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You are on page 1of 45

COMPLEX ANALYSIS

Jean-Fu Kiang

Department of Electrical Engineering and

Graduate Institute of Communication Engineering

National Taiwan University

Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

Abstract In this Chapter, fundamental concepts and theories of complex functions

are reviewed, and skills of complex analysis are practiced.

Keywords: Riemann sheet, branch, branch point, branch cut, singularity, pole, zero,

limit, continuity, analyticity, Cauchy-Riemann equations, harmonic func-

tion, elementary function, analytic continuation, contour integral, ML

theorem, Greens theorem, Cauchys theorem, Cauchys integral for-

mula, Taylor series, geometric series, convergence test, Taylors theorem,

Laurent theorem, residue theorem, improper integral, principal value,

Kramers-Kr onig relation, Landau damping, inverse Laplace transform,

conformal mapping, boundary-value problem, potential, streamline, bi-

linear transformation, Schwarz-Christoel transformation, Poisson inte-

gral formula.

1. Basic Operations

A complex number z is represented as z = x+iy with real part x and

imaginary part y. Both x and y are real numbers and are independent

of each other, i =

The complex conjugate of z is dened as z

real part as z, and imaginary part of opposite sign to z. Hence, the real

and imaginary parts of z can be retrieved as x = Re(z) = (z +z

)/2 and

y = Im(z) = (z z

)/(2i), respectively.

Let z

1

= x

1

+iy

1

and z

2

= x

2

+iy

2

. Two complex numbers are equal

if and only if both their real and imaginary parts are equal. In other

words, z

1

= z

2

if and only if x

1

= x

2

and y

1

= y

2

. The operation of

addition(subtraction) is performed by adding(subtracting) the real part

2 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

and imaginary part, respectively, of the two operands, namely, z

1

z

2

=

(x

1

x

2

) + i(y

1

y

2

).

Since a complex number is consisted of two independent parts, the

multiplication of two complex numbers renders four items as z

1

z

2

=

x

1

x

2

+ x

1

iy

2

+ iy

1

x

2

+ iy

1

iy

2

= (x

1

x

2

y

1

y

2

) + i(x

1

y

2

+ y

1

x

2

). The

division of z

1

by z

2

is facilitated by multiplying both the numerator and

the denominator with z

2

to make a real denominator, namely,

z

1

z

2

=

z

1

z

2

z

2

z

2

=

(x

1

x

2

+ y

1

y

2

) +i(y

1

x

2

x

1

y

2

)

(x

2

2

+y

2

2

)

The operations of addition and multiplication follow the commuta-

tive rule that the operation outcome is independent of the order of

the operands, namely, z

1

+ z

2

= z

2

+ z

1

and z

1

z

2

= z

2

z

1

. They also

satisfy the associative rule that when three operands are operated in

two steps, the outcome is independent of the order of steps, namely,

z

1

+(z

2

+z

3

) = (z

1

+z

2

) +z

3

and z

1

(z

2

z

3

) = (z

1

z

2

)z

3

. The distributive

rule is dened between the two operations as z

1

(z

2

+z

3

) = z

1

z

2

+z

1

z

3

.

Figure 1.1. A complex number viewed as coordinates or position vector.

Geometrical Interpretation. The real and the imaginary parts can

be marked as the x and y coordinates, respectively, of a point P on the

two-dimensional Cartesian plane as shown in Fig.1.1. A two-dimensional

vector

V can be dened by setting the origin as the starting point, and

point P as the ending point. Then, the complex number z = x +iy, the

coordinates (x, y), and the vector

V = OP = xx+ yy, are commensurate.

In other words, the basic operations and rules dened for the complex

numbers are also observed by the Cartesian coordinates and the two-

dimensional vectors.

Some properties of complex numbers can be appreciated from the

geometrical point of view. For example, the modulus or absolute value

Complex Analysis 3

of z, [z[, is equivalent to the length of the vector,

OP

, or the distance

from O to P.

The triangle inequalities [z

1

+z

2

[ [z

1

[ +[z

2

[ and [z

1

+z

2

[ [z

1

[ [z

2

[

can be interpreted geometrically as: the sum of the lengths of any two

sides of a triangle is larger than that of the third side, the dierence of

the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is less than that of the third

side.

A complex number can be expressed in the polar form as z = r(cos +

i sin) = r

, where r = [z[ =

_

x

2

+ y

2

is the magnitude or modulus of

z, and = arg(z) = tan

1

(y/x) is the argument of z. Note that there

are an innite number of arguments for the same z, which are related to

a uniquely dened principal argument Arg(z) by arg(z) = Arg(z)+2n,

where n is any integer and < Arg(z) .

The multiplication of z

1

and z

2

can thus be succinctly expressed as

z

1

z

2

= r

1

r

2

[cos(

1

+

2

) + i sin(

1

+

2

)], and the division of z

1

by z

2

as

z

1

/z

2

= (r

1

/r

2

)[cos(

1

2

) +i sin(

1

2

)] if z

2

,= 0. By induction, we

have z

n

= r

n

(cos n + sinn). By setting [z[ = r = 1, the de Moivres

formula, (cos + i sin)

n

= cos n +i sinn, is recovered.

Dene the nth root of z as w = z

1/n

if z ,= 0, or equivalently, w

n

=

z. Let w = (cos + i sin) and z = r(cos + i sin), the denition

implies that

n

(cos n + i sinn) = r(cos + i sin), or = r

1/n

, =

( + 2k)/n with k = 0, 1, 2, , n 1. These n distinctive roots can

be expressed as w

k

= r

1/n

[cos(/n + 2k/n) +i sin(/n + 2k/n)] with

k = 0, 1, 2, , n 1, among which w

0

is called the principal root of z.

2. Analytic Functions

Figure 1.2. Neighborhood of z0.

Point Set. As shown in Fig.1.2, the -neighborhood of z

0

= x

0

+iy

0

is dened as an open disk of radius , centerd at z

0

. It is symbolized

as N

(z

0

) = z[ [z z

0

[ < . A point z

0

is an interior point of a set

S if and only if there exists a neighborhood N

(z

0

) that belongs in S.

4 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

A set S is open if and only if every z in S is an interior point. The set

S = z[

1

< [z z

0

[ <

2

is called an open annulus.

A point z

b

is called the boundary point of S if every N

(z

b

) contains

at least one point in S and at least one point not in S. The boundary

of S contains all the boundary points of S.

An open set S is called connected if any pair of points, z

1

and z

2

, in

S can be connected by a polygonal contour that lies entirely in S. A set

S is called a domain if and only if S is an open connected set.

A function w = f(z) is a rule of mapping a complex number in a set D

on the z-plane into another complex number in a set R in the w-plane.

The set D is called the domain of f, and the set R = w[ w = f(z), z

D is called the range of f.

Figure 1.3. Neighborhoods used to demonstrate limit.

Limit. Assume function f(z) is dened in N

(z

0

), except possibly

at z

0

itself. This function is said to have a limit at z

0

, lim

zz

0

f(z) = L,

if and only if that for any innitesimal > 0, there exists another in-

nitesimal > 0 such that [f(z) L[ < whenever 0 < [z z

0

[ < . As

demonstrated in Fig.1.3, for all N

an N

(z

0

) = z[ 0 < [z z

0

[ < such that w = f(z) falls in N

(L)

whenever z falls in N

(z

0

).

If lim

zz

0

f(z) = L

1

and lim

zz

0

g(z) = L

2

, then lim

zz

0

[f(z) + g(z)] = L

1

+L

2

,

lim

zz

0

f(z)g(z) = L

1

L

2

, and lim

zz

0

f(z)/g(z) = L

1

/L

2

if L

2

,= 0.

Continuity. Function f(z) is continuous at z

0

if lim

zz

0

f(z) = f(z

0

),

namely, the limit of the function at z

0

is the same as the value of f(z)

at z

0

. Note that as taking the limit of a function, the argument z never

reaches z

0

although it can be as close as desired to z

0

.

Complex Analysis 5

If two functions f(z) and g(z) are continuous at z

0

, then f(z) + g(z)

and f(z)g(z) are continuous at z

0

, and f(z)/g(z) is continuous at z

0

if

g(z

0

) ,= 0.

Derivative. The dierential of a complex number z is dened as

z = x + iy. Assume function f(z) is dened in N

(z

0

). The

derivative of f(z) exists at z

0

and is expressed as f

(z

0

) if and only if

f

(z

0

) = lim

z0

[f(z

0

+ z) f(z

0

)]/z is the same with arbitrary choices

of x and y. The function f(z) is dierentiable at z

0

if f

(z

0

) exists.

If f(z) and g(z) are dierentiable at z and c is a constant, then the

same rules of dierentiation as in real variables apply, namely,

dc/dz = 0, [cf(z)]

= cf

= f

(z) +g

(z)

[f(z)g(z)]

= f

(z)g(z) +f(z)g

(z)

[f(z)/g(z)]

= [g(z)f

(z) f(z)g

(z)]/g

2

(z)

(d/dz)f[g(z)] = f

[g(z)]g

(z)

Analyticity. Function f(z) is analytic at z

0

if and only if f(z) is

dierentiable at z

0

and at every point of N

(z

0

). The function f(z) is

analytic in a domain D if and only if f(z) is analytic at every point in

D.

Note that analyticity at a point is a property prevailing over its neigh-

borhood, while dierentiability is a property which is required only at

that point. For example, f(z) = [z[

2

is dierentiable at z = 0, but

nowhere else is dierentiable. By denition, it is nowhere analytic. Take

another example, f(z) = z

2

is dierentiable everywhere in the z-plane,

hence is also analytic everywhere. Function f(z) is called an entire func-

tion if and only if it is analytic over the whole z-plane.

3. Cauchy-Riemann Equations

Function f(z) can be explicitly decomposed into real and imaginary

parts as f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y), where both u(x, y) and v(x, y) are

real functions of x and y. If f(z) is dierentiable at z, the derivative of

f(z) dened as f

(z) = lim

z0

[f(z + z) f(z)]/z exists for arbitrary

z. Firstly, let y = 0, then z = x, and f

1

(z) = u(x, y)/x +

iv(x, y)/x. Next, let x = 0, then z = iy, and f

2

(z) = iu(x, y)/y+

v(x, y)/y. Since f

1

(z) = f

2

(z) by denition, we have

u

x

=

v

y

,

u

y

=

v

x

(1.1)

These are called the Cauchy-Riemann equations, which are the necessary

conditions of the analyticity of f(z) at z.

6 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

Next, to prove that (1.1) are also the sucient conditions of the an-

alyticity of f(z) at z, assume that the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold

at all points in D, for example, at z

0

= (x

0

, y

0

), then

f(z

0

+ z) f(z

0

) = [u(x

0

+ x, y

0

+ y) u(x

0

, y

0

)]

+i [v(x

0

+ x, y

0

+ y) v(x

0

, y

0

)]

_

u

x

(x

0

, y

0

)x +u

y

(x

0

, y

0

)y +u

xx

(x

0

, y

0

)(x)

2

+2u

xy

(x

0

, y

0

)xy +u

yy

(x

0

, y

0

)(y)

2

_

+i

_

v

x

(x

0

, y

0

)x + v

y

(x

0

, y

0

)y +v

xx

(x

0

, y

0

)(x)

2

+2v

xy

(x

0

, y

0

)xy +v

yy

(x

0

, y

0

)(y)

2

_

[u

x

(x

0

, y

0

) +iv

x

(x

0

, y

0

)] (x +iy) (1.2)

where

= x, y, and

is obtained by imposing the Cauchy-Riemann equations and neglecting

the second-order terms when x and y are suciently small. Eq.(1.2)

implies that f

(z

0

) = lim

z0

[f(z

0

+ z) f(z

0

)]/z exists at every point

in D. Thus, f(z) is analytic in D. The Cauchy-Riemann equations are

often used to check the analyticity of a complex function.

Harmonic Functions. Function (x, y) is called a harmonic func-

tion in D if the derivatives of (x, y) up to the second order is continuous

and (x, y) satises the Laplace equation

_

2

x

2

+

2

y

2

_

(x, y) = 0

An analytic function f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) satises the Cauchy-

Riemann equations. Thus, we have

2

u

x

2

=

x

_

u

x

_

=

x

_

v

y

_

=

y

_

v

x

_

=

y

_

u

y

_

=

2

u

y

2

By denition, u(x, y) is a harmonic function, and v(x, y) can be proven

to be a harmonic function in a similar way. Since u(x, y) and v(x, y) con-

stitute an analytic function in D, they are called the conjugate harmonic

function of each other.

4. Elementary Functions

Exponential Function. The complex exponential function is de-

ned in the same way as its real counterpart. By denition, e

z

= e

x+iy

=

Complex Analysis 7

e

x

e

iy

= e

x

(cos y + i siny). Since e

z

is analytic for all z, it is an entire

function.

When y = 0, e

z

is reduced to the real exponential function e

x

. Such

an extension of domain from the real axis to the whole complex plane

is called analytic continuation, which is commonly practiced as long as

the denition is consistent with the original one when z is reduced to x.

Function e

z

is periodic with a complex period of 2i, namely, e

z+2ni

=

e

z

e

2ni

= e

z

for all z. Thus, the z-plane can be divided into hori-

zontal strips S

n

= z = x + iy[ (2n 1) < y (2n + 1) with

n = 0, 1, 2, . Each S

n

is called a branch of e

z

, and the functional

values over S

n

are replica of those in the other branches. The strip

S

0

= z = x +iy[ < y is called the principal branch of e

z

.

Logarithmic Function. The logarithmic function w = ln z can be

dened in terms of the exponential function as e

w

= z. Let w = u + iv,

then z = re

i

= e

w

= e

u+iv

= e

u

e

iv

. By comparison, we have u = ln r =

log

e

[z[, v = =

0

+ 2n, where = arg(z), <

0

= Arg(z)

, n = 0, 1, 2, . In short, lnz = ln[z[ + i[Arg(z) + 2n] with

n = 0, 1, 2, . The principal branch of lnz is dened as Ln z =

ln[z[ +iArg(z).

If a point is rotated counterclockwise in the z-plane along a circle

centered at the origin, it will return to where it starts. The value of

z remains the same, but the argument of z is incremented by 2, and

lnz is incremented by i2. It can be understood as if the point sweeps

across a branch cut and moves into another branch or another Riemann

sheet. The denition of the principal branch with < Arg(z)

implies that the branch cut is chosen at Arg(z) = . The branch cut

can be arbitrarily chosen for convenience. However, its position should

be xed throughout the whole derivation to maintain consistency. The

end points of a branch cut is called the branch points.

Note that Ln z is not continuous across the branch cut, Arg(z) ap-

proaches when z approaches the branch cut from the upper half-plane,

and Arg(z) approaches when z approaches the branch cut from the

lower half-plane, hence a discontinuity exists across the branch cut.

Other than the branch cut, Ln z is analytic in D = z[ z ,= 0, <

Arg(z) < .

The complex power z

as z

= e

ln z

which has an innite number of branches. The principal

branch can similarly be denoted as e

Ln z

.

Trigonometric and Hyperbolic Functions. The complex trigono-

metric functions can be extended from one of the denitions of real

8 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

trigonometric functions as

sinz =

e

iz

e

iz

2i

, cos z =

e

iz

+e

iz

2

, tanz =

sinz

cos z

cot z =

1

tanz

, sec z =

1

cos z

, csc z =

1

sinz

Likewise, the complex hyperbolic functions can be extended from their

real counterparts as

sinhz =

e

z

e

z

2

, cosh z =

e

z

+e

z

2

, tanhz =

sinhz

cosh z

cothz =

1

tanhz

, sech z =

1

coshz

, csch z =

1

sinh z

The same dierential rules for the real functions apply as

d

dz

sinz = cos z,

d

dz

cos z = sinz

d

dz

tanz = sec

2

z,

d

dz

cot z = csc

2

z

d

dz

sec z = sec z tanz,

d

dz

csc z = csc z cot z

d

dz

sinhz = cosh z,

d

dz

cosh z = sinhz

The inverse trigonometric functions can be dened in terms of the

complex trigonometric functions. For example, the inverse sinusoidal

function w = sin

1

z is equivalent to z = sinw. Thus, we have z =

sinw = (e

iw

e

iw

)/(2i), or e

2iw

2ize

iw

1 = 0. The solutions are

e

iw

= iz

1 z

2

= iz + (1 z

2

)

1/2

. Note that

is the principal

value of

1/2

.

By dierentiating both sides of z = sinw with respect to z, we have

1 = (d sinw/dw)(dw/dz) = cos w(dw/dz), or dw/dz = 1/ cos w = (1

z

2

)

1/2

.

5. Contour Integrals

The parametric representation of a curve in the z-plane is C = z[ z(t) =

x(t) + iy(t), a t b with t as the parameter. Curve C is a smooth

curve if x

(t) and y

wise smooth if C can be decomposed into pieces of smooth curves C

j

as

C =

n

j=1

C

j

. Curve C is called a simple curve if C does not cross itself.

Curve C is a closed curve if its starting point and ending point are the

same.

Complex Analysis 9

Figure 1.4. Partition of a contour in the z-plane.

A contour is dened as a piecewise smooth curve. Given a contour

C = z [ z(t) = x(t) +iy(t), a t b, and f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) is

a complex function dened at all points on C. Fig.1.4 shows that the

contour C is partitioned into many innitesimal curves as C =

n

j=1

C

j

with a = t

0

< t

1

< < t

n

= b. Let the value of z at t

k

be z

k

= z(t

k

)

with k = 0, 1, 2, , n, and z

k

= z

k

z

k1

with k = 1, 2, , n.

The mean-value theorem states that a z

k

on C

k

can be found such

that

_

C

k

f(z)dz = f( z

k

)z

k

where z

k

= z(

t

k

) with t

k1

t

k

t

k

. Dene

the norm of a partition as [[P[[ = [z

k

[

max

. The integral of a complex

function f(z) along the contour C can thus be calculated as

_

C

f(z)dz = lim

||P||0

n

k=1

f( z

k

)z

k

(1.3)

Expressing f(z) as u(x, y)+iv(x, y), then the contour integral in (1.3)

can be calculated as

_

C

f(z)dz = lim

||P||0

n

k=1

(u

k

+iv

k

)(x

k

+ iy

k

)

= lim

||P||0

n

k=1

[(u

k

x

k

v

k

y

k

) + i(v

k

x

k

+u

k

y

k

)]

=

_

C

(udx vdy) +i

_

C

(vdx + udy) (1.4)

which is the sum of two contour integrals of real functions. Furthermore,

if both x and y are expressed in terms of the parameter t, namely,

10 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

dx = x

(t)dt and dy = y

_

C

f(z)dz =

_

C

f[z(t)]z

(t)dt

=

_

C

_

u(x(t), y(t))x

(t)

dt

+i

_

C

_

v(x(t), y(t))x

(t)

dt

The dierential path length can be expressed as ds =

_

(dx)

2

+ (dy)

2

=

_

[x

(t)]

2

+ [y

(t)]

2

dt = [z

be expressed as L =

_

b

a

[z

(t)[dt.

ML Inequality. If C is a smooth curve with total length L, f(z) is

continuous on C and has a maximum value of M on C, we have

k=1

f( z

k

)z

k

k=1

[f( z

k

)[ [z

k

[ M

n

k=1

[z

k

[

M

n

k=1

L

k

= ML

In other words,

_

C

f(z)dz

lim

||P||0

n

k=1

f( z

k

)z

k

ferred to as the ML inequality.

Greens Theorem. Let domain D be simply connected, C is a

simple closed contour in D, R is the region enclosed by C, u(x, y) and

v(x, y) are functions whose rst derivatives are continuous in D. The

Greens theorem relates the contour integral of u(x, y) and v(x, y) with

the surface integral of their derivatives as

_

C

[u(x, y)dx +v(x, y)dy] =

__

R

_

v

x

u

y

_

dxdy (1.5)

By analog, consider a two-dimensional electric eld distribution

E(x, y) =

xu(x, y) + yv(x, y). The Stokes theorem states that

_

C

E d s =

__

R

E d a

where C is a closed contour on the xy-plane encircling a region R. The

expansion gives the same results as (1.5).

Complex Analysis 11

6. Cauchys Theorem

The Cauchys theorem states that if f(z) is analytic in a simply

connected domain D, and C is any simple closed contour in D, then

_

C

f(z)dz = 0.

The proof is straightforward. Since f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) is an-

alytic, the Cauchy-Riemann equations imply that u/x = v/y and

u/y = v/x. The contour integral thus is reduced to

_

C

f(z)dz =

_

C

(u + iv)(dx + idy) =

_

C

(udx vdy) +i

_

C

(vdx +udy)

=

__

R

_

v

x

u

y

_

dxdy + i

__

R

_

u

x

v

y

_

dxdy = 0

where the Greens theorem is applied to transform the contour integrals

into surface integrals.

Figure 1.5. Close contours in domain D with two holes.

Contour Deformation. If f(z) is analytic in a domain D which has

a hole as shown in Fig.1.5. Assume C and C

1

are simple closed contours

such that C

1

encloses the hole and is interior to C. A new contour K

can be dened by connecting C and C

1

with two line segments AB and

BA. Hence, f(z) is analytic on and within contour K, which implies

that

_

K

f(z)dz =

_

_

_

_

C

+

_

AB

+

_

C

1

+

_

BA

_

_

_f(z)dz = 0

12 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

Since the integrals along AB and BA, respectively, cancel each other,

we have

_

C

f(z)dz =

_

C

1

f(z)dz =

_

C

1

f(z)dz

This implies that the contour of integration can be deformed arbitrarily

as long as it stays in the domain D.

In case the domain D contains multiple holes as shown in Fig.1.5, the

contour C encloses all the holes, while contour C

k

encloses the kth hole.

Pairs of overlapping line segments are placed to link all the C

k

contours

to C to form a closed contour K which encloses no holes, and f(z) is

analytic on and within the contour K. By using the same argument, we

have

_

C

f(z)dz =

n

k=1

_

C

k

f(z)dz

This implies that a closed contour can be deformed arbitrarily into a

number of closed contours, with each one enclosing a hole.

Figure 1.6. Contours with the same starting and ending points.

Fig.1.6 shows two separate contours, C

1

and C

2

, both are drawn from

z

0

to z

1

. A closed contour K can be dened as the concatenation of C

1

and C

2

. Assume there is no hole within K, thus no hole is encountered

when contour C

1

is deformed into C

2

. Then, the Cauchys theorem

implies that

_

K

f(z)dz =

_

C

1

f(z)dz +

_

C

2

f(z)dz =

_

C

1

f(z)dz

_

C

2

f(z)dz = 0

or

_

C

1

f(z)dz =

_

C

2

f(z)dz. This implies that the contour integral depends

only on the end points, and the contour of integration can be deformed

arbitrarily as long as it does not cross any hole.

Complex Analysis 13

Existence of Antiderivative. The rules of contour integration are

similar to those of one-dimensional integration of real functions. For

example,

F(z) =

_

f(z)dz is the antiderivative of f(z)

if and only if F

_

C

f(z)dz =

_

z

1

z

0

f(z)dz = F(z

1

) F(z

0

)

_

C

f(z)dz =

b

_

a

F

[z(t)]z

(t)dt =

_

b

a

d

dt

F[z(t)]dt

= F[z(t)][

t=b

t=a

= F[z(b)] F[z(a)] = F(z

1

) F(z

0

)

where z = z

0

at t = a and z = z

1

at t = b.

Assume f(z) is analytic in D, let z

0

be a xed point in D, and z be

any point in D. Dene F(z) =

_

z

z

0

f(s)ds, then

F(z + z) F(z) =

_

z+z

z

0

f(s)ds

_

z

z

0

f(s)ds =

_

z+z

z

f(s)ds

and

F(z + z) F(z)

z

f(z) =

1

z

_

z+z

z

[f(s) f(z)] ds (1.6)

Since f(z) is analytic at z, it is also continuous at z. Thus, for any > 0,

there exists a > 0 such that [f(s) f(z)[ < whenever [s z[ < .

Choosing z such that [z[ < , (1.6) can be reduced to

F(z + z) F(z)

z

f(z)

1

z

_

z+z

z

[f(s) f(z)] ds

<

1

[z[

[z[ =

Thus, we have F

(z) = lim

z0

F(z + z) F(z)

z

= f(z) for all z in D.

7. Cauchys Integral Formula

If f(z) is analytic in a simply connected domain D, C is a simple closed

contour in D, z

0

is any point within C, then f(z

0

) =

1

2i

_

C

f(z)

z z

0

dz,

which is the Cauchys integral formula.

14 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

Since f(z) is analytic in D,

f(z)

z z

0

is analytic in D except at z = z

0

.

Let C

1

= z [ [z z

0

[ = r be a circle within C, then the contour of

integration C can be deformed to C

1

. Thus, we have

_

C

f(z)

z z

0

dz =

_

C

1

f(z)

z z

0

dz =

_

C

1

f(z

0

) + f(z) f(z

0

)

z z

0

dz

= f(z

0

)

_

C

1

dz

z z

0

+

_

C

1

f(z) f(z

0

)

z z

0

dz = 2if(z

0

)

The last step can be proved as follows. Since f(z) is analytic at z

0

,

it is continuous at z

0

. For any > 0, there exists a > 0 such that

[f(z) f(z

0

)[ < whenever [z z

0

[ < . The radius of C

1

is chosen to

be /2, namely, [z z

0

[ = /2. Thus, [[f(z) f(z

0

)]/(z z

0

)[ /(/2)

for z on C

1

, hence

_

C

1

f(z) f(z

0

)

z z

0

dz

_

/2

__

2

2

_

= 2 which

can be arbitrarily small. On C

1

, z = z

0

+ (/2)e

i

, dz = i(/2)e

i

d,

hence

_

C

1

dz

z z

0

= 2i.

The Cauchys integral formula can be extended to the derivatives of

any analytic function. Let f(z) be analytic in a simply connected domain

D, C is a simple closed contour in D, z

0

is any point interior to C, then

f

(n)

(z

0

) =

n!

2i

_

C

f(z)

(z z

0

)

n+1

dz (1.7)

To prove by induction, rst check the case with n = 1 as follows.

f

(z

0

) = lim

z0

1

z

[f(z

0

+ z) f(z

0

)]

= lim

z0

1

z

1

2i

_

_

_

C

f(z)

z (z

0

+ z)

dz

_

C

f(z)

z z

0

dz

_

_

=

1

2i

lim

z0

_

C

f(z)

_

1

z

_

1

z z

0

z

1

z z

0

__

dz

=

1

2i

_

C

f(z)

(z z

0

)

2

dz

+

1

2i

lim

z0

z

_

C

f(z)

(z z

0

z)(z z

0

)

2

dz (1.8)

Complex Analysis 15

where the identity [1/(z z

0

z) 1/(z z

0

)]/z = 1/(z z

0

)

2

+

z/[(zz

0

z)(zz

0

)

2

] has been used. Since f(z) is analytic in D, it is

continuous and bounded on C, namely, [f(z)[ M for all z on C. Let

be the shortest distance of [z z

0

[ among all zs on C, then [z z

0

[ ,

1/[z z

0

[

2

1/

2

, [f(z)[/[z z

0

[

2

M/

2

for all z on C. Choose

[z[ /2, then [z z

0

z[ [[z z

0

[ [z[[ [z[ /2,

1/[z z

0

z[ 2/ for all z on C, hence

z

_

C

f(z)

(z z

0

z)(z z

0

)

2

dz

[z[

_

2

__

M

2

_

L

= 2ML

[z[

3

=

where L is the length of C, and can be arbitrarily small if z ap-

proaches zero faster than

3

. Thus, the last term in (1.8) approaches

zero, and

f

(z

0

) =

1!

2i

_

C

f(z)

(z z

0

)

1+1

dz

The cases with n 2 can be proved in the same way.

If f(z) is analytic at z

0

, its nth derivative can be obtained from (1.7),

which implies that an analytic function possesses derivatives of any or-

der.

Liouvilles Theorem. Let the contour of integration C in (1.7) be a

circle with radius R and length L = 2R, namely, C = z[ [z z

0

[ = R.

Assume [f(z)[ M for z on C, then

[f

(n)

(z

0

)[ =

n!

2i

_

C

f(z)

(z z

0

)

n+1

dz

=

n!

2

_

C

f(z)

(z z

0

)

n+1

dz

n!

2

_

M

R

n+1

_

(2R) =

n!M

R

n

which is named the Cauchy inequality.

If f(z) is a bounded entire function with [f(z)[ M for all z, the

Cauchy inequality implies that [f

(z

0

)[ M/R. Let R approach innity,

then [f

(z

0

)[ approaches zero for all z

0

, which implies that f(z) is a

constant. In other words, the only bounded entire function is a constant.

8. Taylor Series

Complex Sequence. A complex sequence is a set of complex num-

bers z

n

s arranged in order with integer index n, denoted as z

n

. This

16 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

sequence converges to a complex number L, expressed as z

n

L or

lim

n

z

n

= L, if and only if for any given innitesimal > 0, there exists

a positive integer N such that [z

n

L[ < for n > N. The sequence z

n

two real sequences x

n

and y

n

where z

n

= x

n

+iy

n

. Let L = a +ib,

then z

n

L implies that x

n

a and y

n

b.

Complex Series. The nth partial sum of a given complex sequence

z

n

is dened as S

n

=

n

k=1

z

k

. If the limit of the nth partial sum as

n exists, it is called the series of the sequence z

n

, denoted as

S

= lim

n

S

n

=

k=1

z

k

. The nth partial sum diverges if it does not

converge.

Geometric Series. If the sequence z

n

is consisted of consecutive

powers of a given complex number, namely, z

n

= z

n1

, then its asso-

ciated series is called a geometric series. The nth partial sum of the

geometric sequence can be calculated as S

n

= (1 z

n

)/(1 z), and will

converge to 1/(1 z) if [z[ < 1.

Note that if the sequence z

n

converges to a nonzero number c, the

nth partial sum, with n greater than a threshold N, will be incremented

by c whenever n is incremented by one. Thus, the series will diverge.

A series

k=1

z

k

is called absolutely convergent if the series formed of

the absolute value of the original sequence converges, namely,

k=1

[z

k

[

converges. It is obvious that the original series converges if it is abso-

lutely convergent, but not vice versa.

Convergence Tests. Ratio test and root test are two alternative

techniques to check the convergence of a sequence. In the ratio test, the

limit of two consequent terms in a sequence is calculated as lim

n

z

n+1

z

n

=

L. In the root test, the nth root of the nth term is calculated as

lim

n

n

_

[z

n

[ = L. In either test, the series

k=1

z

k

is absolutely conver-

gent if L < 1, is divergent if L > 1, and is inconclusive if L = 1.

Power Series. Let z

0

, a

0

, a

1

, , a

k

, be given complex numbers.

The summation

k=0

a

k

(z z

0

)

k

is called a power series in (z z

0

), with

center at z

0

.

Complex Analysis 17

By applying the ratio test, the power series is absolutely convergent if

lim

n

a

n+1

(z z

0

)

n+1

a

n

(z z

0

)

n

= lim

n

a

n+1

a

n

[z z

0

[ < 1. Denote lim

n

a

n+1

a

n

=

L, then the power series is absolutely convergent in the domain [z z

0

[ <

R = 1/L. The number R is thus called the radius of convergence.

Similarly, by applying the root test, the power series is absolutely con-

vergent if lim

n

n

_

[a

n

[[z z

0

[

n

=

n

_

[a

n

[ [z z

0

[ < 1. Denote lim

n

n

_

[a

n

[ =

L, then the power series is absolutely convergent in the domain [z z

0

[ <

R = 1/L.

In either test, the power series diverges in the domain [z z

0

[ > R.

The power series is either divergent or convergent at dierent points on

the circle [z z

0

[ = R.

Taylors Theorem. Consider a function f(z) which is analytic in

domain D, and z

0

is a point in D. The function f(z) has a unique Taylor

series representation f(z) =

k=0

f

(k)

(z

0

)

k!

(zz

0

)

k

with [zz

0

[ < R, where

R is the radius of convergence. Let C = s[ [s z

0

[ = R be the circle

with center z

0

and radius R, which lies entirely within D. Assume that

z is a xed point inside C and s is a variable point on C. First, expand

the fractional term 1/(s z) as

1

s z

=

1

(s z

0

) (z z

0

)

=

1

(s z

0

)

_

1

z z

0

s z

0

_

1

=

1

s z

0

k=0

_

z z

0

s z

0

_

k

=

k=0

(z z

0

)

k

(s z

0

)

k+1

Next, substitute this expansion into the Cauchys integral formula to

have

f(z) =

1

2i

_

C

f(s)

s z

ds =

1

2i

_

C

f(s)

k=0

(z z

0

)

k

(s z

0

)

k+1

ds

=

k=0

_

_

1

2i

_

C

f(s)

(s z

0

)

k+1

ds

_

_

(z z

0

)

k

=

k=0

f

(k)

(z

0

)

k!

(z z

0

)

k

Thus, we obtain the Taylor series of f(z) as f(z) =

k=0

a

k

(z z

0

)

k

with

the coecients a

k

= f

(k)

(z

0

)/k!. The Taylor series is valid in [zz

0

[ < R

in which f(z) is analytic.

Note that the radius of convergence R can be determined either by

applying the convergence test to the Taylor series or by directly letting

18 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

R = [z

s

z

0

[ where z

s

is the closest singularity of f(z) from z

0

. Since

the power series expansion of a function is unique, any power series

expression of f(z) in [z z

0

[ < R must be the Taylor series of f(z)

about z

0

.

A given function f(z) may possess dierent series forms in dierent

domains. For example, consider the function 1/(1 z) which has a

singularity at z = 1. When expanded about z = 0, we have

1

1 z

=

k=0

z

k

, which is valid in [z 0[ < 1. Note that the distance between the

singularity and the center is unity. When expanded about z = 2i, we

have

1

1 z

=

1

(1 2i) (z 2i)

=

1

(1 2i) [1 (z 2i)/(1 2i)]

=

1

1 2i

k=0

_

z 2i

1 2i

_

k

=

k=0

(z 2i)

k

(1 2i)

k+1

which is valid in [z 2i[ <

singularity and the center is

5.

Figure 1.7. Expansion of 1/(1 z) in dierent domains.

9. Laurent Series

If f(z) is not analytic at z

0

but is analytic in the -neighborhood of

z

0

, N

(z

0

), then z

0

is called an isolated singularity of f(z). If f(z) is not

analytic at z

0

, and every N

(z

0

) contains at least one singularity other

than z

0

, then z

0

ia called a nonisolated singularity of f(z).

Complex Analysis 19

Laurents Theorem. If z

0

is an isolated singularity of f(z), then a

Laurent series expansion of f(z) about z

0

exists and has the form

f(z) =

k=1

a

k

(z z

0

)

k

+

k=0

a

k

(z z

0

)

k

By applying the convergence test, the rst part on the right-hand side

converges in [1/(z z

0

)[ < R or [z z

0

[ > 1/R = R

1

, and the second

part on the right-hand side converges in [z z

0

[ < R

2

. Thus, the overall

series converges in an annular domain R

1

< [z z

0

[ < R

2

.

The Laurent coecients of f(z) at z

0

are a

k

=

1

2i

_

C

f(z)

(z z

0

)

k+1

dz

with k = 0, 1, 2, , where C is any simple closed contour that lies

entirely within D and encloses z

0

.

Figure 1.8. Contours enclosing a hole in domain D.

Fig.1.8 shows two circles C

i

= s[ [s z

0

[ = r

i

, centered at z

0

with

R

1

< r

1

< r

2

< R

2

. A closed contour K is dened by linking C

1

and C

2

with two overlapping lines. Then, f(z) is analytic on and within K. Let

z be a point in D, and s be a point on C

1

or C

2

. The Cauchys integral

formula gives

f(z) =

1

2i

_

K

f(s)

s z

ds =

1

2i

_

C

2

f(s)

s z

ds

1

2i

_

C

1

f(s)

s z

ds

Note that the contributions over the two overlapping lines cancel each

other.

Since [(z z

0

)/(s z

0

)[ < 1 on C

2

, 1/(s z) can be expanded as

1

s z

=

1

(s z

0

) (z z

0

)

=

1

(s z

0

) [1 (z z

0

)/(s z

0

)]

20 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

=

1

s z

0

k=0

_

z z

0

s z

0

_

k

=

k=0

(z z

0

)

k

(s z

0

)

k+1

Thus, we have

1

2i

_

C

2

f(s)

s z

ds =

1

2i

_

C

2

_

k=0

(z z

0

)

k

(s z

0

)

k+1

_

f(s)ds =

k=0

a

k

(z z

0

)

k

where a

k

=

1

2i

_

C

2

f(s)

(s z

0

)

k+1

ds with k = 0, 1, 2, .

Since [(s z

0

)/(z z

0

)[ < 1 on C

1

, 1/(s z) can be expanded as

1

s z

=

1

(s z

0

) (z z

0

)

=

1

(z z

0

) [1 (s z

0

)/(z z

0

)]

=

_

1

z z

0

_

k=0

_

s z

0

z z

0

_

k

=

k=0

(s z

0

)

k

(z z

0

)

k+1

=

m=1

(s z

0

)

m1

(z z

0

)

m

Thus, we have

1

2i

_

C

1

f(s)

s z

ds =

1

2i

_

C

1

_

m=1

(s z

0

)

m1

(z z

0

)

m

_

f(s)ds

=

m=1

a

m

(z z

0

)

m

=

k=1

a

k

(z z

0

)

k

where a

k

=

1

2i

_

C

1

f(s)

(s z

0

)

k+1

ds with k = 1, 2, .

Combining both contributions on C

1

and C

2

, we have

f(z) =

k=

a

k

(z z

0

)

k

where a

k

=

1

2i

_

C

f(s)

(s z

0

)

k+1

ds with k = 0, 1, 2, . Note that both

C

1

and C

2

are deformed to the same contour C without crossing z

0

.

In the Laurent series expansion of f(z), the part that contains the

singularity at z

0

,

k=1

a

k

(z z

0

)

k

, is called the principal part of f(z) at

Complex Analysis 21

z

0

. The point z

o

is called a removable singularity if a

k

= 0 for k > 0.

It is called a pole of order n if a

n

,= 0 and a

k

= 0 for k > n. It is

called a simple pole if the order n is equal to one. It is called an essential

singularity if a

k

,= 0 for k > 0.

Zero. The point z

0

is called the zero of f(z) if f(z

0

) = 0. It is called

an nth-order zero of f(z) if f(z

0

) = f

(z

0

) = = f

(n1)

(z

0

) = 0 but

f

(n)

(z

0

) ,= 0. In this case, f(z) can be factored as (z z

0

)

n

g(z) with

g(z

0

) ,= 0.

The point z

0

is called an isolated zero if f(z

0

) = 0 but f(z) ,= 0 for

all z in N

(z

0

). By denition, 1/f(z) has an isolated singularity at z

0

.

If both f(z) and g(z) are analytic at z

0

, f(z) has an nth-order zero

at z

0

, and g(z

0

) ,= 0, then g(z)/f(z) has a pole of order n at z

0

.

10. Residue Theorem

The residue of f(z) at z

0

is dened as Res[f(z), z

0

] = a

1

[f(z), z

0

]

which is the coecient of the (z z

0

)

1

term in the Laurent series

expansion of f(z) about z

0

.

If f(z) has a pole of order n at z

0

, then the Laurent series expansion

of f(z) about z

0

has the form

f(z) =

a

n

(z z

0

)

n

+ +

a

1

z z

0

+ a

0

+a

1

(z z

0

) +

with 0 < [z z

0

[ < R. The coecient a

1

can be obtained by rst

multiplying f(z) by (z z

0

)

n

to have

g(z) = (z z

0

)

n

f(z) = a

n

+

+a

1

(z z

0

)

n1

+a

0

(z z

0

)

n

+a

1

(z z

0

)

n+1

+

Then, take the (n 1)st derivative to have

d

n1

dz

n1

g(z) = (n 1)!a

1

+ n!a

0

(z z

0

) +

Next, take the limit of z z

0

to have

lim

zz

0

d

n1

dz

n1

g(z) = (n 1)!a

1

= (n 1)!Res[f(z), z

0

]

In summary, the residue can be calculated as

Res[f(z), z

0

] =

1

(n 1)!

lim

zz

0

d

n1

dz

n1

[(z z

0

)

n

f(z)]

In the special case that f(z) has a simple pole at z

0

, the residue can

be calculated as lim

zz

0

(z z

0

)f(z). If f(z) = g(z)/h(z) where both g(z)

22 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

and h(z) are analytic at z

0

, g(z

0

) ,= 0, and h(z) has a simple zero at z

0

,

then

Res[f(z), z

0

] = lim

zz

0

(z z

0

)

g(z)

h(z)

= lim

zz

0

g(z)

_

h(z) h(z

0

)

z z

0

_

1

=

g(z

0

)

h

(z

0

)

Figure 1.9. Closed contour that encloses n poles.

As shown in Fig.1.9, D is a simply connected domain, C is a simple

closed contour lying entirely within D, f(z) is analytic in D except at

n isolated singularities z

1

, z

2

, . . . , z

n

within C. Dene C

k

= z[ [z

z

k

[ = r

k

, a circle centered at z

k

with radius r

k

, where k = 1, 2, , n.

Two overlapping lines are dened to link two adjacent circles to form a

simple closed coutour K which encloses no singularities. Since f(z) is

analytic on and within K, the contour integration along K is zero. The

integrations along two overlapping lines cancel each other. Hence, we

have

_

K

f(z)dz =

_

_

_

_

C

+

n

k=1

_

C

k

_

_

_f(z)dz = 0

Since f(z) can be expanded as a Laurent series about z

k

, we have

_

C

k

f(z)dz =

_

C

k

n=

a

n

(z z

k

)

n

dz =

n=

a

n

_

C

k

(z z

k

)

n

dz

=

n=

a

n

2i

n,1

= 2ia

1

= 2iRes[f(z), z

k

]

Complex Analysis 23

Thus, it is proved that

_

C

f(z)dz = 2i

n

k=1

Res[f(z), z

k

]

11. Improper Integrals

Consider a denite integral with unbounded interval as

_

f(x)dx.

Such an integral can render dierent values or diverge if the upper and

lower bounds are approached at dierent rates, for example,

_

f(x)dx = lim

r

_

0

r

f(x)dx + lim

R

_

R

0

f(x)dx

The Cauchy principal value is dened by assuming that the upper and

the lower bounds approach innity at the same rate, namely,

PV

_

f(x)dx = lim

R

_

R

R

f(x)dx

The concept of principal value may also be extended to dene def-

inite integrals with singularities lying along the integration path. For

example, let f(x) = P(x)/Q(x) be a rational function of x where both

P(x) and Q(x) are polynomial functions of x with real coecients, and

Q(x) ,= 0 for all real x. Let z

k

with 1 k n be poles of f(z) in the

upper half-plane as shown in Fig.1.10. The original integration path is

L : R < x < R. A semicircle C

R

: z = Re

i

with 0 can be

attached to L to form a closed contour C. The radius R is chosen large

enough to enclose all the poles of f(z), namely, [z

k

[ < R with 1 k n.

Figure 1.10. Contours dened to evaluate improper integrals, (a) all poles lie in the

upper half-plane, (b) some poles appear on the real axis.

24 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

By applying the residue theorem, we have

_

R

R

f(z)dz +

_

C

R

f(z)dz =

_

C

f(z)dz = 2i

n

k=1

Res[f(z), z

k

](1.9)

Impose the additional condition that deg[Q(z)] deg[z

2

P(z)], which

renders [P(z)/Q(z)[ M/[z

2

[ = M/R

2

for z on C

R

. The ML inequality

implies that

_

C

R

f(z)dz

_

C

R

P(z)

Q(z)

dz

M

R

2

_

C

R

dz

=

M

R

which vanishes as R approaches innity. Thus, (1.9) is reduced to

PV

_

f(x)dx = 2i

n

k=1

Res[f(z), z

k

]

Next, consider the case that f(z) = P(z)/Q(z) possesses simple poles

x

half-plane, z

k

with 1 k n. Referring to Fig.1.10(b), the principal

value of

_

f(x)dx is dened as

PV

_

f(x)dx = lim

_

_

x

1

1

R

+

m1

=1

_

x

+1

+1

x

+

_

R

xm+m

_

f(x)dx

(1.10)

where the limit is understood as R and

0 with 1 m.

A closed contour is formed which consists of the same semicircle C

R

as

in the previous case and m small semicircles C

s with 1 m. By

imposing the condition that deg[Q(z)] deg[z

2

P(z)], the integration

along C

R

vanishes as R approaches innity. In the neighborhood of x

,

f(z) can be approximated as g

(z)/(z x

) with g

Assuming z = x

e

i

with varying from to 0, the integration along

C

can be reduced to

_

C

f(z)dz =

_

0

(x

e

i

)

e

i

i

e

i

d

which approaches ig

(x

) as

(x

) =

Res[f(z), x

PV

_

f(x)dx = 2i

_

n

k=1

Res[f(z), z

k

] +

1

2

m

=1

Res[f(z), x

]

_

Complex Analysis 25

Kramers-Kronig Relation. Consider a linear, temporally disper-

sive medium, the electric ux density caused by the eld induced po-

larization satises the causality condition, and can be expressed as an

integral equation

D(t) =

0

E(t) +

_

t

d

0

e

(t )

E()

=

0

E(t) +

0

_

0

d

e

()

E(t )

where

e

is the susceptibility. By applying the Fourier transforms

D(t) =

_

d

D()e

it

and

E(t) =

_

d

E()e

it

, we have

D() = ()

E()

with () =

0

_

1 +

_

0

d

e

()e

i

_

.

The Jordans lemma states that if lim

R

Rf(Re

i

) = 0 with 0 < < ,

then lim

R

_

C

R

dsf(s) = 0, where C

R

is a semicircle of radius R in the

upper half s-plane.

Figure 1.11. Contour of integration in the s plane.

Consider the integration of f(s) =

(s)

s

over the closed contour

C as shown in Fig.1.11, where

R

. Since there

are no singularities inside the contour C,

_

C

(s)

s

ds = 0. Since the

function f(s) satises the Jordans lemma, the integration of f(s) over

C

R

vanishes. Hence, the integration over the closed contour C reduces

26 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

to

PV

_

(s)

s

ds +

_

C

(s)

s

ds = 0

Let s = +e

i

with changing from to 0, the second term is reduced

to i[()

]. Thus, we have PV

_

(s)

s

ds = i[()

],

which can be separated into the imaginary and the real parts, respec-

tively,

()

=

1

PV

_

(s)

s

ds

() =

1

PV

_

(s)

s

ds

where (s) =

(s) +j

transform and the inverse Hilbert transform, respectively.

Landau Damping. Consider an ensemble of non-interacting elec-

trons immersed in a neutralized ion background and are only allowed to

move in the z direction. Let the trajectory of an electron be z = z

0

+vt,

where the initial position z

0

is uniformly distributed in a uniform plasma,

and v follows a distribution f(v) such as Maxwell-Boltzmann distribu-

tion f(v) =

_

m

2T

e

mv

2

/2T

, where is the Boltzmann constant, and

T is the temperature in Kelvin.

If an electric eld E(z, t) = E

0

cos(t kz) is turned on at t = 0, the

trajectory of the electron is modied as

z = z

0

+ vt +z

1

+ z

2

+ (1.11)

where we assume z

1

E

0

, z

2

E

2

0

, and z

2

z

1

. The initial conditions

at t = 0 are z = z

0

and z = v. Thus, the initial conditions for z

1

and z

2

are z

1

= z

1

= 0 and z

2

= z

2

= 0, respectively. The electron follows the

equation of motion

m z = eE

0

cos(t kz) (1.12)

Substituting (1.11) into (1.12), we have

m( z

1

+ z

2

) = eE

0

cos[( kv)t kz

0

]

eE

0

kz

1

sin[( kv)t kz

0

] +O(E

3

0

)

The solutions are

z

1

=

eE

0

m( kv)

_

cos kz

0

cos[( kv)t kz

0

]

kv

+t sin kz

0

_

Complex Analysis 27

z

2

=

eE

0

kz

1

m

sin[( kv)t kz

0

] (1.13)

The temporal rate of kinetic energy can be calculated as

d

dt

(KE) =

d

dt

_

1

2

m z

2

_

= m z z

= mv z

1

+m z

1

z

1

+mv z

2

+O(E

3

0

) (1.14)

Substituting (1.13) into (1.14), then taking the ensemble average over

z

0

, we have

_

d

dt

(KE)

_

z

0

=

e

2

E

2

0

2m

_

sin[( kv)t]

( kv)

2

kvt

kv

cos[( kv)t]

_

(1.15)

Next, calculate the ensemble average of (1.15) over v. When t is large,

both sin[(kv)t] and cos[(kv)t] change rapidly with v except near

kv = 0, around which the velocity distribution can be approximated

as f(v) f(/k)

kv

k

f

in (1.15) can be approximated as

PV

_

sin[( kv)t]

( kv)

2

f(v)dv

f(/k)PV

_

sin[( kv)t]

( kv)

2

dv

k

f

(/k)PV

_

sin[( kv)t]

kv

dv (1.16)

The rst term in (1.16) vanishes by symmetry. With the contour shown

in Fig.1.12, the second term in (1.16) is calculated as

PV

_

sin[( kv)t]

kv

dv = ImPV

_

e

i(kv)t

kv

dv

= Im

_

_

_

C

_

C

_

e

i(kv)t

kv

dv = Im

_

C

e

i(kv)t

kv

dv = /k

when k > 0. The result will be /k when k < 0 by following the same

procedure. The average over v of the second term in (1.15) is zero by

the same approach.

In summary, the average temporal rate of kinetic energy is

_

d

dt

(KE)

_

z

0

,v

=

e

2

E

2

0

2mk[k[

f

(/k)

28 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

The electrons gain energy from the wave if f

nomenon is called Landau damping.

Figure 1.12. Contour of integration in the v plane.

12. Inverse Laplace Transform

Figure 1.13. Contour dened to evaluate inverse Laplace transform which (a) ex-

cludes singularities, (b) encloses singularities.

The Laplace transform of a unilateral function f(t) dened over t 0

is

F(s) = Lf(t) =

_

0

e

st

f(t)dt

Symbolically, f(t) can be recovered by applying the inverse Laplace

transform as u(t)f(t) = L

1

F(s), where a unit step function u(t) is

multiplied to emphasize the fact that f(t) is dened only over t 0.

Complex Analysis 29

The Laplace transform of e

zt

can be calculated as

Le

zt

=

_

0

e

st

e

zt

dt =

_

0

e

(sz)t

dt = lim

R

_

R

0

e

(sz)t

dt

= lim

R

1 e

(sz)R

s z

=

1

s z

provided that Re(sz) > 0. By denition, it is claimed that L

1

_

1

s z

_

=

e

zt

.

Computational Procedure. Let F(z) be the Laplace transform

of f(t), which is analytic in the domain D

1

= z[ Re(z) > a, and

lim

|z|

[F(z)[ = 0. An integration path along z = a is chosen as shown in

Fig.1.13(a) to evaluate the inverse Laplace transform. Dene a closed

contour C

1

which consists of the straight line extending from a iR to

a+iR and a semicircle C

R

centered at a+i0 with radius R. By applying

the Cauchys integral formula, we have

2iF(s) =

_

C

1

F(z)

z s

dz =

_

_

_

_

a+iR

aiR

+

_

C

R

_

_

_

F(z)

z s

dz

where s lies within C

1

. The minus sign is due to the integration along

C

1

in the clockwise sense. The integration along C

R

vanishes due to

the assumption that lim

|z|

[F(z)[ = 0. Thus, by taking the limit that

R , we have

F(s) =

1

2i

_

a+i

ai

F(z)

s z

dz (1.17)

Substituting (1.17) into the denition of the inverse Laplace trans-

form, we have

u(t)f(t) = L

1

F(s) = L

1

1

2i

_

a+i

ai

F(z)

s z

dz

=

1

2i

_

a+i

ai

F(z)

_

L

1

_

1

s z

__

dz =

1

2i

_

a+i

ai

F(z)e

zt

dz

which provides a procedure to compute the inverse Laplace transform.

Residue Technique. Let F(z) be analytic over the entire complex

plane except at a nite number of poles z

k

with 1 k n, distributed

in D

2

= z[ Re(z) < a, and [zF(z)[ M for [z[ R. Dene a closed

contour C

2

as shown in Fig.1.13(b), which consists of the integration

30 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

path from a iR to a +iR and a semicircle C

R

centered at a +i0 with

radius R.

By applying the residue theorem, the contour integration of F(z)e

zt

along C

2

is equal to

n

k=1

Res[F(z)e

zt

, z

k

]. Since [zF(z)[ M for [z[ R,

the integration of F(z)e

zt

along C

R

vanishes. Thus, we have

u(t)f(t) =

1

2i

_

a+i

ai

F(z)e

zt

dz =

n

k=1

Res[F(z)e

zt

, z

k

]

Waves in Polarizable Medium. Consider a plane wave

E =

xE

0

e

ikzit

incident from free space in z < 0 to a polarizable half-space

in z > 0. The polarizable medium can be characterized by its polariza-

tion density

P =

2

p

2

0

2

i

0

E, where

p

,

0

, and are the plasma

frequency, resonant frequency, and dissipation coecient, respectively,

of the medium. The polarization density is related to the electric eld

by

P = (

r

1)

0

E, where

0

is the permittivity of free space, and

r

is

the relative permittivity of the medium. Thus, the relative permittivity

can be expressed as

r

() = 1 +

2

p

2

0

2

i

This expression can be generalized from the real axis to the complex

s domain by analytic continuation, with the substitution of s = i.

Thus, we have

r

(s) = 1 +

2

p

s

2

+ s +

2

0

(1.18)

Without loss of generality, assume that the wave polarization is not

changed at incidence. Normalize the amplitude of the incident plane

wave such that the eld at z = 0+ equals e

it

when t > 0, and equals

zero when t < 0. Thus, the boundary condition of the wave function

f(z, t) can be expressed as

f(0+, t) =

1

2i

_

a+i

ai

e

st

s +i

ds

where a > 0.

The wave function f(z, t) satises the wave equation

2

f

z

2

r

c

2

2

f

t

2

= 0

Complex Analysis 31

where c is the speed of light in free space. The elementary wave function

e

s(t

rz/c)

satises the wave equation, hence the superposition

f(z, t) =

1

2i

_

a+i

ai

e

s(t

rz/c)

s + i

ds (1.19)

satises the wave equation and the boundary condition at z = 0+.

If

r

is a constant, the integral in (1.19) becomes e

i(t

rz/c)

when

t

r

z/c > 0, and equals zero when t

r

z/c < 0. In general,

r

is

a function of s as shown in (1.18). Thus, (1.19) can be rephrased as

f(z, t) =

1

2i

_

a+i

ai

e

s[t

r(s)z/c]

s + i

ds (1.20)

where

_

r

(s) =

s

2

+s +

2

0

+

2

p

s

2

+s +

2

0

(1.21)

Figure 1.14. Contour deformation to calculate the wave form.

Note that

_

r

(s) approaches 1 as s approaches i. If t z/c < 0,

append a semicircle of innite radius to the right of the integration path

to form a closed contour. Since all the singularities are excluded from

the closed contour, f(z, t) = 0, which implies that the speed of the wave

front does not exceed the speed of light in free space.

If t z/c > 0, append a semicircle of innite radius to the left of

the integration path to form a closed contour. The singularities inside

the contour include the pole at s = i and the branch cuts associated

with

_

r

(s). By setting

r

(s) = and

r

(s) = 0, respectively, the

32 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

branch points of

_

r

(s) are determined as a

= /2 i

_

2

0

(/2)

2

and b

= /2 i

_

2

0

+

2

p

(/2)

2

, respectively. Two branch cuts

are dened by linking a

+

to b

+

, and a

to b

contour can thus be deformed to C

0

, C

1

, and C

2

as shown in Fig.1.14.

Eqn.(1.20) can now be decomposed into two parts, f

0

(z, t) contributed

from C

0

and f

12

(z, t) contributed from C

1

and C

2

. Explicitly,

f

0

(z, t) = e

i[t

r(i)z/c]

s=i

= e

z

e

in(/c)zit

f

12

(z, t) =

1

2i

_

C

1

+C

2

e

s[t

r(s)z/c]

s +i

ds

where

_

r

(i) = n + i/(/c), n is the refractive index, is the

attenuation constant. The forced response f

0

(z, t) is calculated by using

the residue theorem, which has the same frequency as the incident wave,

and propagates at c/n, the speed of light in the dielectric medium.

The function f

12

(z, t) is a free response which decays with time. Note

that at t = z/c, f

12

(z, t) exhibits a nonzero value, the early part of this

wave propagates at the speed of light in free space, and is called the

precursor.

13. Conformal Mapping

Figure 1.15. Mapping from z-plane to w-plane.

A complex function w = f(z) can be viewed as a mapping or trans-

formation from the z-plane to the w-plane. As shown in Fig.1.15, curve

C is mapped to C

. Consider w = e

z

with D = z = x + iy[0 y as shown in Fig.1.16. A vertical line

z = a + it with xed a and 0 t is mapped to w = e

a

e

it

with

[w[ = e

a

and Arg(w) = t, which is a semicircle centered at the origin. A

horizontal line z = t + ib with xed b and < t < is mapped to

w = e

t

e

ib

with [w[ = e

t

and Arg(w) = b, which is a radial line emanating

from the origin.

Complex Analysis 33

Fig.1.17 shows the mapping of w = 1/z. Let z = x+iy and w = u+iv,

we have u = x/(x

2

+y

2

) and v = y/(x

2

+y

2

), or x = u/(u

2

+v

2

) and

y = v/(u

2

+ v

2

). A vertical line x = a in the z-plane is mapped to

a circle [u 1/(2a)]

2

+ v

2

= 1/(2a)

2

in the w-plane. A horizontal line

y = b in the z-plane is mapped to a circle u

2

+ [v + 1/(2b)]

2

= 1/(2b)

2

in the w-plane. Similaraly, a vertical or a horizontal line in the w-plane

is mapped to a circle in the z-plane.

Figure 1.16. Mapping of w = e

z

.

Figure 1.17. Mapping of w = 1/z.

Elementary Mappings. The function w = z + z

0

represents a

translation of z by an oset z

0

. The function w = e

i

0

z represents a

rotation of z by an angle

0

. The function w = rz with real r represents

a magnication of z by a factor r. Consider the power function w = z

i

, then w = r

e

i

, the amplitude is

magnied to the th power, and the angle is expanded by fold.

These mappings can be combined to form more complicated map-

pings. For example, w = (1 +i) +z/2 maps a unit circle in the z-plane

into a circle with radius 1/2 and centered at 1 +i in the w-plane. Take

another example, w = e

z/4

can be decomposed into = e

z

and w =

1/4

in sequence. The former maps the strip D = z = x + iy[0 y

34 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

into the upper half -plane, and the latter maps the upper half -plane

into the sectoral domain D

Figure 1.18. Angle-preserving mapping from z-plane to w-plane.

Angle-Preserving Mapping. Fig.1.18 shows two curves C

1

and C

2

in the z-plane, intersecting at z

0

, and the angle between the tangents

to C

1

and C

2

at z

0

is . The function w = f(z) maps C

1

and C

2

into

C

1

and C

2

, respectively, in the w-plane, intersecting at w

0

= f(z

0

), and

the angle between the tangents to C

1

and C

2

at w

0

is . The function

w = f(z) is called conformal at z

0

if = , namely, the magnitude and

sense of the intersecting angles are the same in both planes.

The tangent to C

1

at z

0

has the argument of lim

zz

0

Arg(z z

0

), the cor-

responding tangent to C

1

at w

0

has the argument of lim

zz

0

Arg(w w

0

),

which can be expressed as

lim

zz

0

Arg[f(z) f(z

0

)]/(z z

0

) + lim

zz

0

Arg(z z

0

)

= Arg[f

(z

0

)] + lim

zz

0

Arg(z z

0

)

Let the argument of the tangent to C

1

(C

2

) at w

0

be

1

(

2

), the as-

sociated argument of the tangent to C

1

(C

2

) at z

0

be

1

(

2

), we have

1

1

= Arg[f

(z

0

)] =

2

2

. Note that Arg[f

(z

0

)] can be uniquely

dened if f

(z

0

) ,= 0. Thus, =

2

1

=

2

1

= , implying that

the intersecting angle is preserved.

Fig.1.19 shows the mapping of applying w = sin z to a vertical strip

D = z = x+iy[/2 x /2. A vertical line z = a+it with <

t < is mapped to w = u+iv = sin(a+it) = sin a cosht +i cos a sinh t,

or

_

u

sina

_

2

_

v

cos a

_

2

= 1, which is a hyperbola. A horizontal line

z = t + ib with /2 t /2 is mapped to w = u + iv = sin(t +

ib) = sint cosh b + i cos t sinhb, or

_

u

cosh b

_

2

+

_

v

sinh b

_

2

= 1, which is

an ellipse.

Complex Analysis 35

Any of the horizontal lines is orthogonal to any of the vertical lines.

Thus, any of the mapped hyperbolas is orthogonal to any of the mapped

ellipses due to the conformal mapping, except at A

and D

where hy-

perbola and ellipse collapse to line segments with intersecting angle of

180

. Notice that f

Figure 1.19. Conformal mapping by w = sinz.

Boundary-Value Problem. Assume that p(x, y) is the solution

to the Laplaces equation

_

2

x

2

+

2

y

2

_

p(x, y) = 0 in domain D, with

xed value p = V

0

at the boundary C. If the geometry of D is not

amenable to direct problem-solving techniques, a proper conformal map-

ping w = f(z) may be considered to transformD to a more regular shape

D

Let w = u +iv. If P(u, v) is a harmonic function in D

, constitute

g(w) =

P

u

i

P

v

= U(u, v) +iV (u, v)

Since U/u = V/v and U/v = V/u, namely, U and V satisfy

the Cauchy-Riemann equations, hence g(w) is analytic. There exists an

antiderivative G(w) = P(u, v) +iQ(u, v) such that

G

(w) =

u

(P + iQ) =

P

u

i

P

v

By denition, G

G(u, v) = P(u, v) + iQ(u, v) is analytic in D

.

Let h(z) = G(f(z)) = P(f(z)) + iQ(f(z)), then h(z) is analytic in

D, and both p(x, y) = P(f(z)) and q(x, y) = Q(f(z)) are harmonic

functions in D.

Instead of solving the Laplaces equation in D directly, a harmonic

function P(u, v) in D

is

36 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

pursued rst. The function p(x, y) = P(f(z)) will automatically satisfy

the original equation and the original boundary condition.

Figure 1.20. Conformal mapping by w = sinz.

Consider the Laplaces equation

_

2

x

2

+

2

y

2

_

p(x, y) = 0 in the do-

mains shwon in Fig.1.20. The boundary conditions require that p = 1

over the contour OAB and p = 0 over the contour OEF. By applying

the mapping w = sin z, domain D in the z-plane is mapped into domain

D

,

A

, B

, E

, and F

in the w-plane is

_

2

u

2

+

2

v

2

_

P(u, v) = 0, and the associated bound-

ary condidtions are P(u < 0, v = 0) = 1 and P(u > 0, v = 0) = 0. The

imaginary part of the analytic function Lnw/ = (log

e

[w[ +iArgw) /

is a harmonic function which satises the required boundary conditions.

Thus, we obtain the solution P(u, v) = Argw/, and its functional form

in domain D is

p(x, y) = P(f(z)) = P(sinz) =

1

Arg(sinz)

=

1

1

tan

1

_

cos x sinhy

sinx cosh y

_

14. Potential and Streamline Functions

A two-dimensional vector eld

E(x, y) = xu(x, y) + yv(x, y) can be

expressed in a domain D in the z-plane as E(z) = u(x, y)+iv(x, y). If the

eld is divergence free and curl free, namely,

E = u/x+v/y = 0

and

E = z(v/x u/y) = 0, we have u/x = v/y and

u/y = v/x, which are the Cauchy-Riemann equations satised by

the analytic function F(z) = u(x, y) iv(x, y). On the other hand, if

F(z) is analytic in domain D, then E(z) = F

which is divergence free and curl free.

Complex Analysis 37

Let G(z) = (x, y) i(x, y) be the antiderivative of F(z), namely,

F(z) = u(x, y) iv(x, y) = G

(z) =

(x, y)

x

i

(x, y)

x

=

(x, y)

x

+ i

(x, y)

y

Thus, we have u(x, y) = (x, y)/x and v(x, y) = (x, y)/y, or

E(x, y) or F

an equipotential curve.

The eld lines of E(z) can be described as

dx

dt

= u(x, y),

dy

dt

= v(x, y) (1.22)

as if a charged particle were driven by the electric eld to move along a

specic eld line. Eq.(1.22) implies that dx/dy = u/v or vdxudy = 0.

Since /x = /y = v and /y = /x = u, vdxudy = 0

can be reduced to (/x)dx + (/y)dy = d = 0. In other words,

the designated eld line can be represented as a streamline = s with

s a real constant. The function (x, y) is called the streamline function

of E(z).

For example, consider an innitely long line charge with charge den-

sity of

z

0

. The electric eld can be derived from the electric Gauss law as

E(z) =

(z z

0

)

2

o

[z z

0

[

2

. The conjugate function F(z) = E

(z) =

2

o

(z z

0

)

is analytic in the z-plane except at z

0

. The antiderivative of F(z) is

G(z) =

2

o

Ln(z z

0

) =

2

o

[log

e

[z z

0

[ + iArg(z z

0

)]

of which the real part is the potential function and the imaginary part

is the streamline function as shown in Fig.1.21(a).

If two line charges of opposite polarity lie across the z-plane perpen-

dicularly at z

0

and z

0

, respectively. The analytic function conjugate

to the electric eld is F(z) =

2

o

(z z

0

)

2

o

(z + z

0

)

, and its an-

tiderivative is

G(z) =

2

o

_

log

e

z z

0

z +z

0

+ i[Arg(z z

0

) Arg(z +z

0

)]

_

of which the potential function and the streamline function are shown

in Fig.1.21(b). The equipotential curves are circles with center at a line

38 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

Figure 1.21. Equipotential lines (dashed) and streamlines (solid) of electric eld: (a)

of a line charge, (b) of two line charges with opposite polarity, (c) inside a coaxial

cable, and (d) inside a rectangular trough.

through z

0

and z

0

, the streamlines are another set of circles with center

at the y axis.

Next, consider the coaxial cable shown in Fig.1.21(c), where the inner

conductor is kept at potential V

0

while the outer conductor is grounded.

The potential satisfying these boundary conditions is (z) = V

0

log

e

([z[/b)

log

e

(a/b)

.

The associated electric eld is E(z) =

V

0

log

e

(a/b)

z

[z[

2

, and its com-

Complex Analysis 39

plex conjugate is F(z) =

V

0

log

e

(a/b)

1

z

. The antiderivative of F(z) is

G(z) =

V

0

log

e

(a/b)

Lnz =

V

0

log

e

(a/b)

[log

e

[z[ +iArg(z)], of which the imag-

inary part is the streamline function.

Finally, consider the boundary-value problem shown in Fig.1.21(d).

The side walls at x = 0, x = a, and y = 0 are grounded, while the

top wall at y = b is kept at a constant potential V

0

. By applying the

superposition technique, the potential inside the trough can be expressed

as

(z) =

n=1

2V

0

n

1 cos n

sinh(nb/a)

sin

_

n

a

x

_

sinh

_

n

a

y

_

The streamline function (z) can be derived by substituting the poten-

tial function into the Cauchy-Riemann equations, /x = /y

and /y = /x, to have

(z) =

n=1

2V

0

n

1 cos n

sinh(nb/a)

cos

_

n

a

x

_

cosh

_

n

a

y

_

15. Bilinear Transformation

A bilinear transformation has the functional form of

w = T(z) =

az +b

cz + d

where a, b, c, and d are complex constants. Note that T(z) has a simple

pole at z = d/c and a simple zero at z = b/a.

If c = 0, T(z) is reduced to a linear form w = Az + B, which

can be viewed as the combined mappings of rotation and amplication

A, followed by a translation B. If c ,= 0, T(z) can be rephrased as

w =

_

bc ad

c

__

1

cz +d

_

+

_

a

c

_

, which can be viewed as the combined

mappings of rotation, amplication, translation, and inversion.

Consider a circle K in the z-plane, (x

2

+y

2

)+x+y + = 0 where

, , , and are real coecients. If = 0, K is reduced to a straight

line, which can be viewed as a circle with innite radius. The equation

of K can be rephrased as

[z[

2

+

_

z +z

2

_

+

_

z z

2i

_

+ = 0

40 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

Under the inversion mapping w = 1/z, K is mapped to K

in the w-plane

as

[w[

2

+

_

w +w

2

_

_

w w

2i

_

+ = 0

which is a circle if ,= 0, and is a straight line if = 0.

In summary, an inversion will map a circle or a straight line in the

z-plane onto a circle or a straight line in the w-plane, an vice versa. If

K is a circle passing through the pole of w = 1/z at z = 0, then = 0,

and K

of w = 1/z.

A bilinear transformation w = T(z) will also map a circle or a straight

line in the z-plane onto a circle or a straight line in the w-plane since it

is a combination of rotation, amplication, translation, and inversion. It

can be proved that if K is a circle passing through the pole of T(z), then

K

becomes a

circle passing through w = 0 which corresponds to the zero of w = T(z).

Triples-to-Triples Approach. Since three distinct points uniquely

determine a circle, we may constitute a bilinear transformation by spec-

ifying the mapping between three chosen points in the z-plane and three

associated points in the w-plane. Note that the transformation thus

constituted is not unique.

Dene

= T(z) =

(z z

1

)(z

2

z

3

)

(z z

3

)(z

2

z

1

)

, = S(w) =

(w w

1

)(w

2

w

3

)

(w w

3

)(w

2

w

1

)

It is observed that z = z

1

, z = z

2

, and z = z

3

are mapped to

1

= 0,

2

= 1, and

3

= , respectively. By the mapping w = S

1

(),

1

= 0,

2

= 1, and

3

= are mapped to w = w

1

, w = w

2

, and w = w

3

,

respectively. By applying the mappings = T(z) and w = S

1

()

in sequence, we have the transformation between the z-plane and the

w-plane as w = S

1

(T(z)) or S(w) = T(z), namely,

(w w

1

)(w

2

w

3

)

(w w

3

)(w

2

w

1

)

=

(z z

1

)(z

2

z

3

)

(z z

3

)(z

2

z

1

)

Note that z = z

1

, z = z

2

, and z = z

3

are mapped to w = w

1

, w = w

2

,

and w = w

3

, respectively.

Consider the Laplaces equation

_

2

x

2

+

2

y

2

_

p(x, y) = 0 in domain

D of the z-plane with the boundary conditions that p = 1 over circle

Complex Analysis 41

Figure 1.22. Conformal mapping by triples-to-triples approach.

K

1

and p = 0 over circle K

2

as shown in Fig.1.22. The more desirable

domain is shown as D

z = 1, and z = 1 to w = 0, w = 1, and w = , respectively, we have

(w 0)(1 )

(w )(1 0)

=

(z i)(1 1)

(z 1)(1 i)

, or w = (1 i)

z i

z 1

. The Laplaces

equation is transformed to

_

2

u

2

+

2

v

2

_

P(u, v) = 0 in D

of the w-

plane, with the boundary conditions that P = 1 over the straight line

K

1

and P = 0 over the straight line K

2

. The imaginary part of the

analytic function w satises the required boundary conditions, namely,

P = v is the solution in the w-plane. The solution in the z-plane can

thus be derived as

p(x, y) = Imw = T(z) =

1 x

2

y

2

(x 1)

2

+y

2

The equipotential curve p(x, y) = c with constant c is a circle with the

explicit form of

_

x

c

1 +c

_

2

+ y

2

=

_

1

1 + c

_

2

16. Schwarz-Christoel Transformation

The Schwarz-Christoel formula species a conformal mapping from

the upper half plane to a bounded or unbounded polygonal region. Con-

sider the transformation w = (z x

1

)

Fig.1.23. Two colinear line segments z

a

x

1

and x

1

z

b

in the z-plane are

mapped to two line segments w

a

w

1

and w

1

w

b

, respectively, with an inte-

rior angle of . A dierential in the w-plane is related to a dierential

42 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

Figure 1.23. Conformal mapping by w = (z x1)

.

in the z-plane by dw = (z x

1

)

1

dz. Hence, their arguments are

related by Arg(dw) = ( 1)Arg(z x

1

) + Arg(dz). The directional

change in the w-plane as z is moved from z

a

via x

1

to z

b

can be calcu-

lated as Arg(dw

b

) Arg(dw

a

) = ( 1)[Arg(z

b

x

1

) Arg(z

a

x

1

)] +

[Arg(dz

b

) Arg(dz

a

)] = ( 1)(0 ) = (1 ), or the interior angle

is .

By induction, a function of the form

dw

dz

= A

n

k=1

(z x

k

)

k

1

will

map the real axis in the z-plane to a polygon in the w-plane, where

x

1

< x

2

< < x

n

are n distinct points along the real axis in the

z-plane, and 0 <

k

< 2. Since the sum of all the directional changes as

a point is moved along a polygon is equal to 2, the

k

must satisfy

(1

1

) + + (1

n

) = 2 or

1

+ +

n

= n 2. Thus, only

n 1 out of these

k

can be chosen independently.

The mapping function can then be determined by integrating dw/dz =

f

_ n

k=1

(z x

k

)

k

1

dz + B, where A and

B are constants to be determined by the mapping of specic points.

Sometimes, x

n

may be chosen at , and the product contains only the

terms with 1 k n 1. Note that the transformation from the real

axis in the z-plane is not uniquely determined, one may map dierent

sets of x

k

to the same set of w

k

.

Consider the mapping shown in Fig.1.24 in which z

1

= 1 and z

2

= 1

are mapped to w

1

= i and w

2

= i, respectively. Both of the two interior

angles are /2, hence

1

=

2

= 1/2, and f

(z) = A(z+1)

1/2

(z1)

1/2

.

The mapping function can then be integrated as

f(z) = A

_

dz

(z

2

1)

1/2

+B = Ai

_

dz

(1 z

2

)

1/2

+B = Ai sin

1

z +B

By imposing f(1) = i and f(1) = i, we have A = 2/ and B = 0.

Hence, the required mapping function is w = (2i/) sin

1

z.

Next, consider the mapping shown in Fig.1.25 in which z

1

= 1 and

z

2

= 0 are mapped to w

1

= i and w

2

= , respectively. The two

Complex Analysis 43

Figure 1.24. Conformal mapping from real axis to half a rectilinear strip.

Figure 1.25. Conformal mapping from real axis to the real axis plus a semi-innite

line.

interior angles are 2 and 0, respectively, or

1

= 2,

2

= 0. Hence,

f

1

. The mapping function can be integrated as

f(z) = A

_

z + 1

z

dz +B = A(z + Lnz) +B

By imposing f(1) = i and f(0) = , we have A = B = 1. Hence,

the required mapping function is w = (z + 1) + Lnz.

17. Poisson Integral Formula

Consider the solution to Laplaces equation in the upper half plane

with boundary condition specied in Fig.1.26(a). It is observed that

p(x, y) = (p

i

/)[Arg(zb)Arg(za)] is the solution since Arg(z)is

the imaginary part of the analytic function Ln(z), and p(x, y) satises

the boundary condition over the real axis.

44 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

Figure 1.26. Harmonic function in the upper half plane: (a) step boundary condition,

(b) piecewise constant boundary condition.

Next, consider the boundary condition specied in Fig.1.26(b). The

solution can be obtained by extending the previous case to be

p(x, y) =

n

k=1

p

k

[Arg(z x

k

) Arg(z x

k1

)]

=

1

k=1

_

x

k

x

k1

p

k

d

dt

Arg(z t)dt

=

1

k=1

_

x

k

x

k1

p

k

y

(x t)

2

+ y

2

dt (1.23)

where Arg(z t) = tan

1

[y/(x t)].

A continuous function p(x, 0) specied over the real axis can be ap-

proximated by piecewise constants over innitesimal intervals. Thus, the

solution (1.23) can be extended to the case where a continuous boundary

condition is specied over the real axis as

p(x, y) =

y

p(t, 0)

(x t)

2

+y

2

dt

Complex Analysis 45

References

[1] D. G. Zill and P. D. Shanahan, A First Course in Complex Analysis

with Applications, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2003.

[2] A. D. Wunsch, Complex Variables with Applications, 3rd ed., Pear-

son Education, 2005.

[3] J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory, McGraw-Hill, 1941.

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