a domain D which has
a hole as shown in Fig.1.5. Assume C and C
1
are simple closed contours
such that C
1
encloses the hole and is interior to C. A new contour K
can be dened by connecting C and C
1
with two line segments AB and
BA. Hence, f(z) is analytic on and within contour K, which implies
that
_
K
f(z)dz =
_
_
_
_
C
+
_
AB
+
_
C
1
+
_
BA
_
_
_f(z)dz = 0
12 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
Since the integrals along AB and BA, respectively, cancel each other,
we have
_
C
f(z)dz =
_
C
1
f(z)dz =
_
C
1
f(z)dz
This implies that the contour of integration can be deformed arbitrarily
as long as it stays in the domain D.
In case the domain D contains multiple holes as shown in Fig.1.5, the
contour C encloses all the holes, while contour C
k
encloses the kth hole.
Pairs of overlapping line segments are placed to link all the C
k
contours
to C to form a closed contour K which encloses no holes, and f(z) is
analytic on and within the contour K. By using the same argument, we
have
_
C
f(z)dz =
n

k=1
_
C
k
f(z)dz
This implies that a closed contour can be deformed arbitrarily into a
number of closed contours, with each one enclosing a hole.
Figure 1.6. Contours with the same starting and ending points.
Fig.1.6 shows two separate contours, C
1
and C
2
, both are drawn from
z
0
to z
1
. A closed contour K can be dened as the concatenation of C
1
and C
2
. Assume there is no hole within K, thus no hole is encountered
when contour C
1
is deformed into C
2
. Then, the Cauchys theorem
implies that
_
K
f(z)dz =
_
C
1
f(z)dz +
_
C
2
f(z)dz =
_
C
1
f(z)dz
_
C
2
f(z)dz = 0
or
_
C
1
f(z)dz =
_
C
2
f(z)dz. This implies that the contour integral depends
only on the end points, and the contour of integration can be deformed
arbitrarily as long as it does not cross any hole.
Complex Analysis 13
Existence of Antiderivative. The rules of contour integration are
similar to those of one-dimensional integration of real functions. For
example,
F(z) =
_
f(z)dz is the antiderivative of f(z)
if and only if F

(z) = f(z) for all z in D


_
C
f(z)dz =
_
z
1
z
0
f(z)dz = F(z
1
) F(z
0
)
_
C
f(z)dz =
b
_
a
F

[z(t)]z

(t)dt =
_
b
a
d
dt
F[z(t)]dt
= F[z(t)][
t=b
t=a
= F[z(b)] F[z(a)] = F(z
1
) F(z
0
)
where z = z
0
at t = a and z = z
1
at t = b.
Assume f(z) is analytic in D, let z
0
be a xed point in D, and z be
any point in D. Dene F(z) =
_
z
z
0
f(s)ds, then
F(z + z) F(z) =
_
z+z
z
0
f(s)ds
_
z
z
0
f(s)ds =
_
z+z
z
f(s)ds
and
F(z + z) F(z)
z
f(z) =
1
z
_
z+z
z
[f(s) f(z)] ds (1.6)
Since f(z) is analytic at z, it is also continuous at z. Thus, for any > 0,
there exists a > 0 such that [f(s) f(z)[ < whenever [s z[ < .
Choosing z such that [z[ < , (1.6) can be reduced to

F(z + z) F(z)
z
f(z)

1
z

_
z+z
z
[f(s) f(z)] ds

<
1
[z[
[z[ =
Thus, we have F

(z) = lim
z0
F(z + z) F(z)
z
= f(z) for all z in D.
7. Cauchys Integral Formula
If f(z) is analytic in a simply connected domain D, C is a simple closed
contour in D, z
0
is any point within C, then f(z
0
) =
1
2i
_
C
f(z)
z z
0
dz,
which is the Cauchys integral formula.
14 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
Since f(z) is analytic in D,
f(z)
z z
0
is analytic in D except at z = z
0
.
Let C
1
= z [ [z z
0
[ = r be a circle within C, then the contour of
integration C can be deformed to C
1
. Thus, we have
_
C
f(z)
z z
0
dz =
_
C
1
f(z)
z z
0
dz =
_
C
1
f(z
0
) + f(z) f(z
0
)
z z
0
dz
= f(z
0
)
_
C
1
dz
z z
0
+
_
C
1
f(z) f(z
0
)
z z
0
dz = 2if(z
0
)
The last step can be proved as follows. Since f(z) is analytic at z
0
,
it is continuous at z
0
. For any > 0, there exists a > 0 such that
[f(z) f(z
0
)[ < whenever [z z
0
[ < . The radius of C
1
is chosen to
be /2, namely, [z z
0
[ = /2. Thus, [[f(z) f(z
0
)]/(z z
0
)[ /(/2)
for z on C
1
, hence

_
C
1
f(z) f(z
0
)
z z
0
dz

_

/2
__
2

2
_
= 2 which
can be arbitrarily small. On C
1
, z = z
0
+ (/2)e
i
, dz = i(/2)e
i
d,
hence
_
C
1
dz
z z
0
= 2i.
The Cauchys integral formula can be extended to the derivatives of
any analytic function. Let f(z) be analytic in a simply connected domain
D, C is a simple closed contour in D, z
0
is any point interior to C, then
f
(n)
(z
0
) =
n!
2i
_
C
f(z)
(z z
0
)
n+1
dz (1.7)
To prove by induction, rst check the case with n = 1 as follows.
f

(z
0
) = lim
z0
1
z
[f(z
0
+ z) f(z
0
)]
= lim
z0
1
z
1
2i
_
_
_
C
f(z)
z (z
0
+ z)
dz
_
C
f(z)
z z
0
dz
_
_
=
1
2i
lim
z0
_
C
f(z)
_
1
z
_
1
z z
0
z

1
z z
0
__
dz
=
1
2i
_
C
f(z)
(z z
0
)
2
dz
+
1
2i
lim
z0
z
_
C
f(z)
(z z
0
z)(z z
0
)
2
dz (1.8)
Complex Analysis 15
where the identity [1/(z z
0
z) 1/(z z
0
)]/z = 1/(z z
0
)
2
+
z/[(zz
0
z)(zz
0
)
2
] has been used. Since f(z) is analytic in D, it is
continuous and bounded on C, namely, [f(z)[ M for all z on C. Let
be the shortest distance of [z z
0
[ among all zs on C, then [z z
0
[ ,
1/[z z
0
[
2
1/
2
, [f(z)[/[z z
0
[
2
M/
2
for all z on C. Choose
[z[ /2, then [z z
0
z[ [[z z
0
[ [z[[ [z[ /2,
1/[z z
0
z[ 2/ for all z on C, hence

z
_
C
f(z)
(z z
0
z)(z z
0
)
2
dz

[z[
_
2

__
M

2
_
L
= 2ML
[z[

3
=
where L is the length of C, and can be arbitrarily small if z ap-
proaches zero faster than
3
. Thus, the last term in (1.8) approaches
zero, and
f

(z
0
) =
1!
2i
_
C
f(z)
(z z
0
)
1+1
dz
The cases with n 2 can be proved in the same way.
If f(z) is analytic at z
0
, its nth derivative can be obtained from (1.7),
which implies that an analytic function possesses derivatives of any or-
der.
Liouvilles Theorem. Let the contour of integration C in (1.7) be a
circle with radius R and length L = 2R, namely, C = z[ [z z
0
[ = R.
Assume [f(z)[ M for z on C, then
[f
(n)
(z
0
)[ =

n!
2i
_
C
f(z)
(z z
0
)
n+1
dz

=
n!
2

_
C
f(z)
(z z
0
)
n+1
dz

n!
2
_
M
R
n+1
_
(2R) =
n!M
R
n
which is named the Cauchy inequality.
If f(z) is a bounded entire function with [f(z)[ M for all z, the
Cauchy inequality implies that [f

(z
0
)[ M/R. Let R approach innity,
then [f

(z
0
)[ approaches zero for all z
0
, which implies that f(z) is a
constant. In other words, the only bounded entire function is a constant.
8. Taylor Series
Complex Sequence. A complex sequence is a set of complex num-
bers z
n
s arranged in order with integer index n, denoted as z
n
. This
16 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
sequence converges to a complex number L, expressed as z
n
L or
lim
n
z
n
= L, if and only if for any given innitesimal > 0, there exists
a positive integer N such that [z
n
L[ < for n > N. The sequence z
n

diverges if it does not converge. The sequence can be decomposed into


two real sequences x
n
and y
n
where z
n
= x
n
+iy
n
. Let L = a +ib,
then z
n
L implies that x
n
a and y
n
b.
Complex Series. The nth partial sum of a given complex sequence
z
n
is dened as S
n
=
n

k=1
z
k
. If the limit of the nth partial sum as
n exists, it is called the series of the sequence z
n
, denoted as
S

= lim
n
S
n
=

k=1
z
k
. The nth partial sum diverges if it does not
converge.
Geometric Series. If the sequence z
n
is consisted of consecutive
powers of a given complex number, namely, z
n
= z
n1
, then its asso-
ciated series is called a geometric series. The nth partial sum of the
geometric sequence can be calculated as S
n
= (1 z
n
)/(1 z), and will
converge to 1/(1 z) if [z[ < 1.
Note that if the sequence z
n
converges to a nonzero number c, the
nth partial sum, with n greater than a threshold N, will be incremented
by c whenever n is incremented by one. Thus, the series will diverge.
A series

k=1
z
k
is called absolutely convergent if the series formed of
the absolute value of the original sequence converges, namely,

k=1
[z
k
[
converges. It is obvious that the original series converges if it is abso-
lutely convergent, but not vice versa.
Convergence Tests. Ratio test and root test are two alternative
techniques to check the convergence of a sequence. In the ratio test, the
limit of two consequent terms in a sequence is calculated as lim
n

z
n+1
z
n

=
L. In the root test, the nth root of the nth term is calculated as
lim
n
n
_
[z
n
[ = L. In either test, the series

k=1
z
k
is absolutely conver-
gent if L < 1, is divergent if L > 1, and is inconclusive if L = 1.
Power Series. Let z
0
, a
0
, a
1
, , a
k
, be given complex numbers.
The summation

k=0
a
k
(z z
0
)
k
is called a power series in (z z
0
), with
center at z
0
.
Complex Analysis 17
By applying the ratio test, the power series is absolutely convergent if
lim
n

a
n+1
(z z
0
)
n+1
a
n
(z z
0
)
n

= lim
n

a
n+1
a
n

[z z
0
[ < 1. Denote lim
n

a
n+1
a
n

=
L, then the power series is absolutely convergent in the domain [z z
0
[ <
R = 1/L. The number R is thus called the radius of convergence.
Similarly, by applying the root test, the power series is absolutely con-
vergent if lim
n
n
_
[a
n
[[z z
0
[
n
=
n
_
[a
n
[ [z z
0
[ < 1. Denote lim
n
n
_
[a
n
[ =
L, then the power series is absolutely convergent in the domain [z z
0
[ <
R = 1/L.
In either test, the power series diverges in the domain [z z
0
[ > R.
The power series is either divergent or convergent at dierent points on
the circle [z z
0
[ = R.
Taylors Theorem. Consider a function f(z) which is analytic in
domain D, and z
0
is a point in D. The function f(z) has a unique Taylor
series representation f(z) =

k=0
f
(k)
(z
0
)
k!
(zz
0
)
k
with [zz
0
[ < R, where
R is the radius of convergence. Let C = s[ [s z
0
[ = R be the circle
with center z
0
and radius R, which lies entirely within D. Assume that
z is a xed point inside C and s is a variable point on C. First, expand
the fractional term 1/(s z) as
1
s z
=
1
(s z
0
) (z z
0
)
=
1
(s z
0
)
_
1
z z
0
s z
0
_
1
=
1
s z
0

k=0
_
z z
0
s z
0
_
k
=

k=0
(z z
0
)
k
(s z
0
)
k+1
Next, substitute this expansion into the Cauchys integral formula to
have
f(z) =
1
2i
_
C
f(s)
s z
ds =
1
2i
_
C
f(s)

k=0
(z z
0
)
k
(s z
0
)
k+1
ds
=

k=0
_
_
1
2i
_
C
f(s)
(s z
0
)
k+1
ds
_
_
(z z
0
)
k
=

k=0
f
(k)
(z
0
)
k!
(z z
0
)
k
Thus, we obtain the Taylor series of f(z) as f(z) =

k=0
a
k
(z z
0
)
k
with
the coecients a
k
= f
(k)
(z
0
)/k!. The Taylor series is valid in [zz
0
[ < R
in which f(z) is analytic.
Note that the radius of convergence R can be determined either by
applying the convergence test to the Taylor series or by directly letting
18 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
R = [z
s
z
0
[ where z
s
is the closest singularity of f(z) from z
0
. Since
the power series expansion of a function is unique, any power series
expression of f(z) in [z z
0
[ < R must be the Taylor series of f(z)
about z
0
.
A given function f(z) may possess dierent series forms in dierent
domains. For example, consider the function 1/(1 z) which has a
singularity at z = 1. When expanded about z = 0, we have
1
1 z
=

k=0
z
k
, which is valid in [z 0[ < 1. Note that the distance between the
singularity and the center is unity. When expanded about z = 2i, we
have
1
1 z
=
1
(1 2i) (z 2i)
=
1
(1 2i) [1 (z 2i)/(1 2i)]
=
1
1 2i

k=0
_
z 2i
1 2i
_
k
=

k=0
(z 2i)
k
(1 2i)
k+1
which is valid in [z 2i[ <

5. Note that the distance between the


singularity and the center is

5.
Figure 1.7. Expansion of 1/(1 z) in dierent domains.
9. Laurent Series
If f(z) is not analytic at z
0
but is analytic in the -neighborhood of
z
0
, N

(z
0
), then z
0
is called an isolated singularity of f(z). If f(z) is not
analytic at z
0
, and every N

(z
0
) contains at least one singularity other
than z
0
, then z
0
ia called a nonisolated singularity of f(z).
Complex Analysis 19
Laurents Theorem. If z
0
is an isolated singularity of f(z), then a
Laurent series expansion of f(z) about z
0
exists and has the form
f(z) =

k=1
a
k
(z z
0
)
k
+

k=0
a
k
(z z
0
)
k
By applying the convergence test, the rst part on the right-hand side
converges in [1/(z z
0
)[ < R or [z z
0
[ > 1/R = R
1
, and the second
part on the right-hand side converges in [z z
0
[ < R
2
. Thus, the overall
series converges in an annular domain R
1
< [z z
0
[ < R
2
.
The Laurent coecients of f(z) at z
0
are a
k
=
1
2i
_
C
f(z)
(z z
0
)
k+1
dz
with k = 0, 1, 2, , where C is any simple closed contour that lies
entirely within D and encloses z
0
.
Figure 1.8. Contours enclosing a hole in domain D.
Fig.1.8 shows two circles C
i
= s[ [s z
0
[ = r
i
, centered at z
0
with
R
1
< r
1
< r
2
< R
2
. A closed contour K is dened by linking C
1
and C
2
with two overlapping lines. Then, f(z) is analytic on and within K. Let
z be a point in D, and s be a point on C
1
or C
2
. The Cauchys integral
formula gives
f(z) =
1
2i
_
K
f(s)
s z
ds =
1
2i
_
C
2
f(s)
s z
ds
1
2i
_
C
1
f(s)
s z
ds
Note that the contributions over the two overlapping lines cancel each
other.
Since [(z z
0
)/(s z
0
)[ < 1 on C
2
, 1/(s z) can be expanded as
1
s z
=
1
(s z
0
) (z z
0
)
=
1
(s z
0
) [1 (z z
0
)/(s z
0
)]
20 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
=
1
s z
0

k=0
_
z z
0
s z
0
_
k
=

k=0
(z z
0
)
k
(s z
0
)
k+1
Thus, we have
1
2i
_
C
2
f(s)
s z
ds =
1
2i
_
C
2
_

k=0
(z z
0
)
k
(s z
0
)
k+1
_
f(s)ds =

k=0
a
k
(z z
0
)
k
where a
k
=
1
2i
_
C
2
f(s)
(s z
0
)
k+1
ds with k = 0, 1, 2, .
Since [(s z
0
)/(z z
0
)[ < 1 on C
1
, 1/(s z) can be expanded as
1
s z
=
1
(s z
0
) (z z
0
)
=
1
(z z
0
) [1 (s z
0
)/(z z
0
)]
=
_
1
z z
0
_

k=0
_
s z
0
z z
0
_
k
=

k=0
(s z
0
)
k
(z z
0
)
k+1
=

m=1
(s z
0
)
m1
(z z
0
)
m
Thus, we have

1
2i
_
C
1
f(s)
s z
ds =
1
2i
_
C
1
_

m=1
(s z
0
)
m1
(z z
0
)
m
_
f(s)ds
=

m=1
a
m
(z z
0
)
m
=

k=1
a
k
(z z
0
)
k
where a
k
=
1
2i
_
C
1
f(s)
(s z
0
)
k+1
ds with k = 1, 2, .
Combining both contributions on C
1
and C
2
, we have
f(z) =

k=
a
k
(z z
0
)
k
where a
k
=
1
2i
_
C
f(s)
(s z
0
)
k+1
ds with k = 0, 1, 2, . Note that both
C
1
and C
2
are deformed to the same contour C without crossing z
0
.
In the Laurent series expansion of f(z), the part that contains the
singularity at z
0
,

k=1
a
k
(z z
0
)
k
, is called the principal part of f(z) at
Complex Analysis 21
z
0
. The point z
o
is called a removable singularity if a
k
= 0 for k > 0.
It is called a pole of order n if a
n
,= 0 and a
k
= 0 for k > n. It is
called a simple pole if the order n is equal to one. It is called an essential
singularity if a
k
,= 0 for k > 0.
Zero. The point z
0
is called the zero of f(z) if f(z
0
) = 0. It is called
an nth-order zero of f(z) if f(z
0
) = f

(z
0
) = = f
(n1)
(z
0
) = 0 but
f
(n)
(z
0
) ,= 0. In this case, f(z) can be factored as (z z
0
)
n
g(z) with
g(z
0
) ,= 0.
The point z
0
is called an isolated zero if f(z
0
) = 0 but f(z) ,= 0 for
all z in N

(z
0
). By denition, 1/f(z) has an isolated singularity at z
0
.
If both f(z) and g(z) are analytic at z
0
, f(z) has an nth-order zero
at z
0
, and g(z
0
) ,= 0, then g(z)/f(z) has a pole of order n at z
0
.
10. Residue Theorem
The residue of f(z) at z
0
is dened as Res[f(z), z
0
] = a
1
[f(z), z
0
]
which is the coecient of the (z z
0
)
1
term in the Laurent series
expansion of f(z) about z
0
.
If f(z) has a pole of order n at z
0
, then the Laurent series expansion
of f(z) about z
0
has the form
f(z) =
a
n
(z z
0
)
n
+ +
a
1
z z
0
+ a
0
+a
1
(z z
0
) +
with 0 < [z z
0
[ < R. The coecient a
1
can be obtained by rst
multiplying f(z) by (z z
0
)
n
to have
g(z) = (z z
0
)
n
f(z) = a
n
+
+a
1
(z z
0
)
n1
+a
0
(z z
0
)
n
+a
1
(z z
0
)
n+1
+
Then, take the (n 1)st derivative to have
d
n1
dz
n1
g(z) = (n 1)!a
1
+ n!a
0
(z z
0
) +
Next, take the limit of z z
0
to have
lim
zz
0
d
n1
dz
n1
g(z) = (n 1)!a
1
= (n 1)!Res[f(z), z
0
]
In summary, the residue can be calculated as
Res[f(z), z
0
] =
1
(n 1)!
lim
zz
0
d
n1
dz
n1
[(z z
0
)
n
f(z)]
In the special case that f(z) has a simple pole at z
0
, the residue can
be calculated as lim
zz
0
(z z
0
)f(z). If f(z) = g(z)/h(z) where both g(z)
22 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
and h(z) are analytic at z
0
, g(z
0
) ,= 0, and h(z) has a simple zero at z
0
,
then
Res[f(z), z
0
] = lim
zz
0
(z z
0
)
g(z)
h(z)
= lim
zz
0
g(z)
_
h(z) h(z
0
)
z z
0
_
1
=
g(z
0
)
h

(z
0
)
Figure 1.9. Closed contour that encloses n poles.
As shown in Fig.1.9, D is a simply connected domain, C is a simple
closed contour lying entirely within D, f(z) is analytic in D except at
n isolated singularities z
1
, z
2
, . . . , z
n
within C. Dene C
k
= z[ [z
z
k
[ = r
k
, a circle centered at z
k
with radius r
k
, where k = 1, 2, , n.
Two overlapping lines are dened to link two adjacent circles to form a
simple closed coutour K which encloses no singularities. Since f(z) is
analytic on and within K, the contour integration along K is zero. The
integrations along two overlapping lines cancel each other. Hence, we
have
_
K
f(z)dz =
_
_
_
_
C
+
n

k=1
_
C
k
_
_
_f(z)dz = 0
Since f(z) can be expanded as a Laurent series about z
k
, we have
_
C
k
f(z)dz =
_
C
k

n=
a
n
(z z
k
)
n
dz =

n=
a
n
_
C
k
(z z
k
)
n
dz
=

n=
a
n
2i
n,1
= 2ia
1
= 2iRes[f(z), z
k
]
Complex Analysis 23
Thus, it is proved that
_
C
f(z)dz = 2i
n

k=1
Res[f(z), z
k
]
11. Improper Integrals
Consider a denite integral with unbounded interval as
_

f(x)dx.
Such an integral can render dierent values or diverge if the upper and
lower bounds are approached at dierent rates, for example,
_

f(x)dx = lim
r
_
0
r
f(x)dx + lim
R
_
R
0
f(x)dx
The Cauchy principal value is dened by assuming that the upper and
the lower bounds approach innity at the same rate, namely,
PV
_

f(x)dx = lim
R
_
R
R
f(x)dx
The concept of principal value may also be extended to dene def-
inite integrals with singularities lying along the integration path. For
example, let f(x) = P(x)/Q(x) be a rational function of x where both
P(x) and Q(x) are polynomial functions of x with real coecients, and
Q(x) ,= 0 for all real x. Let z
k
with 1 k n be poles of f(z) in the
upper half-plane as shown in Fig.1.10. The original integration path is
L : R < x < R. A semicircle C
R
: z = Re
i
with 0 can be
attached to L to form a closed contour C. The radius R is chosen large
enough to enclose all the poles of f(z), namely, [z
k
[ < R with 1 k n.
Figure 1.10. Contours dened to evaluate improper integrals, (a) all poles lie in the
upper half-plane, (b) some poles appear on the real axis.
24 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
By applying the residue theorem, we have
_
R
R
f(z)dz +
_
C
R
f(z)dz =
_
C
f(z)dz = 2i
n

k=1
Res[f(z), z
k
](1.9)
Impose the additional condition that deg[Q(z)] deg[z
2
P(z)], which
renders [P(z)/Q(z)[ M/[z
2
[ = M/R
2
for z on C
R
. The ML inequality
implies that

_
C
R
f(z)dz

_
C
R
P(z)
Q(z)
dz

M
R
2

_
C
R
dz

=
M
R
which vanishes as R approaches innity. Thus, (1.9) is reduced to
PV
_

f(x)dx = 2i
n

k=1
Res[f(z), z
k
]
Next, consider the case that f(z) = P(z)/Q(z) possesses simple poles
x

with 1 m, on the real axis in additional to the poles in the upper


half-plane, z
k
with 1 k n. Referring to Fig.1.10(b), the principal
value of
_

f(x)dx is dened as
PV
_

f(x)dx = lim
_
_
x
1

1
R
+
m1

=1
_
x
+1

+1
x

+
_
R
xm+m
_
f(x)dx
(1.10)
where the limit is understood as R and

0 with 1 m.
A closed contour is formed which consists of the same semicircle C
R
as
in the previous case and m small semicircles C

s with 1 m. By
imposing the condition that deg[Q(z)] deg[z
2
P(z)], the integration
along C
R
vanishes as R approaches innity. In the neighborhood of x

,
f(z) can be approximated as g

(z)/(z x

) with g

(z) being analytic.


Assuming z = x

e
i
with varying from to 0, the integration along
C

can be reduced to
_
C

f(z)dz =
_
0

(x

e
i
)

e
i
i

e
i
d
which approaches ig

(x

) as

approaches zero. Note that g

(x

) =
Res[f(z), x

] by the denition of residue. Thus, (1.10) is reduced to


PV
_

f(x)dx = 2i
_
n

k=1
Res[f(z), z
k
] +
1
2
m

=1
Res[f(z), x

]
_
Complex Analysis 25
Kramers-Kronig Relation. Consider a linear, temporally disper-
sive medium, the electric ux density caused by the eld induced po-
larization satises the causality condition, and can be expressed as an
integral equation

D(t) =
0

E(t) +
_
t

d
0

e
(t )

E()
=
0

E(t) +
0
_

0
d
e
()

E(t )
where
e
is the susceptibility. By applying the Fourier transforms

D(t) =
_

d

D()e
it
and

E(t) =
_

d

E()e
it
, we have

D() = ()

E()
with () =
0
_
1 +
_

0
d
e
()e
i
_
.
The Jordans lemma states that if lim
R
Rf(Re
i
) = 0 with 0 < < ,
then lim
R
_
C
R
dsf(s) = 0, where C
R
is a semicircle of radius R in the
upper half s-plane.
Figure 1.11. Contour of integration in the s plane.
Consider the integration of f(s) =
(s)

s
over the closed contour
C as shown in Fig.1.11, where

is the value of (s) on C


R
. Since there
are no singularities inside the contour C,
_
C
(s)

s
ds = 0. Since the
function f(s) satises the Jordans lemma, the integration of f(s) over
C
R
vanishes. Hence, the integration over the closed contour C reduces
26 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
to
PV
_

(s)

s
ds +
_
C

(s)

s
ds = 0
Let s = +e
i
with changing from to 0, the second term is reduced
to i[()

]. Thus, we have PV
_

(s)

s
ds = i[()

],
which can be separated into the imaginary and the real parts, respec-
tively,

()

=
1

PV
_

(s)
s
ds

() =
1

PV
_

(s)

s
ds
where (s) =

(s) +j

(s). This pair are also referred to as the Hilbert


transform and the inverse Hilbert transform, respectively.
Landau Damping. Consider an ensemble of non-interacting elec-
trons immersed in a neutralized ion background and are only allowed to
move in the z direction. Let the trajectory of an electron be z = z
0
+vt,
where the initial position z
0
is uniformly distributed in a uniform plasma,
and v follows a distribution f(v) such as Maxwell-Boltzmann distribu-
tion f(v) =
_
m
2T
e
mv
2
/2T
, where is the Boltzmann constant, and
T is the temperature in Kelvin.
If an electric eld E(z, t) = E
0
cos(t kz) is turned on at t = 0, the
trajectory of the electron is modied as
z = z
0
+ vt +z
1
+ z
2
+ (1.11)
where we assume z
1
E
0
, z
2
E
2
0
, and z
2
z
1
. The initial conditions
at t = 0 are z = z
0
and z = v. Thus, the initial conditions for z
1
and z
2
are z
1
= z
1
= 0 and z
2
= z
2
= 0, respectively. The electron follows the
equation of motion
m z = eE
0
cos(t kz) (1.12)
Substituting (1.11) into (1.12), we have
m( z
1
+ z
2
) = eE
0
cos[( kv)t kz
0
]
eE
0
kz
1
sin[( kv)t kz
0
] +O(E
3
0
)
The solutions are
z
1
=
eE
0
m( kv)
_
cos kz
0
cos[( kv)t kz
0
]
kv
+t sin kz
0
_
Complex Analysis 27
z
2
=
eE
0
kz
1
m
sin[( kv)t kz
0
] (1.13)
The temporal rate of kinetic energy can be calculated as
d
dt
(KE) =
d
dt
_
1
2
m z
2
_
= m z z
= mv z
1
+m z
1
z
1
+mv z
2
+O(E
3
0
) (1.14)
Substituting (1.13) into (1.14), then taking the ensemble average over
z
0
, we have
_
d
dt
(KE)
_
z
0
=
e
2
E
2
0
2m
_
sin[( kv)t]
( kv)
2

kvt
kv
cos[( kv)t]
_
(1.15)
Next, calculate the ensemble average of (1.15) over v. When t is large,
both sin[(kv)t] and cos[(kv)t] change rapidly with v except near
kv = 0, around which the velocity distribution can be approximated
as f(v) f(/k)
kv
k
f

(/k). The average over v of the rst term


in (1.15) can be approximated as
PV
_

sin[( kv)t]
( kv)
2
f(v)dv
f(/k)PV
_

sin[( kv)t]
( kv)
2
dv

k
f

(/k)PV
_

sin[( kv)t]
kv
dv (1.16)
The rst term in (1.16) vanishes by symmetry. With the contour shown
in Fig.1.12, the second term in (1.16) is calculated as
PV
_

sin[( kv)t]
kv
dv = ImPV
_

e
i(kv)t
kv
dv
= Im
_

_
_
C

_
C

_
e
i(kv)t
kv
dv = Im
_
C

e
i(kv)t
kv
dv = /k
when k > 0. The result will be /k when k < 0 by following the same
procedure. The average over v of the second term in (1.15) is zero by
the same approach.
In summary, the average temporal rate of kinetic energy is
_
d
dt
(KE)
_
z
0
,v
=
e
2
E
2
0
2mk[k[
f

(/k)
28 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
The electrons gain energy from the wave if f

(/k) < 0. This phe-


nomenon is called Landau damping.
Figure 1.12. Contour of integration in the v plane.
12. Inverse Laplace Transform
Figure 1.13. Contour dened to evaluate inverse Laplace transform which (a) ex-
cludes singularities, (b) encloses singularities.
The Laplace transform of a unilateral function f(t) dened over t 0
is
F(s) = Lf(t) =
_

0
e
st
f(t)dt
Symbolically, f(t) can be recovered by applying the inverse Laplace
transform as u(t)f(t) = L
1
F(s), where a unit step function u(t) is
multiplied to emphasize the fact that f(t) is dened only over t 0.
Complex Analysis 29
The Laplace transform of e
zt
can be calculated as
Le
zt
=
_

0
e
st
e
zt
dt =
_

0
e
(sz)t
dt = lim
R
_
R
0
e
(sz)t
dt
= lim
R
1 e
(sz)R
s z
=
1
s z
provided that Re(sz) > 0. By denition, it is claimed that L
1
_
1
s z
_
=
e
zt
.
Computational Procedure. Let F(z) be the Laplace transform
of f(t), which is analytic in the domain D
1
= z[ Re(z) > a, and
lim
|z|
[F(z)[ = 0. An integration path along z = a is chosen as shown in
Fig.1.13(a) to evaluate the inverse Laplace transform. Dene a closed
contour C
1
which consists of the straight line extending from a iR to
a+iR and a semicircle C
R
centered at a+i0 with radius R. By applying
the Cauchys integral formula, we have
2iF(s) =
_
C
1
F(z)
z s
dz =
_
_
_
_
a+iR
aiR
+
_
C
R
_
_
_
F(z)
z s
dz
where s lies within C
1
. The minus sign is due to the integration along
C
1
in the clockwise sense. The integration along C
R
vanishes due to
the assumption that lim
|z|
[F(z)[ = 0. Thus, by taking the limit that
R , we have
F(s) =
1
2i
_
a+i
ai
F(z)
s z
dz (1.17)
Substituting (1.17) into the denition of the inverse Laplace trans-
form, we have
u(t)f(t) = L
1
F(s) = L
1
1
2i
_
a+i
ai
F(z)
s z
dz
=
1
2i
_
a+i
ai
F(z)
_
L
1
_
1
s z
__
dz =
1
2i
_
a+i
ai
F(z)e
zt
dz
which provides a procedure to compute the inverse Laplace transform.
Residue Technique. Let F(z) be analytic over the entire complex
plane except at a nite number of poles z
k
with 1 k n, distributed
in D
2
= z[ Re(z) < a, and [zF(z)[ M for [z[ R. Dene a closed
contour C
2
as shown in Fig.1.13(b), which consists of the integration
30 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
path from a iR to a +iR and a semicircle C

R
centered at a +i0 with
radius R.
By applying the residue theorem, the contour integration of F(z)e
zt
along C
2
is equal to
n

k=1
Res[F(z)e
zt
, z
k
]. Since [zF(z)[ M for [z[ R,
the integration of F(z)e
zt
along C

R
vanishes. Thus, we have
u(t)f(t) =
1
2i
_
a+i
ai
F(z)e
zt
dz =
n

k=1
Res[F(z)e
zt
, z
k
]
Waves in Polarizable Medium. Consider a plane wave

E =
xE
0
e
ikzit
incident from free space in z < 0 to a polarizable half-space
in z > 0. The polarizable medium can be characterized by its polariza-
tion density

P =

2
p

2
0

2
i

0

E, where
p
,
0
, and are the plasma
frequency, resonant frequency, and dissipation coecient, respectively,
of the medium. The polarization density is related to the electric eld
by

P = (
r
1)
0

E, where
0
is the permittivity of free space, and
r
is
the relative permittivity of the medium. Thus, the relative permittivity
can be expressed as

r
() = 1 +

2
p

2
0

2
i
This expression can be generalized from the real axis to the complex
s domain by analytic continuation, with the substitution of s = i.
Thus, we have

r
(s) = 1 +

2
p
s
2
+ s +
2
0
(1.18)
Without loss of generality, assume that the wave polarization is not
changed at incidence. Normalize the amplitude of the incident plane
wave such that the eld at z = 0+ equals e
it
when t > 0, and equals
zero when t < 0. Thus, the boundary condition of the wave function
f(z, t) can be expressed as
f(0+, t) =
1
2i
_
a+i
ai
e
st
s +i
ds
where a > 0.
The wave function f(z, t) satises the wave equation

2
f
z
2


r
c
2

2
f
t
2
= 0
Complex Analysis 31
where c is the speed of light in free space. The elementary wave function
e
s(t

rz/c)
satises the wave equation, hence the superposition
f(z, t) =
1
2i
_
a+i
ai
e
s(t

rz/c)
s + i
ds (1.19)
satises the wave equation and the boundary condition at z = 0+.
If
r
is a constant, the integral in (1.19) becomes e
i(t

rz/c)
when
t

r
z/c > 0, and equals zero when t

r
z/c < 0. In general,
r
is
a function of s as shown in (1.18). Thus, (1.19) can be rephrased as
f(z, t) =
1
2i
_
a+i
ai
e
s[t

r(s)z/c]
s + i
ds (1.20)
where
_

r
(s) =

s
2
+s +
2
0
+
2
p
s
2
+s +
2
0
(1.21)
Figure 1.14. Contour deformation to calculate the wave form.
Note that
_

r
(s) approaches 1 as s approaches i. If t z/c < 0,
append a semicircle of innite radius to the right of the integration path
to form a closed contour. Since all the singularities are excluded from
the closed contour, f(z, t) = 0, which implies that the speed of the wave
front does not exceed the speed of light in free space.
If t z/c > 0, append a semicircle of innite radius to the left of
the integration path to form a closed contour. The singularities inside
the contour include the pole at s = i and the branch cuts associated
with
_

r
(s). By setting
r
(s) = and
r
(s) = 0, respectively, the
32 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
branch points of
_

r
(s) are determined as a

= /2 i
_

2
0
(/2)
2
and b

= /2 i
_

2
0
+
2
p
(/2)
2
, respectively. Two branch cuts
are dened by linking a
+
to b
+
, and a

to b

, respectively. The closed


contour can thus be deformed to C
0
, C
1
, and C
2
as shown in Fig.1.14.
Eqn.(1.20) can now be decomposed into two parts, f
0
(z, t) contributed
from C
0
and f
12
(z, t) contributed from C
1
and C
2
. Explicitly,
f
0
(z, t) = e
i[t

r(i)z/c]

s=i
= e
z
e
in(/c)zit
f
12
(z, t) =
1
2i
_
C
1
+C
2
e
s[t

r(s)z/c]
s +i
ds
where
_

r
(i) = n + i/(/c), n is the refractive index, is the
attenuation constant. The forced response f
0
(z, t) is calculated by using
the residue theorem, which has the same frequency as the incident wave,
and propagates at c/n, the speed of light in the dielectric medium.
The function f
12
(z, t) is a free response which decays with time. Note
that at t = z/c, f
12
(z, t) exhibits a nonzero value, the early part of this
wave propagates at the speed of light in free space, and is called the
precursor.
13. Conformal Mapping
Figure 1.15. Mapping from z-plane to w-plane.
A complex function w = f(z) can be viewed as a mapping or trans-
formation from the z-plane to the w-plane. As shown in Fig.1.15, curve
C is mapped to C

, and domain D is mapped to D

. Consider w = e
z
with D = z = x + iy[0 y as shown in Fig.1.16. A vertical line
z = a + it with xed a and 0 t is mapped to w = e
a
e
it
with
[w[ = e
a
and Arg(w) = t, which is a semicircle centered at the origin. A
horizontal line z = t + ib with xed b and < t < is mapped to
w = e
t
e
ib
with [w[ = e
t
and Arg(w) = b, which is a radial line emanating
from the origin.
Complex Analysis 33
Fig.1.17 shows the mapping of w = 1/z. Let z = x+iy and w = u+iv,
we have u = x/(x
2
+y
2
) and v = y/(x
2
+y
2
), or x = u/(u
2
+v
2
) and
y = v/(u
2
+ v
2
). A vertical line x = a in the z-plane is mapped to
a circle [u 1/(2a)]
2
+ v
2
= 1/(2a)
2
in the w-plane. A horizontal line
y = b in the z-plane is mapped to a circle u
2
+ [v + 1/(2b)]
2
= 1/(2b)
2
in the w-plane. Similaraly, a vertical or a horizontal line in the w-plane
is mapped to a circle in the z-plane.
Figure 1.16. Mapping of w = e
z
.
Figure 1.17. Mapping of w = 1/z.
Elementary Mappings. The function w = z + z
0
represents a
translation of z by an oset z
0
. The function w = e
i
0
z represents a
rotation of z by an angle
0
. The function w = rz with real r represents
a magnication of z by a factor r. Consider the power function w = z

with positive real . Let z = re


i
, then w = r

e
i
, the amplitude is
magnied to the th power, and the angle is expanded by fold.
These mappings can be combined to form more complicated map-
pings. For example, w = (1 +i) +z/2 maps a unit circle in the z-plane
into a circle with radius 1/2 and centered at 1 +i in the w-plane. Take
another example, w = e
z/4
can be decomposed into = e
z
and w =
1/4
in sequence. The former maps the strip D = z = x + iy[0 y
34 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
into the upper half -plane, and the latter maps the upper half -plane
into the sectoral domain D

= w[0 Arg(w) /4 in the w-plane.


Figure 1.18. Angle-preserving mapping from z-plane to w-plane.
Angle-Preserving Mapping. Fig.1.18 shows two curves C
1
and C
2
in the z-plane, intersecting at z
0
, and the angle between the tangents
to C
1
and C
2
at z
0
is . The function w = f(z) maps C
1
and C
2
into
C

1
and C

2
, respectively, in the w-plane, intersecting at w
0
= f(z
0
), and
the angle between the tangents to C

1
and C

2
at w
0
is . The function
w = f(z) is called conformal at z
0
if = , namely, the magnitude and
sense of the intersecting angles are the same in both planes.
The tangent to C
1
at z
0
has the argument of lim
zz
0
Arg(z z
0
), the cor-
responding tangent to C

1
at w
0
has the argument of lim
zz
0
Arg(w w
0
),
which can be expressed as
lim
zz
0
Arg[f(z) f(z
0
)]/(z z
0
) + lim
zz
0
Arg(z z
0
)
= Arg[f

(z
0
)] + lim
zz
0
Arg(z z
0
)
Let the argument of the tangent to C

1
(C

2
) at w
0
be
1
(
2
), the as-
sociated argument of the tangent to C
1
(C
2
) at z
0
be
1
(
2
), we have

1

1
= Arg[f

(z
0
)] =
2

2
. Note that Arg[f

(z
0
)] can be uniquely
dened if f

(z
0
) ,= 0. Thus, =
2

1
=
2

1
= , implying that
the intersecting angle is preserved.
Fig.1.19 shows the mapping of applying w = sin z to a vertical strip
D = z = x+iy[/2 x /2. A vertical line z = a+it with <
t < is mapped to w = u+iv = sin(a+it) = sin a cosht +i cos a sinh t,
or
_
u
sina
_
2

_
v
cos a
_
2
= 1, which is a hyperbola. A horizontal line
z = t + ib with /2 t /2 is mapped to w = u + iv = sin(t +
ib) = sint cosh b + i cos t sinhb, or
_
u
cosh b
_
2
+
_
v
sinh b
_
2
= 1, which is
an ellipse.
Complex Analysis 35
Any of the horizontal lines is orthogonal to any of the vertical lines.
Thus, any of the mapped hyperbolas is orthogonal to any of the mapped
ellipses due to the conformal mapping, except at A

and D

where hy-
perbola and ellipse collapse to line segments with intersecting angle of
180

. Notice that f

(z) = cos z are nonzero in D except at z = /2.


Figure 1.19. Conformal mapping by w = sinz.
Boundary-Value Problem. Assume that p(x, y) is the solution
to the Laplaces equation
_

2
x
2
+

2
y
2
_
p(x, y) = 0 in domain D, with
xed value p = V
0
at the boundary C. If the geometry of D is not
amenable to direct problem-solving techniques, a proper conformal map-
ping w = f(z) may be considered to transformD to a more regular shape
D

in the w-plane for solution.


Let w = u +iv. If P(u, v) is a harmonic function in D

, constitute
g(w) =
P
u
i
P
v
= U(u, v) +iV (u, v)
Since U/u = V/v and U/v = V/u, namely, U and V satisfy
the Cauchy-Riemann equations, hence g(w) is analytic. There exists an
antiderivative G(w) = P(u, v) +iQ(u, v) such that
G

(w) =

u
(P + iQ) =
P
u
i
P
v
By denition, G

(w) = g(w). Hence, there exists Q(u, v) such that


G(u, v) = P(u, v) + iQ(u, v) is analytic in D

.
Let h(z) = G(f(z)) = P(f(z)) + iQ(f(z)), then h(z) is analytic in
D, and both p(x, y) = P(f(z)) and q(x, y) = Q(f(z)) are harmonic
functions in D.
Instead of solving the Laplaces equation in D directly, a harmonic
function P(u, v) in D

satisfying the mapped bounday condition on C

is
36 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
pursued rst. The function p(x, y) = P(f(z)) will automatically satisfy
the original equation and the original boundary condition.
Figure 1.20. Conformal mapping by w = sinz.
Consider the Laplaces equation
_

2
x
2
+

2
y
2
_
p(x, y) = 0 in the do-
mains shwon in Fig.1.20. The boundary conditions require that p = 1
over the contour OAB and p = 0 over the contour OEF. By applying
the mapping w = sin z, domain D in the z-plane is mapped into domain
D

in the w-plane, and the points O, A, B, E, and F are mapped to O

,
A

, B

, E

, and F

, respectively. The corresponding Laplaces equation


in the w-plane is
_

2
u
2
+

2
v
2
_
P(u, v) = 0, and the associated bound-
ary condidtions are P(u < 0, v = 0) = 1 and P(u > 0, v = 0) = 0. The
imaginary part of the analytic function Lnw/ = (log
e
[w[ +iArgw) /
is a harmonic function which satises the required boundary conditions.
Thus, we obtain the solution P(u, v) = Argw/, and its functional form
in domain D is
p(x, y) = P(f(z)) = P(sinz) =
1

Arg(sinz)
=
1

Arg(sinx cosh y +i cos x sinhy) =


1

tan
1
_
cos x sinhy
sinx cosh y
_
14. Potential and Streamline Functions
A two-dimensional vector eld

E(x, y) = xu(x, y) + yv(x, y) can be
expressed in a domain D in the z-plane as E(z) = u(x, y)+iv(x, y). If the
eld is divergence free and curl free, namely,

E = u/x+v/y = 0
and

E = z(v/x u/y) = 0, we have u/x = v/y and
u/y = v/x, which are the Cauchy-Riemann equations satised by
the analytic function F(z) = u(x, y) iv(x, y). On the other hand, if
F(z) is analytic in domain D, then E(z) = F

(z) depicts a vector eld


which is divergence free and curl free.
Complex Analysis 37
Let G(z) = (x, y) i(x, y) be the antiderivative of F(z), namely,
F(z) = u(x, y) iv(x, y) = G

(z) =
(x, y)
x
i
(x, y)
x
=
(x, y)
x
+ i
(x, y)
y
Thus, we have u(x, y) = (x, y)/x and v(x, y) = (x, y)/y, or

E(x, y) = (x, y). Hence, (x, y) is called the potential function of

E(x, y) or F

(z). The curve (x, y) = c with c a real constant is called


an equipotential curve.
The eld lines of E(z) can be described as
dx
dt
= u(x, y),
dy
dt
= v(x, y) (1.22)
as if a charged particle were driven by the electric eld to move along a
specic eld line. Eq.(1.22) implies that dx/dy = u/v or vdxudy = 0.
Since /x = /y = v and /y = /x = u, vdxudy = 0
can be reduced to (/x)dx + (/y)dy = d = 0. In other words,
the designated eld line can be represented as a streamline = s with
s a real constant. The function (x, y) is called the streamline function
of E(z).
For example, consider an innitely long line charge with charge den-
sity of

(coul/m), which lies across the z-plane perpendicularly at


z
0
. The electric eld can be derived from the electric Gauss law as
E(z) =

(z z
0
)
2
o
[z z
0
[
2
. The conjugate function F(z) = E

(z) =

2
o
(z z
0
)
is analytic in the z-plane except at z
0
. The antiderivative of F(z) is
G(z) =

2
o
Ln(z z
0
) =

2
o
[log
e
[z z
0
[ + iArg(z z
0
)]
of which the real part is the potential function and the imaginary part
is the streamline function as shown in Fig.1.21(a).
If two line charges of opposite polarity lie across the z-plane perpen-
dicularly at z
0
and z
0
, respectively. The analytic function conjugate
to the electric eld is F(z) =

2
o
(z z
0
)

2
o
(z + z
0
)
, and its an-
tiderivative is
G(z) =

2
o
_
log
e

z z
0
z +z
0

+ i[Arg(z z
0
) Arg(z +z
0
)]
_
of which the potential function and the streamline function are shown
in Fig.1.21(b). The equipotential curves are circles with center at a line
38 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
Figure 1.21. Equipotential lines (dashed) and streamlines (solid) of electric eld: (a)
of a line charge, (b) of two line charges with opposite polarity, (c) inside a coaxial
cable, and (d) inside a rectangular trough.
through z
0
and z
0
, the streamlines are another set of circles with center
at the y axis.
Next, consider the coaxial cable shown in Fig.1.21(c), where the inner
conductor is kept at potential V
0
while the outer conductor is grounded.
The potential satisfying these boundary conditions is (z) = V
0
log
e
([z[/b)
log
e
(a/b)
.
The associated electric eld is E(z) =
V
0
log
e
(a/b)
z
[z[
2
, and its com-
Complex Analysis 39
plex conjugate is F(z) =
V
0
log
e
(a/b)
1
z
. The antiderivative of F(z) is
G(z) =
V
0
log
e
(a/b)
Lnz =
V
0
log
e
(a/b)
[log
e
[z[ +iArg(z)], of which the imag-
inary part is the streamline function.
Finally, consider the boundary-value problem shown in Fig.1.21(d).
The side walls at x = 0, x = a, and y = 0 are grounded, while the
top wall at y = b is kept at a constant potential V
0
. By applying the
superposition technique, the potential inside the trough can be expressed
as
(z) =

n=1
2V
0
n
1 cos n
sinh(nb/a)
sin
_
n
a
x
_
sinh
_
n
a
y
_
The streamline function (z) can be derived by substituting the poten-
tial function into the Cauchy-Riemann equations, /x = /y
and /y = /x, to have
(z) =

n=1
2V
0
n
1 cos n
sinh(nb/a)
cos
_
n
a
x
_
cosh
_
n
a
y
_
15. Bilinear Transformation
A bilinear transformation has the functional form of
w = T(z) =
az +b
cz + d
where a, b, c, and d are complex constants. Note that T(z) has a simple
pole at z = d/c and a simple zero at z = b/a.
If c = 0, T(z) is reduced to a linear form w = Az + B, which
can be viewed as the combined mappings of rotation and amplication
A, followed by a translation B. If c ,= 0, T(z) can be rephrased as
w =
_
bc ad
c
__
1
cz +d
_
+
_
a
c
_
, which can be viewed as the combined
mappings of rotation, amplication, translation, and inversion.
Consider a circle K in the z-plane, (x
2
+y
2
)+x+y + = 0 where
, , , and are real coecients. If = 0, K is reduced to a straight
line, which can be viewed as a circle with innite radius. The equation
of K can be rephrased as
[z[
2
+
_
z +z

2
_
+
_
z z

2i
_
+ = 0
40 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
Under the inversion mapping w = 1/z, K is mapped to K

in the w-plane
as
[w[
2
+
_
w +w

2
_

_
w w

2i
_
+ = 0
which is a circle if ,= 0, and is a straight line if = 0.
In summary, an inversion will map a circle or a straight line in the
z-plane onto a circle or a straight line in the w-plane, an vice versa. If
K is a circle passing through the pole of w = 1/z at z = 0, then = 0,
and K

is a straight line. If K is a straight line, then = 0, and K

becomes a circle passing through w = 0 which can be viewed as a zero


of w = 1/z.
A bilinear transformation w = T(z) will also map a circle or a straight
line in the z-plane onto a circle or a straight line in the w-plane since it
is a combination of rotation, amplication, translation, and inversion. It
can be proved that if K is a circle passing through the pole of T(z), then
K

becomes a straight line. If K is a straight line, then K

becomes a
circle passing through w = 0 which corresponds to the zero of w = T(z).
Triples-to-Triples Approach. Since three distinct points uniquely
determine a circle, we may constitute a bilinear transformation by spec-
ifying the mapping between three chosen points in the z-plane and three
associated points in the w-plane. Note that the transformation thus
constituted is not unique.
Dene
= T(z) =
(z z
1
)(z
2
z
3
)
(z z
3
)(z
2
z
1
)
, = S(w) =
(w w
1
)(w
2
w
3
)
(w w
3
)(w
2
w
1
)
It is observed that z = z
1
, z = z
2
, and z = z
3
are mapped to
1
= 0,

2
= 1, and
3
= , respectively. By the mapping w = S
1
(),
1
= 0,

2
= 1, and
3
= are mapped to w = w
1
, w = w
2
, and w = w
3
,
respectively. By applying the mappings = T(z) and w = S
1
()
in sequence, we have the transformation between the z-plane and the
w-plane as w = S
1
(T(z)) or S(w) = T(z), namely,
(w w
1
)(w
2
w
3
)
(w w
3
)(w
2
w
1
)
=
(z z
1
)(z
2
z
3
)
(z z
3
)(z
2
z
1
)
Note that z = z
1
, z = z
2
, and z = z
3
are mapped to w = w
1
, w = w
2
,
and w = w
3
, respectively.
Consider the Laplaces equation
_

2
x
2
+

2
y
2
_
p(x, y) = 0 in domain
D of the z-plane with the boundary conditions that p = 1 over circle
Complex Analysis 41
Figure 1.22. Conformal mapping by triples-to-triples approach.
K
1
and p = 0 over circle K
2
as shown in Fig.1.22. The more desirable
domain is shown as D

of the w-plane. By arbitrarily mapping z = i,


z = 1, and z = 1 to w = 0, w = 1, and w = , respectively, we have
(w 0)(1 )
(w )(1 0)
=
(z i)(1 1)
(z 1)(1 i)
, or w = (1 i)
z i
z 1
. The Laplaces
equation is transformed to
_

2
u
2
+

2
v
2
_
P(u, v) = 0 in D

of the w-
plane, with the boundary conditions that P = 1 over the straight line
K

1
and P = 0 over the straight line K

2
. The imaginary part of the
analytic function w satises the required boundary conditions, namely,
P = v is the solution in the w-plane. The solution in the z-plane can
thus be derived as
p(x, y) = Imw = T(z) =
1 x
2
y
2
(x 1)
2
+y
2
The equipotential curve p(x, y) = c with constant c is a circle with the
explicit form of
_
x
c
1 +c
_
2
+ y
2
=
_
1
1 + c
_
2
16. Schwarz-Christoel Transformation
The Schwarz-Christoel formula species a conformal mapping from
the upper half plane to a bounded or unbounded polygonal region. Con-
sider the transformation w = (z x
1
)

with 0 < < 2 as shown in


Fig.1.23. Two colinear line segments z
a
x
1
and x
1
z
b
in the z-plane are
mapped to two line segments w
a
w
1
and w
1
w
b
, respectively, with an inte-
rior angle of . A dierential in the w-plane is related to a dierential
42 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
Figure 1.23. Conformal mapping by w = (z x1)

.
in the z-plane by dw = (z x
1
)
1
dz. Hence, their arguments are
related by Arg(dw) = ( 1)Arg(z x
1
) + Arg(dz). The directional
change in the w-plane as z is moved from z
a
via x
1
to z
b
can be calcu-
lated as Arg(dw
b
) Arg(dw
a
) = ( 1)[Arg(z
b
x
1
) Arg(z
a
x
1
)] +
[Arg(dz
b
) Arg(dz
a
)] = ( 1)(0 ) = (1 ), or the interior angle
is .
By induction, a function of the form
dw
dz
= A
n

k=1
(z x
k
)

k
1
will
map the real axis in the z-plane to a polygon in the w-plane, where
x
1
< x
2
< < x
n
are n distinct points along the real axis in the
z-plane, and 0 <
k
< 2. Since the sum of all the directional changes as
a point is moved along a polygon is equal to 2, the
k
must satisfy
(1
1
) + + (1
n
) = 2 or
1
+ +
n
= n 2. Thus, only
n 1 out of these
k
can be chosen independently.
The mapping function can then be determined by integrating dw/dz =
f

(z) over z to have f(z) = A


_ n

k=1
(z x
k
)

k
1
dz + B, where A and
B are constants to be determined by the mapping of specic points.
Sometimes, x
n
may be chosen at , and the product contains only the
terms with 1 k n 1. Note that the transformation from the real
axis in the z-plane is not uniquely determined, one may map dierent
sets of x
k
to the same set of w
k
.
Consider the mapping shown in Fig.1.24 in which z
1
= 1 and z
2
= 1
are mapped to w
1
= i and w
2
= i, respectively. Both of the two interior
angles are /2, hence
1
=
2
= 1/2, and f

(z) = A(z+1)
1/2
(z1)
1/2
.
The mapping function can then be integrated as
f(z) = A
_
dz
(z
2
1)
1/2
+B = Ai
_
dz
(1 z
2
)
1/2
+B = Ai sin
1
z +B
By imposing f(1) = i and f(1) = i, we have A = 2/ and B = 0.
Hence, the required mapping function is w = (2i/) sin
1
z.
Next, consider the mapping shown in Fig.1.25 in which z
1
= 1 and
z
2
= 0 are mapped to w
1
= i and w
2
= , respectively. The two
Complex Analysis 43
Figure 1.24. Conformal mapping from real axis to half a rectilinear strip.
Figure 1.25. Conformal mapping from real axis to the real axis plus a semi-innite
line.
interior angles are 2 and 0, respectively, or
1
= 2,
2
= 0. Hence,
f

(z) = A(z + 1)z


1
. The mapping function can be integrated as
f(z) = A
_
z + 1
z
dz +B = A(z + Lnz) +B
By imposing f(1) = i and f(0) = , we have A = B = 1. Hence,
the required mapping function is w = (z + 1) + Lnz.
17. Poisson Integral Formula
Consider the solution to Laplaces equation in the upper half plane
with boundary condition specied in Fig.1.26(a). It is observed that
p(x, y) = (p
i
/)[Arg(zb)Arg(za)] is the solution since Arg(z)is
the imaginary part of the analytic function Ln(z), and p(x, y) satises
the boundary condition over the real axis.
44 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
Figure 1.26. Harmonic function in the upper half plane: (a) step boundary condition,
(b) piecewise constant boundary condition.
Next, consider the boundary condition specied in Fig.1.26(b). The
solution can be obtained by extending the previous case to be
p(x, y) =
n

k=1
p
k

[Arg(z x
k
) Arg(z x
k1
)]
=
1

k=1
_
x
k
x
k1
p
k
d
dt
Arg(z t)dt
=
1

k=1
_
x
k
x
k1
p
k
y
(x t)
2
+ y
2
dt (1.23)
where Arg(z t) = tan
1
[y/(x t)].
A continuous function p(x, 0) specied over the real axis can be ap-
proximated by piecewise constants over innitesimal intervals. Thus, the
solution (1.23) can be extended to the case where a continuous boundary
condition is specied over the real axis as
p(x, y) =
y

p(t, 0)
(x t)
2
+y
2
dt
Complex Analysis 45
References
[1] D. G. Zill and P. D. Shanahan, A First Course in Complex Analysis
with Applications, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2003.
[2] A. D. Wunsch, Complex Variables with Applications, 3rd ed., Pear-
son Education, 2005.
[3] J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory, McGraw-Hill, 1941.